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Sample records for bodin northern norway

  1. Jean Bodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Jean Bodin (1530 - 1596) skabte teorien om statens suverænitet. Staten er indplaceret på et niveau mellem lokale  domstole og pave/kejser. Grunden til at staten kan få en permanent status er, at den netop på Bodins tid udstyrerede sig som en etat med en hierarikisk opbygget centraladministration...

  2. Two questions from the time of king Bodin's rule

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    Živković Tibor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to give reliable answer upon two major questions: did Bodin, king of Dioclea, capture Dyrrachion in 1085, as it is related in the Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea, and when did he try to capture Dubrovnik (Ragusa. The capture of Dyrrachion is not mentioned at Ane Comnene's Alexias. Byzantine princess wrote that citizens of Dyrrachion surrender the town to her father, the Emperor Alexios, after the death of the Norman ruler Robert Guiscard in 1085. On the other hand, the Priest of Dioclea says that Bodin, after the death of Robert Guiscard captured Dyrrachion which he gave back to the Byzantines after he signed the peace treaty with the Emperor. Both statements are not clear enough, but detailed analysis of both writings shows that Bodin took northern part of the theme of Dyrrachion and most probably tried to negotiate surrender of town itself, but he failed. Bodin's military activities against the Byzantine possessions in the theme of Dyrrachion could be placed between 1085 and 1090 when he was captured, being forced to sign peace treaty. The charter of antipope Clement III issued in 1089 to the archbishop of Antibaris, contain list of bishops which served in Dioclea, and only one of them - the bishop of Dulcigno (Ulcinj, had been earlier under the archbishop of Dyrrachion. In other words, Bodin took a very small part of the theme of Dyrrachion and southern borders of Dioclea were approximately the same as in the time of his father Michael. The description of the siege of Dubrovnik is well preserved in Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea as well by several other authors from Dubrovnik. The authors from Dubrovnik, which composed their Chronicles much later (from XIV to XVII century, made mistake in the chronology, assuming that the siege took place in 1104. Having at their disposal an old note, that Bodin's tower, which stood on the shores just opposite the wooden bridge which lead from Dubrovnik to the land, was captured on

  3. Geographies of superstition, myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway

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    Wenche Torrissen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.

  4. Direito natural e propriedade em Jean Bodin Natural right and property in Jean Bodin

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    Alberto Ribeiro G. de Barros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discutir os conceitos de direito natural e propriedade no Iuri universi distributio (1578 e as suas conseqüências políticas no Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566 e no Les Six Livres de la République (1576, de Jean Bodin.This article aims to discuss the concepts of natural right and property in Bodin's Iuri distributio universi (1578 and the political consequences of these ideas in Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566 and Les Six Livres de la République (1576.

  5. Seasonal Development of Microbial Activity in Soils of Northern Norway

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    M. B(O)LTER; N. SOETHE; R. HORN; C. UHLIG

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal development of soil microbial activity and bacterial biomass in sub-polar regions was investigated to determine the impacts of biotic and abiotic factors, such as organic matter content, temperature and moisture. The study was performed during spring thaw from three cultivated meadows and two non-cultivated forest sites near Alta, in northern Norway. Samples from all five sites showed increasing respiration rates directly after the spring thaw with soil respiration activity best related to soil organic matter content. However, distributions of bacterial biomass showed fewer similarities to these two parameters. This could be explained by variations of litter exploitation through the biomass. Microbial activity started immediately after the thaw while root growth had a longer time lag. An influence of root development on soil microbes was proposed for sites where microorganisms and roots had a tight relationship caused by a more intensive root structure. Also a reduction of microbial activity due to soil compaction in the samples from a wheel track could not be observed under laboratory conditions. New methodological approaches of differential staining for live and dead organisms were applied in order to follow changes within the microbial community. Under laboratory conditions freeze and thaw cycles showed a damaging influence on parts of the soil bacteria. Additionally, different patterns for active vs.non-active bacteria were noticeable after freeze-thaw cycles.

  6. Climatology of aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

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    Y.-C. Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET stations at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, 379 m altitude and Hornsund (77° N, 15° E, 10 m altitude for the period 2008–2010. The three-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500 at Andenes and Hornsund were 0.11 and 0.10, respectively. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500 than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.18 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.0 in 68% and 93% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an Arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  7. [Graduates from Tromsø--do they stay in Northern Norway? Geographic origin determines selection of professional practice location in Northern Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Magnus, J H

    1993-01-10

    The impact of the Medical School, University of Tromsø on the distribution of physicians in rural areas in North Norway was evaluated by means of a mailed questionnaire. The survey covered eleven graduation classes (417 physicians), and the response rate was 84.2%. The establishment of a new medical school in North Norway has clearly had beneficial effects: A total of 56.1% of the graduates stay on as doctors in these areas. Among those who also grew up in the northern parts of Norway, the proportion is 82.0%, compared with graduates who grew up in the southern parts where the proportion is 37.7%. The results clearly demonstrate that one of the main objectives of the Medical School at the University of Tromsø, to educate physicians who prefer to work in these areas, has been achieved.

  8. Crustal structure of the Nordland region, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Gernigon, Laurent; Gradmann, Sofie

    2016-04-01

    To understand the major structural features of the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust within the Nordland County area of Norway, a data-based 3D structural model has been constructed in the framework of the Neonor2 project, "Neotectonics in Nordland - implications for petroleum exploration". The 3D structural model covers the Lofoten Ridge, the Ribban and Vestfjorden basins and adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland. The model also covers the northern part of the adjacent Vøring Basin. At the regional scale, the 3D model includes the rifted margin which is located at the transition from the exposed crystalline rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield in the east to the Cenozoic oceanic domain of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in the west. During the construction of the 3D structural model, all recently published and/or released data have been compiled in order to set the initial model. This initial 3D model has been validated by a 3D density modelling in order to obtain a gravity-consistent 3D structural model of the entire study area. The 3D density modelling has been carried out by using the IGMAS plus software (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). During the 3D density modelling, densities have been assigned as constant values for the crystalline rocks. In contrast, densities of sedimentary rocks have been set to be depth-dependent in order to reflect the compaction of sedimentary rocks with depth. According to the results of the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the investigated region consists of several layers with different densities. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crust which corresponds to the high-velocity lower crustal layer. The regional-scale gravity response associated with the positions of the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is one of the key factors for performing a proper 3D density model of the study area. At the regional scale, the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary are

  9. Characterization, Geometry, Temporal Evolution and Controlling Mechanisms of the Jettan Rock-Slide, Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blikra, Lars Harald; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt; Kristensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The Jettan rockslide is an active topmost part of a large instability in paragneiss along the fjord Storfjorden in Northern Norway. It has deep back fractures in the top part with sliding planes at 45–50 m depth. The sliding planes seem to be controlled largely by SW-NE trending regional faults d...

  10. Killer whale presence in relation to naval sonar activity and prey abundance in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuningas, S.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, retrospective data on naval sonar activity and prey abundance were correlated with killer whale sightings within a fjord basin in northern Norway. In addition, passive acoustic and visual marine mammal surveys were conducted before, during, and after a specific navy exercise in 2006.

  11. Killer whale presence in relation to naval sonar activity and prey abundance in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuningas, S.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, retrospective data on naval sonar activity and prey abundance were correlated with killer whale sightings within a fjord basin in northern Norway. In addition, passive acoustic and visual marine mammal surveys were conducted before, during, and after a specific navy exercise in 2006.

  12. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  13. Post-glacial sedimentary processes and slope instabilities off Nordnesfjellet, Lyngenfjorden, northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hegstad, Sigrun Maret Kvendbø

    2014-01-01

    The Lyngen- and Storfjorden system, Troms County, northern Norway, is surrounded by an alpine landscape, partly with steep mountain sides. Parts of the ~700 m high mountain Nordnesfjellet, on the eastern side of the fjord, are currently moving downslope, and could in the event of sudden failure generate tsunami waves which would affect low-lying areas within a larger region. The main objective of this study is to integrate multi-proxy analyses of five sediment cores, swath bathymetry and h...

  14. Treatment preferences of deep carious lesions in mature teeth: Questionnaire study among dentists in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangvaltaite, Lina; Kundzina, Rita; Eriksen, Harald M; Kerosuo, Eero

    2013-11-01

    To investigate preferred treatment methods of deep carious lesions in mature permanent teeth among dentists in Northern Norway. The survey included all 437 general dental practitioners in Northern Norway working in the private or the public dental health service. The participants received an invitation with a radiograph and a clinical picture of a deep carious lesion in a mature permanent tooth and a questionnaire asking about demographic characteristics and their preferred treatment methods related to different clinical deep caries diagnoses. The response rate was 56%. There was an over-representation of publicly employed dentists among the respondents; otherwise no systematic bias related to non-responders was detected. In the absence of carious exposure and no symptoms, total caries excavation was the preferred treatment method (49%) followed by stepwise excavation (45%). In cases of deep caries and no exposure with symptoms, the preferences were equally distributed between root canal treatment (39%) and stepwise excavation (38%). In the presence of carious exposure but no symptoms, the preferred treatment method was direct pulp capping (51%) and in carious exposure with symptoms root canal treatment was the preferred treatment method (91%). There is no uniform treatment method of deep carious lesions among dentists in Northern Norway.

  15. Comments on the paper of Bodin et al. (2010). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58, pp. 489-506

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    Tlig, Saïd

    2016-06-01

    Bodin et al. (2010) produced an important paper in the Journal of African Earth Sciences. The main goals of this paper were: (1) the petrological and sedimentological treatment of the upper Jurassic and Cretaceous series in southern Tunisia and northern Ghadames Basin including the Hamada El Hamra area and Nafussah Mountain of Libya; (2) the reconstruction of tectonic controls on deposition and basin-fill; (3) the correlation of poorly dated lithostratigraphic columns, poor in diagnostic fauna, from northwestern Libya to southern Tunisia; and (4) the comparison between the authors' findings and assignments of global eustatic and plate tectonic events.

  16. Surface energy balance in the ablation zone of Langfjordjøkelen, an arctic, maritime glacier in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, Rianne H.; Andreassen, Liss M.; Oerlemans, Johannes; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers in northern and southern Norway are subject to different daily and seasonal cycles of incoming solar radiation, which is presumably reflected in the importance of net solar radiation in their surface energy balance. We present a 3 year continuous record from an automatic weather station in

  17. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  18. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzke, D.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Haughdahl, T.; Nøst, T.; Götsch, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Langset, M.; Fangel, K.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood.

  19. A serological survey for brucellosis in reindeer in Finnmark county, northern Norway

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    Kjetil Åsbakk

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available During September-December, 1990 to 1994, serum samples from a total of 5792 semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandm tarandm from Finnmark county, northern Norway, were screened for brucellosis on an indirect ELISA. There were no serologically positive animals. Twenty six of the animals had levels of antibodies detectable on the ELISA and were classed as suspicious, but the ELISA optical density readings were low compared to the readings for reindeer that were both culture positive and seropositive for Brucella suis biovar 4. When assayed on the standard tube agglutination test (STAT, all the 26 animals were seronegative. When absorbed with cells of Yersinia enterocolitica 0-9, the antibody detectable on the ELISA could be removed to a great extent from most of the sera, indicating previous or ongoing exposure to bacteria serologically cross-reacting with Brucella in these animals. We concluded that brucellosis was not present among reindeer in Finnmark during this study. This is supported by the absence of any reports of brucellosis among reindeer in Norway.

  20. Sources, extent and history of methane seepage on the continental shelf off northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Simone; Lepland, Aivo; Chand, Shyam; Schubert, Carsten J.; Eichinger, Florian; Knies, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Active natural hydrocarbon gas seepage was recently discovered in the Hola area on the continental shelf off Vesterålen, northern Norway. We conducted acoustic and geochemical investigations to assess the modern and past extent, source and pathways of the gas seepage . Water column echosounder surveys showed bubble plumes up to several tens of metres above the seafloor. Analyses of dissolved methane in the water column indicated slightly elevated concentrations (50 nM) close to the seafloor. To identify fluxes and origin of methane in the sediments we analysed sediment pore water chemistry, the isotopic composition of methane and of dissolved inorganic carbon (d13CCH4, d2HCH4, d13CDIC) in three closely spaced (

  1. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

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    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  2. Strong degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway during the last 60 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Amund F.; Westermann, Sebastian; Solheim, Ingvild; Etzelmüller, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Palsas and peat plateaus are permafrost landforms occurring in subarctic mires which constitute sensitive ecosystems with strong significance for vegetation, wildlife, hydrology and carbon cycle. Firstly, we have systematically mapped the occurrence of palsas and peat plateaus in the northernmost county of Norway (Finnmark, ˜ 50 000 km2) by manual interpretation of aerial images from 2005 to 2014 at a spatial resolution of 250 m. At this resolution, mires and wetlands with palsas or peat plateaus occur in about 850 km2 of Finnmark, with the actual palsas and peat plateaus underlain by permafrost covering a surface area of approximately 110 km2. Secondly, we have quantified the lateral changes of the extent of palsas and peat plateaus for four study areas located along a NW-SE transect through Finnmark by utilizing repeat aerial imagery from the 1950s to the 2010s. The results of the lateral changes reveal a total decrease of 33-71 % in the areal extent of palsas and peat plateaus during the study period, with the largest lateral change rates observed in the last decade. However, the results indicate that degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway has been a consistent process during the second half of the 20th century and possibly even earlier. Significant rates of areal change are observed in all investigated time periods since the 1950s, and thermokarst landforms observed on aerial images from the 1950s suggest that lateral degradation was already an ongoing process at this time. The results of this study show that lateral erosion of palsas and peat plateaus is an important pathway for permafrost degradation in the sporadic permafrost zone in northern Scandinavia. While the environmental factors governing the rate of erosion are not yet fully understood, we note a moderate increase in air temperature, precipitation and snow depth during the last few decades in the region.

  3. Permafrost thawing and increased winter discharge in Northern Norway - is there a connection?

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    Westermann, S.; Etzelmuller, B.

    2013-12-01

    Trends of increasing winter river discharge have been observed in many areas in the Arctic. Spatially distributed modeling of the ground thermal regime in conjunction with multi-decadal time series of discharge measurements provides the opportunity to investigate the role of permafrost thaw as contributing factor to such changes. In Northern Norway, there exist a number of gauged watersheds in permafrost regions for which 30- to 100-year records of discharge measurements are available. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the ground temperature regime have been performed at 1km resolution with the transient permafrost model CryoGrid 2 (Westermann et el. 2013) for the last 50 years for an area of approximately 55,000km2. As an example, we present the Iesjohka watershed, located at 69.5°N with a size of approximately 2000 km2. It extends across the boundary between permafrost-free coastal regions and more continental plains dominated by discontinuous permafrost, and features a variety of landcover types including organic-rich palsa mires. During summer, the Iesjohka has an average discharge of 20 to 50 m3/s, while the typical winter discharge is on the order of a few m3/s. Since the beginning of measurements in 1974, the average discharge in the winter months November to February and the annual minimum discharge have more than doubled, while CryoGrid 2 simulations show that permafrost has crossed the thawing threshold in a large part of the watershed between 1980 and 2010. In 2013, degradation of palsas and collapses of peat plateaus have been observed at many places along a 50 km transect through the watershed, transforming comparatively dry areas underlain by permafrost in permafrost-free water-saturated mires. Similar increases of the winter discharge have been observed for other permafrost watersheds in Northern Norway, thus suggesting a causal relationship between permafrost thaw and increased winter discharge. To further investigate this hypothesis, we

  4. Local and Regional Scale Impacts of Arctic Shipping Emissions Off the Coast of Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Raut, J. C.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.

    2014-12-01

    Decreased sea ice extent due to warming has already resulted in the use of new shipping routes through the Arctic. Marine traffic is a source of air pollutants, including NOx, SO2, and aerosols, and is predicted to be an increasingly significant source of Arctic pollution in the future. Currently there are large uncertainties in both global and Arctic shipping emissions, leading to uncertainties in diagnosing current and future impacts of marine traffic on Arctic air quality and climate. This study focuses on the local scale, examining chemical/aerosol transformations occurring in individual ship plumes. Measurements of ship pollution in the Arctic taken during the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) in July 2012 are used to quantify the amount of pollution emitted from different ship types. This is combined with regional model (WRF-Chem) simulations to evaluate the impacts of shipping in northern Norway in summer 2012. The model is run at high resolution (2x2 km) combined with STEAMv2 (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model version 2) emissions (1x1 km, 15 minute resolution) produced for shipping activity during the measurement period. WRF-Chem model results are compared with 3 ship plumes sampled during ACCESS. The model shows that both the location and total amount of pollution in individual ship plumes are correctly represented. Given this, the model is used to investigate the regional influence of ship pollution off the coast of Norway on a weekly time scale during July 2012, focusing on ozone photochemistry in ship plumes, the evolution of aerosols, and investigating the fate of black carbon emitted from ships. We compare regional modeling results obtained using 15 minute resolution STEAMv2 emissions with results using weekly averaged emissions, which are more representative of emissions typically used by global models to study the impacts of shipping on air quality and climate.

  5. Illusions of Resilience? An Analysis of Community Responses to Change in Northern Norway.

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    Helene Amundsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to our understanding of community resilience. Community resilience is the ability of a community to cope and adjust to stresses caused by social, political, and environmental change and to engage community resources to overcome adversity and take advantage of opportunities in response to change. Through an analysis of local responses to multiple challenges, six dimensions of community resilience were found in one village in northern Norway. These dimensions; community resources, community networks, institutions and services, people-place connections, active agents, and learning; are activated in processes and activities in the village to respond to current challenges. Although this corroborates findings from other community resilience research, this research suggests that community resilience is both complex and dynamic over time. Although communities may consider themselves resilient to today's challenges, the rate and magnitude of expected systemic global changes, especially climate change, means that future resilience cannot be taken for granted. This work concludes that there is a risk that community resilience may be an illusion, leading to complacency about the need for adaption to multiple factors of change. Hence, the ability of communities to actively engage in reflexive learning processes is of importance for both adaptation and future resilience.

  6. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks.

  7. Metal Pollution Around an Iron Smelter Complex in Northern Norway at Different Modes of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Steinnes, E; Eidhammer-Sjobakk, T; Varskog, P

    2003-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in and around the town of Mo i Rana, northern Norway, before and after closing an iron smelter and establishing alternative ferrous metal industries. Samples of Hylocomium splendens were collected from the same sites in 1989 and 1993. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to obtain data for 38 elements in these moss samples, and the analytical data were subjected to factor analysis. In general, the deposition was higher when the iron smelter was still in operation, in particular for Fe and for many elements normally associated with crustal matter. For Cr there was a substantially increased deposition due to the operation of a new ferrochrome smelter. Also for Ni and Au an increased deposition was observed, whereas for metals such as Mn, Co, Ag, Sb, and W there was no appreciable change. INAA proved to be a powerful tool for this kind of study. The regional di...

  8. Monitoring of a steep rockfall area experiencing fast displacements in Kåfjord, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiås Majala, Gudrun; Harald Blikra, Lars; Skrede, Ingrid; Kristensen, Lene

    2016-04-01

    An unstable rockfall area in Kåfjord, Northern Norway, was recognized during periodic monitoring campaigns in July and early September 2015. The LiSALab ground based Interferometric Synthethic Aperture Radar (GB InSAR) from Ellegi were used. A relatively sharply defined steep area of 1200 m2 (6.000 - 12.000 m3) was documented to be in movement. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) was at this point performing mitigation work in terms of an embarkment within the rockfall run-out area. The monitoring system was reinstalled and adjusted to perform continuous monitoring with an early-warning aim. The section for rockslide management in NVE was responsible for the monitoring and the warning to the municipality and Police. The displacements increased from about 1 mm/day in July to 3 cm/day in mid September. People were evalcuated due to increased velocities the 16th of September. The displacements continued to increase in several stages, and with a distinct accelleration the 2nd of October. The velocity peaked in a short window to more than 200 cm/day, and it ended with a partly frontal and sideway collapse of the unstable area. However, large parts of the area stabilized again, and the run-out lengths from the small rockfalls were limited. The GB InSAR system operated exceptionally well during the event, and were able to follow continuously the displacements during the accelleration stage until collapse as the processing time window was frequently adjusted to the changes in velocity. We were also able to follow inidividual rockfalls from the images - primarily as the rockfall impact points on the slope below showed up clearly on the radar images. The area continued to stabilize due to falling temperatures, and the mitigation work were finished during the fall. The displacements seem to be correlated to the increasing temperatures in late summer and precipitation events.

  9. Climatology of middle atmospheric water vapour above the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway

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    K. Hallgren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have been observing the water vapour line at 22.235 GHz above ALOMAR in northern Norway (69° N, 16° E since early 1996 with ground-based microwave spectrometers (WASPAM and cWASPAM and will here describe a climatology based on these observations. Maintenance, different spectrometers and upgrades of the hardware have slightly changed the instruments. Therefore great care has been taken to make sure the different datasets are compatible with each other. In order to maximise the sensitivity at high altitude for the older instrument a long integration time (168 h was chosen. The complete dataset was thereafter recompiled into a climatology which describes the yearly variation of water vapour at polar latitudes on a weekly basis. The atmosphere is divided into 16 layers between 40–80 km, each 2.5 km thick. The dataset, spanning 15 yr from 1996 to 2010, enabled us to investigate the long-term behaviour of water vapour at these latitudes. By comparing the measurements from every year to the climatological mean we were also able to look for indications of trends in the dataset at different altitudes during the time period of our observations. In general there is a weak negative trend which differs slightly at different altitudes. There are however no drifts in the annual variation of water vapour from the point of view of onset of summer and winter. We compare our climatology to the reference water vapour profiles from AFGL, a free and easy accessible reference atmosphere. There are strong deviations between our observations and the reference profile, therefore we publish our climatological dataset in a table in the paper.

  10. Il dono del libero arbitrio nella Terza Orazione inaugurale: analogie e differenze con Jean Bodin

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    Claudia Megale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available [The “gift of free will” in the Third Inaugural Oratio: Similarities and Differences with Jean Bodin]. This paper intends to emphasize the position of Vico between knowledge and liberty with reference to modern concept of respublica literaria. We are still far from Voltaire’s Traité, but the political influences of the theory of religious tolerance had found full expression already at the end of the XVIth century, expecially by Jean Bodin, whose Colloquium Heptaplomeres (1593 is analyzed by the author and compared with Vico’s Oratio III.

  11. Decentralized nursing education in Northern Norway: towards a sustainable recruitment and retention model in rural Arctic healthcare services

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    Bente Norbye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Decentralized nursing education (DNE was established at Tromsø University College in 1990 and has since become a part of the bachelor programme in nursing at UiT The Arctic University of Norway. The objective of the study was to investigate whether and to what degree the first DNE programme established in Norway has contributed to recruitment and retention of registered nurses (RNs in rural healthcare services. Methods. The quantitative survey took place in 2012. A questionnaire was distributed to 315 former students who had graduated from the DNE programme from 1994 to 2011. Results. The primary finding of this study is that the DNE successfully recruits students from rural areas of Northern Norway. Nearly, 87.5% have their first employment in community healthcare services. They continued to work in the rural areas and 85% still worked as nurses in 2012. The DNE programme has been successful regarding recruitment and retention of RNs to community healthcare services. Fifty-six percent have attended a variety of postgraduate programmes. Conclusion. The DNE programme demonstrates itself as a successful study model regarding recruitment and retention of RNs to rural and remote areas.

  12. Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, M; Sandanger, T; Aksnes, L; Lund, E

    2004-09-01

    To assess vitamin D status and the impact of three fish meals consisting of cod liver and fresh cod-liver oil on the plasma level of vitamin D metabolites in an area with high consumption of cod liver and cod-liver oil. Experimental field study. Thirty-two volunteers from the Skjervøy (70 degrees N) municipality in northern Norway were recruited to consume three traditional mølje meals, consisting of cod, cod liver, fresh cod-liver oil and hard roe, in one week. The liver and fresh cod-liver oil consumed by the participants were weighed and recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first meal, and subsequently 12 h and 4 days after the last meal. The blood samples were analysed for the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). All participants answered a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, which was used to estimate usual daily nutrient intake. The study was carried out in the last part of March 2001. The median daily vitamin D intake estimated from the questionnaire was 9.9 microg. The proportion of subjects with baseline 25(OH)D level below 50 nmol l(-1) was 15.4% and none were below 37.5 nmol l(-1). Only "mølje consumption" and "time spent in daylight" were significantly associated with baseline log 25(OH)D. The mean total intake of vitamin D in the three servings was 272 microg (standard deviation 94 microg), ranging from 142 to 434 microg. Relative to baseline plasma concentration, the mean level of 25(OH)D decreased slightly in both post-consumption samples (Pmeal (P=0.03). Three mølje meals provided, on average, an amount of vitamin D equal to 54 times the recommended daily dose. Subjects with food consumption habits that included frequent mølje meals during the winter sustained satisfactory vitamin D levels in their blood, in spite of the long "vitamin D winter" (i.e. absence of ultraviolet-induced vitamin D production in the skin).

  13. Seabed morphology and sedimentary processes on high-gradient trough mouth fans offshore Troms, northern Norway

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    Rydningen, Tom Arne; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Kolstad, Vidar

    2015-10-01

    Trough mouth fans (TMF) situated at the mouths of formerly glaciated cross-shelf troughs are important paleoclimatic archives. Whereas the sedimentary processes of large, low-gradient TMFs have received considerable interest, little attention has been paid to the other end member of this landform class, i.e. TMFs with higher slope gradients. Detailed swath-bathymetric data and seismic profiles from the continental margin offshore Troms, northern Norway cover three high-gradient TMFs (the Andfjorden, Malangsdjupet and Rebbenesdjupet TMFs; slope gradients generally between 1° and 15°), as well as inter-fan areas, which include two submarine canyons (the Andøya and Senja Canyon) and the Malangsgrunnen inter-fan slope. The present-day morphologies of the Andfjorden and Malangsdjupet TMFs have evolved from sediment transport and distribution through gully-channel complexes. The Andfjorden TMF has later been affected by a large submarine landslide that remobilized much of these complexes. The Rebbenesdjupet TMF is dominated by a number of small and relatively shallow slide scars, which are inferred to be related to small-scale sediment failure of glaciomarine and/or contouritic sediments. The canyons cut into the adjacent TMFs, and turbidity currents originating on the fans widened and deepened the canyons during downslope flow. The Malangsgrunnen shelf break and inter-fan slope acted as a funnel for turbidity currents originating on the upper slope, forming a dendritic pattern of gullies. A conceptual model for the high-gradient TMFs on the Troms margin has been compiled. The main sediment input onto the TMFs has occurred during peak glacials when the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet reached the shelf edge. The overall convex fan form and progradational seismic facies show that these glacigenic deposits were repeatedly distributed onto the fan. On the Andfjorden and Malangsdjupet TMFs, gully-channel complexes occur within such deposits. It is thus inferred that the steep

  14. Sedimentological and geochemical record of submarine mine tailing footprint in Repparfjorden (Northern Norway)

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    Sternal, Beata; Junttila, Juho; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Skirbekk, Kari; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge on understanding the physical, chemical and biological processes dominating in marine system affected by submarine tailings disposal (STD) remains limited and further knowledge to make reliable long-term predictions of future environmental impacts is needed. One way of contributing to this is by investigation of marine environments already affected by the tailings discharge in the past. We present preliminary results from a multidisciplinary study of marine sediments from Repparfjorden in northern Norway, a fjord that was influenced by the deposition of tailings from a copper mine during the 1970's. The study is a part of the competence cluster Environmental Waste Management (EWMA) that as one of its important aims has advancing the knowledge of spreading of mine-tailing related contaminants. Here we give particular attention to the reconstruction of sedimentation style, rate of sediment accumulation, as well as potential sediment transport paths (contaminants dispersion). Seventeen short cores (up to 21 cm long) were retrieved from sites covering the entire area of Repparfjorden. The cores were sliced into 1-cm intervals that are and will be analysed for grain-size, concentration of heavy metals and total organic carbon content of bulk sediment. Sediment chronologies are and will be derived using 210Pb and 137Cs dating techniques. An approximately 7-cm thick interval which is different from present fjord sedimentation was observed below c. 10 cm depth in three of the cores retrieved from the area of tailings deposition in the 1970's. Sediments of this discrete depth interval are mainly composed of mud or sandy mud with bimodal grain-size distribution (first mode: medium silt fraction; second mode: very coarse silt). They are characterised by very high Cu concentrations (>250 mg/kg). Preliminary measurements of the 210Pb activity indicate an increase in sediment accumulation rate during the deposition of this interval. Therefore, we interpret it to be

  15. Magnetic mapping of (carbonated) oceanic crust-mantle boundary: New insights from Linnajavri, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Beinlich, A.; Tivey, M.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle to marine magnetic anomalies has long been recognized, but the detailed magnetic character of this non-volcanic source layer remains to be fully defined. Here, we report preliminary results of a magnetic survey and source characterization of a "carbonated" oceanic Moho (petrological "Mohorovicic discontinuity") sequence observed at the Linnajavri Serpentinite Complex (LSC), northern Norway. The LSC is located at 67° 36'N and 16° 24'E within the upper Allochthon of the Norwegian Caledonides and represents a dismembered ophiolite. Particularly in the southern ("Ridoalggicohkka") area of the LSC, gabbro, serpentinite and its talc-carbonate (soapstone) and quartz-carbonate (listvenite) altered equivalents are extraordinarily well-exposed [1]. An intact oceanic Moho is exposed here, despite its complex tectonic setting. The small degree of arctic rock weathering (≤ 2 mm weathering surface) allowed for detailed regional-scale surface magnetic mapping across alteration fronts (serpentinite-soapstone; soapstone-listvenite) and lithological contacts (soapstone-gabbro). Magnetic mapping was conducted using a handheld 3-axis magnetometer, surface-towed resistivity meter and Teka surface magnetic susceptometer with sample spacing of 1 m. Geophysical field mapping was combined with petrological observations and scanning SQUID microscopy (SM) mapping conducted on thin sections from rock samples that were drilled along the survey lines. Regional scale magnetic mapping indicates that the total magnetic field across both the "carbonated" Moho and the soapstone-serpentinite interfaces show higher frequency changes in their magnetic anomaly character and amplitudes than the surface-towed resistivity data. SQUID microscopy mapping of both natural remanence magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanence magnetization (ARM) on gabbro, serpentinite, soapstone, and listvenite samples, with a sensor-sample separation of ˜190

  16. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data...and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway Patrick Miller Sea Mammal Research Unit... whales are affected by naval sonar is important for the US Navy as information is required for accurate environmental assessments. A number of recent

  17. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

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    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  18. Application of lithogeochemistry in the assessment of nickel-sulphide potential in komatiite belts from northern Finland and Norway

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    G.J. Heggie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the application of chalcophile elements such as nickel, copper and the platinum-group elements as indicators of nickel-sulphide prospectivity in komatiites from terranes of the Karelian Craton in northern Finland and Norway. Major element abundances reflect volcanic processes associated with the emplacement dynamics of ultramafic lavas, whereas the variable chalcophile element concentrations record the ore-forming process, mainly as an anomalous metal depletion and enrichment relative to the calculated background. Geochemical data from this study indicate that Paleoproterozoic komatiites in the Pulju Greenstone Belts and Archean komatiites in the Enontekiö area are prospective for nickel-sulphide mineralisation. Conversely, on the basis of the present dataset, ultramafic rocks from the Palaeoproterozoic Karasjok Greenstone Belt display lower prospectivity for nickel-sulphides, although potential exists if high-volume flow conduits and channels within the large volcanic flow field could be identified.

