WorldWideScience

Sample records for bodily fluids

  1. Evaluation of gowns and coveralls used by medical personnel working with Ebola patients against simulated bodily fluids using an Elbow Lean Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Gao, Pengfei; Kilinc-Balci, Selcen; Portnoff, Lee; Weible, Robyn; Horvatin, Matthew; Strauch, Amanda; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-11-01

    Gowns and coveralls are important components of protective ensembles used during the management of known or suspected Ebola patients. In this study, an Elbow Lean Test was used to obtain a visual semi-quantitative measure of the resistance of medical protective garments to the penetration of two bodily fluid simulants. Tests were done on swatches of continuous and discontinuous regions of fabrics cut from five gowns and four coveralls at multiple elbow pressure levels (2-44 PSI). Swatches cut from the continuous regions of one gown and two coveralls did not have any strike-through. For discontinuous regions, only the same gown consistently resisted fluid strike-through. As hypothesized, with the exception of one garment, fluid strike-through increased with higher applied elbow pressure, was higher for lower fluid surface tension, and was higher for the discontinuous regions of the protective garments.

  2. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  3. [An unusual bodily injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    In most cases, bodily harm results from the use of sharp objects or blunt force. This paper deals with a 42-year-old pharmacist who was known to the police and the courts because of several previous convictions for bodily injury. The man had visited a pub just before it closed and was therefore not served any drinks. He got angry about this and returned to his pharmacy (within walking distance) to fetch three disposable syringes which he filled with phosphoric acid (85%). Through the open pub window, he splattered the acid from the syringes on two guests and the host, who were hit on the upper part of their bodies and the arms. All the victims developed dermal alterations such as focal erythema and small blisters (pemphigus-like efflorescences, as already described by Weyrich). At first, the pharmacist denied the use of phosphoric acid and claimed to have used a mixture of urine and water. Examinations of spots on the still unwashed clothes revealed very low pH-values (ca. 2.0; pH-Indicator-Stripes, Merck; Medi-Test, Machery & Nagel). Tests for substances typical of urine produced completely negative results. However, very high phosphate concentrations were found on the spots in question. Thus, the probability that the pharmacist had used phosphoric acid to commit the offence was very high. The pharmacist was sentenced to one year and two months' imprisonment for dangerous bodily harm according to Section 224 German Criminal Code. In accordance with the law, phosphoric acid was classified as "poison", for which application on the skin is sufficient. PMID:27386625

  4. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  5. Bodily Synchronization Underlying Joke Telling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Schmidt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock-knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily dance occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this dance is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction.

  6. Bodily-material resources in CSCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation...... and methodologically from focusing on bodily-material resources in CSCL....

  7. Changing ideas of bodily cleanliness

    OpenAIRE

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2004-01-01

    The modern bathroom reflects Western ideas on the handling of bodily wastes, and consequently ideas of cleanliness. Taking a historical study as the point of departure, the purpose of this paper is to understand the extent to which the idea of cleanliness influences the possibility of converting the water closet to a more sustainable technology. An examination of historical changes demonstrates that our present ideas on cleanliness are distinct in their own way. It also demonstrates that our ...

  8. Children's Understanding of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Paul C.; Gelman, Susan A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies compared how preschoolers through fifth graders and adults reasoned about psychogenic bodily reactions such as stress-induced headaches. Results supported a developmental path: younger children view psychogenic bodily responses as wholly physical, but with age, view them as both physical and psychological. (Author/KB)

  9. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  10. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we distin

  11. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  12. Regulating the use of human bodily material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Loane

    2013-12-01

    The articles in this special issue consider recent developments in the law regulating the use of human bodily material and the wider implications of those developments. For some time, the law has accepted that a person who has undertaken "work and skill" on excised bodily material may obtain at least a possessory right; but the person from whom the material came did not have such a right. Now, however, the law has recognised that people may have some legal rights regarding their own bodily material. What is the nature and source of those rights? Should they be expanded? If so, what legal principles are best to do that? The most frequent suggestion is the law of property but many other areas of law are also relevant: the law of contract; tort (bailment and consent); criminal law (e.g., forensic testing); gifts; custodianship and others. These regulatory options are outlined in this editorial and discussed by lawyers and other contributors in their articles in this special issue. There are also stimulating philosophical reflections on the nature of human bodily material.