  19. Modelling impacts of climate and deposition changes on nitrogen fluxes in northern catchments of Norway and Finland

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    Ø. Kaste

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Nitrogen model for Catchments (INCA was applied to three upland catchments in Norway and Finland to assess the possible impacts of climate change and nitrogen (N deposition on concentrations and fluxes of N in streamwater in cold regions of Europe. The study sites cover gradients in climate and N deposition from the southern boreal Øygard Brook (2.6 km2 in SW Norway, via the southern/middle boreal Simojoki River (3610 km2 in northern Finland to the sub-arctic Dalelva Brook (3.2 km2 in northern Norway. The INCA scenario simulations included future N deposition scenarios (current legislation and maximum feasible reduction and climate scenarios for 2050 (ECHAM4/OPYC3; HadCM3 treated separately and in combination. As a result of climate change, the INCA model predicted markedly reduced duration and amounts of snow cover in all catchments. The occurrence of winter rainfall and melting periods was predicted to become more frequent so that more frequent floods in winter will to a large extent replace the regular snowmelt flood in spring. At the northernmost catchment, Dalelva, the predicted temperature increase might result in a doubling of the net mineralisation rate, thereby greatly increasing the amount of available inorganic N. At all catchments, the increased N supply was predicted to be largely balanced by a corresponding increase in N retention, and relatively small increases in NO3- leaching rates were predicted. This dynamic relationship is, however, strongly dependent on the temperature responses of the key N transformation processes modelled. A future reduction in N emissions and deposition, as agreed under current legislation, would have pronounced effects on concentrations of NO3- in streamwater at the southernmost catchment, Øygard, even following a climate change around 2050. At the more remote Dalelva and Simojoki catchments, the N emission reductions will be small compared to the internal N recycling processes, and

  20. Jean Bodin, o Methodus e a Clio tucidideana: as figurações heroicizantes do historiador Jean Bodin, his ' Methodus' and Thucydides' Clio

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    Francisco Murari Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apreciando as representações figuradas na ideia de uma Clio Tucidideana por fins do século XVI, propõe-se refletir sobre a associação entre a concepção antiga de herói e a moderna de gênio como parâmetro epistemológico que catalisa a apreciação da excelência da práxis historiográfica. Aborda-se essa reflexão tomando em particular as proposições elaboradas sobre a escrita da História no Metodus de Jean Bodin que juntamente com La Popelinière e Thomas Hobbes configuram historiograficamente a ideia da Clio Tucidideana conceituada por Cesare Ripa.Considering the representations configured in the idea of a Thucydidean Clio in the end of the sixteenth century, the article proposes to think about the association between the ancient concept of the hero and the modern concept of the genius as a epistemological criterium that catalizes the appreciation of the excellence of historiographical praxis. The attention of the article is centered on the thesis proposed to the wrting of history in the Methodus of Jean Bodin, who configures, conjointly with La Popelinière and Thomas Hobbes, the historiographical formulation of the idea of a Thucydidean Clio cconceptualized by Cesare Ripa.

  1. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Tromstannen-Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20-79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20-34, 35-49, 50-64 and 65-79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20-34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. The TOHNN study has the potential to generate new knowledge on a wide range of oral health

  2. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

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    Gro Eirin Holde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design: Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79 and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world. Results: From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3% people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3% were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3% and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%. There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001 and education level (p < 0.001. The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion: The TOHNN

  3. The impact of submarine copper mine tailing disposal from the 1970s on Repparfjorden, northern Norway.

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    Sternal, Beata; Junttila, Juho; Skirbekk, Kari; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo

    2017-07-15

    We investigate the state of sedimentological environment and contaminant status of Repparfjorden (N Norway) impacted by submarine disposal of mine tailings during the 1970s using sedimentological and geochemical properties of seventeen sediment cores. The impact of tailings disposal is mainly restricted to the inner fjord where the discharge occurred. Sediment cores retrieved from the inner fjord contain layers of mine tailings up to 9-cm thick, 3-9cm below the seafloor. Spreading of the tailing-related metal Cu and particles is limited to the inner fjord and to a 2cm layer in one core from the outer fjord. Two interrelated factors, fjord morphology and sedimentation rate, controlled the distribution of contaminant-laden tailings in the fjord. The mobility of Cu from buried contaminated sediments to the sediment-water interface in the inner fjord indicates that benthic communities have been continuously exposed to elevated Cu concentrations for nearly four decades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway.

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    Herzke, Dorte; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Götsch, Arntraut; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Langset, Magdalene; Fangel, Kirstin; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood. We analyzed samples of fulmars from Norwegian waters and compared the POP concentrations in their liver and muscle tissue with the corresponding concentrations in the loads of ingested plastic in their stomachs, grouped as "no", "medium" (0.01-0.21 g; 1-14 pieces of plastic), or "high" (0.11-0.59 g; 15-106 pieces of plastic). POP concentrations in the plastic did not differ significantly between the high and medium plastic ingestion group for sumPCBs, sumDDTs, and sumPBDEs. By combining correlations among POP concentrations, differences in tissue concentrations of POPs between plastic ingestion subgroups, fugacity calculations, and bioaccumulation modeling, we showed that plastic is more likely to act as a passive sampler than as a vector of POPs, thus reflecting the POP profiles of simultaneously ingested prey.

  5. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  6. Serum levels of iron in Sør-Varanger, Northern Norway--an iron mining municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderstad, Ann R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Dahl, Inger Marie S; Ingebretsen, Ole Christian; Lund, Eiliv

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate iron status in a population with a high proportion of miners in the northernmost part of Norway. Cross-sectional, population-based study performed in order to investigate possible health effects of pollution in the population living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. All individuals living in the community of Sør-Varanger were invited for screening in 1994. In 2000, blood samples from 2949 participants (response rate 66.8 %), age range 30-69 years, were defrosted. S-ferritin and transferrin saturation were analysed in samples from 1548 women and 1401 men. About 30 % (n = 893) were employed in the iron mining industry, 476 of whom were miners and 417 had other tasks in the company. Type and duration of employment and time since last day of work at the company were used as indicators of exposure. Both s-ferritin levels and transferrin saturation were higher in men than in women. S-ferritin increased with increasing age in women, while the opposite was true for men. Iron deficiency occurred with higher frequencies in women (16 %) than in men (4 %). Iron overload was uncommon in both sexes. Adjustment for smoking and self-reported pulmonary diseases did not show any effect on iron levels. Miners had non-significant higher mean s-ferritin and transferrin saturation than non-miners. Neither duration, nor time since employment in the mine, had any impact on iron status. Our analyses did not show any associations between being a miner in the iron mining industry and serum iron levels compared to the general population.

  7. Impact on continuity of care of decentralized versus partly centralized mental health care in Northern Norway

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    Lars Henrik Myklebust

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of continuity of care is central in contemporary psychiatric services research. In Norway, inpatient admissions are mainly to take place locally, in a system of small bed-units that represent an alternative to traditional central psychiatric hospitals. This type of organization may be advantageous for accessibility and cooperation, but has been given little scientific attention.Aims: To study whether inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differ between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized model.  Method: The study was based on data from a one-year registered prevalence sample, drawing on routinely sampled data supplemented with data from medical records. Service-utilization for 247 inpatients was analyzed. The results were controlled for diagnosis, demographic variables, type of service system, localization of inpatient admissions, and length of hospitalization. Results: Most inpatients in the area with the decentralized care model also utilized outpatient consultations, whereas a considerable number of inpatients in the area with a partly centralized model did not enter outpatient care at all. Type of service system, localization of inpatient admission, and length of hospitalization predicted inpatients' utilization of outpatient consultations. The results are discussed in the light of systems integration, particularly management-arrangements and clinical bridging over the transitional phase from inpatient to outpatient care. Conclusion: Inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differed between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized care model. In the areas studied, extensive decentralization of the psychiatric services positively affected coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for people with severe psychiatric disorders. Small, local-bed units may therefore represent a

  8. Impact on continuity of care of decentralized versus partly centralized mental health care in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Henrik Myklebust

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of continuity of care is central in contemporary psychiatric services research. In Norway, inpatient admissions are mainly to take place locally, in a system of small bed-units that represent an alternative to traditional central psychiatric hospitals. This type of organization may be advantageous for accessibility and cooperation, but has been given little scientific attention. Aims: To study whether inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differ between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized model.   Method: The study was based on data from a one-year registered prevalence sample, drawing on routinely sampled data supplemented with data from medical records. Service-utilization for 247 inpatients was analyzed. The results were controlled for diagnosis, demographic variables, type of service system, localization of inpatient admissions, and length of hospitalization.  Results: Most inpatients in the area with the decentralized care model also utilized outpatient consultations, whereas a considerable number of inpatients in the area with a partly centralized model did not enter outpatient care at all. Type of service system, localization of inpatient admission, and length of hospitalization predicted inpatients' utilization of outpatient consultations. The results are discussed in the light of systems integration, particularly management-arrangements and clinical bridging over the transitional phase from inpatient to outpatient care.  Conclusion: Inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differed between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized care model. In the areas studied, extensive decentralization of the psychiatric services positively affected coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for people with severe psychiatric disorders. Small, local-bed units may therefore

  9. Entre el Cielo y la Tierra. La Filosofía del Derecho de Jean Bodin y Thomas Hobbes

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    Misael Flores Vega

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean Bodin y Thomas Hobbes son dos filósofos de la política que preconizaron al Estado absolutista durante el siglo XVI, con ello sentaron los cimientos del moderno Estado europeo. Con el afán de edificar el Estado, su filosofía jurídica se enfocó a buscar el orden social mediante la instauración de un monarca absoluto que dictara leyes para encontrar obediencia. Bodin propone un monarca absoluto que se supeditara a Dios, mientras Hobbes plantea un monarca absoluto alejado del Poder divino. Las leyes que propone Bodin se originan de la voluntad de Dios, y en Hobbes las leyes provienen de la voluntad del Estado.

  10. Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron; Bilder, Robert M; O'Connor, Margaret; Brandt, Jason; Weintraub, Sandra; Bauer, Russell M

    2016-07-01

    Bodin and Grote convey their opinion that the field of clinical neuropsychology would be best served by a match system for recruitment into postdoctoral training. We critically review their arguments and offer an alternative point of view. Our view considers the current state of the match system in neuropsychology, incorporates comparisons with other disciplines that rely on a match system, and addresses the role of postdoctoral training and the specialization that takes shape at this level. We make recommendations aimed at promoting greater unity among postdoctoral training programs with the goal of focusing leadership efforts on advancing our shared mission of providing the highest quality training in clinical neuropsychology.

  11. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  12. Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Linge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from c. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82 was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3 covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc, stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc, and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part.

    A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 years, δ18Oc values display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18

  13. Forage chemistry and the digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern Norway and on South Georgia

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    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chemical and botanical analyses of the reticulo-rumen content (RR and the fill of the digestive system were carried out in free-living Norwegian reindeer {Rangifer t. tarandus on South Georgia (SG in summer (mean body mass (BM = 74 kg, n - 10, and in northern Norway in late summer (NS (mean BM = 77 kg, n = 6 and winter (NW (mean BM = 60 kg, n = 11. The RR of SG reindeer contained mainly grasses, while grasses dominated in NS reindeer and woody plants and lichens in NW reindeer. Mean ruminal plant cell-wall contents (CWC comprised 37% of organic dry matter (OM in SG reindeer and 50 and 69% in NS and NW reindeer, respectively. The high CWC in NW reindeer was due to high intake of lichens containing as much as 45% hemi-cellulose. Mean ruminal content of lignin was as low as 5% of OM in SG reindeer, which was different (P < 0.05 from NS (14% and NW reindeer (15%, respectively. The mean total gastro-inresrinal tract (GIT (fill and tissue weight was 27% of BM in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (18% of BM and NW reindeer (22% of BM, respectively. Wet weight RR content was 14.5% of BM in SG reindeer, not different from NS (12.2% of BM and NW reindeer (14.2% of BM. The ratio between the wet weight content of the distal fermentation chamber (DFC and the RR wet weight content was 1:10 in SG reindeer, different (P < 0.05 from NS (1:14 and NW reindeer (1:14. We did not find any significant differences between the intestinal lengths of the groups investigated. It was concluded that the degree of fill of the different parts of GIT in reindeet seems to be related to the lignin content of plants eaten and not only of seasonal changes in appetite and availability of plants. Our data stress the fact that reindeer are highly adaptable to a wide range of different dietary plants, even in the southern hemisphere.

  14. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  15. Gammaherpesvirus infection in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): a cross-sectional serological study in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses that primarily affect domestic and wild ruminants. A serological study using cELISA was performed on a total of 3339 apparently healthy semi-domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) from Finnmark County, Norway, sampl...

  16. Weakening and strain localization during metamorphic overprint: The example of Arnøya, Scandinavian Caledonides, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Carly; Stünitz, Holger; Jeřábek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    Metamorphic processes such as new mineral growth, changes in mineral composition, and infiltration of water are thought to play an important role in rheological weakening and strain localization in the lower crust. However, the exact mechanisms and extent to which these processes have an effect, are not well understood. The Scandinavian Caledonides in northern Norway offer a unique field laboratory to study pervasively deformed and metamorphosed lower crustal nappes and allow for the comparison of deformation and metamorphic conditions between nappe cores, nappe boundaries, and the transition between the two. The island of Arnøya provides a 20 km-long cross section through the Vaddas, Kåfjord and Nordmannvik nappes, with metamorphic grade increasing upwards from amphibolite to granulite facies, respectively. The nappes display a pervasive foliation associated with a strong NW-SE lineation and top-to-SE shear sense consistent with Caledonian thrust deformation. Nappe boundaries occur as wide (10's of metres) ultramylonite-, mylonite- and schist-bearing shear zones, and have a different mineralogy to internal parts of the nappes. Metapelites and migmatites of the Nordmannvik nappe are kyanite-bearing (high T, high P), and the Kåfjord nappe is composed mainly of homogenous semi-pelite (medium T and P). The Vaddas nappe is more variable and contains interlayered metapsammites, amphibolites and local marbles. A comparison of metapelitic samples from the nappes and the two nappe boundary shear zones show that grain size decreases and degree of mixing of phases increases towards shear zone cores. Also grain size becomes homogeneous towards shear zone cores. All samples show evidence of high temperature dynamic recrystallization of quartz. Quartz within aggregates in nappe rocks have a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), while quartz in shear zone rocks shows no CPO, indicating deformation mainly by dislocation creep in the nappes and a switch to diffusion

  17. Amitié, harmonie et paix politique chez Aristote et Jean Bodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Miglietti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La crise politique et religieuse de la seconde moitié du xvie siècle ouvre la voie en France à un débat enflammé concernant les limites du pouvoir souverain et le rôle du peuple au sein de l’État. Dans les Six livres de la République (1576, Jean Bodin développe un programme de réforme éthico-politique envisageant l’amitié entre les citoyens comme pierre angulaire de l’État. Bien que s’inspirant largement des réflexions d’Aristote sur le même sujet (Éthique à Nicomaque, Politique, il remplace toutefois la théorie aristotélicienne de l’amitié-égalité (laquelle entraîne chez le Stagirite une vision égalitariste de la société et un net refus de la monarchie par une nouvelle théorie de l’amitié-harmonie qui lui permet de justifier la nature hiérarchique et monarchique de sa « République bien ordonnée ».

  18. Fecundity and egg volume in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus from different depths in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mori

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between fecundity and egg volume of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus inhabiting three different depth ranges (200-300, 350-450, and 500-550 m in the North Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean were compared. Fecundity was not dependent on depth and egg volume did not vary with female size. The egg volume of females collected in the shallowest areas (200-450 m was instead significantly larger than that collected in deeper waters (500-550 m. Possible explanations for this fact are examined.

  19. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  20. Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium oocysts in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Northern Finland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschfalk A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specific aim of this study was to assess the faecal shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to deduce the potential risk to human health through modern reindeer herding. In total, 2,243 faecal samples of reindeer from northern regions of Finland and Norway were examined for potentially enteropathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter species, Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Yersinia species and parasites (Cryptosporidium species in accordance with standard procedures. Escherichia coli were isolated in 94.7%, Enterococcus species in 92.9%, Yersinia species in 4.8% of the samples and Campylobacter species in one sample only (0.04%. Analysis for virulence factors in E. coli and Yersinia species revealed no pathogenic strains. Neither Salmonella species nor Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. The public health risk due to reindeer husbandry concerning zoonotic diseases included in this study has to be considered as very low at present but a putative epidemiological threat may arise when herding conditions are changed with respect to intensification and crowding.

  1. The Impact of Climate Change on Microbial Communities and Carbon Cycling in High Arctic Permafrost Soil from Spitsbergen, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, K. C.; Schwery, D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Christiansen, H. H.; Pearce, D.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most fragile ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of climate change. Warmer conditions in the high Arctic will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer of permafrost, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. The viable and non-viable fractions of the microbial community in a permafrost soil from Adventdalen, Spitsbergen, Norway were subjected to a comprehensive investigation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Molecular analyses using FISH (with CTC-DAPI) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) on a 257cm deep core, revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups, with the active layer having more viable cells, and a higher microbial community diversity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux measurements were performed to show the amount of C stored in the sample. We demonstrated that the microbial community composition from the soil in the center of the core was most likely influenced by small scale variations in environmental conditions. Community structure showed distinct shift of presence of bacterial groups along the vertical temperature gradient profile and microbial counts and diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing with depth. It was observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied across the permafrost table. Data on the variability of CO2 and CH4 distribution described in peat structure heterogeneity are important for modeling emissions on a larger scale. Furthermore, linking microbial biomass to gas distribution may elucidate the cause of peak CO2 and CH4 and their changes in relation to environmental change and peat composition.

  2. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  3. Holocene aeolian sedimentation and episodic mass-wasting events recorded in lacustrine sediments on Langøya in Vesterålen, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Pål Ringkjøb; Dahl, Svein Olaf; Jansen, Henrik Løseth; Støren, Eivind N.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the frequency of mass-wasting events and past storminess has been reconstructed throughout the Holocene (11,500 cal yr BP to present) from lacustrine sediments in lake Trehynnvatnet (33 m a.s.l.), which is located in a glacially carved valley at Nykvåg on the outmost coast of western Langøya, Vesterålen, northern Norway. Sediment cores (∼2-5 m long) have been examined by use of high-resolution magnetic susceptibility and XRF-scanning as well as grain size and loss-on-ignition analysis. In total 35 episodic event layers have been identified throughout the Holocene. The majority of these events are characterized as discrete coarse-grained sediment layers followed by normal grading, and are related to past mass-wasting activity within the catchment. Periods with high mass-wasting activity are dated to 11,000-10,500, 5500-4500, 4000-3500, 3000-2500, 2000-1000 and 500-0 cal yr BP. The continuous input of sand grains (>250 μm) has been systematically investigated throughout the sediment cores. The sand grains are related to catchment samples from the sandy beach deposits in Sandvikbukta c. 750 m away in SW direction, and are suggested to indicate (niveo-) aeolian influx to the lake. The content of sand grains varies greatly throughout the record, although there is a clear increase in influx of sand during the last 2800 years. Periods with high aeolian influx are proposed to indicate increased storminess, which occurred between 1600 and 1550 (350-400 CE), 1400-1300 (450-550 CE), 750-550 (1200-1400 CE) and 250-20 cal yr BP (1700-1930 CE), which to some degree coincides with periods of increased storminess and winter precipitation recorded in other studies around the North Eastern Atlantic region.

  4. Deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries among 18-year-olds at Public Dental Health Service in Northern Norway: A cross-sectional age cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangvaltaite, Lina; Kundzina, Rita; Bolstad, Napat Limchaichana; Eriksen, Harald M; Kerosuo, Eero

    2015-08-01

    To document deep carious lesions and other consequences of caries (DCL-CC) in molars of 18-year olds leaving the free-of-charge Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). To explore the association between background factors and DCL-CC. The final study sample (n=1876) comprised 95% of individuals born in 1993 and registered in the PDHS in Troms County, Northern Norway. The most recent digital bitewing radiographs of each subject were examined for DCL-CC (deep untreated carious lesions, deep restorations, root canal obturations or extractions due to caries). Inter- and intra-observer kappa scores were 0.62 and 0.87, respectively. Information on background factors (gender, clinic location, history of medical problems, bitewing examination interval, DMFT score and planned recalls) were retrieved from dental records. About one-quarter of subjects (488) had at least one molar with DCL-CC. There were 848 molars in total with DCL-CC; the majority were deep restorations (70%), but 4% were deep untreated carious lesions. More than a quarter of DCL-CC were either root canal obturations (14%) or extractions (12%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that a 1-unit increase in DMFT score was associated with deep untreated carious lesions and extractions due to caries. There was no association between urban/rural clinic location, which indicated socio-economic status, and either DMFT score or DCL-CC. Despite the existence of a free-of-charge dental service, more than one-quarter of the subjects in the present study had at least one molar with DCL-CC.

  5. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2015-01-01

    decreased nearly exponentially with age. The variation in most demographic variables was high among replicate sampling sites and test size. Mean age and growth rates did not differ consistently among sites in mid- and northern Norway nor between barren ground and kelp sites. In contrast, mortality rates...... in mid-Norway were 50 % higher than in northern Norway. We suggest that increasing predation pressure on sea urchins partly explains the higher mortality in mid-Norway. Recent studies have shown that recruitment of sea urchins is significantly lower in mid-Norway than in northern Norway. The lower mean...

  6. Mechanical Stability of Stratified Sediments along the upper continental Slope off Vesterålen, northern Norway - Insights from in situ CPTU Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, D.; Stegmann, S.; Kreiter, S.; L'Heureux, J. S.; Vanneste, M. W. B.; Baeten, N. J.; Knudsen, S.; Rise, L.; Longva, O.; Brendryen, J.; Haflidason, H.; Chand, S.; Mörz, T.; Kopf, A.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution single channel-seismic data (3.5 kHz) reveal small-scale submarine landslide structures and superficial deformation features (e.g. tension cracks) along the gently dipping (3°) upper continental slope west of the Vesterålen Archipelago off northern Norway. Previous laboratory-based geotechnical studies attest that the slope is per sestable and that seismic events in an order of magnitude M5.7 may have triggered the slope sediments to fail. Here we present geotechnical in situ data (sedimentary strength, pore pressure), which were obtained with RV Poseidon in summer 2014 using the static CPTU system GOST. The CPTU system provided high-resolution geotechnical profiles of the uppermost sediments to a maximum penetration depth of ~ 20 m at six sites within the landslide features and beside them in undisturbed slope sediments as reference. The CPTU data reveal the occurrence of mechanically weaker zones (MWZ) by the drop of sedimentary strength. These zones are interbedded by coarser, more competent layers. The occurrence of sensitive fine-grained material may be responsible for the loss of strength in the deeper portion (appx. 12 to 18 m below seafloor). An 1D infinite pseudo-static stability analysis attests that the mechanically weaker zones (MWZ) correlate well with portions, where the Factor of Safety (FoS) ≤ 1 (meta-stable to unstable) indicates permanent deformation or failure in case additional dynamic load is induced by an earthquake. Thus, the mechanically weak layers can be considered as one important pre-condition for landslide activity. In conclusion, the integration of in situ CPTU data with geophysical data improves soil characterization and hence foster a better understanding of the pre-conditioning factors for slope instability at the upper continental slope off Vesterålen. Risk assessment for the present-day slope off Vesterålen is particularly crucial, because the opening of the region for offshore oil and gas exploration is

  7. Survival rate in patients after sudden cardiac arrest at the university hospital of northern Norway treated with or without opioids: A retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuklin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental studies both in vivo and in vitro show significantly increased survival rate in animals and in cortical neurons respectively exposed to acute hypoxia and pre-treated with opioids compared to non-treated counterparts. Thus, the main aim of the study was to examine survival rates in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA in the hospital who were or were not treated with opioids before and/or during cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Methods: The registry SCA database at the University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN for the period of January 2006-December 2009 was used to obtain data for the evaluation. Inclusion criteria were observed SCA at UNN for patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA 1-3. Exclusion criteria included ASA four to five patients and unobserved SCA. Study patients were divided into two groups: Those not treated with opioids and those treated with opioids not more then 3 h before and/or during CPR. Survival rate 1, 2, 3 and 28 days post CPR were compared for the two groups. Results: A total of 117 patients were registered in the SCA database at UNN for the period from January 2006 to December 2009. Sixty seven patients were excluded from the study: 17 patients had an unknown time of SCA dιbut, two patients had only syncope and 48 were ASA four to five patients. A total of 50 ASA one to three patients were included in the study, 33 and 17 patients respectively in the control and opioid-treated groups. The patients who were treated with opioids before or during CPR had a significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and 28 days survival rate as compared to those receiving only conventional CPR. The model was adjusted for duration of CPR (P=0.047 and treatment with adrenaline (P=0.779 in the groups. Adjusted Odds ratio was 0.075 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.015-0.387. Relative risk of fatal outcome in the opioids group was 0.2944 (95% CI: 0.1549-0.5594. Conclusion: Significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and

  8. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    annually a report on market progress. In liberalized systems still two more features are worth to mention, the appearance of actors unknown in centralized systems (as the suppliers, for instance) and the high 'volatility' of the electricity prices that presses both manufacturers and customers to protect themselves against the market's risks. The second part of the report is devoted to the questions raised in the White Book, namely, service's quality, economic efficiency, service continuity, etc. In conclusion, the French conception of Public Service has not an exact analogue but most of its objectives are assigned actually to the Network Authority, the main task of which is promotion of economic efficiency. The networks either privatized, as in United Kingdom, or still public, as in Norway or Swede, are closely controlled by the Network Authority. This is done via price structure establishment and by imposing an upper level on the revenue of the network operators. In UK the action of the Network Authority was highly instrumental in growth of productivity in the monopolistic sectors of electric industry, i.e., transport and distribution. Norway and Swede are in retard from this point of view. The main beneficiaries of the market liberalization were the industries while the profit of domestic customers is still incipient. In the northern countries in spite of early access to competition the profit was so far low. In its second part the document APIS of the Council for Industrial Policy poses questions and presents ways of approach in UK and northern countries relating to: - The directive and its range; - Reinforcing the Public Service; - Revamping the Electric System to support growth; Preserving the networks for overall profit; - Defining of Public Establishment EDF within the new organization; - Developing an efficient network. Ways of approach in UK and northern countries regulation are presented.

  9. Modelling the climate sensitivity of Storbreen and Engabreen, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreassen, L.M.; Elvehøy, H.; Jóhannesson, T.; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X; Beldring, S.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2006-01-01

    In this report we have modelled the mass balance of two Norwegian glaciers using two different approaches. At Storbreen, a continental glacier in southern Norway, a simplified energy balance model was used. At Engabreen, a maritime glacier in northern Norway, a degree day model was used. Both

  10. Motor Assembly Plant Saves $85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project.

  11. Changes in fine root production and longevity in response to water and nutrient availability in a Norway spruce stand in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2003-03-01

    Effects of nutritional availability and soil warming on carbon turnover via fine roots (<2 mm in diameter) were studied at a Norway spruce stand in north Sweden in the following treatments: liquid fertilization (IL), soil warming of treated plots (HIL) and control (C). Minirhizotrons were installed in October 1994 and recorded once a month during the growing season, in 1997. Fine root production increased significantly in I and IL treatments compared with C plots at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Soil warming enhanced effects of IL. Root mortality was not increased significantly in IL. Soil warming showed almost the similar effect on root mortality at depth 10-20 cm as it was for depth 0-10 cm. The root longevity in IL plots was significantly lower compared with C plots at depth 0-20 cm. The effects of soil warming were more pronounced at depth 10-25 cm. Soil warming increased root biomass three times in HIL plots and this increase. It is concluded that an eventual increase in temperature followed by increased CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, results in an increase in root production and mortality and consequently higher carbon allocation to the soil.

  12. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...... hypotheses, and beech and spruce supported the economy of scale, predator satiation and resource allocation hypotheses....

  13. Crestal fault geometries reveal late halokinesis and collapse of the Samson Dome, Northern Norway: Implications for petroleum systems in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Nathalia H.; Alves, Tiago M.; Omosanya, Kamaldeen O.

    2016-10-01

    This paper uses 2D and high-quality 3D seismic reflection data to assess the geometry and kinematics of the Samson Dome, offshore Norway, revising the implications of the new data to hydrocarbon exploration in the Barents Sea. The study area was divided into three (3) zones in terms of fault geometries and predominant strikes. Displacement-length (D-x) and Throw-depth (T-z) plots showed faults to consist of several segments that were later dip-linked. Interpreted faults were categorised into three families, with Type A comprising crestal faults, Type B representing large E-W faults, and Type C consisting of polygonal faults. The Samson Dome was formed in three major stages: a) a first stage recording buckling of the post-salt overburden and generation of radial faults; b) a second stage involving dissolution and collapse of the dome, causing subsidence of the overburden and linkage of initially isolated fault segments; and c) a final stage in which large fault segments were developed. Late Cretaceous faults strike predominantly to the NW, whereas NE-trending faults comprise Triassic structures that were reactivated in a later stage. Our work provides scarce evidence for the escape of hydrocarbons in the Samson Dome. In addition, fault analyses based on present-day stress distributions indicate a tendency for 'locking' of faults at depth, with the largest leakage factors occurring close to the surface. The Samson Dome is an analogue to salt structures in the Barents Sea where oil and gas exploration has occurred with varied degrees of success.

  14. Occupational skin diseases from 1997 to 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN: an investigation into the course and treatment of occupational skin disease 10–15 years after first consultations with a dermatologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Braun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigate the impact of occupational skin disease consultations among outpatients at the Dermatological Department, University Hospital, Northern Norway. Study design: From 1997 until 2004, 386 patients with occupational skin disease were examined and given advice on skin care, skin disease treatment, skin protection in further work, and on the legal rights of patients with this disease. Ten to fifteen years later, we wanted to look at these patients in terms of their work situation, the current status of their disease, the help they received from the labour offices, and their subjective quality of life. Material and methods: In the autumn of 2011 until the spring of 2012, a number of the patients examined in the period from 1997 to 2004 were selected and sent a questionnaire, which they were asked to answer and return, regarding their work situation and the progress and current status of their occupational disease. Results: A total of 153 (77% patients answered the questionnaire; 71% of these patients were still in work, and further 15% had old-age retired, 13% were working until then; 16% had retired early because of disability; 54% had changed jobs because of their occupational skin disease; 86% of the patients indicated that the skin disease had improved since our previous investigation. Conclusions: Our investigation into patients with occupational skin disease documented that the majority of patients who had received professional dermatological consultation and intervention offers were still in the labour market and had good control of their skin disease 10–15 years later. We discovered that 71% of the patients were still employed. 13% had remained in work until they became old age pensioners. Only 16% dropped out of work because of disability. These high percentages may indicate that our intervention has contributed positively to patients’ work conditions and the course of their skin disease.

  15. Level of selected toxic elements in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow of young semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. from Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ali Hassan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gain knowledge on toxic elements in semi-domesticated reindeer and their distribution in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow. The correlations between concentrations in meat and liver, as well as the use of the latter as an indicator for toxic elements in meat, were also investigated. Study design. Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer from 2 northern Norwegian counties (Finnmark and Nordland. Methods. Semi-domesticated reindeer carcasses (n = 31 were randomly selected, from which meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow samples were collected. Selected toxic elements (cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel and vanadium were studied. Results. Liver was the organ with the highest level of all elements except for nickel, which was highest in bone marrow. Meat had the lowest levels, whereas levels in tallow and bone marrow were between those of meat and liver. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and arsenic were significantly different (p < 0.05 between meat and liver, while only arsenic and cadmium were significantly correlated in meat (rs=0.71, p < 0.01 and liver (rs=0.72, p < 0.01. The cadmium level exceeded the European Commission's (EC maximum level set for bovine meat and live in 52% of the liver samples (n = 29. Nevertheless, the estimated monthly cadmium intake from liver of 2.29 µg/kg body weight was well below the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 25 µg/kg body weight set by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. Conclusions. Based on the measured levels and their relation to the maximum level and to the provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake limits, it could be inferred that consumption of reindeer meat is not associated with any health risk related to the studied toxic elements for consumers.

  16. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  17. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  18. Robotics Research in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Hølpødt

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available Except for some districts and industries, the population of industrial robots in Norway is low. Trallfa AS is definitely the largest producer of robots in Norway. Jonas Oglænd A/S formerly produced handling manipulators, but they are now produced abroad. New companies such as NORKYB are developing. In addition to Trallfa and Oglænd, the development of robot systems is done by different research institutes such as the Center for Industrial Research (SI, SINTEF and the Rogaland Research Center (RF. These institutes do research work both for the robot manufacturers and directly for end users.

  19. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  20. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...

  1. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  2. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  3. Norway: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringard, Ånen; Sagan, Anna; Sperre Saunes, Ingrid; Lindahl, Anne Karin

    2013-01-01

    Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average. The health care system is semi decentralized. The responsibility for specialist care lies with the state (administered by four Regional Health Authorities) and the municipalities are responsible for primary care. Although health care expenditure is only 9.4% of Norways GDP (placing it on the 16th place in the WHO European region), given Norways very high value of GDP per capita, its health expenditure per head is higher than in most countries. Public sources account for over 85% of total health expenditure; the majority of private health financing comes from households out-of-pocket payments.The number of practitioners in most health personnel groups, including physicians and nurses, has been increasing in the last few decades and the number of health care personnel per 100 000 inhabitants is high compared to other EU countries. However, long waiting times for elective care continue to be a problem and are cause of dissatisfaction among the patients. The focus of health care reforms has seen shifts over the past four decades. During the 1970s the focus was on equality and increasing geographical access to health care services; during the 1980s reforms aimed at achieving cost containment and decentralizing health care services; during the 1990s the focus was on efficiency. Since the beginning of the millennium the emphasis has been given to structural changes in the delivery and organization of health care and to policies

  4. Stavanger Squash Centre, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Although Stavanger is the technological and financial oil-capital of Norway, the Stavanger Squash Centre was until recently the largest solar building in Norway, with 120 m{sup 2} of collectors. The active, building-integrated, solar air collector in the 45 {sup o} roof facing 15 {sup o} east of due south, has now been delivering solar-heated hot water for the showers for 15 years. The solar system consists of several standard products put together in a new way. Monitoring has shown that the system produced 18,000 kWh/m{sup 2} a (150 kWh/m{sub coll} {sup 2}a). If operated as planned, it could have had a solar contribution of 45,000 kWh/a) (375 kWh/m{sub coll} {sup 2}a), resulting in a 19% solar fraction of total demand. (author)

  5. Occupational mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Due, Jonas Røer

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how yearly occupational mobility has developed in Norway between the years 1972 and 2015. It also analyses the characteristics of workers that experienced the most occupational switches, and control for demographic changes in the workforce of the population. To investigate this topic, this thesis uses quarterly panel data from the Norwegian Labor Force Survey, where several cleaning procedures have been conducted through the computer program STATA with additional calc...

  6. Hepatic cobalt and copper levels in lambs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, T; Plassen, C

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from copper from 5 to 240 microg/g ww. Flocks with deficient or marginal cobalt status were found in all parts of southern Norway, but primarily in the west and south-west. Some flocks with marginal copper status were found in the south-west, while flocks with signs of excessive hepatic copper concentrations were found mainly in inner parts of central and northern Norway. Hepatic copper concentrations were significantly higher in lambs that had grazed mountain pastures than in those that had grazed lowland pastures in the summer.

  7. Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard, TSP NORWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H.; Berthling, I.; Blikra, L.; Dehls, J.; Etzelmuller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Humlum, O.; Isaksen, K.; Juliussen, H.; Lauknes, T.; Midttomme, K.; Rønning, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Norwegian funded IPY project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard', (TSP NORWAY) is part of the TSP cluster. The main goal of TSP NORWAY is to measure and model the permafrost distribution in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on its thermal state, thickness and associated periglacial processes, including increased knowledge of the mountain permafrost distribution related to geohazard studies on rockslides. TSP NORWAY will contribute to IPY by providing a spatially distributed set of observations on the present status of permafrost temperatures and active layer thicknesses, and periglacial processes in Svalbard and Norway. Special focus is given to empirical and numerical modelling of permafrost distribution and thermal ground heat fluxes to address future climate variability on permafrost distribution and associated geomorphic activity. Permafrost distribution in the North Atlantic area is strongly climatically controlled, mainly by the North Atlantic Drift, providing much less permafrost than in any other high latitude terrestrial region on the Northern Hemisphere. Hopefully a first Nordic permafrost map will be based on Nordic permafrost collaboration during IPY. The TSP NORWAY project has established two permafrost observatories with intensive permafrost and periglacial monitoring sites in maritime and continental areas. One in Troms, northern Norway, which will be part of the north Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory extending into northernmost Sweden and Finland, and the Svalbard Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory also with both maritime and continental sites. The first Norwegian permafrost database, NORPERM, with all permafrost data from Norway and Svalbard, collected before and during IPY, has been established at the Norwegian Geological Survey. NORPERM shall contribute data as requested in the IPY data protocol and the TSP cluster to the international Global Terrestrial Network on

  8. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  9. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  10. A Journey To Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A tourism promotion launched by Northern European countries was held in Shanghai on February 24. Representatives from the tourism authorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden introduced their special tourism resources to their Chinese counterparts, expressing their strong desire to expand tourism business in the Chinese market.According to the memorandum of understanding signed

  11. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  12. Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Longyearbyen is the administrative center of Svalbard and is located on Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is the world's northernmost town with over 1000 people. The settlement was founded in 1906 by John Longyear, owner of the Arctic Coal Company. Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer of Longyearbyen. Near Longyearbyen, the Global Crop Diversity Trust administers the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, an Arctic safe capable of storing millions of crop seeds as a safeguard against natural and human disasters. Last week, the first deposit of 250,000 different species of crop seeds was made into the repository. The perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color image over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model. The image was acquired July 12, 2003, and is located at 78.2 degrees north latitude, 15.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Distribution and spread of the invasive slug Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Arild Hatteland

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present distribution of the invasive slug Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon was studied in Norway. This important pest species has spread to many parts of Europe during the last decades, inflicting damage to agriculture and domestic gardens. It was first recorded in Norway in 1988, and has since spread to many parts of the country and is now recorded in 192 municipalities. We surveyed the current distribution by sampling and gathering species records in cooperation with garden societies and local authorities. Based on these records, we present distributional data as well as relative predictions of future distributions based on geoclimatic parameters. Currently, A. vulgaris covers most of coastal southern Norway while it shows a patchy distribution in northern Norway, recorded as far north as Finnsnes in Troms County.

  14. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  15. The New National Curriculum in Norway: A Change in the Role of the Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeten, Sidsel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents perspectives on how principals in schools in northern Norway value the school reform "The Knowledge Promotion" and the new National Curriculum (LK06). It is based on a survey of all primary schools in the region of Finnmark and interviews with five of these principals one year later. The region of Finnmark in Norway…

  16. Climate change impacts on flood seasonality in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, Klaus; Heistermann, Maik; Lawrence, Deborah; Bronstert, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological impacts of climate change on floods have been studied by ensemble based modeling in 115 catchments in Norway (Lawrence & Hisdal 2011). Despite of a considerable variation in the projections, consistent regional patterns of hydrological change are evident. Spatial patterns of directional change in flood magnitude allow for drawing conclusions about dominating flood-generating processes and for differentiating regions with similar flood regimes. Since the magnitude of floods results from the seasonality of precipitation, snowmelt/snow storage, and the preconditions in a catchment, seasonal flood frequency analysis can help to understand the influence of flood-generating processes under a changing climate. Currently, regional patterns of flood regimes in Norway separate regions which are dominated by high flows during the spring and early summer snowmelt season (inland and northernmost regions) from regions where autumn and winter pluvial floods are dominant (western Norway along the coast). However, projected increase in winter temperature, reduced snow storage and earlier snowmelt will probably lead to a reduction in flood probability in inland and northern Norway. In western Norway and along the coast, the probability of large floods is likely to increase due to projected increases in seasonal and extreme rainfall. In addition, there are some areas which probably will be dominated by a mixed regime in the future where both snowmelt- and rainfall-dominated events will occur. Based on an ensemble model approach in a subset of representative catchments, we study the role of seasonality contributing to flood hazards in Norway. Seasonal flood frequency analyses are used to explore changes in flood seasonality. Peak flow series are analyzed using a Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach, and changes in the return periods are estimated based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). A model re-calibration is performed based on the series distance approach

  17. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  18. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  19. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  20. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors...... in Norway. METHOD: Two surveys were distributed to all 530 registered chiropractors in Norway in 2011. One survey was for all chiropractors (Survey 1) and the other for clinic owners (Survey 2). Results have been reported as tables and as approximate percentages in the text for ease of reading. RESULT......: Response rates were 61% (Survey 1, N = 320) and 71% (Survey 2, N = 217). More than two-thirds of the chiropractors in Norway had been in practice for under a decade. Only one in four chiropractors worked in solo practice and the majority shared premises with at least one colleague, typically at least one...

  1. High prevalence and no latitude gradient of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.

  2. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway....... The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  3. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    century. The increase, both in total precipitation, and in the frequency and intensity of extreme events, is greatest in the west and southwest, and in parts of northern Norway, areas with the highest present precipitation. - Snowfall will increase due to increased precipitation in cold areas inland and at high elevations. In lower lying parts of the country, and along the coast, more precipitation as rain will replace snowfall. - The frequency of near-zero events, with freeze-thaw cycles, which can trigger rock falls, will decrease due to the generally increased temperatures. - The greatest uncertainties in the weather trends are linked to uncertainties in climate and emission scenarios, and to the downscaling. - More than 30% of the total length of road and railroads in Norway is exposed to snow avalanche and rock fall/slide hazard. As an example, one of the most exposed railroads, Raumabanen, has an annual probability of 1/3 to be hit by snow avalanches. - Total costs of geohazard impact on the road infrastructure (major roads only) were estimated to be roughly 100 mill. NOK per year, of which the costs of road closures comprise 70%. The numbers are unevenly distributed throughout the country, reflecting the topographic and climatic variability in Norway.

  4. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...... survey send to managers in all 428 municipalities in Norway....

  5. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  6. Airborne geophysical prospecting for ultramafite associated talc, Altermark, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Tor Arne; Olesen, Odleiv

    1996-10-01

    Talc-rich rocks in Altermark occur as rims around magnetite bearing serpentinite lenses which are up to about 1 km wide. The content of magnetite in the serpentinite makes magnetic measurements possible as a method for talc-prospecting. In 1991 a helicopter-borne geophysical survey combined with geological and petrophysical mapping was carried out in the Altermark area. Several positive magnetic anomalies were detected. Positive magnetic anomalies with oval shapes, well defined boundaries and smooth anomaly curves were interpreted to be caused by serpentinite lenses. Laboratory measurements revealed susceptibilities for the serpentinites between 0.006-0.36 SI and a Q-value of approximately 0.3. Magnetic modelling of the Nakkan anomaly and subsequent drilling revealed that it was indeed a serpentinite body surrounded by talc rocks which was the cause of the anomaly. The shallowest part was located about 150 m below surface. The geophysical exploration led to the discovery of a talc-carbonate deposit with an anticipated in situ tonnage of more than 1 million tons. The present study consequently proved to be a classical case study where we were able to locate and establish the three-dimensional form of serpentinite bodies associated with talc deposits. We conclude that helicopter-borne geophysical surveying is an effective tool in the exploration of serpentinite cored talc bearing rocks in complex geological areas where exposures are poor or absent and accessibility difficult. The rough topography and dense vegetation in the Altermark area make this type of survey very cost effective.

  7. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K

    2015-04-01

    Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  8. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  9. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  10. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  11. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromso, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromso, Northern Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administe...

  12. Long Range Transport of Air Pollution Into Norway - A Transfer Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Damsleth

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily and monthly concentration of sulphate in the air at Birkcnes in the southern part of Norway is analysed within an intervention analysis and transfer function framework. As input to the model we use the prevailing wind direction. It is shown that when the wind comes mainly from the South, that is from Central Europe and England, this gives a significant increase in the sulphate concentration, while a northern wind leads to a decrease.

  13. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  14. Mammography activity in Norway 1983 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Braaten, Tonje; Njor, Sisse H

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact of the p......In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact...... of the program on breast cancer mortality in Norway....

  15. National Library of Norway's new database of 22 manuscript maps concerning the Swedish King Charles XII's campaign in Norway in 1716 and 1718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Gamborg Brisa

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Library of Norway is planning to digitise approximately 1,500 manuscript maps. Two years ago we started working on a pilot project, and for this purpose we chose 22 maps small enough to be photographed in one piece. We made slides 6 x 7 cm in size, converted the slides into PhotoCDs and used four different resolutions on JPEG-files. To avoid large file sizes, we had to divide the version with the biggest resolution into four pieces. The preliminary work was done in Photoshop, the database on the web is made in Oracle. You can click on the map to zoom. Norwegians and probably Swedes during the Great Northern War drew the 22 maps when the Swedish King Charles XII in 1716 and 1718 unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Norway. The database is now accessible on the National Library of Norway's web site. The database is in Norwegian, but we are working on an English version as well. The maps are searchable on different topics, countries, counties, geographical names, shelfmarks or a combination of these. We are planning to expand the database to other manuscript maps later. This is the reason why it is possible to search for obvious subjects as Charles XII and the Great Northern War.

  16. Energy Norway 2011; Energi Norge 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Whereas in the beginning of 2011 was directed much attention to the record low rainfall and record high energy prices, the end of the year was characterized by quite different disturbances. Powerful storms in many parts of the country led to much debate about the security of supply. The whole year has Energy Norway worked to highlight the need for further network expansion both in Norway and to Norway. Renewable energy can only be used when it is transported to where it is needed. In 2011, the new players in the energy debate in partnership with the industry pointed to the significant challenges that slow licensing procedures for network and production facilities represent for society. Through the launch of A green thread Energy Norway sat focus on electricity as clean energy carrier and its unique role in a low carbon society. Read more about our work in the annual report.(eb)

  17. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Interaction between temperature, precipitation and snow cover trends in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Gisnås, Kjersti; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2016-04-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing faster warming than other regions, partly due to the snow--albedo feedback. A reduction in snow cover, which has a strong positive feedback on the energy balance, leads to a lowering of the albedo and thus, an amplification of the warming signal. Norway, in particular, can be considered a "cold climate laboratory" with large gradients in geography and climate that allows studying the effect of changing temperature and precipitation on snow in highly varying regions. Previous research showed that during last decades there has been an increase in air temperature for the entire country and a concurrent reduction in the land surface area covered by snow. However, these studies also demonstrate the sensitivity of the trend analysis to the period of record, to the start and end of the period, and to the presence of extreme years. In this study, we analyse several variables and their spatial and temporal variability across Norway, including mean, minimum and maximum daily temperature, daily precipitation, snow covered area and total snow water equivalent. Climate data is retrieved from seNorge (http://www.senorge.no), an operationally gridded dataset for Norway with a resolution of 1 km2. Analysis primarily focused on three overlapping 30-year periods (i.e., 1961-1990, 1971-2000, 1981-2010), but also tested trend sensitivity by varying period lengths. For each climate variable the Theil-Sen trend was calculated for each 30-year period along with the difference between 30-year mean values. In addition, indices specific to each variable were calculated (e.g. the number of days with a shift from negative to positive temperature values). The analysis was performed for the whole of Norway as well as for separate climatological regions previously defined based on temperature, precipitation and elevation. Results confirm a significant increase in mean daily temperatures and accelerating warming trends, especially during winter and spring

  19. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiess Nadine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  20. Immigrants in Norway and Their Choice of Names: Continuation or Adaption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Reisæter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on names chosen for children born into families in which one or both parents are immigrants to Norway, and it discusses whether the infants get names that show a continuation of traditions from the country of the immigrant parent(s, or names that point to an adaption to Norwegian standards. The data referred to in the article is mainly based on research conducted with bilingual families and individuals in Tromsø in Northern Norway, and it reveals that many of the children are given names that convey their bilingual background and emphasize naming traditions from the immigrant country. There are however also a frequency of names indicating that the parents have had in mind the children's growing up in Norway and their integration into Norwegian society. All along there are numerous cases showing the parents' perception of the close link between name and identity, and their wish to express identity through naming. In addition this article focuses on the names of adult immigrants. It reveals that when individuals change one or more of their names once they have settled in Norway, there are specific reasons for altering something that is so closely related to their identity. Frequently the name change a

  1. Long-distance impact of Iceland plume on Norway's rifted margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Alexander; Cloetingh, Sierd; Burov, Evgueni; François, Thomas; Gerya, Taras

    2017-09-04

    Results of a 3D modeling study inspired by recent seismic tomography of the Northern Atlantic mantle suggest that a complex pattern of hot mantle distribution with long horizontal flows originating from the Iceland mantle plume has been the norm in the geological past. In the Northern Atlantic the Iceland plume has a strong long-distance impact on intraplate deformation affecting both onshore and offshore parts of Norway's rifted margin. As a result, this margin is characterized by large magnitude differential topography sustained over at least several tens of Myr. Here we use high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical modeling to demonstrate that the long-distance plume impact can be explained by its fast lateral propagation controlled by pre-existing lithosphere structures. Numerical models show that these structures strongly affect the style of horizontal flow of plume head material. This results in long-distance propagation of hot material emplaced at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary causing long-wavelength anomalies in onshore topography of Norway's rifted margin. Short-wavelength offshore topographic domes are likely caused by joint occurrence of plume-related thermal perturbations and gravitational forces related to plate thickening (ridge push). Our 3D modeling brings together plume impingement, spreading ridge dynamics, and the formation of anomalous intraplate structures offshore Norway in one scenario.

  2. Current status of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray-Pedersen, B; Jenum, P

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports previous epidemiologic data obtained in Norway and describes briefly the design of a prospective study of primary toxoplasma infection which will be carried out among pregnant women in Norway in the period 1992-1994.

  3. Paludification and Forest Retreat in Northern Oceanic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the treeline in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discuss...

  4. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...

  5. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses...

  6. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Background Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition’s core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the ...

  7. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  8. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  9. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  10. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-04-01

    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  11. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    1999-06-01

    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  12. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    correlation coefficient of 0.5 or higher. Flood volume had the highest correlation to SWE, followed by flood duration and peak. The geographical distribution of correlation shows that the correlation is the highest for inland catchments and in Northern Norway. Lower correlations were observed for catchments near the west coast. Regression models were established for these stations in order to predict the spring flood peak, duration and volume based on SWE data. In summary, we have (i) identified for which catchments SWE might be used to predict spring flood and (ii) established regression models for predicting spring flood peak, duration and volume based on the winter snowpack.

  13. The fate of the mentally ill during the Second World War (1940–1945 in Troms and Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Fause

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the fate of the mentally ill living in northern Norway during the 2nd World War, and the way the war changed their lives. The study is the first to give a systematic account of how the mentally ill fared during the deportation of Finnmark and Northern Troms and afterwards. The reader is introduced to the general conditions for mentally ill persons living in the north, their households and communities, the mental care systems and psychiatric institutions. The article also draws comparisons between Nazi politics and actions towards mentally ill in Norway and Germany. The article is an important contribution to an understanding of the impact of war and deportation on this part of the population.

  14. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Harlov, D.E.; Andersen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world’s classic amphibolite- to granulitefacies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is notabl

  15. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data...

  16. Stable ozone layer in Norway and USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, K.; Svenoe, T.; Terez, E. I.; Terez, G. A.; Roldugin, V.; Larsen, S. H. H.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term column ozone density measurements have been carried out in Norway and USSR. Data from Tromso and two meridional chains in USSR are analyzed, and most of the stations show that no significant decreasing trend in ozone has occurred during the last two decades.

  17. Diphtheria outbreak in Norway: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Inge; Wallace, Sean; Mengshoel, Anne Torunn; Høiby, E Arne; Brandtzæg, Petter

    2011-12-01

    We describe an outbreak of diphtheria in Norway that occurred in 2008 and affected 3 unvaccinated family members. The epidemic caught the public health system off-guard on most levels; the diagnosis was distrusted due to its rarity, no diphtheria anti-toxin was available, and notification procedures were not rigorously followed.

  18. Inclusive Women's Organisations in Denmark and Norway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Thun, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The article demonstrates how majority women’s organizations in Denmark and Norway react differently to the challenge of collaborating with new groups of women in society. The question of collaboration with minority women’s organizations prompts existing majority organizations to navigate between ...

  19. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper explores the relationship between national language policies and corporate law in Norwegian business. By adopting a legal perspective on the national language policy of Norway as it has been stipulated by the Norwegian Ministry of Church and Culture (2008) and The Language Council...

  20. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  1. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  2. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  3. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in Norway : signs of a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Solvang, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the duration of seasonal ice cover on lakes and rivers over the Northern Hemisphere has declined over the 19th and 20th Centuries, mainly as a consequence of rising temperatures. However, lake and river ice trends have not been well documented in Norway. Quality control and homogeneity testing were performed on ice cover data from 48 Norwegian lake and river sites with long records. A total of 142 individual records of ice phenology (freeze-up, break-up and ice ...

  4. Norway's Snoehvit to become Europe's first LNG export project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    The world's northernmost LNG project which will come onstream in 2006 comprises remotely controlled subsea production and landing of natural gas from the Snoehvit, Albatross and Askeladd fields in the Barents Sea, a receiving and processing plant on Melkoeya island outside Hammerfest in northern Norway as well as LNG shipments by special carrier to markets in Europe and the USA. - A total of 40 billion Norwegian Kroner (5.8 billion Euro) is due to be invested in this project, says Snoehvit project manager Egil Gjesteland from Statoil. (orig.)

  5. Knee arthroplasty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjajeva, Svetlana; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Furnes, Ove; Lidgren, Lars; Mehnert, Frank; Odgaard, Anders; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Havelin, Leif Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose The number of national arthroplasty registries is increasing. However, the methods of registration, classification, and analysis often differ. Methods We combined data from 3 Nordic knee arthroplasty registers, comparing demographics, methods, and overall results. Primary arthroplasties during the period 1997–2007 were included. Each register produced a dataset of predefined variables, after which the data were combined and descriptive and survival statistics produced. Results The incidence of knee arthroplasty increased in all 3 countries, but most in Denmark. Norway had the lowest number of procedures per hospital—less than half that of Sweden and Denmark. The preference for implant brands varied and only 3 total brands and 1 unicompartmental brand were common in all 3 countries. Use of patellar button for total knee arthroplasty was popular in Denmark (76%) but not in Norway (11%) or Sweden (14%). Uncemented or hybrid fixation of components was also more frequent in Denmark (22%) than in Norway (14%) and Sweden (2%). After total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the cumulative revision rate (CRR) was lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having a relative risk (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.6) and 1.6 (CI: 1.4–1.7) times higher. The result was similar when only including brands used in more than 200 cases in all 3 countries (AGC, Duracon, and NexGen). After unicompartmental arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, the CRR for all models was also lowest in Sweden, with Denmark and Norway having RRs of 1.7 (CI: 1.4–2.0) and 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8), respectively. When only the Oxford implant was analyzed, however, the CRRs were similar and the RRs were 1.2 (CI: 0.9–1.7) and 1.3 (CI: 1.0–1.7). Interpretation We found considerable differences between the 3 countries, with Sweden having a lower revision rate than Denmark and Norway. Further classification and standardization work is needed to permit more elaborate studies. PMID:20180723

  6. Denmark, Norway, and NATO: Constraints and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    RAND The research described in this report was supported by The RAND Corporation using its own research funds. The RAND Publication Series: The... Report is the principal publication doc- umenting and transmitting RAND’s major research findings and final research results. The RAND Note reports other...7; Brundtland , 1981, pp. 3-4. 17Bcsides these two blocs, both Denmark and Norway have witnessed the rise of parties that either fall outside of the

  7. MabCent: Arctic marine bioprospecting in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The deep waters surrounding the coastline of the northern parts of Norway represent an exciting biotope for marine exploration. Dark and cold Arctic water generates a hostile environment where the ability to adapt is crucial to survival. These waters are nonetheless bountiful and a diverse plethora of marine organisms thrive in these extreme conditions, many with the help of specialised chemical compounds. In comparison to warmer, perhaps more inviting shallower tropical waters, the Arctic region has not been as thoroughly investigated. MabCent is a Norwegian initiative based in Tromsø that aims to change this. Since 2007, scientists within MabCent have focussed their efforts on the study of marine organisms inhabiting the Arctic waters with the long term goal of novel drug discovery and development. The activities of MabCent are diverse and range from sampling the Arctic ice shelf to the chemical synthesis of promising secondary metabolites discovered during the screening process. The current review will present the MabCent pipeline from isolation to identification of new bioactive marine compounds via an extensive screening process. An overview of the main activities will be given with particular focus on isolation strategies, bioactivity screening and structure determination. Pitfalls, hard earned lessons and the results so far are also discussed.