  13. Japanese Children's and Adults' Awareness of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, Japanese children (4-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (n = 78)) and adults (n = 36), answered questions about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions, i.e., bodily outcomes with origins in the mind. The 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states. Developmentally,…

  14. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  15. Urban Choreography: Bodily Experience, Emotions and Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekaterina Lavrinec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the mechanism of urban rituals, the paper refers to a concept of the city as a dynamic field of everyday practices as well as to a concept of "urban choreography", which actualizes the interconnection between urban spatial structures, citizens' emotional and bodily experience, and rules and conventions, which are embedded in the spatial structures. Following the notion of "spatial practices", it is distinguished between passive practices, which reproduce conventional everyday scenarios, and active practices, which reveal the hidden potential of the place. One of the forms of practices that extend the functions of urban spaces is urban art interventions, which encourage citizens to use the space in a new, alternative way. Those urban art interventions, which imply an active interpretation and bodily participation of citizens, enable the formation of urban rituals, i.e. repetitive symbolic actions, which are connected with the particular place. In their turn, urban rituals produce a long-term impact on the public space by changing "choreography" of the particular place and (reforming it's "emotional scape". For example, a ritual of making a wish by performing a simple movement at some special place in the city, changes usual trajectories and rhythms of the passers-by and saturates the place with joy and hope. The meaning of an urban ritual and emotions, evoked by it, are collectively shared by citizens, and "ritualized" places become a point of attraction for locals and travellers. Initiating new urban rituals by installing interactive art objects and by introducing simple scenarios of alternative use of public spaces could be considered as an efficient way to raise awareness of the urgent topic of deactivation of public spaces. A possible solutions of this problem are rooted in the understanding of the interplay between the spatial structures and our bodily-emotional experience.  In the paper urban interventions by Lithuanian

  16. Social context influences recognition of bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Kret M.E.; de, Gelder B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is influenced by the affective information provided by the surrounding scene. The goal of this study was to investigate whether similar effects could be obtained for bodily expressions. Images of emotional body postures were briefly presented as part of social scenes showing either neutral or emotional group actions. In Experiment 1, fearful and happy bodies were presented in fearful, happy, neutral and scrambled contexts. In ...

  17. Maps and Paths: bodily practices and transculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Mencarelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Grotowski’s interest in practices from different cultures had special importance during his transition from the Paratheatre phase (1969-1978 to the so-called Theatre of Sources (1976-1982. This article deals with the way this occurred and how was conceived this experience in its transcultural dimension based on bodily practices present in different cultures and which are transmitted as embodied knowledge.

  18. Mapping female bodily features of attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Jeanne; Lao, Junpeng; Bartholomée, Océane; Caldara, Roberto; Raymond, Michel

    2016-01-01

    "Beauty is bought by judgment of the eye" (Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost), but the bodily features governing this critical biological choice are still debated. Eye movement studies have demonstrated that males sample coarse body regions expanding from the face, the breasts and the midriff, while making female attractiveness judgements with natural vision. However, the visual system ubiquitously extracts diagnostic extra-foveal information in natural conditions, thus the visual information actually used by men is still unknown. We thus used a parametric gaze-contingent design while males rated attractiveness of female front- and back-view bodies. Males used extra-foveal information when available. Critically, when bodily features were only visible through restricted apertures, fixations strongly shifted to the hips, to potentially extract hip-width and curvature, then the breast and face. Our hierarchical mapping suggests that the visual system primary uses hip information to compute the waist-to-hip ratio and the body mass index, the crucial factors in determining sexual attractiveness and mate selection. PMID:26791105

  19. Resonance and Transcendence of a Bodily Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck; Farsø, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This article elucidates how film may offer itself as ‘resonance tool’ for both representation and conception of space that can strengthen an alternative, phenomenological and haptic position of transcendence in architecture, a position from which landscapes and cities are thought, planned...... films the article points to the film media as a sensory amplifier and its ability to present a subject’s awareness of its bodily presence and a ”feeling into” space based on Gernot Bohme’s Den Raum leiblicher Anwesenheit (Böhme 2006) and Giuliana Bruno’s concept of resonance (Bruno 2014). How film...... and its sound – if being integrated as design studio tool – comes to amplify sensory dimensions. The studio films illustrate how the surface of the film´s picture frame almost become like a skin, and with its surface and sound, projecting both a site and near sensual experience, the film media reflects...

  20. 30 CFR 19.8 - Protection against bodily hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against bodily hazard. 19.8 Section..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.8 Protection against bodily hazard. This hazard is chiefly due to the possible burning of the wearer by electrolyte spilled from the battery....