  8. Landslide response signatures from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Freeborough, Katy; Reeves, Helen; Nykjaer, Boje Soren; Sund, Monica; Devoli, Graziella; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Great Britain (GB) and coastal Norway share a common humid maritime climate and annually receive precipitation in the form of cyclonic low-pressure systems or as extra-tropical storms that travel across the Atlantic. Extreme meteorological events capable of triggering floods and landslides are becoming more frequent, with both GB and Norway being affected by a sequence of record-breaking precipitation events in the past decade. On the 5th and 6th of December 2015, storms Desmond/Synne struck northern GB and southwestern Norway with record-breaking rainfall; >340 mm in 24-hour in Cumbria (or 200% of long term average) and daily accumulations in Norway in excess of 140 mm and 236 mm/48hr. Landscape responses to hydro-meteorological stress are non-uniform and the result of a complex interaction of processes. Therefore, event-specific analysis provides an important tool to further our understanding, particularly to enhance the quality of daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). The application of precipitation thresholds provides a useful first approximation for landslide triggering. However, antecedent conditioning of slopes and the spatial variability of precipitation signatures are important factors in determining the location of landslides. Given the magnitude of storms Desmond/Synne a much larger population of landslides was expected to occur. Within one month of the events occurring some 25 events are recorded in GB and circa 30 events in Norway. In GB most of these events are relatively small scale, dominated by translational slides and flows and about 80% of cases reported to occur along transport infrastructure. In Norway, roughly equal numbers of debris flows, shallow slides, rock falls, slush flows and snow avalanches are recorded in close proximity to infrastructure. As the media largely focused on simultaneous severe consequences of extensive

  9. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  10. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert;

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  11. Degradation of High Mountain Ecosystems in Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(o)rg L(o)ffler

    2004-01-01

    Data material of a long-term highmountain ecosystem research project was used to interpret the grazing impact of reindeers. In central Norway investigations were conducted to both, areas where reindeer grazing is excluded, and areas where intensive pasturing is present for a long period of time.The comparative analysis of grazing impact was based on similar environmental conditions. The results were transposed to northern Norway where dramatic overgrazing had been exceeding the carrying capacity.Using landscape ecological mappings, especially of vege ation and soils, the impact of reindeer grazing in different areas became obvious. Non-grazedlichen-dominated ecosystems of the snow-free locations functioned sensitively near the limit of organism survival. These localities were most influenced by grazing as they offer the winter forage to the reindeers. So, intensive grazing in central Norway led to landscape degradation by destruction of the vegetation and superinduced by soil erosion.Those features were comparable to the situation in northern Norway, where a broad-scale destruction of the environment combined with a depression of the altitudinal belts had occurred due to overgrazing.Functioning principles of intact high mountain systems were explained and used to interpret the environmental background for the understanding of degradation phenomena. Finally, the use of a new model calculating the carrying capacity of high mountain landscape was discussed.

  12. Government employers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nana Wesley; Seip, Åsmund Arup

    2017-01-01

    power: direct political intervention, attempts to decentralize wage bargaining and control of wage movements. We argue that government employers in the three countries have similar institutional capacities for power, but their ways of exercising power vary according to political norms and practice.......How do government employers exercise power in highly voluntarist bargaining models? In this article, we analyse the potential power of public employers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway and examine how they use this potential. We call attention to three areas in which government employers exercise...

  13. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  15. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  16. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  17. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  18. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  19. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  20. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, Karl; Danielsson, Marie; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Ihrmark, Katarina; Nemesio Gorriz, Miguel; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Elfstrand, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491,860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid-reductase (OPR), a beta-glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now.

  1. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  2. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  3. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  4. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  5. Evaluation of seasonal ensemble forecasts in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tore Sinnes, Svein; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Langsholt, Elin; Roar Sælthun, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the winter and spring season, seasonal forecasts are used by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in order to assess the probability for sever floods or for low seasonal runoff volumes. The latter is especially important for hydropower production. The seasonal forecasts are generated by a set of 145 lumped, elevation distributed HBV models distributed all over Norway. The observed weather is used to establish the initial snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater levels in the HBV model. Subsequently, scenarios are created by using time series of observed weather the previous 50 years, creating a total of 50 ensembles. The predictability of this seasonal forecasting system depends therefore on the importance of the initial conditions, and in Norway the seasonal snow cover is especially important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the seasonal forecasts of flood peaks and seasonal runoff volumes and especially to evaluate of the predictability depends on (i) catchment climatology and (ii) issue dates and lead times. For achieving these aims, evaluation criterions assessing reliability and sharpness were used. The results shows that the predictability is the highest for catchments where the spring runoff is dominated by snow melt. The predictability is the highest for the shortest lead times (up to 1 months ahead).The predictive performance is higher for runoff volumes than for the flood peaks.

  6. Geological map of land and seaareas of northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway, in cooperation with the Geological Surveys of 22 other countries and under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), has compiled a geological map of northern Europe at the 1:4 million scale.For the first time the geology of both land and sea areas of this large region is displayed in a single document. The area covered extends

  7. Shifting Contexts and Practices in Sign Bilingual Education in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews concepts and approaches in bilingual education for deaf children from a Northern European perspective. Changes in thinking and practice are proposed that respond to shifts in educational policy and developments in knowledge and technology in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and the U...

  8. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...

  9. Shifting Contexts and Practices in Sign Bilingual Education in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanwick, Ruth; Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews concepts and approaches in bilingual education for deaf children from a Northern European perspective. Changes in thinking and practice are proposed that respond to shifts in educational policy and developments in knowledge and technology in Norway, Sweden, Denmark...

  10. Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2013-06-24

    Heracleum persicum was introduced to Norway as an ornamental in the 1830's. Towards the end of the 19th century, it started spreading outside gardens, later to become a frequent sight in the major towns and settlements of North Norway - and a veritable pest plant. During the last 100 years or so, a substantial ethnobotanical tradition related to the species has evolved, demonstrating that folk knowledge is not only forgotten and lost, but also charting new terrain. This survey is based on data extracted from all relevant publications, including botanical literature, travel accounts, newspaper notes, etc., as far as they have come to my attention. In addition, information on vernacular names and various uses of the H. persicum in Norway has been extracted from my own, substantial archive of interviews, questionnaires, and correspondence related to the ethnobotany of Norway. Where extant, H. persicum tends to be known to everyone, even by city dwellers who otherwise generally neglect plants. People tend to love or hate it, and in Tromsø, the largest town of northern Norway, the species has become more or less emblematic of the city. Both here and in other areas of northern Norway, it is referred to by a variety of vernacular names, partly borrowed from other species, partly derived from the Latin genus name, and partly coined for this species only. In the latter group, tromsøpalme ('the palm of Tromsø') has proved by far the most popular invention. It was seemingly first used (and coined) by German soldiers during the World War II occupation of Norway, but now largely replaces other vernacular names. The plant is still popular with children, who frequently play in and with it, whereas adults have been more prone to speculate on its origins - and how to get rid of it. Salt is the most popular "herbicide" for this purpose. Over the years, H. persicum has accumulated at least twenty different vernacular names in Norway, and a variety of other traditions. By necessity

  11. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  12. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  13. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  14. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  15. Supraglacial dust and debris: geochemical compositions from glaciers in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine glacier samples were collected in four contrasting regions to measure supraglacial dust and debris geochemical composition and quantify regional variability. A total of 70 surface glacier ice, snow and debris samples were collected in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand. Trace elemental abundances in snow and ice samples were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Supraglacial debris mineral, bulk oxide and trace element composition were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. A total of 45 major, trace and rare earth elements and 10 oxide compound abundances are reported. Elemental abundances revealed sea salt aerosol and metal enrichment in Svalbard, low levels of crustal dust and marine influences to southern Norway, high crustal dust and anthropogenic enrichment in the Khumbu Himalayas, and sulfur and metals attributed to quiescent degassing and volcanic activity in northern New Zealand. Rare earth element and Al/Ti elemental ratios demonstrated distinct provenance of particulates in each study region. Ca/S elemental ratio data showed seasonal denudation in Svalbard and southern Norway. Ablation season atmospheric particulate transport trajectories were mapped in each of the study regions and suggest provenance pathways. The in situ data presented provides first-order glacier surface geochemical variability as measured in the four diverse alpine glacier regions. The surface glacier geochemical data set is available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.773951. This geochemical surface glacier data is relevant to glaciologic ablation rate understanding as well as satellite atmospheric and land-surface mapping techniques currently in development.

  16. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  17. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  18. The diffusion of Norway spruce in the beechwoods of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatta G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, in the previously coppiced beechwoods of "Dolomiti Bellunesi" National Park, an unprecedented diffusion of Norway spruce occurred; possible silvicultural options to cope with this new condition are outlined here.

  19. Toxin types of Clostridium perfringens isolated from free-ranging, semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, A; Valentin-Weigand, P; Müller, W; Goethe, R

    2002-08-17

    Samples of faeces were taken from 166 healthy domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from three flocks in different reindeer husbandry districts in northern Norway and examined bacteriologically for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. The organism was isolated from 98 (59 per cent) of the reindeer. The isolates were classified into C perfringens toxin types by PCR analysis specific for the genes encoding the four major toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and tau) and were subclassified by the detection of the genes encoding C perfringens beta2-toxin and enterotoxin. All the isolates belonged to C perfringens toxin type A. In addition, 15 of the 98 isolates were PCR-positive for the beta2-toxin gene, and two of the isolates had the the gene encoding for enterotoxin.

  20. Paleoceanographic events in cretaceous petroleum basins, offshore mid-Norway of SE Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Saether, T.; Nystuen, J.P.; Backstrom, S.A. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1997-09-01

    During the Cretaceous period, the narrow, longitudinal seaways between Greenland and Norway received a large volume of fine-grained siliciclast sediments with intercalated gravity-flow sandstone wedges. The sedimentary succession may be subdivided into four broad units: (1) thin and mostly oxic, marly sediments, (2) dark, dysaerobic mudstones and minor sands, (3) thick mudstone facies with thin slope-apron turbidite sands, and (4) grayish laminated mudstones with local sands in the northern area. A widespread Barremian-Aptian hiatus may be linked to Atlantic rift-onset unconformities recognized offshore eastern Canada. Around the lower-upper Cretaceous boundary, watermass conditions changed from dysaerobic to oxic, an event also reported from central and western Europe.

  1. The relation between culture and Vietnamese entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    NHAT, Le Minh

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an exploratory and quantitative investigation of Norwegian Vietnamese in Norway to explain the Entrepreneurial Orientation and then Entrepreneurship of Vietnamese community in Norway with the emphasis on culture respect. A survey of 190 Norwegian students and 34 Norwegian Vietnamese was conducted online. A comparison between Vietnamese Norwegian and non-immigrant Norwegians was done with reference to the results of previous studies. And from that, the cultur...

  2. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  3. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  4. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  5. Evidence for changes in the magnitude and frequency of observed rainfall vs. snowmelt driven floods in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, Klaus; Lawrence, Deborah; Schlichting, Lena; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Wai Kwok

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence for recent changes in the intensity and frequency of heavy precipitation and in the number of days with snow cover in many parts of Norway. The question arises as to whether these changes are also discernable with respect to their impacts on the magnitude and frequency of flooding and on the processes producing high flows. In this study, we tested up to 211 catchments for trends in peak flow discharge series by applying the Mann-Kendall test and Poisson regression for three different time periods (1962-2012, 1972-2012, 1982-2012). Field-significance was tested using a bootstrap approach. Over threshold discharge events were classified into rainfall vs. snowmelt dominated floods, based on a simple water balance approach utilizing a nationwide 1 × 1 km2 gridded data set with daily observed rainfall and simulated snowmelt data. Results suggest that trends in flood frequency are more pronounced than trends in flood magnitude and are more spatially consistent with observed changes in the hydrometeorological drivers. Increasing flood frequencies in southern and western Norway are mainly due to positive trends in the frequency of rainfall dominated events, while decreasing flood frequencies in northern Norway are mainly the result of negative trends in the frequency of snowmelt dominated floods. Negative trends in flood magnitude are found more often than positive trends, and the regional patterns of significant trends reflect differences in the flood generating processes (FGPs). The results illustrate the benefit of distinguishing FGPs rather than simply applying seasonal analyses. The results further suggest that rainfall has generally gained an increasing importance for the generation of floods in Norway, while the role of snowmelt has been decreasing and the timing of snowmelt dominated floods has become earlier.

  6. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo G. Nijland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world's classic amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is notable for the discovery of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in the granulite-facies rocks by Jacques Touret in the late 1960's, which triggered discussion of the role of carbonic fluids during granulite genesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the Bamble Sector, with an emphasis on the Arendal-Froland-Nelaug-Tvedestrand area and off shore islands (most prominantly Tromøy and Hisøy where the transition zone is best developed. After a brief overview of the history of geological research and mining in the area, aspects of sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic petrology of the Bamble Sector are discussed, including the role of fluids. Issues relevant to current geotectonic models for SW Scandinavia, directly related to the Bamble Sector, are discussed at the end of the review.

  7. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  8. Upper-mantle P- and S- wave velocities across the Northern Tornquist Zone from traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents P- and S-wave velocity variations for the upper mantle in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany based on teleseismic traveltime tomography. Tectonically, this region includes the entire northern part of the prominent Tornquist Zone which follows along the transition from old...... Sweden, contrasting with more fertile, warm mantle asthenosphere beneath most of the basins in Denmark and northern Germany. Both compositional and temperature differences seem to play a significant role in explaining the UMVB between southern Norway and southern Sweden. In addition to the main regional...

  9. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  11. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  12. Use pattern for contraceptive implants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvre-Eide, Vigdis; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge about global use patterns of contraceptive implants is limited. This study aims to describe implant use patterns from a user and a prescriber perspective. In a cross-sectional design, we estimated the annual number of users by calculating doses sold per 1000 women-years in the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006-2012. For each contraceptive method, we calculated on an annual basis a proportion of defined daily doses of all hormonal contraceptives in five-year age groups. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 22, using chi-square test, t-test, and survival analysis. Sales from pharmacies for contraceptive implants more than doubled over the study years and were consistently higher in the younger age groups. The collection rate was 9.3 per 1000 women in 2012, when implant sales amounted to 2.4% of all daily doses of hormonal contraceptives sold. General practitioners and doctors with no specialty were the major prescribers to those starting to use contraceptive implants (starters), whereas gynecologists prescribed nearly 12% of the volume, with a higher proportion to women >35 years of age than younger women. The cumulative proportions of continued users at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 96.1, 78.6, 51.9, and 34.9%, respectively, significantly lower for users who had prescribing doctors with no specialty. At end of the first expiration period, 21% of starters continued using implants. Implants play a minor role in the overall use of hormonal contraception in Norway. One in five starters continue as long-term users. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Symbols or results?. Norway`s contribution to global climate policy; Symboler eller resultater. Norges bidrag til global klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Torleif; Lunde, Leiv; Vraalstad, Knut; Roland, Kjell

    1997-12-31

    The report is part of an evaluation of political climate challenges faced by Norway. The aim to stabilize CO{sub 2} emissions before the year 2000 is unrealistic. This is because (1) almost all electricity produced in Norway is hydropower, (2) more than half of the expected CO{sub 2} emissions up to 2020 comes from increased activities on the large and profitable petroleum deposits in the North Sea; these activities are hard to slow down, (3) substantial emission reductions in the process industry are expensive or impossible because of a lack of raw material without carbon, (4) reductions in the transport sector are impossible because of dispersed settlement, (5) strong economic growth and low unemployment imply increased energy consumption. All together this means that stabilizing the emissions in Norway costs more than in most of the OECD countries. The supposed gain in climate quality from measures in one country may ``leak`` out in the sense that the activities whose reduction caused the gain are moved a country that does not have an active climate policy and thus the global consequences may even be negative. Four examples are given: (1) Unlike most countries, Norway uses high-quality hydropower for heating. If Norway had instead used efficient petroleum fuels for heating and exported this electric energy to countries that generate electricity from inefficient carbon, then these countries would reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} by more than Norway would increase it. (2) Much of the emissions from the activities in the North Sea comes from electricity production in low-efficiency gas turbines. This emission could be eliminated by electricity supplied from land. But with today`s power balance in Norway, such electricity would be Danish carbon-generated. (3) CO{sub 2} tax on the energy intensive but efficient Norwegian process industry could move production to a country with more polluting production. (4) Reducing Norwegian gas export to Europe would decrease

  14. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  15. Characterization of gas hydrates provinces off Norway-Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanneste, M.; Kvalstad, T.J.; Forsberg, C.F.; Pfaffhuber, A. [NGI, Oslo (Norway); ICG, Oslo (Norway); Bunz, S.; Mienert, J. [Tromso Univ., Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-01

    The characterization of gas hydrates provinces off Norway-Svalbard were discussed in this presentation. Relevant research and development projects and activities were listed. Bottom simulating reflectors as a key seismic proxy were discussed. Seismic techniques such as p-waves and s-waves were identified. The quantification and saturation from velocity anomalies were illustrated along with the gas hydrate reservoir potential off Norway-Svalbard. Some interesting cases were presented, including the Nankai; Lake Baikal in Siberia; and the Black Sea. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned. The presentation noted that mapping and quantification requires integration of methods and techniques. figs.

  16. Recurrent mesoproterozoic continental magmatism in South-Central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Svend; Andersen, Tom; Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We report U-Pb dates and Lu-Hf isotope data, obtained by LAM-ICPMS, for zircons from metamorphic rocks of the Setesdalen valley, situated in the Telemark block south of the classic Telemark region of southern Norway. The samples include infracrustal rocks from the metamorphic basement, metaigneous...... increased with time. Around 1,320 Ma, further addition of juvenile material occurred, involving both mafic and felsic melts, metamorphism and deformation. Acid magmas with high FeO*/MgO were intruded at 1,215 Ma, coinciding with underplating elsewhere in South Norway. The period starting at 1,215 Ma...

  17. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  18. A historical review of gravimetric observations in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2016-01-01

    The first gravity determinations in Norway were made by Edward Sabine in 1823 with a pendulum instrument by Henry Kater. Seventy years later a Sterneck pendulum was acquired by the Norwegian Commission for the International Arc Measurements. It improved the precision and eventually reduced the bias of the absolute calibration from 85 to 15 mGal. The last pendulum observations in Norway were made in 1955 with an instrument from Cambridge University. At a precision of ±1 mGal,...

  19. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    sources for progradational influx of clastic sediments from Scotland, the Shetland platform and, to a lesser degree, southwestern Norway. The Eocene sedimentation pattern was similar to the Palaeocene, with lower rates of accumulation associated with flooding and tectonic quiescence. Sediment influx from...... the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...

  20. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  1. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  2. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU Visit Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung(FES), CAFIU sent a delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU to visit Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During their visit in Norway, Zhu met with Mr. Inge Lonning, Deputy-Speaker of Parliament and

  3. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  4. Effects of nutrient optimization on intra-annual wood formation in Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkinen, Harri; Jyske, Tuula; Nöjd, Pekka; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    In the Nordic countries, growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is generally limited by low availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen. Optimizing forest management requires better insight on how growth responds to the environmental conditions and their manipulation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of nutrient optimization on timing and the rate of tracheid formation of Norway spruce and to follow the differentiation of newly formed tracheids. The study was performed during two growing seasons in a long-term nutrient optimization experiment in northern Sweden, where all essential macro- and micronutrients were supplied in irrigation water every second day from mid-June to mid-August. The control plots were without additional nutrients and water. Tracheid formation in the stem was monitored throughout the growing season by weekly sampling of microcores at breast height. The onset of xylogenesis occurred in early June, but in early summer there were no significant between-treatment differences in the onset and relative rate of tracheid formation. In both treatments, the onset of secondary cell wall formation occurred in mid-June. The maximum rate of tracheid formation occurred close to the summer solstice and 50% of the tracheids had been accumulated in early July. Optimized nutrition resulted in the formation of ∼50% more tracheids and delayed the cessation of tracheid formation, which extended the tracheid formation period by 20-50%, compared with control trees. The increased growth was mainly an effect of enhanced tracheid formation rate during the mid- and later-part of the growing season. In the second year, the increased growth rate also resulted in 11% wider tracheids. We conclude that the onset and rate of tracheid formation and differentiation during summer is primarily controlled by photoperiod, temperature and availability of nutrients, rather than supply of carbohydrates.

  5. Development of a nested PCR detection procedure for Nectria fuckeliana direct from Norway spruce bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrell, Stephen R H

    2005-01-01

    A pair of primers specific for Nectria fuckeliana, a bark infecting pathogen predominantly of Norway spruce (Picea abies), were designed from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nine isolates from Norway, Lithuania, Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia, Scotland (Larix sp.) and New Zealand (Pinus radiata), and other closely related nectriaceous species, including Neo. Neomacrospora, and 'N'. mammoidea, to which it exhibits taxonomic similarities. Complete ITS sequence homology was observed between each of the nine N. fuckeliana isolates, regardless of geographic provenance, including a previously published Danish strain. Primers Cct1 and Cct2 consistently amplified a single product of 360 bp from DNA prepared from 20 isolates covering the principle range of the disease from Central and Northern Europe, but not from other Neonectria, 'Nectria' or a range of species commonly encountered in forest ecosystems, as well as P. abies or P. radiata DNA. A quick, simple and efficient mechanical lysis procedure for the extraction of high quality total DNA from bark, coupled with post-extraction polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) chromatography purification, is described to facilitate successful PCR detection of N. fuckeliana direct from bark extracts. Detection of N. fuckeliana from bark preparations was only possible following nested PCR of PVPP purified extracts using universal primers ITS5 and 4 in first round amplification. The identity of products from bark tissues was confirmed by Southern hybridisation and sequencing. Using the above procedure, positive diagnosis of N. fuckeliana was achievable within 5 h and has the potential for full exploitation as both a forest management and ecological research tool. As the DNA extraction procedure described here has been successful in application against other tree species, it has potential for incorporation into other molecular diagnostic systems for other

  6. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  7. Preliminary palaeomagnetic results from the Fen carbonatite complex, S. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R.P.E.

    1972-01-01

    Samples from a hematite carbonate rock of the Eocambrian-Lower Cambrian Fen carbonatite-alkaline rock complex in southern Norway, yield a stable NRM with a direction after magnetic cleaning of D = 205°, I = −56° (N = 19, (k = 138, α95 = 3°). This corresponds with a palaeomagnetic pole position at

  8. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    1997-01-01

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a qu

  9. Eduation and Hints of the Agricultural University of Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuShifeng

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the education of the Agricultural University of Norway,including it's history,financial situation,living and learning conditions,setting up of departments and coursesa as well as teaching and learning methods,which may give us some thoughtful hints.

  10. Depicted welfare recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...

  11. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls...

  12. Do Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii) die from spawning stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lambert, G.; Bastardie, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The mortality patterns of Norway pout (NP) are not well understood. It has been suggested that NP undergo heavy spawning mortality, and this paper summarizes and provides new evidence in support of this hypothesis. The very low–absent fishing activity in recent years provides a unique opportunity...

  13. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  14. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  15. Depicted welfare-recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...

  16. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  17. Norway’s Challenges In the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    minerals, and fish. Indeed, Norway is among the largest exporter of fish as well as energy and has one of the world’s largest merchant fleets...unpredictable and challenging Russia in the area.10 However, Norway’s deterrence posture is closely linked with the credibility of collective 6 defense

  18. Norway's New Culture Policy and the Arts: Values in Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Arne Martin

    The basis for the New Norwegian Culture policy (NCC) is discussed in terms of the political attempt to extend the fundamental values of equality and social security into art and cultural life. The NCC is a result of a series of reports presented in the early 1970s which reflected a desire to see a broader welfare policy in Norway. The old form of…

  19. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  20. Hepatic Cobalt and Copper Levels in Lambs in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Plassen C; Sivertsen T

    2004-01-01

    Cobalt and copper concentrations were measured in 599 lamb livers collected at slaughter from 58 sheep flocks in 6 different parts of Norway in 1993. Information about pasture, additional feeding and mineral supplements in the flocks was obtained through a questionnaire. Average hepatic levels of cobalt in the lamb flocks varied from

  1. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  2. DSM-III and Norway. History, attitudes and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, U F

    1986-01-01

    The first Norwegian evaluation of the DSM-III system of classification occurred in 1980. A Norwegian translation of the diagnostic criteria was published as part of a textbook in psychiatry in 1984. The Mini DSM-III (Quick reference) was published in 1985. The DSM-III system has been generally well accepted in Norway and is currently used in most research projects besides the ICD system. Several training courses have been arranged for senior psychiatrists and psychologists. Introduction to the DSM-III system is also part of the obligatory training course for psychiatric residents in Norway. From 1987 Norway will use a clinical modification of the ICD-9 system of classification. This modification applies 5 digit coding and includes diagnostic categories found in the DSM-III system but not in the 4 digit ICD-9 version. The DSM-III system of classification represents a major step forward in psychiatric classification. However, revisions are necessary to increase clinical validity. Although Norwegian psychiatry has been inspired by the DSM-III system, Norway remains committed to the ICD systems. The goal must be to make further revisions of the DSM-III and ICD systems, and in the end unite the strengths of these two systems of psychiatric classification.

  3. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a

  4. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  5. Norway's Day-Care Initiative: A Municipal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Beate; Lokken, Gisle

    2012-01-01

    Norway is gearing up to provide places in day care centres for all children aged between one and six and the need for more facilities has therefore increased substantially in recent years. In Tromso, the municipality has become closely involved in child-care pedagogics and architecture; a design competition it launched has brought rewarding…

  6. Students and the Governance of Higher Education in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Svein; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the question of student participation in higher education governance at the national and the institutional levels in Norway. Two ideal-type perspectives on governance are developed in order to illuminate the Norwegian case: a democratic perspective and a market perspective. The article provides a brief overview of the…

  7. A historical review of gravimetric observations in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnvald Pettersen, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    The first gravity determinations in Norway were made by Edward Sabine in 1823 with a pendulum instrument by Henry Kater. Seventy years later a Sterneck pendulum was acquired by the Norwegian Commission for the International Arc Measurements. It improved the precision and eventually reduced the bias of the absolute calibration from 85 to 15 mGal. The last pendulum observations in Norway were made in 1955 with an instrument from Cambridge University. At a precision of ±1 mGal, the purpose was to calibrate a section of the gravity line from Rome, Italy, to Hammerfest, Norway. Relative spring gravimeters were introduced in Norway in 1946 and were used to densify and expand the national gravity network. These data were used to produce regional geoids for Norway and adjacent ocean areas. Improved instrument precision allowed them to connect Norwegian and foreign fundamental stations as well. Extensive geophysical prospecting was made, as in other countries. The introduction of absolute gravimeters based on free-fall methods, especially after 2004, improved the calibration by 3 orders of magnitude and immediately revealed the secular changes of the gravity field in Norway. This was later confirmed by satellite gravimetry, which provides homogeneous data sets for global and regional gravity models. The first-ever determinations of gravity at sea were made by pendulum observations onboard the Norwegian polar vessel Fram during frozen-in conditions in the Arctic Ocean in 1893-1896. Simultaneously, an indirect method was developed at the University of Oslo for deducing gravity at sea with a hypsometer. The precision of both methods was greatly superseded by relative spring gravimeters 50 years later. They were employed extensively both at sea and on land. When GPS allowed precise positioning, relative gravimeters were mounted in airplanes to cover large areas of ocean faster than before. Gravimetry is currently being applied to study geodynamical phenomena relevant to

  8. Does Pastoralists' Participation in the Management of National Parks in Northern Norway Contribute to Adaptive Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Risvoll

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian protected areas have historically been managed by central, expertise bureaucracy; however, a governance change in 2010 decentralized and delegated the right to manage protected areas to locally elected politicians and elected Sámi representatives in newly established National Park Boards. We explore how this new governance change affects adaptive capacity within the reindeer industry, as the reindeer herders are now participating with other users in decision-making processes related to large tracts of protected areas in which they have pasture access. Aspects within adaptive capacity and resilience thinking are useful as complementary dimensions to a social-ecological system framework (Ostrom 2007 in exploring the dynamics of complex adaptive social-ecological systems. The National Park Board provides a novel example of adaptive governance that can foster resilient livelihoods for various groups of actors that depend on protected areas. Data for this paper were gathered primarily through observation in National Park Board meetings, focus groups, and qualitative interviews with reindeer herders and other key stakeholders. We have identified certain aspects of the national park governance that may serve as sources of resilience and adaptive capacity for the natural system and pastoral people that rely on using these areas. The regional National Park Board is as such a critical mechanism that provides an action arena for participation and conflict resolution. However, desired outcomes such as coproduction of knowledge, social learning, and increased adaptive capacity within reindeer husbandry have not been actualized at this time. The challenge with limited scope of action in the National Park Board and a mismatch between what is important for the herders and what is addressed in the National Park Board become important for the success of this management model.

  9. The effects of weather and climate change on cycling in Northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathisen, T.A.; Annema, J.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Weather is identified as one of many factors that influence the demand for cycling. Weather patterns will change due to expected climate change. The aim of this article is to study the extent to which climate change influences the cycling frequency. The analysis in this article is conducted using an

  10. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  11. Serosurvey of three virus infections in reindeer in northern Norway and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stuen

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 326 Norwegian reindeer (NR and from 40 Svalbard reindeer (SR were examined for antibodies to reindeer herpesvirus (RHV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV and parainfulenza type 3 virus (PIV-3. No antibodies to any of these three viruses were detected in sera from SR. Sixty-three percent of sera from 101 adult NR (> 12 months old and 15% of 225 NR calves (6 months old had antibodies to RHV; corresponding values for BVDV were 41% and 6%, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of adult NR and 1% of NR calves had antibodies to both viruses. No antibodies to PIV-3 were detected in any NR sera.

  12. Weathering Rind Age Assignment of Neoglacial Deposits in the Okstindan Mountains, Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaney W. C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous soil stratigraphic analysis of soil morphogenesis in the Okstindan Mountains established a Late Neoglacial soil evolutionary sequence based on historically monitored and radio carbon-dated moraine positions over the last ~3.0 cal yr BP. Thus pedon evolution ranged from C/Cu→Ah/Cox/Cu→pedostratigraphic succession of Ah/C/Cu/Lb/ Cub/Ahb/Coxb/Cub pro files with a max i mum rind weathering time of ~1.0 kyr. Following successive re treat phases of Neoglacial ice, weathering rind development continued apace on moraines, each rind population recording weathering time fol lowing successive glacier still stands. The age of the youngest deposits falls within the period 1900-1910 AD, or the last 100 yrs, with variable moraine positions all documented by historical depictions of the position of the Austre Okstindan glacial lobe prior re treating to its present position. The next older group of deposits is considered to have been emplaced near the end of the LIA or around ~1800 AD, with time of rind development set at 200 yr, possibly older. The old est moraine set within the late Neoglacial sequence lies atop a pedostratigraphic column, the upper-most soil radio carbon dated at ~1.0 yr BP. Given the range of mean rind development across this thresh old of deposits, from 0.22 ±0.03 mm in the inner group, 0.66 ±0.07mm in the middle group, to 1.38 ±0.15 mm in the outer, older group, it is clear that finite measurements at several sites within a suite of deposits, some dated by radio carbon, can evenly discriminate be tween deposits in a glacial succession.

  13. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway. Summary; KonKraft rapport 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  14. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  15. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Norway - 2011 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    Norway has a unique twin role as a major oil and gas producer and a strong global advocate of climate change mitigation. As the third-largest exporter of energy in the world, it contributes to global energy security by providing reliable supplies to consuming countries. At the same time, the Norwegians highly value environmental sustainability and the country is taking climate policy very seriously. Norway also manages its petroleum resources and revenue in a commendable way, setting a model for other countries. The challenge now for the government is to stimulate further increases in natural gas and petroleum production from safe and environmentally sustainable operations. Norway's large potential for hydropower generation is an asset, as European electricity markets are integrating and variable renewable energy generation is set to increase. More cross-border interconnections are needed to realise the full potential of hydropower for balancing variations in demand and supply in the regional market. Increased interconnections would also improve electricity security in Norway in times of low hydropower availability. Gas-fired power plants should also be considered for use for the same purpose. In order to meet its ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Norway needs to step up efforts at home. Although the dominance of low-carbon electricity in the energy mix limits the scope for domestic measures, large potential for emission reductions remains in oil and gas production, manufacturing and transport. However, measures to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy should be carefully designed, because they often focus on electricity and would thus not reduce emissions. Recent large increases in spending on energy RD and D and ongoing efforts to develop carbon capture and storage are very welcome.

  16. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  17. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  18. Hydrological response to Black Carbon deposition in seasonally snow covered catchments in Norway using two different atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, F.; Burkhart, J. F.; Pietikäinen, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) has been shown to significantly impact snow melt through lowering the albedo of snow and increasing the absorption rate of short wave radiation. Yet few studies have investigated the effect of the enhanced melt on hydrological variability. BC sources for Norway are rather remote and deposition rates low. However, once deposited on snow even low concentrations of BC can have a detectable effect on the snow melt. Variations in snow melt have a direct impact on the snow cover duration and the timing and magnitude of peak outflow. In this study, we use two different atmospheric transport models (the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FELXPART and the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM) and GAINS emissions to simulate deposition rates over Norway and Statkraft's Hydrologic Forecasting Toolbox (ShyFT) to simulate the impact of BC deposition on the seasonal snow melt. The Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model coupled to the snow routine of the hydrological model is used to determine the albedo of the snow as a function of the BC concentration in two snow layers. To investigate the impact range of BC on the seasonal snow melt, we simulate the catchment hydrology of catchments in south-east, south-west and northern Norway under the impact of deposition rates from both transport models, respectively. Comparing the deposition rates from the two transport models, we observe large differences in the seasonal cycle which in turn results in a significantly different response in the snow melt. Furthermore, we investigate the overall impact of BC deposition on the snow melt and duration on a catchment scale for both transport models.

  19. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  20. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  1. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  2. Landscape preservation under ice? In-situ 10Be and 26Al from summit surfaces along Sognefjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    et al. Landscape preservation under Fennoscandian ice sheets determined from in situ produced 10 Be and 26 Al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 201(2), 397-406, 2002. Gjermundsen et al. Minimal erosion of Arctic alpine topography during late Quaternary glaciation. Nature Geoscience 8(10), 789......In-situ cosmogenic nuclides demonstrate existence of landforms preserved under glacial ice in regions such as Northern Sweden (Fabel, 2002), Svalbard (Gjermundsen, 2015) and New England (Bierman, 2015). Elsewhere, the existence of relict landforms is inferred from landscape morphology. Low......-792, 2015. Nesje & Whillans. Erosion of Sognefjord, Norway. Geomorphology 9(1), 33-45, 1994. Steer et al. Bimodal Plio-Quaternary glacial erosion of fjords and low-relief surfaces in Scandinavia. Nature Geoscience 5(9), 635-639, 2012....

  3. Increased value creation by industrial refining of natural gas in Norway?; Oekt verdiskaping gjennom industriell foredling av naturgass i Norge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvik, John Magne; Kjelland, Torunn; Bakke, Kathrine Stene; Pedersen, Kent Vincent; Roetnes, Rolf; Fjose, Sveinung

    2009-07-01

    The report assesses whether industrial exploitation of gas from possible new major discoveries outside Northern Norway could be profitable. Profits are uncertain and depend heavily on gas prices. Industrial exploitation depends on the development of large, capital-intensive plants. This increases the financial risk. In a situation where gas export through pipelines is not an alternative industrial exploitation could be an alternative to export via LNG. However, the pressing demand for natural gas increases the probability of the construction of a gas export pipeline as a realistic alternative. Carbon emissions from a land-based plant will be important, and the costs for trading of emission allowances will reduce profitability. The authorities should allow for industrial exploitation to be assessed on an equal basis with pipeline transport and LNG as alternatives for market solutions for major new discoveries. (EW)

  4. Upper-mantle P- and S- wave velocities across the Northern Tornquist Zone from traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents P- and S-wave velocity variations for the upper mantle in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany based on teleseismic traveltime tomography. Tectonically, this region includes the entire northern part of the prominent Tornquist Zone which follows along the transition from old...... in basin areas to the southwest and in most of southern Norway. Differences in the VP/VS ratio are believed to be a rather robust indicator of upper-mantle compositional differences. For the depth interval of about 100–300 km, thick, depleted, relatively cold shield lithosphere is indicated in southern...

  5. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  6. Neurological melioidosis in Norway presenting with a cerebral abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Hesstvedt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological melioidosis is a rare condition, as less than 30 cases have been reported in the last 50 years. We present a case of neurological melioidosis, presenting with a cerebral abscess in a returning traveler from an endemic area. While traveling in Cambodia on holiday, the patient was admitted to local hospital for pneumonia. Her condition improved after antimicrobial treatment, and she returned to Norway when discharged. The patient had several contacts with the health care system after returning to Norway, due to recurrent fever and deterioration. Short-term antimicrobial treatment was given with temporary improvement in her condition. Eventually she developed stroke-like symptoms, and a cerebral abscess was found. Cultures from the abscess were positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei and the treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  7. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.

  8. The influence of programme differences on crime reduction in opioid maintenance treatment. An analysis of regional patterns in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bukten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Design: Official national criminal records were cross linked with all patients who started opioid maintenance treatment in Norway from 1997-2003 (n=3221, including patients from four different health regions in Norway; the Eastern region (n=1717, the Southern region (n=751, the Western region (n=586 and the Central-Northern region (n=167. Patients in each region were divided into separate groups according to whether they were retained or not retained in continuous treatment.Findings: During opioid maintenance treatment, patients in all four treatment regions had a considerable reduction in criminal convictions compared to pre-treatment levels. Criminal convictions during treatment were associated with retention in treatment. Among patients in continuous treatment, significant differences were found in levels of criminal convictions among the four treatment regions during treatment. Compared to patients in the Eastern region, patients in the Southern and the Central-Northern region had respectively 44 and 81 percent less criminal convictions during treatment, and patients in the Western region had 60 percent more convictions. For patients not in continuous treatment, no statistically significant differences were found between the four regions during treatment.Conclusions: Differences in criminal convictions during treatment may be related to regional differences in treatment practice within the national OMT system. In all regions, criminal convictions during OMT were higher for patients dropping out of treatment. It is suggested that clinical staff should offer more support to patients at risk of dropping out of treatment.Background: Reduced criminal activity is an important outcome for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT.

  9. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  10. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  11. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  12. Norway: Some lessons from a international project on CCS communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvatn, Hans; Tvedt, Sturle D.; Naess, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been part of the Norwegian debate on energy and possible solutions to the climate problems for more than a decade. One prime ministers fell from power on this issue, another first promised a 'Norwegian moon landing', then postponed the whole thing for several years. The debate has been heated several times, but little is known about what the public knows and thinks. The present paper presents some findings from six national surveys on knowledge and attitudes on CCS as part of the FENCO-ERA project 'Scrutinizing the impact of CCS communication on the general and local public (Impact of communication)'. Representative national surveys (N=61000) were conducted in six European countries: Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania and the UK. Main topics covered: Sociodemographics, Attitudes towards energy issues, Media preferences, Trust, Knowledge on global warming and energy issues including CCS, initial attitudes towards CCS. The surveys also included an information experiment, testing the effect of positive and negative information on general acceptance of CCS. The paper will focus on the results from Norway using the other countries as illuminating contrasts. In Norway we will discuss four major findings: i) The majority of the Norwegian population are aware of CCS ii) There is a positive support for CCS demonstration plant, however, the support is unevenly distributed in the population iii) Information on CCS effects attitudes, however, source is less important than content iv) The project asked respondents to evaluate both risks and benefits. In Norway the effect of the benefit evaluation was stronger than the risk evaluation. Implications for CCS communication with the public as well as future research are discussed. (Author)

  13. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  14. An antibiotic's journey from marketing authorization to use, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Plahte, Jens; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe in detail marketing authorization and reimbursement procedures for medicinal products in Norway, with particular reference to nine novel antibiotics that received marketing authorization between 2005 and 2015. The description illustrates that, in places like Norway, with effective antibiotic stewardship policies and an associated low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, there is little need for newer, more expensive antibiotics whose therapeutic superiority to existing compounds has not been demonstrated. Since resistance begins to emerge as soon as an antibiotic is used, Norway's practice of leaving newer antibiotics on the shelf is consistent with the goal of prolonging the effectiveness of newer antibiotics. An unintended consequence is that the country has signalled to the private sector that there is little commercial value in novel antibiotics, which may nevertheless still be needed to treat rare or emerging infections. Every country aims to improve infection control and to promote responsible antibiotic use. However, as progress is made, antibiotic-resistant bacteria should become less common and, consequently, the need for, and the commercial value of, novel antibiotics will probably be reduced. Nevertheless, antibiotic innovation continues to be essential. This dilemma will have to be resolved through the introduction of alternative reward systems for antibiotic innovation. The DRIVE-AB (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use) research consortium in Europe has been tasked with identifying ways of meeting this challenge.

  15. Population decline and plague in late medieval Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothen, J A

    1996-01-01

    Norwegian scholars have engaged in considerable research over the last half century in an attempt to assess the impact of the Black Plague of 1349 on population and society in Norway. Evidence has been put forward relating the incidence of plague to a continuance of population decline over the two centuries following its initial introduction. Estimates of population decline in Norway between 1350 and 1550 indicate a reduction by as much as 65%. Two directions of study have emerged, one concentrating on land abandonment known as the "Ødegard Project." The other is represented by the recent works of Ole Jørgen Benedictow presenting epidemiological and osteo-archaeological research. An examination of the available literature raises questions concerning the degree to which plague, and its recurrence, directly affected population decline in Norway during the Late Middle Ages. While evidence of the virulence of the plague and the degree of farm abandonment is compelling, a direct relationship to population decline may not be as great as implied by the research. Other explanatory factors, especially social and economic responses to plague, have been given limited attention.

  16. International medical graduates' perceptions of entering the profession in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeggestad, Erik; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2015-06-30

    There is little knowledge available about how it feels for an international medical graduate arriving in Norway. We have investigated how the initial period as an employee of the Norwegian health services is perceived. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 international medical graduates who had foreign training and citizenship. They had worked as doctors in Norway for less than two years. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Systematic Text Condensation method. Their background for working in Norway varied. Some had an affiliation to the country and a social network, which appeared to be a support during the initial period. Many perceived the authorisation process as bureaucratic and as throwing suspicion on them. The doctors felt that they could cope with most of their work assignments, but reported having faced challenges in terms of language, a lack of insight into systems and uncertainty regarding what was expected of the doctor's role in a Norwegian context. There was also uncertainty associated with a perceived absence of collegial support. Because of the availability of jobs, some had adjusted their career plans towards psychiatry, geriatrics or general practice. It appears that preparatory measures such as training courses, tests and the authorisation process fail to provide the practice-related experience and local knowledge that many doctors feel that they need in their new job situation. Measures such as language training and introduction to systems would be likely to improve their general well-being as well as integration.

  17. Influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on local cloud and solar variability in Bergen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parding, Kajsa; Olseth, Jan Asle; Liepert, Beate G.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode

    2016-08-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that long-term cloud and solar observations (1965-2013) in Bergen, Norway (60.39°N, 5.33°E) are compatible with a largely cloud dominated radiative climate. Here, we explicitly address the relationship between the large scale circulation over Europe and local conditions in Bergen, identifying specific circulation shifts that have contributed to the observed cloud and solar variations. As a measure of synoptic weather patterns, we use the Grosswetterlagen (GWL), a daily classification of European weather for 1881-2013. Empirical models of cloud cover, cloud base, relative sunshine duration, and normalised global irradiance are constructed based on the GWL frequencies, extending the observational time series by more than 70 years. The GWL models successfully reproduce the observed increase in cloud cover and decrease in solar irradiance during the 1970s and 1980s. This cloud-induced dimming is traced to an increasing frequency of cyclonic and decreasing frequency of anticyclonic weather patterns over northern Europe. The changing circulation patterns in winter can be understood as a shift from the negative to the positive phase of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation. A recent period of increasing solar irradiance is observed but not reproduce by the GWL models, suggesting this brightening is associated with factors other than large scale atmospheric circulation, possibly decreasing aerosol loads and local cloud shifts.

  18. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation.

  19. Provenance of sandstones from Caledonian nappes in Finnmark, Norway: Implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Roberts, D.; Pease, V.

    2016-11-01

    U-Pb detrital zircon age spectra from four formations in the Laksefjord and Kalak nappe complexes, Finnmark Caledonides, northern Norway, show peaks ranging from Neoarchaean through Late Palaeoproterozoic to Late Mesoproterozoic. Together with an extensive database of palaeocurrent flow measurements indicating derivation of the sediments from source regions to the S-SE on the Fennoscandian Shield, the successions in the lower thrust sheets of the Kalak Nappe Complex and the entire Laksefjord Nappe Complex are inferred to be of Baltican origin. These results are contrary to a previous suggestion that the sandstone-dominated Middle Allochthon is exotic to Baltica. The lithostratigraphical successions in these two nappe complexes show a south to north progression from alluvial-fan conglomerates through extensive fluvial to shallow-marine facies into deeper-marine turbiditic sequences. This pattern reflects the palaeogeographic transition from the shallow platform to deep-basinal oceanic development recorded along the c. 2000 km pre-Timanian passive margin of the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield.

  20. Hunters, herders and hearths: interpreting new results from hearth row sites in Pasvik, Arctic Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Donald Hedman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting to reindeer herding has been a central topic in a number of archaeological works. Recently conducted archaeological investigation of two interior hearth row sites in Pasvik, Arctic Norway, have yielded new results that add significantly to the discussion. The sites are dated within the period 1000-1300 AD, and are unique within this corpus due to their rich bone assemblages. Among the species represented, reindeer is predominant (87 %, with fish (especially whitefish and pike as the second most frequent category. Even sheep bones are present, and represent the earliest indisputable domesticate from any Sámi habitation site. A peculiar feature is the repeated spatial pattern in bone refuse disposal, showing a systematic and almost identical clustering at the two sites. Combining analyses of bone assemblages, artefacts and archaeological features, the paper discusses changes in settlement pattern, reindeer economies, and the organization of domestic space. The analyses provide new perspectives on early domestication as well as on the remarkable changes that took place among the Sámi societies in northern Fennoscandinavia during the Viking Age and early Medieval Period.

  1. Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on Breeding Migrations of Amphibian Species in Southeastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Børre K. Dervo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of climate, a generalized linear mixed model was used to explore the variation in onset of spawning migration for the two newt species T. cristatus and L. vulgaris in southern Norway. Amphibians are highly influenced by the physical environment, such as temperature and rainfall. The first migrating newts were observed subsequently to the three first consecutive days with mean temperature close to or above 4°C. Further, migration of L. vulgaris was facilitated at lower temperatures compared to T. cristatus, but the migration was dependent on higher precipitation levels. Northern populations of T. cristatus and L. vulgaris may already benefit from a warmer climate due to increased recruitment and juvenile survival. However, an offset in the migration phenology due to climate change might further alter the recruitment and survival rates with either positive or negative outcome. Thus, variations in migration phenology for newts due to climate change may have implications for management and protection status in many systems. In a general context, we should increase emphasis on protecting newts and support increased populations and distribution.

  2. Thrust transport directions and thrust sheet restoration in the caledonides of finnmark, North Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, C.

    Thrust sheets of the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Finnmarkian phase of the Caledonian Orogeny of Finnmark, northern Norway, have been displaced, firstly to the SE, under ductile conditions and later, under more brittle conditions, towards the ESE/E. These thrust sheets have been sequentially restored with the aid of branch-lines and balanced cross-sections. The minimum displacement for each thrust sheet is: Gaissa Nappe, 165 km; Laksefjord Nappe Complex, 105 km; Komagfjord Antiformal Stack, 30 km; and Kalak Nappe Complex, 75 km. This restoration has three significant implications: (1) the total displacement across the Finnmark Caledonides is over 375 km; (2) the Raipas Supergroup exposed within the Komagfjord Window, the allochthonous origin of which has previously been contentious, has been displaced as a basement horse, firstly to the SE and later to the ESE/E by at least 375 km; and (3) in a palinspastic reconstruction the Raipas Supergroup basement did not form the Finnmark Ridge, the source area for the sediments of the Laksefjord Nappe Complex. This restoration does not include the deformation within the Kalak Nappe Complex or the imbricates of the Gaissa Nappe in East Finnmark.

  3. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  4. Sexually transmitted infections among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Soen Eng Yap Bjerke; Ellen Holter; Siri Vangen; et al

    2010-01-01

    Soen Eng Yap Bjerke1,2, Ellen Holter3, Siri Vangen2,4, Babill Stray-Pedersen1,21Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Women and Children’s Division, 3Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 4National Resource Centre for Women’s Health, Oslo, NorwayAim: To assess frequency and determine the factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B seropositivity among Pakistani pregn...

  5. Cultural factors behind the different business cultures of Iceland and Norway, a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Rostrup, Hanne Ragnhild Hjemlestad, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Even though Iceland and Norway are both Nordic countries originating from the same culture, the countries’ business cultures have developed different characteristics over the years. In light of the increasing emigration from Iceland to Norway following the financial crisis in 2008, this study will establish the difference between Norwegian and Icelandic business cultures so that Icelanders can prepare themselves for the different national culture and business culture in Norway. Moreover th...

  6. Predicting species richness and distribution ranges of centipedes at the northern edge of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Djursvoll, Per; Simaiakis, Stylianos M.

    2016-07-01

    In recent decades, interest in understanding species distributions and exploring processes that shape species diversity has increased, leading to the development of advanced methods for the exploitation of occurrence data for analytical and ecological purposes. Here, with the use of georeferenced centipede data, we explore the importance and contribution of bioclimatic variables and land cover, and predict distribution ranges and potential hotspots in Norway. We used a maximum entropy analysis (Maxent) to model species' distributions, aiming at exploring centres of distribution, latitudinal spans and northern range boundaries of centipedes in Norway. The performance of all Maxent models was better than random with average test area under the curve (AUC) values above 0.893 and True Skill Statistic (TSS) values above 0.593. Our results showed a highly significant latitudinal gradient of increased species richness in southern grid-cells. Mean temperatures of warmest and coldest quarters explained much of the potential distribution of species. Predictive modelling analyses revealed that south-eastern Norway and the Atlantic coast in the west (inclusive of the major fjord system of Sognefjord), are local biodiversity hotspots with regard to high predictive species co-occurrence. We conclude that our predicted northward shifts of centipedes' distributions in Norway are likely a result of post-glacial recolonization patterns, species' ecological requirements and dispersal abilities.

  7. Results from Three Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Zemba, Michael; Morse, Jacquelynne

    2015-01-01

    Over the next several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the Svalbard site. Svalbard was chosen as the appropriate site for two primary reasons: (1) Svalbard will be the first site to be upgraded to Ka-band operations within the NEN Polar Network enhancement plan, and (2) there exists a complete lack of Ka-band propagation data at this site (as opposed to the Fairbanks, AK NEN site, which has 5 years of characterization collected during the Advanced Communications Technology becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system Satellite (ACTS) campaign). processing and provide the Herein, we discuss the data three-year measurement results performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) from the ongoing Ka-band propagation characterization where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 4 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at a fixed 10 deg elevation angle. Three-year data collection results indicate good campaign at Svalbard, Norway. Comparison of these results with the ITU models and existing ERA profile data indicates very good agreement when the 2010 rain maps and cloud statistics are used. Finally, the Svalbard data is used to derive the expected

  8. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  9. Scenarios of annual and seasonal runoff for Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roald, L. A.; Skaugen, T. E.; Beldring, S.; Væringstad, T.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.

    2003-04-01

    Scenarios of the annual and seasonal runoff for the period 2030-49 compared to the recent period 1980-99 have been developed. The scenarios are based on daily temperature and precipitation series from the research project: Regional Climate Development Under Global Warming (RegClim) in Norway. The study utilises dynamically downscaled series for the period 1980-99 and for the scenario period 2030-49 based on the GSDIO simulation with the global climate model ECHAM4/OPYC3 of the Max Planck Institute für Meteorologie in Hamburg. The runoff has been modelled by a gridded version of the HBV-model with grid size 1 x 1 km^2 as well as a basin based HBV-model for 42 Norwegian river basins. The main results were: i) increase in the annual runoff in almost all parts of Norway, most in the west, where the mean annual runoff may increase by 400 to 1100 mm, and only a marginal increase in East Norway and in Finnmark; ii) largest increase in the winter runoff in lowland areas close to the coast; iii) increasing spring runoff in the inland areas, especially in the north; iv) decreasing summer runoff; v) increasing autumn runoff in most regions, most on the west coast. The evapotranspiration will increase moderately, and the water equivalent will decrease for the snow cover by 1.April in lowland regions, but will increase in the high alpine areas. The year to year variability of the runoff will remain as under the present climate.

  10. Aluminum dynamics in forest soil waters in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holger; Solberg, Svein; Clarke, Nicholas

    2006-08-31

    We report on weekly aluminum (Al) concentration measurements in soil water from forested catchments monitored throughout Norway since 1986. Originating in acidification research, and thus accompanied by many other chemical variables, they constitute a comprehensive data set suited for analysis of short- as well as long-term variations in a geographic perspective. The Al time series at 21 sites are characterized by high temporal variability, seasonal behavior, and episodic events with peak values in the range 200-800 micromol/l, mostly caused by sea salts blown inland in storms, with a subsequent release of Al after cation exchange. Despite a clear south-north gradient in possible acidification over Norway, we found no indication of such south-north trends in Al chemistry, neither in mean values, maximum values, nor time trends. We identified two main drivers for variation in Al concentrations. The first one was sea salts, where Al was released to the soil solution after cation exchange. The second driver was high production of DOC, where Al was driven into the soil solution by complexation with DOC. There appears to be little risk for aluminum toxicity to trees in Norwegian forests. Except during occasional episodes, aluminum concentrations generally lay far below the supposed threshold values for toxic effects on Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch. Much dissolved aluminum was non-labile, and thus relatively non-toxic. Although the Ca2+/labile Al ratio was often below 1.0, considerable doubt exists as to the applicability of this variable in the field.

  11. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  12. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  13. Treatment outcome of new culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heldal Einar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The key elements in tuberculosis (TB control are to cure the individual patient, interrupt transmission of TB to others and prevent the tubercle bacilli from becoming drug resistant. Incomplete treatment may result in excretion of bacteria that may also acquire drug resistance and cause increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment outcome results serves as a tool to control the quality of TB treatment provided by the health care system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcome for new cases of culture positive pulmonary TB registered in Norway during the period 1996–2002 and to identify factors associated with non-successful treatment. Methods This was a register-based cohort study. Treatment outcome was assessed according to sex, birthplace, age group, isoniazid (INH susceptibility, mode of detection and treatment periods (1996–1997, 1998–1999 and 2000–2002. Logistic regression was also used to estimate the odds ratio for treatment success vs. non-success with 95% confidence interval (CI, taking the above variables into account. Results Among the 655 patients included, the total treatment success rate was 83% (95% CI 80%–86%. The success rates for those born in Norway and abroad were 79% (95% CI 74%–84% and 86% (95% CI 83%–89% respectively. There was no difference in success rates by sex and treatment periods. Twenty-two patients (3% defaulted treatment, 58 (9% died and 26 (4% transferred out. The default rate was higher among foreign-born and male patients, whereas almost all who died were born in Norway. The majority of the transferred out group left the country, but seven were expelled from the country. In the multivariate analysis, only high age and initial INH resistance remained as significant risk factors for non-successful treatment. Conclusion Although the TB treatment success rate in Norway has increased compared to previous studies and although it has reached a reasonable target

  14. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    . The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...... taken to bending failure and the relations between compression damage and bending strength and stiffness were established. The results showed that significant reductions of bending strength of dry timber are only caused by such wind induced compression damages that are easily recognised at a planed...

  15. China and renewable energy in Africa: Opportunities for Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development. (au)

  16. The 33rd International Geological Congress in Norway,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Solhelm; Sylvi Haldorsen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction The 33rd International Geological Congress is organised jointly by the Nordic countries and held in Oslo,Norway,August 6-14,2008.This "Geoscience World Congress 2008" will run up to 40 parallel science sessions,poster sessions,an extensive exhibition,short-courses,workshops,and business meetings,as well as more than 50 exciting pre-and post Congress excursions.The excursions include all the Nordic countries,as well as Greenland,Svalbard,the Faeroes,Russia and Ukraine.

  17. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersland, Geir Atle; Daux, Valérie; Parson, Walther; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society. PMID:28671986

  18. Music and Grief: Norway After 22 July, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a terror attack by one of its own citizens shocked Norway and led to deep mourning in the population. Music played a vital part in the way people processed this national tragedy. By looking at the collective and individual musicking that took place in response to the terror attack, this article explores the role and importance of music in this particular context,particularly with regard to its abilities to contain, give resonance to, and express difficult emotions; create feelings of community; and contribute to the individual’s self-care and work toward recovery and the achievement of well-being.

  19. Learning to love the rain in Bergen (Norway) and other lessons from a Climate Services neophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Wakker, Joyce

    2014-05-01

    A question that is often asked of regional climate modelers generally, and Climate Service providers specifically, is: "What is the added-value of regional climate simulations and how can I use this information?" The answer is, unsurprisingly, not straightforward and depends greatly on what one needs to know. In particular it is important for scientist to communicate directly with the users of this information to determine what kind of information is important for them to do their jobs. This study is part of the ECLISE project (Enabling Climate Information Services for Europe) and involves a user at the municipality of Bergen's (Norway) water and drainage administration and a provider from Uni Research and the Bjerknes Center for Climate Research. The water and drain administration is responsible for communicating potential future changes in extreme precipitation, particularly short-term high-intensity rainfall, which is common in Bergen and making recommendations to the engineering department for changes in design criteria. Thus, information that enables better decision-making is crucial. This study then actually has two relevant components for climate services: 1) is a scientific exercise to evaluate the performance of high resolution regional climate simulations and their ability to reproduce high intensity short duration precipitation and 2) an exercise in communication between a provider community and user community with different concerns, mandates, methodological approaches and even vocabularies. A set of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations was run at high resolution (8km) over a large domain covering much of Scandinavia and Northern Europe. One simulation was driven by so-called "perfect" boundary conditions taken from reanalysis data (ERA-interim, 1989-2010) the second and third simulations used Norway's global climate model as boundary forcing (NorESM) and were run for a historical period (1950-2005) and a 30yr. end of the century time

  20. Possible effects of ongoing and predicted climate change on snow avalanche activity in western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    As snow avalanche formation is mainly governed by meteorological conditions as, e.g., air temperature fluctuations, heavy precipitation and wind conditions, it is likely that the frequency and magnitude of both ordinary and extreme snow avalanche events is modified through the documented effects of current and future climate change. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983-2013 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years (IPCC, 2013). Meteorological records of western Norway show the general trend that the last 100 years, especially the last three decades, have been warmer and wetter than the time periods before. However, it is not evident that snow avalanche activity will increase in the near future. Today, the number of studies assessing the impact of climate change on the occurrence and magnitude of snow avalanches is limited. This work focuses on recent and possible future effects of climate change on snow avalanche activity along the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap representing one of the areas with the highest snow avalanche activity in entire Norway. We have analyzed long-term homogenized meteorological data from five meteorological stations in different elevations above sea level, three of them with a long-term record of 120 years (1895-2015). In addition to the statistical analyses of long-term datasets, gained results and insights from a four-year (2009-2012) high-resolution snow avalanche monitoring study conducted in the same study area are incorporated. The statistical analyses of mean monthly air temperature, monthly precipitation sums and mean monthly snow depths showed that there is a trend of increasing air temperatures and precipitation sums whereas no clear trend was found for mean snow depths. Magnitude-frequency analyses conducted for three defined time intervals (120, 90, 60 years) of monthly precipitation sums exhibit an increase of precipitation especially during the last 30 years with the tendency that more precipitation

  1. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and His Party Visit Norway and Estonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation led by its president Chen Haosu paid a goodwill visit to Norway and Estonia from April 15 to 24. The visit was made at the invitation of the Norway-China Association (NCA)and the Estonia-China Friendship Association (ECFA).

  2. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  3. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  4. Development and test of selective sorting grids used in the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Grids are very selective, but they can lead to loss of landable Norway lobster and valuable fish species. To improve retention of these species, we developed three new grids using made by polyurethane to make them flexible: One grid had horizontal bars, one had vertical bars...

  5. Acculturation and adaptation among Lithuanian workers in Norway (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Kmite, Liuda Jr

    2011-01-01

    In a new culture, migrants experience acculturation. Through acculturation migrants may choose which acculturation strategy to use. In 2010, emigration from Lithuania increased four times. Lithuanians account for several per cent of all migrants in Norway. The study aims to assess the acculturation strategies which Lithuanian workers in Rogaland area (Norway) adopt.