  1. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  2. Plasticity and Awareness of Bodily Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantedeschi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the body is filtered by perceptual information, recalibrated through predominantly innate stored information, and neurally mediated by direct sensory motor information. Despite multiple sources, the immediate prediction, construction, and evaluation of one's body are distorted. The origins of such distortions are unclear. In this review, we consider three possible sources of awareness that inform body distortion. First, the precision in the body metric may be based on the sight and positioning sense of a particular body segment. This view provides information on the dual nature of body representation, the reliability of a conscious body image, and implicit alterations in the metrics and positional correspondence of body parts. Second, body awareness may reflect an innate organizational experience of unity and continuity in the brain, with no strong isomorphism to body morphology. Third, body awareness may be based on efferent/afferent neural signals, suggesting that major body distortions may result from changes in neural sensorimotor experiences. All these views can be supported empirically, suggesting that body awareness is synthesized from multimodal integration and the temporal constancy of multiple body representations. For each of these views, we briefly discuss abnormalities and therapeutic strategies for correcting the bodily distortions in various clinical disorders.

  3. [Bodily excellence and education: ambiguities of performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The notion of excellence contains an ambivalence: to aim at the "good" and/or to aim at the "best". This ambivalence exists particularly in the physical effort and in the history of bodily practices, shared between gymnastics, physical education and sports. In the second part of the XXth century, the notion of performance became "worship of performance", "infinite perfectibility". In this context, high level sports became the human improvement laboratory, thanks to the sophistication of its technical means and the its practices intensity. However this "high" questions: about physical and psychological consequences of intensive practices ; about doping and its medical and ethical perspectives; about the increasing precociousness and the potential exploitation of the baby champions. It questions about the nature of familial, social, economical norms transmitted by education: about articulation between constraint and self-government. This is the question about the "price" of excellence. In this sense it appears that the excellence of champion spreads out the margins of an ethics which would be meant to be regulating and universal, indeed this excellence is perhaps, in the same capacity as genius is and in spite of the attachment of sports to a "ethics of the rule", un-ethical. PMID:22238911

  4. Plasticity and Awareness of Bodily Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Mariella; Zantedeschi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the body is filtered by perceptual information, recalibrated through predominantly innate stored information, and neurally mediated by direct sensory motor information. Despite multiple sources, the immediate prediction, construction, and evaluation of one's body are distorted. The origins of such distortions are unclear. In this review, we consider three possible sources of awareness that inform body distortion. First, the precision in the body metric may be based on the sight and positioning sense of a particular body segment. This view provides information on the dual nature of body representation, the reliability of a conscious body image, and implicit alterations in the metrics and positional correspondence of body parts. Second, body awareness may reflect an innate organizational experience of unity and continuity in the brain, with no strong isomorphism to body morphology. Third, body awareness may be based on efferent/afferent neural signals, suggesting that major body distortions may result from changes in neural sensorimotor experiences. All these views can be supported empirically, suggesting that body awareness is synthesized from multimodal integration and the temporal constancy of multiple body representations. For each of these views, we briefly discuss abnormalities and therapeutic strategies for correcting the bodily distortions in various clinical disorders. PMID:27630779

  5. Increased plasticity of the bodily self in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkevari, E.; Rieger, E.; Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, P.; Treasure, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) has been widely used to investigate the bodily self in healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to extend the use of the RHI to examine the bodily self in eating disorders. Methods: The RHI and self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (EDI-3 subscales of Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Interoceptive Deficits, and Emotional Dysregulation; DASS-21; and the Self-Objectification Questionnaire) were administe...

  6. Jaspers, the body, and schizophrenia: the bodily self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Ferri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Karl Jaspers laid the foundations of contemporary psychopathology. Among Jaspers' contributions was his powerful vision of psychiatry as a crucial way to shed light on the human condition and existence by integrating the scientific study of psychic diseases with a theoretical approach focused on human experience. This perspective should be revitalized. In the present paper we start from the role Jaspers assigns to the body when discussing the notion of 'personalization'. We explore the relationship between a minimal notion of the self, the 'bodily self', and its potentiality for movement - the self's 'power for action'. Based on recent empirical evidence, we then propose a connection between the implicit bodily self-experience and important psychopathological aspects of schizophrenia by showing that schizophrenic patients exhibit a disruption of implicit bodily self-knowledge. We propose that the bodily nature of the implicitly experiencing self might enable the continuum of experience along which all visions of the world are located - both in healthy and psychotic individuals. The power for action might provide the possibility to give form to the bodily presence characterizing in the first place our being selves.

  7. Acquisition of a bodily-tactile language as first language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    towards Tactile Sign Language (TSL). The access to participation in complex TSL culture is crucial for language acquisition. We already know how to transfer the patterns of social interaction into the bodily-tactile modality. This is the fundation on which to build actual linguistic participation. TSL......Language acquisition in the bodily-tactile modality is difficult to understand, describe, and support. This chapter advocates a reinterpretation of the gestural and idiosyncratic bodily-tactile communication of people with congenital deafblindness (CDB) in terms of early language acquisition...... as a first language is presently a theoretic possibility. We need more research on how to accommodate TSL to language Development and on how to fit TSL into participation in complex cultural activities....

  8. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...... actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could...... be beneficial to address the truthfulness of science teachers’ narratives and actions....

  9. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic....

  10. Abnormal bodily experiences may be a marker of early schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Fusar Poli, Paolo; Cutting, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to answer the following question: What are the typical features of abnormal bodily experiences (ABEs) in persons affected by acute first-episode schizophrenia? Our overall objective is to contribute to enhance early diagnosis of schizophrenia, and providing supplementary diagnostic criteria especially for ultra-high risk patients. In a group of 39 patients with first-episode schizophrenia selected from a sample of 393 psychotic patients, 30 (76.9 %) reported ABEs. By means of a phenomenologically-based qualitative method of inquiry, we recognized four subtypes of ABEs whose main characteristics are dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, morbid objectivization/devitalization, dysmorphic experiences and pain-like experiences. These four typologies of ABEs are documented through the patients' first-person self-descriptions, and then operationally defined. Two main properties emerge as tentative eidetic (defining) cores of ABEs in early schizophrenia: dynamization of bodily boundaries and construction, and morbid objectivization/devitalization. Sharpening the diagnostic sensibility for typically schizophrenic ABEs can help improve differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and other disorders entailing other types of anomalies of lived corporeality. Also, studying possible transitions from schizophrenic cenesthopathies to bodily delusions in persons with schizophrenia may refine the concept of bizarre delusions by improving its validity. Furthermore, our knowledge about the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may profit from an in-depth assessment of ABEs and their relationship with an abnormal sense of selfhood, especially in early schizophrenia. PMID:22239570

  11. New procedure for declaring accidents resulting in bodily injuries

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of personnel that, according to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 3), entitled “Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work”, accidents resulting in bodily injuries and presumed to be of an occupational nature should, under normal circumstances, be declared within 10 working days of the accident having occurred, accompanied by a medical certificate. In an effort to streamline procedures, occupational accident declarations should be made via EDH using the “declaration of occupational accident” electronic form. For the declaration of non-occupational accidents resulting in bodily injuries of members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), a new paper form has been elaborated that can be downloaded from the CHIS website and is also available from the UNIQA Helpdesk in the Main Building. If you encounter technical difficulties with these new ...

  12. Fear modulates visual awareness similarly for facial and bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Stienen, Bernard M. C.; Beatrice ede Gelder

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundSocial interaction depends on a multitude of signals carrying information about the emotional state of others. Past research has focused on the perception of facial expressions while perception of whole body signals has only been studied recently. The relative importance of facial and bodily signals is still poorly understood. In order to better understand the relative contribution of affective signals from the face only or from the rest of the body we used a binocular rivalry exper...

  13. Fear modulates visual awareness similarly for facial and bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Stienen, Bernard M. C.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Background: Social interaction depends on a multitude of signals carrying information about the emotional state of others. But the relative importance of facial and bodily signals is still poorly understood. Past research has focused on the perception of facial expressions while perception of whole body signals has only been studied recently. In order to better understand the relative contribution of affective signals from the face only or from the whole body we performed two experiments usin...

  14. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOME BODILY VARIABLES IN ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS AND HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA VASILE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper performs a comparative analysis of some bodily variables (maximum bodily height, circumference and bodily weight in two cultured cyprinids species grown in a controlled system, namely: Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp, of various ages (starting with the first up to the fourth growth summer. The results obtained evidenced that, in the foursummer old the representatives of Aristichthys nobilis show slightly higher values than those of Hypophthalmichthys genus, for the all bodily variables taken into study.