  6. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  7. Bromadiolone resistance does not respond to absence of anticoagulants in experimental populations of Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, A.C.; Leirs, H.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) is documented to be associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. The aim of this study was to quantify these effects in small populations of Norway rat in Denmark and to se...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  9. Surveillance of abused drugs in forensic autopsy cases in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Konstantinova-Larsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High drug related mortality has been registered in Norway. Although comparison between countries relies on a standard international coding system of diseases, different practices in verifying cause of death and applying codes could lead to variation. The comparison gives no information on drug findings or drug patterns underlying the cause of deaths. To evaluate deaths involving illicit drugs in Norway, we examined drug patterns in 2735 forensically examined post-mortem samples collected from 15-64 year-old individuals from 2000 to 2009. There were four times as many men as women among the deceased illicit drug users, and the majority were in the age group 25-44 years. The number of deceased showing signs of illicit drug use has gradually declined during the study period. The decline was found among younger individuals, while a larger proportion of the deceased were above 45 years of age in 2009, compared to 2000. Cases positive for heroin, ethanol, ecstasy and flunitrazepam were fewer in 2009, while the prevalence of amphetamine, cannabis, methadone and other opioids has increased. The prevalence of methamphetamine has increased ten fold, and the prevalence of benzodiazepines doubled. Thus, the drug pattern and age of the deceased has changed markedly during the last 10 years. Heroin and ethanol use has partly been substituted by use of amphetamines, cannabis, benzodiazepines and other opioids. This change could possibly be explained by the prolonged survival of drug users on substitution treatment and by the reduced toxicity of consumed drugs.

  10. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  11. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    Between August 1999 and January 2001, samples of various fruits and vegetables obtained within Norway were analyzed by published methods for parasite contamination. Neither Cyclospora oocysts nor Ascaris (or other helminth) eggs were detected on any of the samples examined for these parasites. However, of the 475 samples examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, 29 (6%) were found to be positive. No samples were positive for both parasites. Of the 19 Cryptosporidium-positive samples. 5 (26%) were in lettuce, and 14 (74%) in mung bean sprouts. Of the 10 Giardia-positive samples, 2 (20%) were in dill, 2 (20%) in lettuce, 3 (30%) in mung bean sprouts, 1 (10%) in radish sprouts, and 2 (20%) in strawberries. Mung bean sprouts were significantly more likely to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts than the other fruits and vegetables. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected were generally low (mean of approximately 3 [oo]cysts per 100 g produce). Although some of the contaminated produce was imported (the majority, if sprouted seeds are excluded), there was no association between imported produce and detection of parasites. Crvptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were also detected in water samples concerned with field irrigation and production of bean sprouts within Norway. This is the first time that parasites have been detected on vegetables and fruit obtained in a highly developed. wealthy country, without there being an outbreak situation. These findings may have important implications for global food safety.

  12. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  13. Work–Family Interference: Nurses in Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Abrahamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the level of work–family inter-ference (WFI for part-time nurses in Norway and Finland. Part-time work is usually cited as a desirable way in which to facilitate work and family harmony. However, the opportunity to work part-time in professions may be associated with greater difficulties and challenges than commonly presumed. Part-time professionals are often stigmatized as being less committed to work and report fewer job rewards than colleagues in full-time positions. This study challenges the notion of the desir-able consequences of work hour flexibility concerning the integration of work and family. Part-time nurses in Norway and Finland report an equal level or even higher levels of interference than nurses in full-time positions. A disproportional distri-bution of inconvenient work schedules appears to be a central explanation for the results reported by Norwegian nurses, but to a lesser degree by Finnish nurses.

  14. A controlled vocabulary for nursing and allied health in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, P; Jakobsson, A; Mogset, I; Taylor, S; Aasen, S E

    2001-03-01

    Nursing and allied health libraries at educational institutions in Norway have generally indexed their book collections with uncontrolled terms. With the reorganization of higher education in 1994, the majority of these libraries joined BIBSYS, which is a joint library system for higher education and research in Norway. This has led to chaos when searching the joint catalogue for literature on nursing and related fields. A term such as 'behaviour problems' may have up to five synonyms. In an attempt to improve the quality of searching the health literature, BIBSYS appointed a working group in the Spring of 1999 to find a suitable controlled vocabulary for this subject area, and to see how this vocabulary could be integrated into BIBSYS. The group presented its recommendations in October 1999. The report has been well received by the BIBSYS Board and by user groups. There are no Norwegian vocabularies that are suitable for use in nursing and allied health, therefore it will be necessary to translate and combine existing thesauri. The group has looked at the Nordic Multilingual Thesaurus on Health Promotion, the Swedish Spriline Thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and CINAHL Subject Heading List. Other relevant thesauri are AMED/CATS Thesaurus, Bioethics Thesaurus (Bioethicsline) and the RCN thesaurus. The group recommends the development of a Norwegian thesaurus based on a translation of parts of MeSH and CINAHL Subject Heading List.

  15. Competition policy for health care provision in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Kurt R; Straume, Odd Rune

    2017-02-01

    Competition policy has played a very limited role for health care provision in Norway. The main reason is that Norway has a National Health Service (NHS) with extensive public provision and a wide set of sector-specific regulations that limit the scope for competition. However, the last two decades, several reforms have deregulated health care provision and opened up for provider competition along some dimensions. For specialised care, the government has introduced patient choice and (partly) activity (DRG) based funding, but also corporatised public hospitals and allowed for more private provision. For primary care, a reform changed the payment scheme to capitation and (a higher share of) fee-for-service, inducing almost all GPs on fixed salary contracts to become self-employed. While these reforms have the potential for generating competition in the Norwegian NHS, the empirical evidence is quite limited and the findings are mixed. We identify a set of possible caveats that may weaken the incentives for provider competition - such as the partial implementation of DRG pricing, the dual purchaser-provider role of regional health authorities, and the extensive consolidation of public hospitals - and argue that there is great scope for competition policy measures that could stimulate provider competition within the Norwegian NHS.

  16. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  17. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  18. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Forbes, Kristian M; Wingfield, Michael J; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions) was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe) climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5), one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes to a limited

  19. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  20. Comparing offshore and onshore thermal histories: low-T thermochronology of the Utsira High, western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksienzyk, Anna K.; Jacobs, Joachim; Fossen, Haakon; Woznitza, Tobias; Wemmer, Klaus; Dunkl, István

    2016-04-01

    The Utsira High is a basement horst in the northern North Sea, flanked to the west and east by the Viking Graben and Stord Basin respectively. The basement is composed of Caledonian granitic and gabbroic rocks. Since Caledonian times, the North Sea region has been affected by extensional tectonics leading to rifting, active fault tectonics and uplift of basement blocks. Extensive drilling due to recent hydrocarbon exploration has made the basement of the Utsira High accessible for thermochronological investigations that allow a direct comparison with the results from onshore studies. Zircon (U-Th)/He, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He dating on seven samples from the Utsira High yielded Middle-Late Devonian, Late Permian-Late Jurassic and Middle Jurassic-Pliocene ages respectively, tracking cooling through successively lower closure temperatures and subsequent reheating during sedimentary burial since the Jurassic. Generally, basement rocks of the Utsira High reached near surface temperatures already in Carboniferous-Triassic times, much earlier than the oldest overlying sediments (Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous) might indicate. Onshore samples, on the other hand, generally cooled to near-surface temperatures in the Jurassic (coastal areas) or even later, in the Cretaceous-Cenozoic (inland areas). Only coastal areas experienced minor reburial followed by renewed exhumation in late Cretaceous-Cenozoic times. Both the basement of the Utsira High and onshore western Norway are strongly dissected by faults. K-Ar illite fault gouge dating shows that many of these faults were active during rifting. However, fault activity continued during the Cretaceous-Cenozoic, long after rifting in the North Sea had ceased. Large fault systems separate crustal blocks with distinct thermal histories, suggesting that uplift, erosion and landscape evolution along the North Sea rift margin were strongly fault-controlled.

  1. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  2. Recovery of acidified mountain lakes in Norway as predicted by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. COSBY

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the EU project EMERGE the biogeochemical model MAGIC was used to reconstruct acidification history and predict future recovery for mountain lakes in two regions of Norway. Central Norway (19 lakes receives low levels of acid deposition, most of the lakes have undergone only minor amounts of acidification, and all are predicted to recover in the future. Central Norway thus represents a reference area for more polluted regions in southern Norway and elsewhere in Europe. Southern Norway (23 lakes, on the other hand, receives higher levels of acid deposition, nearly all the studied lakes were acidified and had lost fish populations, and although some recovery has occurred during the period 1980-2000 and additional recovery is predicted for the next decades, the model simulations indicated that the majority of the lakes will not achieve water quality sufficient to support trout populations. Uncertainties in these predictions include possible future N saturation and the exacerbating effects of climate change. The mountain lakes of southern Norway are among the most sensitive in Europe. For southern Norway additional measures such as stricter controls of emissions of air pollutants will be required to obtain satisfactory water quality in the future.

  3. Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

  4. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...

  5. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  6. Acid precipitation--a new study from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.N.B.

    1981-07-16

    Public concern over acid rain has nowhere been more evident than in Norway, where in the mountainous regions of the south, an accelerating decline in fish stocks has led to the extinction of fish populations in an area over 13,000 km/sup 2/, with severe problems over another 20,000 km/sup 2/. This has stimulated the establishment of a major Norwegian interdisciplinary research program into the biological effects of acid precipitation, which has recently terminated after 8 years. The numerous reports published on the findings of the project have now been summarized in ''Acid precipitation - effects on forest and fish'', by Overrein, Seip, and Tollan. This summary report is briefly discussed and reviewed. (JMT)

  7. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  8. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  9. Steps towards the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra COLUMBAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses important issues related to the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway, by providing a case study on the country’s first feminist magazine, Sirene. The first part of the article focuses on the political and historical context which favoured the emergence of the magazine, and insists on a series of legal measures taken in the twentieth century – suffrage rights, equal payment, political representation, etc. – which provided the institutional framework for the women’s movement. The more comprehensive second part of the article focuses on Sirene itself: it analyses the magazine’s structure and key concepts, its political agenda, its aims, but also thebranch of feminism to which Sirene adheres. The article concludes that the magazine represented an influential alternative to the mainstream press of the time, and contributed greatly to achieving the goals of women’s liberation movement.

  10. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  11. [Smoking and art. History of smoking in Norway in paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I F

    1997-12-10

    The habit of smoking was well-known in Norway in the first half of the sixteenth century. Tobacco-smoking is seen in Norwegian paintings. In the nineteenth century, long and artistic pipes were used by men relaxing after a pleasant dinner. In self portraits of Christian Krohg and Edvard Munch we see them smoking pipes and cigarettes surrounded by smoke. In an exhibition of portraits of Norwegian Authors, ten out of seventy authors were portrayed with a pipe, a cigar or a cigarette. There are various interpretations of the use of smoking in art. A simple explanation is that this was an accepted part of life at that time. The authors may have believed that they concentrated better when they smoked and elegance may have been of importance for many of them. The symbolic significance of cigarette-smoking has been of great value in the marketing of tobacco-products.

  12. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  13. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesset Merete

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  14. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were...... compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  15. Musculoskeletal symptoms among seafood production workers in North Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit; Egeness, Cathrine; Løchen, Maja-Lisa

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among male and female production workers in different types of seafood industries in North Norway and to analyse associations between musculoskeletal symptoms and some possible risk factors in the seafood industry. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, covering several aspects concerning occupational environment and health issues, was mailed to employees in seafood-processing plants in North Norway. A total of 1767 employees in 118 seafood-processing plants participated giving a 50% response rate. This included 744 production workers in whitefish, shrimp and salmon industries, and 129 administrative workers in all types of seafood industries. The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high among seafood production workers. The odds ratio for symptoms from upper limbs was significantly higher for females compared to men. Production workers had the highest relative risk for symptoms from wrist/hands (OR = 4.1-9.4) and elbows (OR = 3.5-5.2) when compared to administrative workers. The main difference between types of seafood industries was the high prevalence of symptoms from wrist/hands among female (82%) and male (64%) production workers in the salmon industry compared to whitefish (62 and 47%, respectively) and shrimp industry (66 and 37%, respectively). Musculoskeletal symptoms were found among the majority of production workers in the whitefish, shrimp and salmon industry, the highest prevalence being among female workers. The main difference between types of seafood industries was the high prevalence of symptoms from wrist/hands among workers in the salmon industry. Cold work was an important risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms.

  16. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  17. Transient thermal modeling of permafrost conditions in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modeling is a powerful tool to infer the temperature regime of the ground in permafrost areas. We present a transient permafrost model, CryoGrid 2, that calculates ground temperatures according to conductive heat transfer in the soil and in the snowpack. CryoGrid 2 is forced by operational air temperature and snow-depth products for potential permafrost areas in Southern Norway for the period 1958 to 2009 at 1 km2 spatial resolution. In total, an area of about 80 000 km2 is covered. The model results are validated against borehole temperatures, permafrost probability maps from "bottom temperature of snow" measurements and inventories of landforms indicative of permafrost occurrence. The validation demonstrates that CryoGrid 2 can reproduce the observed lower permafrost limit to within 100 m at all validation sites, while the agreement between simulated and measured borehole temperatures is within 1 K for most sites. The number of grid cells with simulated permafrost does not change significantly between the 1960s and 1990s. In the 2000s, a significant reduction of about 40% of the area with average 2 m ground temperatures below 0 °C is found, which mostly corresponds to degrading permafrost with still negative temperatures in deeper ground layers. The thermal conductivity of the snow is the largest source of uncertainty in CryoGrid 2, strongly affecting the simulated permafrost area. Finally, the prospects of employing CryoGrid 2 as an operational soil-temperature product for Norway are discussed.

  18. Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Müller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina

    2013-03-01

    Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area.

  19. Holocene cirque glacier activity in Rondane, southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvisvik, Bjørn Christian; Paasche, Øyvind; Dahl, Svein Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Skriufonnen is a small cirque glacier (0.03 km2) in the continental mountains of Rondane in southern Norway. At present, it is the only glacier in Rondane, and very little is known about Holocene glacier fluctuations in this region. Direct observations of the glacier began in 2002, since which time Skriufonnen has been in a state of strong decline. In order to provide a temporal context, past glacier fluctuations were reconstructed based on a series of short HTH gravity cores (n = 8) and long piston cores (n = 6) retrieved from three downstream lakes of Skriufonnen. The cores were analysed for selected magnetic properties (χbulk, ARM, SIRM, 77 K/293 K), organic content (LOI), and geochemical trace elements. Soil catchment samples (n = 6) were collected along a transect running from the three lakes up to the present glacier terminus. Bulk susceptibility (χbulk) measurements show that the finest fractions systematically return the highest values and that ferromagnetic minerals are depleted with distance to the glacier front. This means that periods dominated by paramagnetic minerals indicate very little or no glacier activity, whereas intervals with more ferromagnetic minerals suggest increased glacier activity. The quantitative core analyses indicate that Skriufonnen existed prior to 10,200 b2k (years before A.D. 2000) and disappeared ~ 10,000 b2k. No glacier activity is recorded from c. 10,000 b2k until the glacier reoccurred at the onset of the local Neoglacial period, c. 4000 b2k. The glacier attained its maximum extent between 3200 and 2400 b2k and during the end of the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) c. A.D. 1800. Neoglacial fluctuations of Skriufonnen are in line with shifts in local summer temperatures and show a delayed Neoglacial inception compared to western Norway.

  20. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway--Understanding Implementation as a Function of Professional Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Norway using a survey of the paradigm of environmental management carried out in the central and regional Norwegian environmental administrations. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. France and Norway. The unfulfilled Troll agreement; Frankrike og Norge. Den uoppfylte Trollavtalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Samuel

    1997-12-31

    The present reports starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country and France as an importing country. It describes the relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and then goes on to describe the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations. The main aim of the report is to discover whether France`s requests of 1986 have actually been realised. In order to do this, it first analyses the position occupied by French petroleum companies in Norwegian offshore sectors and secondly seeks to account for the evolution of trade exchanges between France and Norway. It will be seen that new investments in the production fields and in transportation systems have been realised most of the time by Norwegian firms as from 1986 and that France`s trade deficit towards Norway has not levelled off as from the time of the Troll deal. 18 figs., 40 tabs., 24 refs

  3. Tax compliance and the public disclosure of tax information: An Australia/Norway comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ken Devos; Marcus Zackrisson

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper presents and analyses the strategies adopted by tax authorities globally and specifically in Australia and Norway, regarding the public disclosure of tax information and the likely compliance impact...

  4. Norway is Europe's green battery; Norge som Europas groenne batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2011-07-01

    EU renewable energy directive will have major consequences for Norway, because we must increase our already high proportion of renewable energy and because several European countries want to use the Norwegian water reservoirs as a power stock. (AG)

  5. The impact of socio-economic status on net fertility during the historical fertility decline: a comparative analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We used micro-level data from the censuses of 1900 to investigate the impact of socio-economic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the USA). The study is therefore unlike most previous research on the historical fertility transition, which used aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels. Our data included information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence, and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Net Fertility during the Fertility Decline: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711

  7. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  8. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Norway, 1992-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Blystad Hans; Kløvstad Hilde; Nilsen Øivind; Rimšelienė Gražina; Aavitsland Preben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups (intravenous drug users (IDUs), Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), immigrants and contacts of known carriers). We describe the epidemiology of reported cases of hepatitis B in Norway, during the years 1992-2009 in order to assess the validity of current risk groups and recommend preventive measures. Methods We used case based data from the nationa...

  9. Sexually transmitted infections among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soen Eng Yap Bjerke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soen Eng Yap Bjerke1,2, Ellen Holter3, Siri Vangen2,4, Babill Stray-Pedersen1,21Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Women and Children’s Division, 3Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 4National Resource Centre for Women’s Health, Oslo, NorwayAim: To assess frequency and determine the factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B seropositivity among Pakistani pregnant women and their husbands in Norway.Methods: All together 112 couples of Pakistani origin living in Norway participated in our study. Blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis B.Results: Pakistani women had significantly lower age, education level, and years of residence in Norway compared to their male partners. Among the men, 12% had positive chlamydial IgG antibodies in contrast to 1% of the women. These couples were discordant, meaning that the 13 wives of positive men were not infected with C. trachomatis, and the husband of one positive woman was not infected either. Four percent of women and 2% of men were positive for herpes simplex type 2. Only one couple was concordantly positive for herpes simplex type 2, the remaining four couples were discordant. Twelve percent of women and 21% of men were, or had been, infected with hepatitis B.Conclusion: Sexually transmitted infections did not seem to be prevalent in Pakistani immigrant couples in Norway. However, it was striking that most couples were discordant. Pakistani immigrants should be offered hepatitis B vaccine.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus type 2, hepatitis B, Pakistan, Norway

  10. Case study of rainfall induced debris flows in Veikledalen, Norway, 10th of June 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    On 10th of June 2011 a high amount of precipitation fell on southern Norway, the result of this precipitation in a combination with increased snowmelt cause a flood, the aspects of the flooding will not be discussed here because it has already been documented by others. The precipitation event triggered landslides in southern Norway, and caused several important roads to close. Six landslides were identified in the study area of Veikledalen; several other landslides in the area were obser...

  11. Time trends in the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Norway during eight decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, N; Torkildsen, Ø; Myhr, K-M

    2015-01-01

    Norway has been subjected to numerous epidemiological investigations on the prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS), dating back to 1935. The objective of this study was to review the studies on the prevalence and incidence of MS in Norway, provide an update on the prevalence of MS in Norway, and describe the time trends in the prevalence and incidence of MS in relation to risk factors, case ascertainment, and data. We performed a systematic search on PubMed and MEDLINE up to November 2014 using the search string 'multiple sclerosis prevalence in Norway' or 'multiple sclerosis incidence in Norway'. In addition, we scrutinized the reference lists of the publications identified for relevant citations. We retrieved data on the distribution of MS in Norway on December 31, 2013 from the Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Registry and Biobank and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We identified 29 articles. From 1961 to 2014, the reported prevalence of MS increased from 20 to 203 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence increased from 1.9 to 8.0 per 100,000. The nationwide crude prevalence in Norway, based on the Norwegian Patient Registry, was 208 per 100,000 on December 31, 2013. The reported prevalence of MS in Norway has increased 10-fold, with several possible causes. During eight decades, neurological health services have generally become more accessible to the population, and transforming diagnostic criteria has made the diagnosis of MS more precise and valid. There have also been changes in lifestyle behavior and known risk factors, such as vitamin D and smoking, that might have contributed to the increased incidence of MS. A possible role of increased survival in MS needs to be examined further.

  12. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  13. Evaluation of the implementation of investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds in Russia and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyakova Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to assessing the impact of macroeconomic conditions on the choice of investment strategies and the results of sovereign funds in Russia and Norway . We consider the comparative analysis of realized investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds of foreign countries , and on the basis of SWOT analysis strategy sovereign funds of Norway and Russia plans need to develop effective mechanisms to increase the use and the National Welfare Fund of Russia.

  14. Wind power offshore - industrial possibilities for Norway; Vindkraft offshore - industrielle muligheter for Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bysveen, S; Hoelseater, O H; Lier-Hansen, S; Hatlen, S; Soensteby, G. (Energiraadet, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-05-15

    The Europeans alteration of energy policy gives Norway a unique possibility to develop new business activity in the contractor industry as well as become a large exporter of renewable energy to Europe. Sea based wind power marks it self as the area with largest potential and is an area where Norway has a large advantage. This possibility is outlined in this report with offshore wind power as the foundation of business development and energy export to the continent

  15. Generations, reproduction and birth outcome. A registry-based cohort study in Norway 1967-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nordtveit, Tone Irene

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to describe associations between birth outcomes across two generations. Hypotheses were proposed about how genetic and environmental, behavioural and socioeconomic factors may act on reproduction and birth outcomes through generations. Methods. Population-based cohort studies for two generations. Data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) based on all births in Norway between 1967 and 2006 (Paper I 1967-2004), more than 2.3 million b...

  16. Assessment in Child Protection : social workers' voices in England and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Samsonsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Good quality assessment in Child Protection is crucial to ensure adequate protection and provision. This article explores social workers` experiences with two different Child Protection assessment models: the “professional judgment model”, exemplified by Norway, and the “structured assessment model”, exemplified by England. The aim is to explore the experiences of social workers who carry out assessments in England and Norway, and compare and discuss these experiences in light of “accountability” theory.

  17. Facing the Future. Online Sociality and Emerging Forms of Play among Children in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Espen

    2016-01-01

    Young people in Norway have never experienced a world without the internet. This thesis explores uses of digital technology in children’s lives, and draws on fieldwork among eight- and nine-year olds in Kristiansand to identify emerging forms of sociality and play in online and offline literacy practices. In Norway, where internet access is near universal, children’s immersion into digital environments raises new questions concerning central theoretical concepts in anthropology...

  18. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  19. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack

  20. Geomorphological characteristics of increased landslide activity in the Gudbrandsdalen valley, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Håkon; Høydal, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    The Gudbrandsdalen valley in Eastern Norway lies in a region where annual precipitation is generally low (down to 300 mm/year). The landslide activity has consequently historically been low, although the lower part of the valley sides generally is draped with thick layers of Quaternary deposits, primarily of glacial or glaciofluvial origin. The perception of natural hazards in the valley was previously primarily connected to flooding in the main river in the valley bottom during early summer, due to large discharges resulting from snowmelt in the mountainous regions west and east of the valley. However, several high-intensity events have changed the image of the region. Starting with a localized, but intense, landslide event in the Northern part of the valley in year 2008, two larger events covering almost the entire valley occurred in the years 2011 and 2013. A high number of landslides was triggered in all these events, including many flash floods and debris flows/debris slides in small and steep tributary rivers along the valley slopes. Landslide triggering covers different release mechanisms: In 2008, landslides were triggered without precipitation in not-frozen soil deposits without snow cover in the lower part of the valley. Groundwater flow through the permeable bedrock ("Otta schist") resulting from snow-melt in the elevated mountainous areas caused landslide triggering due to positive pore-water pressures forming at the bedrock surface below soil deposits, or at depressions in the terrain. Subsequent rainfall resulted in even more landslides being released. In later events (years 2011 and 2013) many landslides were caused by surface water taking new paths downslope, often due to man-made changes in existing waterways (typically poorly planned drainage solutions or new roads). Relatively small discharges in slopes with unconsolidated and easily erodible glacial deposits (typically lateral moraine) in many cases lead to small initial slides that down

  1. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  2. Benzodiazepine use in COPD: empirical evidence from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorsen T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Halvorsen,1 Pål E Martinussen21SINTEF Technology and Society, Department for Health Research, 2Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: The common comorbidities associated with COPD include, among others, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, for which the typical treatment involves the use of benzodiazepines (BZD. However, these medicines should be used with extra caution among COPD patients, since treatment with traditional BZD may compromise respiratory function. Aims: This study investigated the use of BZD among persons suffering from COPD by analyzing three relevant indicators: 1 the sum of defined daily doses (DDD; 2 the number of prescribers involved; and 3 the number of different types of BZD used. Data and methods: The study builds on a linkage of national prescription data and patient–administrative data, which includes all Norwegian drug prescriptions to persons hospitalized with a COPD diagnosis during 2009, amounting to a total of 5,380 observations. Regression techniques were used to identify the patients and the clinical characteristics associated with BZD use. Results: Of the 5,380 COPD patients treated in hospital during 2009, 3,707 (69% were dispensed BZD during the following 12 months. Moreover, they were dispensed on average 197.08 DDD, had 1.22 prescribers, and used 0.98 types of BZD during the year. Women are more likely to use BZD for all levels of BZD use. Overnight planned care not only increases the risk of BZD use (DDD, but also the number of prescribers and the types of BZD in use.Conclusion: In light of the high levels of BZD prescription found in this study, especially among women, it is recommended that general practitioners, hospital specialists, and others treating COPD patients should aim to acquire a complete picture of their patients’ BZD medication before more is prescribed in order to keep the use to a minimum

  3. Trace metal pollution in Eastern Finnmark, Norway and Kola Peninsula, Northwestern Russia as evidenced by studies of lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Appleby, P.G.; Dauvalter, V.; Traaen, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The eastern part of Finnmark county in Northern Norway borders against the northwestern part of Russia. On the Russian side are the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company. Sediment cores from two lakes, Hundvatn on the Norwegian side and Shuonijarvi on the Russian side, were analysed as described in the present report. Caesium from Chernobyl was detected in Shuonijarvi sediment. Americium distribution in the sediment was consistent with {sup 210}Pb dating chronology. The last century has seen increased concentrations and fluxes of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Except for Pb, all the fluxes are highest northeast of Nikel. Together with other data this indicates that the smelters of the Pechenga-Nikel Company have been a major source of metal pollution since their start-up. No regional pollution of the metals except Pb is evident in sediment prior to the 20th century. The histories of Pb fluxes and concentrations indicate a pollution history probably exceeding 2000 years. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Caries decline before fluoride toothpaste was available: earlier and greater decline in the rural north than in southwestern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, J M; Haugejorden, O

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors related to caries in 6-17-year-olds in 2 groups of Norwegian counties between 1966 and 1983. The average number of surfaces filled and permanent teeth extracted due to caries declined in the 4 northern counties from 1967. An increase was recorded in the 7 southwestern counties until 1971, then a decline. In the 1960s significantly more surfaces were filled and teeth extracted in the north compared to the southwest. Based on intra-county comparisons, the decline in surfaces treated was greater in the north between 1967 and 1983; 5.4 +/- 0.4 vs 3.7 +/- 0.7, P Higher infant mortality, lower percentage of people with completed senior secondary education, and more inhabitants per doctor and per dentist in the north indicate a less favorable situation than in the southwest. School-based fluoride programs had been implemented in both groups from the mid-1960s and around 60% participated when fluoride toothpaste became freely marketed in 1971. More fluoride programs and more fluoride tablets were available to children in the north; this may indicate a preventive attitude among dentists. The decline of caries started at different times in different parts of Norway. In the rural north with the most unfavorable situation, the decline was greater and started years before fluoride toothpaste came on to the market. The early decline may partly be ascribed to the school-based fluoride programs, the continued decline to several factors.

  5. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  6. A Monte Carlo simulation model for assessing the risk of introduction of Gyrodactylus salaris to the Tana river, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, L G; Karlsen, E; Jarp, J; Mo, T A

    1999-07-30

    The Tana river in northern Norway, the most productive salmon river in Europe, is free of Gyrodactylus salaris. Currently there is one salmon farm in operation on the Tana fjord. Because of the strong association between stocking of rivers with salmon and infestations with G. salaris there is national and international concern that the existing farm might lead to the introduction of the parasite to the Tana river. In response to these concerns a quantitative analysis of the risk of introduction of G. salaris to the Tana river was undertaken. A scenario tree, the Monte Carlo simulation model and results of the simulations including sensitivity analyses are presented and discussed. Results show that the probability of introduction of G. salaris to the Tana river via transfer of smolt to the existing salmon farm is extremely low primarily due to the low probability that the transferred smolt become infested. The total risk was very sensitive to changes in the salinity of the water at the sea site.

  7. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  8. Thermobarometry of metamorphosed pseudotachylyte and associated mylonite: Constraints on dynamic Co-seismic rupture depth attending Caledonian extension, North Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, S. E.; Moecher, D. P.; Steltenpohl, M. G.; Andresen, Arild

    2016-07-01

    The exhumed post-Caledonian Eidsfjord and Fiskfjord extensional shear zones of northern Norway exhibit evidence of coseismic rupture propagating into the ductile crust as evidenced by the presence of mylonitic and metamorphosed pseudotachylyte. Geothermobarometric calculations on garnet-bearing mineral assemblages in mylonitic gneisses associated with mylonitic pseudotachylyte and in metamorphosed pseudotachylyte permit determination of the depth and ambient temperature of seismogenic low-angle ductile extension. Average pressures from Eidsfjord (570 ± 115 MPa at ca. 650 °C) and Fiskfjord (1120 ± 220 MPa at ca. 650 °C) correspond to faulting depths of 21 ± 4 km and 41 ± 9 km, respectively. The Fiskfjord results agree with previous thermobarometric calculations on mylonitic Cpx + Grt-bearing pseudotachylyte at Fiskfjord. The calculated depths are 5-25 km below the depth of the standard seismogenic zone. These results demonstrate that low angle normal faults may cut through a large portion of continental crust. This occurrence of mylonitic pseudotachylyte in an extensional crustal setting is most easily explained by dynamic downward rupture into the ductile regime and/or unusually high shear stresses to account for coseismic rupture at such depths, implying a direct connection with a seismogenic normal fault in the upper crust.