  15. The Body of Hurt in Margaret Atwood's Novel Bodily Harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Gad Cykman

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Margaret Atwood’s novel BODILY HARM (1981 in regard to its exploration of the link between corporeality and contextuality, focusing on the relation between the historical and socio-cultural context in which identity is constructed and the female character’s perception of body and self. The character’s retrospective journey serves as a ground for a deconstruction of the character’s values, behavior, relationships, and discomfort with the body in order to reveal the power relations and social causes behind her present situation. The study focuses on the literary articulation of the problems of being female, the exploration of the relation between the biological body and the cultural concept of the body, and the criticism of social representations of women.

  16. American style or Turkish chair: the triumph of bodily comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Gülen

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the reciprocal influence of Ottoman Turkish and American interiors in the development of seating furniture. Seating furniture is unique because it involves a direct and physical interaction between the piece of furniture and the body, while at the same time it is part of a public space where social interactions occur. I will argue that the interactions between the Ottoman Turks and Americans are reflected in the way these traditions modified their seating furniture as they sought to mediate cultural, political and social differences between them. The concept of bodily comfort will serve as a common thread in understanding the origin of the expression "American style" (Amerikan stili or Amerikan tarzı) in modern Turkish language, the "Turkish chairs" in Victorian America in the late nineteenth century and the English language use of words such as sofa, ottoman and divan.

  17. The vestibular body: Vestibular contributions to bodily representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular signals are integrated with signals from other sensory modalities. This convergence could reflect an important mechanism for maintaining the perception of the body. Here we review the current literature in order to develop a framework for understanding how the vestibular system contributes to body representation. According to recent models, we distinguish between three processes for body representation, and we look at whether vestibular signals might influence each process. These are (i) somatosensation, the primary sensory processing of somatic stimuli, (ii) somatoperception, the processes of constructing percepts and experiences of somatic objects and events and (iii) somatorepresentation, the knowledge about the body as a physical object in the world. Vestibular signals appear to contribute to all three levels in this model of body processing. Thus, the traditional view of the vestibular system as a low-level, dedicated orienting module tends to underestimate the pervasive role of vestibular input in bodily self-awareness. PMID:27389959

  18. Timing of Visual Bodily Behavior in Repair Sequences: Evidence from Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Simeon; Manrique, Elizabeth; Rossi, Giovanni; Torreira, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article expands the study of other-initiated repair in conversation--when one party signals a problem with producing or perceiving another's turn at talk--into the domain of visual bodily behavior. It presents one primary cross-linguistic finding about the timing of visual bodily behavior in repair sequences: if the party who initiates repair…

  19. "It's all about the body": the bodily capital of armed response officers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Diphoorn

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the role of bodily capital in the daily policing practices of armed response officers, a specific type of private security officers, in Durban, South Africa. Based on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that the masculinized bodily capital of armed response office

  20. When the mind forms fear: embodied fear knowledge potentiates bodily reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Oosterwijk; M. Topper; M. Rotteveel; A.H. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested whether conceptual fear knowledge can (a) evoke bodily reactions and (b) enhance subsequent bodily reactions to fearful stimuli. Participants unscrambled neutral or fear sentences and subsequently viewed fearful and neutral pictures in combination with startl

  1. [Emotions and bodily experience in Hidradenitis Suppurative-Acne Inversa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, S; Bettoli, V; Agnoli, C; Caracciolo, S

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis Suppurative-Acne Inversa is one of the most debilitating chronic skin diseases. It seriously affects the emotional and relational life of the patient, it has a significant psychiatric comorbidity and it impairs the quality of life. We present the report of a clinical situation with onset of the illness in a young woman during pregnancy, a case characterized by particular evolution, severe systemic involvement, strong psycho-emotional impact on the patient and impairment of subjective well-being of the caregiver. The clinical evaluation highlights mainly the relevance of the bodily experience, that stands out as a central issue in the sufference of the patient. She feels an uncanny foreignness to herself and a lacerating wound of her identity, related to her desirability, her femininity and her motherhood. Specific personality factors, which are likely to have influenced and guided the experience of illness and the quality of the relationship with the treatment team, are also evaluated. This case exemplifies, at different levels, the clinical complexity of Hidradenitis Suppurative-Acne Inversa and its impact on individual subjectivity. This disease requires an integrated intervention by a multidisciplinary team, providing for the assessment, the treatment and the evaluation of outcomes. It is necessary an effective operational link between different competences, in order to promote the patient compliance and to activate and develop the best care and the right psychological support. PMID:27424511

  2. Neuroscience robotics to investigate multisensory integration and bodily awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenas, J; Chapuis, D; Pfeiffer, C; Martuzzi, R; Ionta, S; Blanke, O; Gassert, R

    2011-01-01

    Humans experience the self as localized within their body. This aspect of bodily self-consciousness can be experimentally manipulated by exposing individuals to conflicting multisensory input, or can be abnormal following focal brain injury. Recent technological developments helped to unravel some of the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration and self-location, but the neural underpinnings are still under investigation, and the manual application of stimuli resulted in large variability difficult to control. This paper presents the development and evaluation of an MR-compatible stroking device capable of presenting moving tactile stimuli to both legs and the back of participants lying on a scanner bed while acquiring functional neuroimaging data. The platform consists of four independent stroking devices with a travel of 16-20 cm and a maximum stroking velocity of 15 cm/s, actuated over non-magnetic ultrasonic motors. Complemented with virtual reality, this setup provides a unique research platform allowing to investigate multisensory integration and its effects on self-location under well-controlled experimental conditions. The MR-compatibility of the system was evaluated in both a 3 and a 7 Tesla scanner and showed negligible interference with brain imaging. In a preliminary study using a prototype device with only one tactile stimulator, fMRI data acquired on 12 healthy participants showed visuo-tactile synchrony-related and body-specific modulations of the brain activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex. PMID:22256283

  3. Fear modulates visual awareness similarly for facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M.C. Stienen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial interaction depends on a multitude of signals carrying information about the emotional state of others. Past research has focused on the perception of facial expressions while perception of whole body signals has only been studied recently. The relative importance of facial and bodily signals is still poorly understood. In order to better understand the relative contribution of affective signals from the face only or from the rest of the body we used a binocular rivalry experiment. This method seems to be perfectly suitable to contrast two classes of stimuli to test our processing sensitivity to either stimulus and to address the question how emotion modulates this sensitivity. We report in this paper two behavioral experiments addressing these questions.MethodIn the first experiment we directly contrasted fearful, angry and neutral bodies and faces. We always presented bodies in one eye and faces in the other simultaneously for 60 seconds and asked participants to report what they perceived. In the second experiment we focused specifically on the role of fearful expressions of faces and bodies.ResultsTaken together the two experiments show that there is no clear bias towards either the face or body when the expression of the body and face are neutral or angry. However, the perceptual dominance in favor of either the face of the body is a function of the stimulus class expressing fear.

  4. "It's All About the Body": The Bodily Capital of Armed Response Officers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphoorn, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the role of bodily capital in the daily policing practices of armed response officers, a specific type of private security officers, in Durban, South Africa. Based on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that the masculinized bodily capital of armed response officers is a key source of their sovereign power; it plays a central role in how they acquire and exert authority. Furthermore, I argue that an analysis of bodily capital should not solely analyze the actual flesh of the body, but must include particular equipment (such as bulletproof vests and firearms) that is experienced as a part of the body. PMID:25764391

  5. Influence of facilities of ski preparation on the bodily condition of teenagers 11-12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona V.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of bodily condition of teenagers were determined. A dynamics and increase of the explored indexes were analyzed in the process of ski preparation in the system of lessons of the physical culture of schoolchildren. The 156 teenagers at the age 11-12 years old took part in the experiment. The positive effect of ski training in the bodily condition of the investigated teenagers is proved. Reliable intercommunication was determined between the ski movements and indexes of bodily condition, which characterize work of the cardiovascular system.

  6. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...

  7. Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M; Price, Michael E; Kang, Jinsheng; Pound, Nicholas; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Hui

    2008-09-01

    Body size and shape seem to have been sexually selected in a variety of species, including humans, but little is known about what attractive bodies signal about underlying genotypic or phenotypic quality. A widely used indicator of phenotypic quality in evolutionary analyses is degree of symmetry (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny. Here we sought to establish whether attractive bodies signal low FA to observers, and, if so, which aspects of attractive bodies are most predictive of lower FA. We used a 3D optical body scanner to measure FA and to isolate size and shape characteristics in a sample of 77 individuals (40 males and 37 females). From the 3D body scan data, 360 degrees videos were created that separated body shape from other aspects of visual appearance (e.g., skin color and facial features). These videos then were presented to 87 evaluators for attractiveness ratings. We found strong negative correlations between FA and bodily attractiveness in both sexes. Further, sex-typical body size and shape characteristics were rated as attractive and correlated negatively with FA. Finally, geometric morphometric analysis of joint configurations revealed that sex-typical joint configurations were associated with both perceived attractiveness and lower FA for male but not for female bodies. In sum, body size and shape seem to show evidence of sexual selection and indicate important information about the phenotypic