  9. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway--a welfare state with a national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them.

  10. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  11. Gridded snow maps supporting avalanche forecasting in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K.; Humstad, T.; Engeset, R. V.; Andersen, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present gridded maps indicating key parameters for avalanche forecasting with a 1 km x 1 km resolution. Based on the HBV hydrology model, snow parameters are modeled based on observed and interpolated precipitation and temperature data. Modeled parameters include for example new snow accumulated the last 24 and 72 hours, snow-water equivalent, and snow-water content. In addition we use meteorological parameters from the UK weather prediction model "Unified Model" such as wind and radiation to model snow-pack properties. Additional loading in lee-slopes by wind-transport is modeled based on prevailing wind conditions, snow-water content and snow age. A depth hoar index accounts for days with considerable negative temperature gradients in the snow pack. A surface hoar index based on radiation and humidity is currently under development. The maps are tested against field reports from avalanche observers throughout Norway. All data is available via a web-platform that combines maps for geo-hazards such as floods, landslides and avalanches. The maps are used by the Norwegian avalanche forecasting service, which is currently in a test phase. The service will be operational by winter 2012/2013.

  12. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pūraitė, Irma; Rosef, Olav; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Norwegian moose Alces alces and to characterize the bacteria by sequencing of partial msp4 and 16S rRNA genes. Hunters collected spleen samples from 99 moose of different ages during 2013 and 2014 in two areas: Aust-Agder County (n = 70) where Ixodes ricinus ticks are abundant and Oppland County (n = 29) where ticks were either absent, or abundance very low. A. phagocytophilum was detected only in moose from the I. ricinus - abundant area. The overall prevalence of infection according to 16S rRNA and msp4 gene-based PCR was 41.4% and 31.4% respectively. Sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA and msp4 gene revealed two and eight different sequence types respectively. Four of eight msp4 sequence types determined in this study were unique, while others were identical to sequences derived from other ruminants and ticks. The present study indicates that moose could be a potential wildlife reservoir of A. phagocytophilum in Norway.

  13. First 100 ms of HF modification at Tromso, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuth, F. T.; Isham, B.; Rietveld, M. T.; Hagfors, T.; La Hoz, C.

    Experiments were performed with the high-power high-frequency HF facility at Troms o Norway to test theoretical predictions for the excitation of ion and Langmuir oscillations in the ionosphere The principal diagnostic of wave-plasma interactions was the VHF radar at the European Incoherent Scatter EISCAT facility High resolution radar techniques were used to monitor the temporal development of the ion and Langmuir oscillations HF pulses 100 ms in duration were periodically transmitted into a smooth background F region plasma Measurements of the radar backscatter spectra show that all key spectral features predicted by strong Langmuir turbulence SLT theory modified Zakharov model are simultaneously present in the plasma and that their evolution is in agreement with theoretical expectations However several new features have been observed that cannot be anticipated by current theory because of limitations in the electric field strength within the simulations The experimental results reinforce the notion that new theoretical developments are needed to accommodate the large HF electric fields produced at Troms o and HAARP Gakona Alaska and to treat the electron acceleration process in a self-consistent fashion The F region response to two HF effective radiated power levels sim 58 MW and sim 125 MW was investigated at Troms o These ERP values include absorptive losses resulting from the sunlit D region In general the results at 58 MW ERP and 125 MW ERP are consistent with many of the SLT

  14. Subglacial Sediment Deformation: An Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U. H.; Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    A detailed study of sediment deformation processes was carried out beneath Engabreen, Norway, by taking advantage of unique access to the bed of the glacier beneath 230 m of temperate ice via the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory. One of the strengths of this novel approach is that many interpretive limitations caused by un- certainties inherent in similarly motivated borehole investigations are eliminated. A trough (approx. 2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 per cent sand and gravel, 20 per cent silt, 5 per cent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation, dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding wa- ter to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sed- iment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.1 MPa. Pump tests conducted subsequently, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures > 70 per cent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice sep- arated from the sediment when effective pressure was lowest, and shear deformation stopped. Velocity profiles averaged over the duration of pump tests indicate that rates of shear strain increase upward toward the glacier sole.

  15. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.

  16. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  17. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  18. Eruption age of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Spitsbergen Island, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Treiman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sverrefjellet is a Pleistocene-age basaltic volcanic construct on north-western Spitsbergen Island (Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Published ages for the Sverrefjellet eruption range between 6000 years and ca. 1 million years before present. The age of eruption is dated here as 1.05±0.07 (1σ My, consistent with Ar–Ar isochron and plateau ages of several analysed samples. Radiogenic Ar represents a small proportion of the released Ar, <15% in nearly all samples. Non-radiogenic Ar components include air, excess 40Ar (seen as inverse isochron intercept values >40Ar/36Ar = 295.5, low-temperature alterations (Ar release at low temperature, with high Cl/K, carbonates and zeolites (Ar release at intermediate temperature and xenolithic material (Ar release at high temperature, high Ca/K. The effects of the largely non-radiogenic argon sources are also seen in the total-gas Ar–Ar “ages”, which range from 1.3 to 10.3 My, significantly larger than the inferred eruption age. It is likely that total-gas Ar–Ar “ages” and whole-rock K–Ar “ages” of similar basalts also exceed their true eruption ages.To access the supplementary material to this article please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  19. Co-benefit and co-control studies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Sivertsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In both developing and industrialized countries, abatement of air pollution and mitigation of climate change have generally been treated separately. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change related policies are often addressed on national or supra-national level, to document that costs of policies are acceptable, especially when ancillary benefits are considered. On local or regional level, the focus until now has been mainly on air quality management, not considering benefits for climate change mitigation. Today’s air quality management requires integrated and coordinated measures where urban air quality planning includes also greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and climate change issues. The tools available for investigating scenarios for reducing local impacts and health effect improvements can also be used to investigate cost effective actions aimed at reducing GHG emissions. This approach would lead to identification of strategies that consider co-benefits of climate and local air quality measures, and would both improve the health of people and give climate benefits at best possible costs. Approaches based on an existing air quality management tool, prepared for co-benefit studies in Norway as well as plans for co-control projects in China are presented in this paper. These approaches have the potential to focus on issues not included in traditional air pollution abatement studies.

  20. Gambling and gambling policy in Norway--an exceptional case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Bang Hansen, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development and current status of gambling and gambling policy in Norway. An overview of the research literature and official documents and websites. Gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) increased dramatically in the 1990s in response to technological development and liberalization of gambling policy. Restrictions on availability of EGM gambling occurred from 2006 to 2009 and included a ban on note acceptors, a temporary ban on EGMs and re-introduction of fewer and less aggressive machines under a state monopoly. The restrictions led to significant decreases in total gambling turnover, and several studies suggest that they led to fewer gambling and gambling problems. Various factors may explain why the restrictions were politically feasible. These include media coverage of gambling concerns and economic compensation for revenue losses under the monopoly. In an international context of deregulation of gambling markets, the Norwegian policy restrictions on gambling availability have represented an exceptional case and provide a rare opportunity to explore the outcomes of such regulations. Overall, studies suggest that the policy restrictions have led to reductions in gambling expenditures and problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  2. Routine outcome measures in Norway: Only partly implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Torleif

    2015-01-01

    Norway has not had any strategy exclusively for the implementation of routine outcome measurement in the mental health services, but some efforts have been made as part of strategies for a national patient register and quality indicators. Fifteen years after the decision to make the rating of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) mandatory at admission and discharge of each treatment episode in adult mental health services, this is still not fully implemented. An unknown and probably very low proportion of mental health services use GAF as a routine outcome measure in everyday clinical practice. Well-established electronic patient records in the mental health services and established procedures for reporting routine data to the National Patient Register should make it possible to collect and use routine outcome data. Implementation of routine outcome measurement in mental health services must be done with due emphasis on the critical steps in the various phases of the implementation process. The regional health authorities have a key role in establishing electronic systems that make relevant outcome measurements available in a seamless way for clinicians as well as for patients, and by contributing to a culture where quality and outcome are valued and given priority.

  3. Can Collaboration Provide Integrated Services for Prisoners in Norway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vold Hansen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, my contention is that Norway's criminal justice policy is increasingly based on principles taken from positive criminology. This means that the correctional service places strong emphasis on establishing collaboration with the local authorities (the municipalities in order to offer convicted persons integrated services, both during and after serving their sentences. I also point out that positive criminology's principle of viewing convicted persons as unique individuals with individual problems and resources – problems to which there are rarely clear-cut solutions – means that these problems are perceived as 'wicked problems'. A recommended approach to 'wicked problems' is to establish collaboration between the different service providers involved. The article describes the experiences gained from a pilot project that entailed offering a training programme to convicted persons with substance abuse problems. One of the goals of the project was to link the programme to an offer of integrated services after the sentence had been served. The experiences described in semi-structured interviews with 16 convicted persons, seven correctional service employees and three local authority employees was that it was difficult to put in place such an integrated service package. On this basis, I discuss the reasons why it was so difficult to achieve the desired collaboration, and I outline some proposals for how these challenges can be resolved in future.

  4. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  5. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Viken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women’s specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women’s capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals.

  6. PETROMAKS - Examples from petroleum research in Norway 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    PETROMAKS is the umbrella for most of the petroleum-oriented research supported by the Research Council of Norway. The programme covers both long-term basic research and applied research, resulting in the development of new competence as well as innovation.This is the largest single programme run by the RCN. Insofar as possible, the programme will implement the strategy drawn up by the Norwegian petroleum industry's strategic body OG21 (Oil and Gas in the 21st Century). Large-scale programmes are an important tool at the Research Council towards realisation of prioritised central research policy. They shall provide enhanced knowledge in the long-term national sense, with an eye towards stimulated innovation and increased added-value or generate knowledge that contribute to solving prioritised social challenges. Content of the pamphlet: PETROMAKS - A Large-scale Programme for optimal management of petroleum resources; At the bottom of the sea; Robots at Alnabru; Seismic giant founded on research and innovation; Supplying electricity under water; The researcher who never gave up; Infrared eyes keeping watch in the north; Company on the offensive with research as its weapon; Long-term oil research produced new exploration technology; PETROMAKS - Summary of 2008. (AG)

  7. Environmental considerations in physical planning in Norway and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P.; Saglie, I.L.; Glowacki, W.; Dunin-Woyseth, H.

    1997-12-31

    As a part of an agreement on environmental cooperation between Norway and Eastern Europe, a comparative case study was carried out of environmental considerations in physical planning since 1968 in the Norwegian municipality of Sandefjord and the Polish municipality of Myslenice. This report discusses the final results. Land use planning is surprisingly similar in the two countries. In both, the plans emphasize the protection of farmland and scarce biotopes as well as sewage management. In Myslenice, a major concern has been cultural heritage and cultural landscapes while in Sandefjord attention was paid more to natural areas for outdoor recreation. In both cases there has been little focus on energy conservation and the concept of sustainable development has hardly been discussed. The plans have been considerably influenced by national environmental policies. The type of political system, capitalism vs. state socialism, has indirectly influenced the amount of construction and hence the pace of conversion of undeveloped land, but does not appear to have had much impact on the environmental content of the plans. The emphasis laid on various environmental issues in part reflects the actual local challenges, but also cross-national cultural differences and the fact that during the period the environmental agenda has been widened in both municipalities, most clearly seen in the case of Sandefjord. The plans seem to have been considerably influenced by professional ideals, knowledge and methods common among planners across national boundaries. 52 refs., 1 figure, 2 tabs.

  8. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  9. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women's capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals. PMID:25866676

  10. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  11. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future.

  12. Creep of mafic dykes infiltrated by melt in the lower continental crust (Seiland Igneous Province, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Alessandrini, G.; Menegon, L.; Malaspina, N.; Dijkstra, A. H.; Anderson, M. W.

    2017-03-01

    A dry mafic dyke from a continental lower-crustal shear zone in the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway) experienced syn-kinematic melt-rock interaction. Viscous shearing occurred at T ≈ 800 °C, P ≈ 0.75-0.95 GPa and was coeval with infiltration of felsic melt from adjacent migmatitic metapelites. The dyke has a mylonitic microstructure where porphyroclasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase are wrapped by a fine-grained (4-7 μm) polyphase mixture of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite ± K-feldspar ± apatite. Microstructural observations and electron backscatter diffraction analysis indicate that the porphyroclasts deformed by a combination of dislocation glide and fracturing, with only a limited record of dislocation creep, recovery and dynamic recrystallization. We identified diffusion creep as the dominant deformation mechanism in the mixture based on the small grain size, phase mixing and weak crystallographic preferred orientation of all phases (interpreted as the result of oriented grain growth during viscous flow). The polyphase mixture did not form by dynamic recrystallization or by mechanical fragmentation of the porphyroclasts, but rather by melt-rock interaction. Thermodynamic models indicate that the syn-kinematic mineral assemblage results from the chemical interaction between a pristine mafic dyke and ca. 10 vol.% of felsic melt infiltrating from the adjacent partially molten metapelites. Extrapolation of laboratory-derived flow laws to natural conditions indicates that the formation of interconnected layers of fine-grained reaction products deforming by diffusion creep induces a dramatic weakening in the mafic granulites, with strain rates increasing up to 2-3 orders of magnitude. The reaction weakening effect is more efficient than the weakening associated with melt-assisted diffusion creep in the presence of up to 10 vol.% of infiltrated melt without formation of fine-grained reaction products

  13. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  14. insurgents in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... of Uganda enacted an Amnesty Act in 2000, and to date more than ten thousand ..... Amnesty Certificate, and then in theory, a package.20 In the case of former .... [H]uman rights obligations are contracted on an international level.

  15. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  17. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Norway reveals multiple new sequence types and a large genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Gravningen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chlamydia trachomatis incidence rate in Finnmark, the most northern and sparsely populated county in Norway, has been twice the national average. This population based cross-sectional study among Finnmark high school students had the following aims: i to examine distribution of multilocus sequence types (STs of C. trachomatis in a previously unmapped area, ii to compare chlamydia genetic diversity in Finnmark with that of two urban regions, and iii to compare discriminatory capacity of multilocus sequence typing (MLST with conventional ompA sequencing in a large number of chlamydia specimens. METHODOLOGY: ompA sequencing and a high-resolution MLST system based on PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of five highly variable genetic regions were used. Eighty chlamydia specimens from adolescents aged 15-20 years in Finnmark were collected in five high schools (n = 60 and from routine clinical samples in the laboratory (n = 20. These were compared to routine clinical samples from adolescents in Tromsø (n = 80 and Trondheim (n = 88, capitals of North and Central Norway, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ompA sequencing detected 11 genotypes in 248 specimens from all three areas. MLST displayed 50 STs providing a five-fold higher resolution. Two-thirds of all STs were novel. The common ompA E/Bour genotype comprised 46% and resolved into 24 different STs. MLST identified the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis not discriminated by ompA sequencing. Simpson's discriminatory index (D was 0.93 for MLST, while a corrected D(c was 0.97. There were no statistically significant differences in ST genetic diversity between geographic areas. Finnmark had an atypical genovar distribution with G being predominant. This was mainly due to expansion of specific STs of which the novel ST161 was unique for Finnmark. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MLST revealed multiple new STs and a larger genetic diversity in comparison to ompA sequencing

  19. A Bed-Deformation Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2001-12-01

    Although deformation of sediment beneath ice masses may contribute to their motion and may sometimes enable fast glacier flow, both the kinematics and mechanics of deformation are controversial. This controversy stems, in part, from subglacial measurements that are difficult to interpret. Measurements have been made either beneath ice margins or remotely through boreholes with interpretive limitations caused by uncertain instrument position and performance, uncertain sediment thickness and bed geometry, and unknown disturbance of the bed and stress state by drilling. We have used a different approach made possible by the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, which enables human access to the bed of Engabreen, Norway, beneath 230 m of temperate ice. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 percent sand and gravel, 20 percent silt, 5 percent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation (tiltmeters), dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding water to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sediment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.2 MPa. Subsequent pump tests, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures greater than 70 percent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice separated from the sediment when effective normal stress was lowest, arresting shear deformation. Displacement profiles during pump tests were similar to those observed by Boulton and co-workers at Breidamerkurjökull, Iceland, with rates of shear strain increasing upward toward the glacier sole. Such deformation does not require viscous deformation resistance and is expected in a

  20. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  1. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  2. Reversible compensatory hypertrophy in transplanted brown Norway rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, M; Churchill, P C; Schwartz, M; Bidani, A; McDonald, F

    1991-07-01

    Recently we described methods for optimizing the function of transplanted rat kidneys. In unilaterally nephrectomized recipients, one week after surgery, the left transplanted kidney was identical to the right native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The goals of the present experiments were first, to extend the post-surgery period to three weeks (sufficient to allow hypertrophic changes), and second, to study function of transplanted hypertrophied kidneys. Genetically identical Brown Norway rats were used as donor and recipients. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a unilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the transplanted kidney had a normal plasma flow and was identical to the contralateral native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and PAH. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a bilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances, and plasma flow of the transplanted kidney were all higher than control, and not significantly different from those observed in unilaterally-nephrectomized control rats. Thus, transplanted and native kidneys exhibited the same degree of compensatory hypertrophy. Hypertrophied donor kidneys (that is, the donor rat had been unilaterally-nephrectomized three weeks previously) remained hypertrophied in bilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, but in unilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, they regressed towards normal (that is, the values of wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances and plasma flow were significantly less than those in rats with only one kidney) while the contralateral native kidney remained normal (values of wet weight and inulin and PAH clearances were not different from control).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.

  4. Large gravitational rock slope deformation in Romsdalen Valley (Western Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Saintot

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Large gravitational rock slope deformation affects Precambrian gneisses at four localities of the Romsdalen valley of Western Norway. At each locality, detailed studies have allowed to determine the mechanism of deformation and to assess the degree of susceptibility for failure. 1 Svarttinden is a 4.3 Mm³ translational rockslide. Its single basal detachment developed along a foliation-parallel cataclastic fault. Although a rockslide occurred along the same detachment and the deposits reached the edge of the plateau, no displacement of the current instability is detected. 2 At Flatmark distinct 2-25 Mm³ blocks detached from the edge of the plateau by an opening along the steep foliation. The collapse of the blocks is explained by a complex mechanism of sliding and toppling. No displacement is actually detected on the instabilities. 3 At Børa blocks located at the edge of the plateau deformed by the same mechanism as at Flatmark. They have a maximum volume of 0.5 Mm3 and displacement rates of 0.2-2 cm/year. The deformation at Børa has affected a large part of the plateau and the entire deformed volume would be of 50-200 Mm³ but it is currently inactive. 4 A wedge failure at the edge of Mannen plateau is inferred to allow the 4-5 cm/year downward displacement of a 2-3.5 Mm³ instability. The high susceptibility of failure led to a permanent monitoring of the site since 2009.

  5. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  6. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway; KonKraft rapport 6; Olje- og gassvirksomhet i nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  7. The influence of religious factors on drinking behavior among young indigenous Sami and non-Sami peers in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spein, Anna Rita; Melhus, Marita; Kristiansen, Roald E; Kvernmo, Siv E

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that Laestadianism has contributed to the less drinking observed among indigenous Sami. This paper further investigates the bivariate protective influence of Sami ethnicity on youth drinking behavior using logistic regressions. We simultaneously controlled for the influence of religious revival movements (Laestadianism or evangelic) and religious importance (being personally Christian), in addition to socio-demographics and parental factors. Cross-sectional data from the 1994/95 North Norwegian Youth Study including 2,950 (675 Sami) 15-19 year-old high school students (RR: 85%) was used. Sami ethnicity was statistically significant for two out of six alcohol outcome measures, after adjustment for religiosity and other covariates, indicating less current drinking and party drinking. Religiousness was associated with higher youth and parental abstinence across ethnicities. Generally, stronger protective influences on drinking behavior were found for religious importance (being personally Christian) than religious affiliation (Laestadianism). The non-significance between Sami and non-Sami drinking may partly be explained by ethnic differences in religiosity, but also socio-demographics (e.g., residing in the Sami Highland) and parental factors (e.g., abstinence) contributed to such a result. Laestadianism`s profound impact on Sami culture, and its strong anti-alcohol norms may have contributed to a religious-socio-cultural context of abstinence.

  8. Statistics of MLT wind field values derived from 11 years of common volume specular meteor observations in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jorge Luis; Stober, Gunter; Laskar, Fazlul; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally mean values of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds over the radar volume are obtained using monostatic specular meteor radars. Such observing volume consist of a few hundreds of kilometers in radius. Moreover the differences between measured radial velocities and the expected radial velocities from the measured mean winds are used to derive properties of gravity wave momentum fluxes. Recently, Stober and Chau [2015] have proposed to use a multi-static approach to retrieve horizontally resolved wind fields, where most of the radar volume is observed from different viewing angles. Similar results could be obtained if measurements from close-by monostatic systems are combined. In this work we present the results of the derived wind fields from combining specular meteor radar data between 2004 and 2015 from the Trømso (19.22oW, 69.58oN) and Andenes (16.04oW, 69.27oN) radar systems. Among the directly estimated values are the mean winds and the horizontal and vertical gradients of the zonal and meridional winds. Combining the horizontal gradients, the horizontal divergence, relative vorticity, shear and deformation are derived. The seasonal and annual variability of these parameters are presented and discussed, as well as the planetary wave, tidal, and gravity wave information embedded in these new parameters.

  9. Anatomy of a deep crustal volcanic conduit system; The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas B.; Larsen, Rune B.; Anker-Rasch, Lars; Grannes, Kim Rune; Iljina, Markku; McEnroe, Suzanne; Nikolaisen, Even; Schanche, Mona; Øen, Endre

    2016-05-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province represents a lower crustal magma chamber (25-30 km depth) that likely records a deep conduit system for mantle derived melts ascending through the continental crust. It consists of cumulates of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxene as well as subordinate lherzolite and websterites, intruded into gabbro-norite and metasediment gneisses. Field, petrographic and geochemical data show that the intrusion developed through fractional crystallization and interactions between new batches of magma and partially solidified cumulates. This resulted in a 'reverse fractionation sequence' whereby cumulates became progressively more MgO and olivine rich with time. Contamination by partial melting of the gabbro-norite is evident in the marginal zones, but is limited in the central parts of the intrusion. Interrupted crystallization sequences of olivine → olivine + clinopyroxene and the absence of significant amounts of more evolved melts, suggests that large volumes of melt passed through the system to shallower levels in the crust leaving behind the cumulate sequences observed at Reinfjord. Therefore, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex represents a deep crustal conduit system, through which mantle derived melts passed. The parent melts are likely to have formed from partial melting of mantle with residual garnet and clinopyroxene.

  10. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  11. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  12. The impact of different prioritisation policies on waiting times: case studies of Norway and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Holmås, Tor Helge; Sutton, Matt

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the distributional consequences of two different waiting times initiatives, one in Norway, and one in Scotland. The primary focus of Scotland's recent waiting time reforms, introduced in 2003, and modified in 2005 and 2007, has been on reducing maximum waiting times through the imposition of high profile national targets accompanied by increases in resources. In Norway, the focus of the reform introduced in September 2004, has been on assigning patients referred to hospital a maximum waiting time based on disease severity, the expected benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. We use large, national administrative datasets from before and after each of these reforms and assign priority groups based on the maximum waiting times stipulated in medical guidelines. The analysis shows that the lowest priority patients benefited most from both reforms. This was at the cost of longer waiting times for patients that should have been given higher priority in Norway, while Scotland's high priority patients remained unaffected.

  13. Risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of DXA in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. METHODS: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40-90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. RESULTS: Valid...

  14. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  15. Psychometric critique of acculturation psychology: the case of Iranian migrants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, F W; Ahmadzadeh, V

    2001-02-01

    The presumptions, terminology, psychometrics, statistical analyses, and ethics of the fourfold acculturation paradigm are criticized in detail. Illustrative data came from Iranian refugees in Norway (N = 80) answering: 1) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), 2) Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSRDS), 3) ipsative fourfold scales of Integration, Assimilation, Separation, and Marginalization, 4) orthogonal scales of attitudes towards Norwegian and Iranian cultures, measured independently and using balanced reverse-keying, and 5) ipsative forced-choice preferences for cultural practices of Norway, Iran, both, or from other societies as well. Iranians in Norway favored global multiculturalism and, as a group. did not show distress. The SWLS and ZSRDS were correlated, but the measures of acculturation failed to replicate one another. As unconstrained ipsative measures, the fourfold scales showed acquiescence response bias contamination and doubtful operationalization of scale constructs. Recommendations are discussed for improving acculturation research.

  16. Strategy to reduce radon exposure in Norway; Strategi for aa redusere radoneksponeringen i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    Radon in indoor air is a more widespread problem in Norway than in many other countries. It can be estimated that radon in indoor air causes about. 300 lung cancer deaths annually in Norway. Norway, together with Sweden and Finland, are among the countries in the world with the highest average concentration of radon in indoor air. Geological conditions and the cool climate provides great challenges, but radon problem can be solved in a cost effective way. The risk increases with exposure and is proportional with radon concentrations in indoor air and exposure time. The risk from radon, however, no lower threshold value. Moreover, the risk is highest for those who smoke and those who have smoked previously, but non-smokers can also develop lung cancer as a result of radon exposure. In recent years it has been conducted three large, important international joint studies that confirm earlier estimates of the risk. (AG)

  17. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – One Nordic model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.;

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that large firms located in the Danish setting will be less likely to engage in employer–employee communication...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...

  18. Seasonal Variations in the Use of Profundal Habitat among Freshwater Fishes in Lake Norsjø, Southern Norway, and Subsequent Effects on Fish Mercury Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Robin Olk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on monthly sampling of fish from grates mounted at an industrial water intake, located at a depth of 50 m in Lake Norsjø (Southern Norway during the year 2014, to investigate seasonal variations in the use of the profundal habitat and subsequent variations in total Hg-concentrations in profundal fish. Data on various fish present in a cold and dark hypolimnion of a large, deep, dimictic lake within the upper temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere are rare. While predominant species such as A. charr (Salvelinus alpinus and E. smelt (Osmerus eperlanus were continuously present in this habitat, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus occupied this habitat primarily during wintertime, while other common species like brown trout (Salmo trutta, perch (Perca fluviatilis and northern pike (Esox lucius were almost absent. Besides stomach analyses (diet and biometry, stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C and total mercury (Tot-Hg analyses were carried out on the caught fish. The δ13C signature and stomach analyses revealed a combined profundal-pelagic diet for all three species, A. charr with the most profundal-based diet. Length was the strongest predictor for Hg in whitefish and A. charr, while age was the strongest explanatory variable for Hg in E. smelt. A. charr was the only species exhibiting seasonal variation in Hg, highest during winter and spring.

  19. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  20. Two Paths to Inequality in Educational Outcomes: Family Background and Educational Selection in the United States and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisel, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The United States and Norway represent two distinctively different attempts to equalize educational opportunity. Whereas the United States has focused on expansion and the proliferation of lower-tier open-access institutions, Norway has emphasized institutional streamlining and the equalization of living conditions. At the same time, the two…

  1. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  2. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership and…

  3. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM – The Norwegian Permafrost Database was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. This paper describes the structural and technical design of NORPERM. NORPERM follows the IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. The ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard is also presented, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, as the data providers for NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. NORPERM stores temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. It contains all the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project, totalling 32 boreholes and 98 sites with miniature temperature data-loggers for continuous monitoring of micrometeorological conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual borehole logging. The amount of data in the database will gradually increase as data from older, previous projects are added. NORPERM also provides links to near real-time permafrost temperatures obtained by GSM data transfer.

  5. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...

  6. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  7. Food industry structure in Norway and Denmark since the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimek, Bjørn; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2017-01-01

    Structural changes in Norwegian and Danish food industry since the 1990s is analysed as a path dependent response to the neo-liberal turn. Norway entered the 1990s as a protected market and Denmark as case of an export oriented industry. These developmental strategies are rooted in early 20th...... ‘varieties of capitalism’ framework with corporate strategy theories on food industry M&As. We identify two different types of path dependent development, a self-reinforcing in Denmark and a transformative ‘breaking point’ in Norway....

  8. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all their pub......This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...

  9. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – One Nordic model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...... of foreign multinational companies. The differences we observe cause us to conclude that the notion of a common Nordic model is problematic....

  10. Why population forecasts should be probabilistic - illustrated by the case of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic population forecasts do not give an appropriate indication of forecast uncertainty. Forecasts should be probabilistic, rather than deterministic, so that their expected accuracy can be assessed. We review three main methods to compute probabilistic forecasts, namely time series extrapolation, analysis of historical forecast errors, and expert judgement. We illustrate, by the case of Norway up to 2050, how elements of these three methods can be combined when computing prediction intervals for a population's future size and age-sex composition. We show the relative importance for prediction intervals of various sources of variance, and compare our results with those of the official population forecast computed by Statistics Norway.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  12. Carbonaceous aerosols at urban influenced sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by semi volatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.

    Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM = Organic matter + Elemental matter accounted for 46–83

  13. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  14. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  15. Climate variability and long-term expansion of peat lands in Arctic Norway during the late Pliocene (ODP Site 642, Norwegian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Sina; Salzmann, Ulrich; Risebrobakken, Bjorg; De Schepper, Stijn; Pound, Matthew; Bachem, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We present the first high resolution reconstruction of vegetation and climate change in northern Norway between 3.6-3.14 Ma based on pollen assemblages in the marine sediments of ODP Hole 642B, Norwegian Sea (67°N). During the late Pliocene vegetation alternated between cool temperate forests during warmer-than-present intervals and boreal forest similar to today during cooler intervals. The northern boundary of the deciduous to mixed forest zone was displaced at least 4-8° further north and warmest month temperatures were 6-14.5°C higher than present during warm phases. Diverse cool temperate deciduous to mixed forests grew under warm climatic conditions in the lowlands of the Scandinavian mountains during the earliest late Pliocene (c. 3.6-3.47 Ma). A distinct cooling event at c. 3.47 Ma led to the predominance of boreal forest and the development of open, low alpine environments. The cooling culminated around 3.3 Ma, coinciding with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. After c. 3.29 Ma a high variability of climate is indicated by the repeated expansion of forests and peat lands during warmer and cooler periods, respectively. Climate progressively cooled after 3.18 Ma, resembling climatic conditions during MIS M2. A long-term cooling is expressed by an expansion of Sphagnum peat lands that potentially contributed to the decline in atmospheric CO2-concentration at the end of the Piacenzian warm period. Correlations with other Northern Hemisphere records suggest hemisphere-wide effects of climate changes. Late Pliocene vegetation changes will be compared to alkenone-based sea surface temperature reconstructions and dinoflagellate cyst assemblage changes for ODP Hole 642B.

  16. Crowding and winter emergency feeding as predisposing factors for kerato-conjunctivitis in semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschfalk, A; Josefsen, T D; Steingass, H; Müller, W; Goethe, R

    2003-07-01

    Due to the hard environmental and climatic situation in late winter 1999, a herd of about 200 free-ranging, semi-domesticated reindeer was gathered in a paddock in northern Norway for emergency feeding. About the same number of reindeer was not corralled but supplementary fed on their winter pastures. The fodder was of relatively good quality but very dusty and fed in a very dry environment. Six weeks later, an outbreak of eye-infection was diagnosed in one third of the corralled reindeer; mild symptoms were observed in most of them, but 11 animals showed severe signs of disease. No signs of disease were found in the non-corralled animals. Ten reindeer died through emaciation, the eleventh was sacrificed. Histopathological diagnosis of two severely affected eyes revealed a severe purulent kerato-conjunctivitis with bacteria and plant particles embedded in purulent exudates on the cornea and conjunctiva. In one eye from the two most affected animals Actinomyces pyogenes, coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Escherichia coli and in the other one Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were found. The bacteria encountered in this study are not considered the primary cause of disease. They seem rather to be opportunistic infectious agents of eyes that have been irritated mechanically through exposure to dusty fodder in a dry environment. The stress through unfamiliar corralling of the reindeer, that followed an insufficient fodder supply, could be considered as an additional infection supporting factor. This case-report emphasises on the importance of different factors involved in favouring outbreaks of disease in reindeer, under intensified husbandry conditions. Even though crowding and emergency feeding may be, at certain circumstances, the only means of survival for reindeer, a negative impact of implied crowding diseases on their productivity, must be considered, as well.

  17. National outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in military and civilian populations associated with consumption of mixed salad, Norway, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Einöder-Moreno, Margot; Borgen, Katrine; Thorstensen Brandal, Lin; Diab, Lore; Fossli, Øivind; Guzman Herrador, Bernardo; Hassan, Ammar Ali; Johannessen, Gro S; Johansen, Eva Jeanette; Jørgensen Kimo, Roger; Lier, Tore; Paulsen, Bjørn Leif; Popescu, Rodica; Tokle Schytte, Charlotte; Sæbø Pettersen, Kristin; Vold, Line; Ørmen, Øyvind; Wester, Astrid Louise; Wiklund, Marit; Nygård, Karin

    2016-08-25

    In May 2014, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) O9 infections was reported from a military base in northern Norway. Concurrently, an increase in YE infections in civilians was observed in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. We investigated to ascertain the extent of the outbreak and identify the source in order to implement control measures. A case was defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed YE O9 infection with the outbreak multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-profile (5-6-9-8-9-9). We conducted a case-control study in the military setting and calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression. Traceback investigations were conducted to identify common suppliers and products in commercial kitchens frequented by cases. By 28 May, we identified 133 cases, of which 117 were linked to four military bases and 16 were civilians from geographically dispersed counties. Among foods consumed by cases, multivariable analysis pointed to mixed salad as a potential source of illness (OR 10.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-123.57). The four military bases and cafeterias visited by 14/16 civilian cases received iceberg lettuce or radicchio rosso from the same supplier. Secondary transmission cannot be eliminated as a source of infection in the military camps. The most likely source of the outbreak was salad mix containing imported radicchio rosso, due to its long shelf life. This outbreak is a reminder that fresh produce should not be discounted as a vehicle in prolonged outbreaks and that improvements are still required in the production and processing of fresh salad products.

  18. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trøndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes.

  19. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  20. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  1. Annex 1: 1998 review of energy efficiency policy in EU countries and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document makes a status for the year 1998 of the energy efficiency policies implemented in the European Union member states and Norway (residential, transport and industrial sectors, institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, utilities, pricing, efficiency standards, voluntary agreements, investment subsidies, taxation and tax exemptions). (J.S.)

  2. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  3. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  4. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur within the…

  5. The User Perspective in Performance Auditing--A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Arnfrid; Rydland, Lars Tore; Amundsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The user perspective is an important contextual factor for Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs). This article provides examples from performance audits in Norway and explores why the user perspective has become important in performance audit practices. It shows that user satisfaction can be employed as a key performance indicator of effectiveness of…

  6. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  7. Metamorphism of siliceous dolomites in the high-grade Precambrian of Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, P.C.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the Precambrian granulite facies terrain of Rogaland, SW Norway, some small occurrences of marbles are present. They are mainly exposed at three locations A, Band C, at increasing distance from the anorthositic and monzonitic intrusions. The Precambrian basement in Rogaland has undergone several

  8. Towards a New Professionalism in School? A Comparative Study of Teacher Autonomy in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Local autonomy is one of the recent trends in reforms of compulsory education. However, several parallel trends such as individual accountability, performance and visibility challenge professional autonomy. The aim of this article is to explore how accountability and transparency reforms affect teacher autonomy in Norway and Sweden. The authors…

  9. Ozone Induces Glucose Intolerance and Systemic Metabolic Effects in Young and Aged Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone could impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in very young and aged rats. Brown Norway (BN) rats, 1,4, 12, and 24 months ol...

  10. Balancing Tensions in Educational Policy Reforms: Large-Scale Implementation of Assessment for Learning in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Flórez Petour, María Teresa; Tolo, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how different stakeholders in Norway experienced a government-initiated, large-scale policy implementation programme on "Assessment for Learning" ("AfL"). Data were collected through 58 interviews with stakeholders in charge of the policy; Ministers of Education and members of the Directorate of…

  11. Governmental Steering, Reform and the Institutionalization of Student Interest in Higher Education in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Michelsen, Svein

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses the relationship between changes in the higher education landscape concerning its structure and governance, and the organization of student interest representation at the institutional and national level. Based on a historical analysis of the development of higher education in Norway, the article identifies close links…

  12. Visit by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    NTNU Pro-Rector Johan E. Hustad and CERN Director for Research and Computing Sergio Bertolucci signed an agreement between NTNU and CERN for the establishment of the a new Business Incubation Centre of CERN technology to be established in Trondheim, Norway. An agreement to strengthen the collaboration on student created spin-offs was also signed.

  13. A geographical cluster of malignant catarrhal fever in Moose (Alces alces)in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three cases of lethal sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) were diagnosed in Lesja, Norway, December 2008 – February 2010. The diagnosis was based on PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA (n=3) and typical histopathological lesions (n=1). To...

  14. Geochemistry of high-temperature granulitic supracrustals from Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, L.C.G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Were the granulite-facies metamorphic supracrustals of the Faurefjell Metasediment Formation in Rogaland, SW Norway, chemically open or closed systems? In order to assess differential element mobilities in response to pre-, syn- and post-metamorphic fluid fluxes through this formation, the mineralog

  15. Source, evolution, and age of coronitic gabbros from the Arendal-Nelaug area, Bamble, Southeast Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, G.J.L.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the results of a petrological, geochemical and isotopic study of five coronitic gabbros (hyperites) from the Arendal-Nelaug area, Bamble Sector, South Norway, are presented. The scope of this study was 1) to determine the age of these gabbros, 2) to study their magmatic and chemical e

  16. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  17. Professional Development for Professional Learners: Teachers' Experiences in Norway, Germany and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Proposals made by the European Commission in 2007 led to the Education Council adopting, for the first time, a European agenda for improving the quality of teaching and teacher education. This article reports on a small-scale longitudinal interview-based study with teachers in England, Norway and Germany demonstrating that while opportunities for…

  18. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  19. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Improving Lower Secondary Schools in Norway, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The report aims to help education authorities in Norway and other OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to understand the importance of lower secondary education and to find approaches to strengthen this key education level. It provides an overview of the structure of lower secondary education and the main…

  20. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  1. Home Country National Intelligence and Self-Employment Rates among Immigrants in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgueni; Kolvereid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The level of self-employment varies significantly among immigrants from different countries of origin. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between home-country national intelligence and self-employment rates among first generation immigrants in Norway. Empirical secondary data on self-employment among immigrants from 117…

  2. A Late Younger Dryas-Early Holocene tephrostratigraphy for Fosen, Central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ewa M.; Wastegard, Stefan; Larsen, Jeppe J.

    2013-01-01

    a tephrostratigraphy for Fosen peninsula, Central Norway. Both the Vedde Ash ca.12.1 ka BP and the Saksunarvatn Ash approximate to 10.3 ka BP are important isochrones for correlations of Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental records in the North Atlantic region and have been assigned ages in GICC05. Beside these tephras...

  3. Malignant catarrhal fever virus identified in free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the epizootiology of malignant catarrhal fever viruses (MCFV), sera and spleen samples collected in 2004-2011 from a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Dovrefjell, Norway, were examined. Sera were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbe...

  4. Do Time in Child Care and Peer Group Exposure Predict Poor Socioemotional Adjustment in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Elisabet; Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would…

  5. Early warning of orographically induced floods and landslides in Western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leine, Ann-Live; Wang, Thea; Boje, Søren

    2017-04-01

    In Western Norway, landslides and debris flows are commonly initiated by short-term orographic rainfall or intensity peaks during a prolonged rainfall event. In recent years, the flood warning service in Norway has evolved from being solely a flood forecasting service to also integrating landslides into its early warning systems. As both floods and landslides are closely related to the same hydrometeorological processes, particularly in small catchments, there is a natural synergy between monitoring flood and landslide risk. The Norwegian Flood and Landslide Hazard Forecasting and Warning Service issues regional landslide hazard warnings based on hydrological models, threshold values, observations and weather forecasts. Intense rainfall events and/or orographic precipitation that, under certain topographic conditions, significantly increase the risk of debris avalanches and debris floods are lately receiving more research focus from the Norwegian warning service. Orographic precipitation is a common feature in W-Norway, when moist and relatively mild air arrives from the Atlantic. Steep mountain slopes covered by glacial till makes the region prone to landslides, as well as flooding. The operational early warning system in Norway requires constant improvement, especially with the enhanced number of intense rainfall events that occur in a warming climate. Here, we examine different cases of intense rainfall events which have lead to landslides and debris flows, as well as increased runoff in fast responding small catchments. The main objective is to increase the understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions related to these events, in order to make priorities for the future development of the warning service.

  6. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: the challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, William M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not unt

  7. Allocation of Fishing Harvest Rights in Iceland and Norway - the Development since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi Grétarsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most western countries, marine fisheries in Iceland and Norway is still of some national significance. For more than two decades now, the two countries have managed their fisheries with complicated quota systems. The main rules of these two systems are explained in the article. However, the main purpose of the article is to describe how harvest rights in the two countries have been allocated since 1990. In both countries the principle of grandfathering the harvest rights has prevailed, i.e., the initial allocation has protected the professional interest of those that have already participated in the fisheries. Despite this, rules on the matter have not been engraved in stone since they have been dynamic and contingent on various amendments by the legislature and government. Basic rules on allocation have been stipulated in acts in Iceland, while in Norway they have mostly been based on regulations. Since harvest rights are transferable in Iceland, this, in principle, should make the harvest rights better protected than in Norway. However, when the matter is scrutinized, it becomes clear that the Icelandic parliament has in fact reallocated harvest rights on a recurrent basis. In Norway, rules on allocation of harvest rights have been relatively stable. This can be partly explained by the fact that the most important stakeholders in the Norwegian fisheries have in practice had important say on how the harvest rights have been allocated.

  8. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  9. Seasonal Hypomagnesemia in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Hoff

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypomagnesemia was diagnosed in reindeer on Kautokeino winter pasture in Finnmark County, Norway. The affected animals were paretic or ataxic. Mean serum magnesium levels were 0.19 +/- 0.20 mm/L (n = 6, compared to a serum Mg level of 0.82 +/- 0.17 mm/L for the reference group.

  10. Asylum, Participation and the Best Interests of the Child: New Lessons from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liden, Hilde; Rusten, Hilde

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Norway's implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation to the field of asylum. In particular, we explore the dilemmas and challenges posed by efforts to realise children's right to express their views and have these views given due weight in decision-making processes as stipulated in Article…

  11. Molecular characterization of trimellitic anhydride-induced respiratory allergy in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Heijne, W.H.; Dansen, M.; Verhoeckx, K.C.; Boorsma, A.; Radonjic, M.; Bruijntjes, J.; Stierum, R.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the hazard identification of low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory allergens, respiratory allergy induced by trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was characterized by whole genome analysis of lung tissue and blood proteomics in Brown Norway rats. Dermal sensitization (50% and 25% w/v) with

  12. Coping Behaviour of Disabled Persons and Their Families: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from Norway and Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingstad, Benedicte

    1988-01-01

    A model is presented for analyzing the influence of culture on the coping behavior of families with disabled children, using examples from families in Norway and Botswana. The model considers culture's impact on the process of coping through emotional patterning, expectations of life and future, life experiences, and actual opportunities. (JDD)

  13. Motivation to Provide Help to Older Parents in Norway, Spain, and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ruth; Gur-Yaish, Nurit; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2010-01-01

    We explore from a cross-national perspective three motivations in adult children to provide help to older parents: affectual solidarity, parental need for care, and filial norms. The sample is 1,055 adult children from Norway, Spain, and Israel, countries selected because they represent different family cultures and welfare regimes. Affectual…

  14. Risk analysis on the import of seed mussels from Norway into the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Tamis, J.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Karman, C.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Smaal, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This report is the result of a risk analysis on the introduction of exotic nonCindigenous species with the import of rope culture mussels from Norway into the Wadden Sea. Based on available literature data and expert judgement, the target species are identified and the risks of these species are ass

  15. Asylum, Participation and the Best Interests of the Child: New Lessons from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liden, Hilde; Rusten, Hilde

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Norway's implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation to the field of asylum. In particular, we explore the dilemmas and challenges posed by efforts to realise children's right to express their views and have these views given due weight in decision-making processes as stipulated in Article…

  16. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...... migrants, the novelty of their approaches and the results in terms of membership....

  17. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    a role in bromadiolone resistance in the Norway rat. A high constitutive expression of Cyp2c13 and Cyp3a2 and induction of Cyp1a2, Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a3 expression during bromadiolone exposure may increase the resistance to bromadiolone presumably by facilitating increased detoxification and decreased liver...

  18. Moisture in untreated, a cetylated, and furfurylated Norway spruce studied during drying using time domain NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisabeth G. Thygesen; Thomas Elder

    2008-01-01

    Using time domain NMR, the moisture in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) sapwood subjected to four different treatments (never-dried, dried and remoistened, acetylated, and furfurylated) was studied during drying at 40°C, at sample average moisture contents above fiber saturation. Spin-spin relaxation time distributions were derived from CPMG...

  19. Muslim Girls' Experiences in Physical Education in Norway: What Role Does Religiosity Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress in part. In…

  20. Great Expectations: Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B.; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools…

  1. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  2. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, RA; Weinstock, GM; Metzker, ML; Muzny, DM; Sodergren, EJ; Scherer, S; Scott, G; Steffen, D; Worley, KC; Burch, PE; Okwuonu, G; Hines, S; Lewis, L; DeRamo, C; Delgado, O; Dugan-Rocha, S; Miner, G; Morgan, M; Hawes, A; Gill, R; Holt, RA; Adams, MD; Amanatides, PG; Baden-Tillson, H; Barnstead, M; Chin, S; Evans, CA; Ferriera, S; Fosler, C; Glodek, A; Gu, ZP; Jennings, D; Kraft, CL; Nguyen, T; Pfannkoch, CM; Sitter, C; Sutton, GG; Venter, JC; Woodage, T; Smith, D; Lee, HM; Gustafson, E; Cahill, P; Kana, A; Doucette-Stamm, L; Weinstock, K; Fechtel, K; Weiss, RB; Dunn, DM; Green, ED; Blakesley, RW; Bouffard, GG; de Jong, J; Osoegawa, K; Zhu, BL; Marra, M; Schein, J; Bosdet, [No Value; Fjell, C; Jones, S; Krzywinski, M; Mathewson, C; Siddiqui, A; Wye, N; McPherson, J; Zhao, SY; Fraser, CM; Shetty, J; Shatsman, S; Geer, K; Chen, YX; Abramzon, S; Nierman, WC; Gibbs, RA; Weinstock, GM; Havlak, PH; Durbin, KJ; Egan, A; Ren, YR; Song, XZ; Li, BS; Qin, [No Value; Cawley, S; Weinstock, GM; Worley, KC; Cooney, AJ; Gibbs, RA; D'Souza, LM; Martin, K; Wu, JQ; Gonzalez-Garay, ML; Jackson, AR; Kalafus, KJ; McLeod, MP; Milosavljevic, A; Virk, D; Volkov, A; Wheeler, DA; Zhang, ZD; Bailey, JA; Eichler, EE; Tuzun, E; Birney, E; Mongin, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Woodwark, C; Zdobnov, E; Bork, P; Suyama, M; Torrents, D; Alexandersson, M; Trask, BJ; Young, JM; Smith, D; Huang, H; Fechtel, K; Wang, HJ; Xing, HM; Weinstock, K; Gietzen, D; Schmidt, J; Stevens, K; Vitt, U; Wingrove, J; Camara, F; Schmidt, J; Stevens, K; Vitt, U; Wingrove, J; Camara, F; Alba, MM; Abril, JF; Guigo, R; Smit, A; Dubchak, [No Value; Rubin, EM; Couronne, O; Poliakov, A; Hubner, N; Ganten, D; Goesele, C; Hummel, O; Kreitler, T; Lee, YA; Monti, J; Schulz, H; Zimdahl, H; Himmelbauer, H; Lehrach, H; Jacob, HJ; Bromberg, S; Gullings-Handley, J; Jensen-Seaman, MI; Kwitek, AE; Lazar, J; Pasko, D; Tonellato, PJ; Twigger, S; Ponting, P; Duarte, JM; Rice, S; Goodstadt, L; Beatson, SA; Emes, RD; Winter, EE; Webber, C; Brandt, P; Nyakatura, G; Adetobi, M; Chiaromonte, F; Elnitski, L; Eswara, P; Hardison, RC; Hou, MM; Kolbe, D; Makova, K; Miller, W; Nekrutenko, A; Riemer, C; Schwartz, S; Taylor, J; Zhang, Y; Lindpaintner, K; Andrews, TD; Caccamo, M; Clamp, M; Clarke, L; Curwen, [No Value; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Searle, SM; Cooper, GM; Batzoglou, S; Brudno, M; Sidow, A; Stone, EA; Venter, JC; Payseur, BA; Bourque, G; Lopez-Otin, C; Puente, XS; Chakrabarti, K; Chatterji, S; Dewey, C; Pachter, L; Bray, N; Yap, VB; Caspi, A; Tesler, G; Pevzner, PA; Haussler, D; Roskin, KM; Baertsch, R; Clawson, H; Furey, TS; Hinrichs, AS; Karolchik, D; Kent, WJ; Rosenbloom, KR; Trumbower, H; Weirauch, M; Cooper, DN; Stenson, PD; Ma, B; Brent, M; Arumugam, M; Shteynberg, D; Copley, RR; Taylor, MS; Riethman, H; Mudunuri, U; Peterson, J; Guyer, M; Felsenfeld, A; Old, S; Mockrin, S; Collins, F; Daniels, S.

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 9

  3. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concent...

  4. Sea Kayaking Incidents in Norway 2000-2014: An Issue of Bad Weather or Poor Judgement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Noer, Gunnar; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse recreational sea kayaking and touring incidents in Norway with a specific focus on wind conditions and to elaborate on practical implications for the prevention of future incidents. We included 49 incidents reported by the media between 2000 and 2014. Incidents occurred in various wind conditions, but most…

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica outbreak associated with ready-to-eat salad mix, Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Nygård, Karin; Stalheim, Torunn; Cudjoe, Kofitsyo S; Skjerdal, Taran; Wester, Astrid Louise; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Stavnes, Trine-Lise; Vold, Line

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of illness caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Norway was linked to ready-to-eat salad mix, an unusual vehicle for this pathogen. The outbreak illustrates the need to characterize isolates of this organism, and reinforces the need for international traceback mechanisms for fresh produce.

  6. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    . In this study, the TDMB is examined via creep experiments on small specimens of Norway spruce latewood. The results of these are compared with results from numerical modelling. The experiments include results at two levels of moisture content and three levels of temperature, enabling an investigation...

  7. After a terrorist attack: Challenges for political and administrative leadership in norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the challenges that the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway created for central government and, more particularly, for the political and police leadership. The emphasis is on 'meaning making', focusing on how the leaders played out their reactions in the

  8. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their pr...

  9. Social Pedagogy and Bullying in Schools: The Views of University Students in England, Greece and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Mylonakou-Keke, Iro; Stephens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to…

  10. The first isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevig, B.H.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jentoft, S.

    2001-01-01

    A rhabdovirus was isolated from perch (Perca fluviatilis) harvested from lake Arungen in the South-Eastern part of Norway. The fish were placed in indoor tanks for reproduction studies. A few days after the introduction, fish showed swimming disturbancies and lethargy, and a low mortality...

  11. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  12. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  13. Talk about Talk with Young Children: Pragmatic Socialization in Two Communities in Norway and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cultures vary in subtle ways in the talk about talk that children hear and learn to produce. Twenty-two three-year-old children and their families in respectively Oslo, Norway and Cambridge, Massachusetts were observed during mealtime with the aim of identifying talk-focused talk. The analysis distinguished talk…

  14. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  15. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material

  16. Solar Water Heating as a Potential Source for Inland Norway Energy Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Assefa Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess solar potential and investigate the possibility of using solar water heating for residential application in Inland Norway. Solar potential based on observation and satellite-derived data for four typical populous locations has been assessed and used to estimate energy yield using two types of solar collectors for a technoeconomic performance comparison. Based on the results, solar energy use for water heating is competitive and viable even in low solar potential areas. In this study it was shown that a typical tubular collector in Inland Norway could supply 62% of annual water heating energy demand for a single residential household, while glazed flat plates of the same size were able to supply 48%. For a given energy demand in Inland Norway, tubular collectors are preferred to flat plate collectors for performance and cost reasons. This was shown by break-even capital cost for a series of collector specifications. Deployment of solar water heating in all detached dwellings in Inland could have the potential to save 182 GWh of electrical energy, equivalent to a reduction of 15,690 tonnes of oil energy and 48.6 ktCO2 emissions, and contributes greatly to Norway 67.5% renewable share target by 2020.

  17. A Comparison of Nursing and Teacher Education Students' Information Literacy Learning: Results from Norway, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This study measures first-year undergraduate students' self-assessments and learning outcomes in information literacy skills in their first months of higher education in Norway. Comparisons are made between nursing students and teacher education students. Surveys were conducted before the library's information literacy course and after both…

  18. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch sp...

  19. Dyslexia: Group Screening among 15-16-Year-Olds in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported dyslexics…

  20. Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway signing the guest book; standing, Dr Carlo Wyss Photo 03: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Morten Knutsen, CERN staff - Purchase; Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Prof. Univ. of Oslo and Physicist in the ATLAS experiment (in profile), Dr Carlo Wyss, Director for Accelerators (standing), Dr Leif Westgaard, Senior Adviser, Research Council of Norway, CERN Delegate. Photo 04: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar ...

  1. The Domestic Basis of the Scientific Career: Gender Inequalities in Ecology in France and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Anne; Paye, Simon; Schermann, Agnes; Bry, Clementine; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pelabon, Christophe; Bråthen, Kari-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gender-related inequalities in scientific careers are widespread, evidenced by the attrition of women along the different stages of the promotion ladder. We studied the interwoven personal and professional trajectories of researchers in ecology and compared these trajectories between France and Norway. Given their differing welfare state policies…

  2. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were

  3. Risk of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in nursing homes in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsén, L; Søgaard, A J; Sandvig, S; Schuller, A; Røed, U; Arstad, C

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the probability of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in a real world setting in nursing homes. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Seventeen nursing homes (965 beds) in Norway. SUBJECTS: All residents in the nursing homes with at least one fall during the inter

  4. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: The challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, W.M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not

  5. Research in Norway revives radiation debate; Norsk forskning skaber liv i straalingsdebat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2004-07-01

    The discussion about the possible health hazard of electromagnetic fields from high-voltage power lines and other electric installations flares up at regular intervals. Research in Norway shows that there is a connection between magnetic fields from high-voltage lines and the risk of women developing breast cancer. This result is quite unexpected.

  6. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  7. The Core of Special Teacher Education: A Comparison of Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Takala, Marjatta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the situation of special teacher education in Finland and Norway has been analysed from three perspectives: how the curricula of special teacher education differ between and within the countries; whether inclusion is included in special teacher education; and how the special teacher education curricula reflect the national…

  8. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  9. Do parties matter for local revenue policies? A comparison of Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Monkerud, Lars Christian; Sørensen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    initiatives. Empirically, the question is unsettled. The paper investigates the problem by looking at three revenue policy areas (income and property taxation and user charges) in two countries (Denmark and Norway). It uses data from the municipal level and thus has several hundreds of units to compare...

  10. Deposition history of brominated flame retardant compounds in an ice core from Holtedahlfonna, Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanson, M.H.; Isaksson, E.; Forsström, S.; Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G.; Pohjola, V.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been found in Arctic wildlife, lake sediment, and air. To identify the atmospheric BFR deposition history on Svalbard, Norway, we analyzed 19 BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane

  11. Liquid Ice Surfers--The Construction of Surfer Identities in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Surfing is getting increasingly popular in Norway as well as other countries that have a coastline with rideable waves. As surfing gains in popularity, however, the boundaries of the surfing subculture become increasingly guarded. Through ethnography and qualitative interviews, this study examines identity construction on an individual and group…

  12. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  13. A bibliometric analysis of the clinical development of drugs in Norway for the year 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hole, Ola P.; Winther, Finn O.; Cederkvist, Henrik R.; Nitter-Hauge, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Bibliometric analysis of publications was used to investigate the research output relating to the development of drugs in Norway and to evaluate the impact of Norwegian involvement in this research. Material and methods: One hundred and nine articles published between 2002 and 2008 were ana

  14. Non-predation natural mortality of Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarkii ) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, H.; Larsen, L.I.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Based on age disaggregated data on catch rates in bottom trawl surveys, commercial catches, and the number consumed by the North Sea piscivorous predators, new estimates of non-predation natural mortality, M1, are obtained for Norway pout [Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson)]. Simple log catch ratio...

  15. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakkari, P.; Aabø, S.; Audunson, R.; Huysmans, F.; Oomes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult

  16. The promotion of electrified vehicles in the municipal car fleet in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Helene

    2012-07-01

    To target the transport sector is of vital in order to reduce the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Through Norway's membership in the European Economic Area Treaty (EEA), Norway has committed itself to reach this target through amongst other things taking measures within the transport sector by promoting an increased use of electric vehicles (EVs). Limited attention has so far been paid to the public sectors vehicle fleet in general, and to the municipal car fleet in particular. The current report provides both a general mapping of the policy instruments promoting EVs in Norway, as well focusing on the barriers and drivers promoting increased use of EVs in the municipal car fleet in particular. The analysis has shown that the framework in Norway supporting GPP is well developed concerning guidelines, laws as well as plans. However, the outcome of a framework concerning integration of environmental concerns in practice is very dependent on political motivation and will. Consequently, this will form the local political approach towards GPP within the transport sector.(Author)

  17. The history of diplomatic relations between Romania and Norway during the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Despa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reconstructing based on diplomatic archives’ records the history of diplomatic and consular relations between the two countries during the interwar period. The diplomatic bonds between the two countries date back already before Norway had obtained its sovereignty by dissolving the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway in 1905. Eventually, Romania recognized the Norwegian independence and conducted diplomatic relations with Norway through its legation in Berlin. The first official legation in Norway was established in 1917 by Grigore Bilciurescu’s appointment as chargé d’affaires in Christiania (Oslo. On the other hand, the first Norwegian diplomat who resided in Bucharest was Terje Knudtzon in 1935. During most of the interwar period the diplomatic relations between the two countries were conducted through envoys residing in other European capitals. The article fits into the category of historical evidence works and since it has adopted a chronological approach, it does not raise, more than is necessary, the prospect of a theoretical interpretation of these relations.

  18. 6th Nordic Workshop on Reindeer Research, 8-10 October 1990, Tromsø, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sixth Nordic Reindeer Scientist's Meeting, organised by the Nordic Council for Reindeer Research, was held at Tromsø, Norway, 8-10 October, 1990. The principal themes of the meeting were ' Reindeer husbandry. Basis for resources and the man' and ' Meat quality'.

  19. The invention and institutionalization of local volunteer centres. A comparative analysis of Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Lorentzen, Håkon

    Both Denmark and Norway have seen a remarkable growth in the number of local volunteer centres over the past twenty years. Volunteer centres are a new invention in the local welfare architecture. They aim to mobilize volunteers by either improving the visibility and accessibility of existing loca...

  20. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vakkari; S. Aabø; R. Audunson; F. Huysmans; M. Oomes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult l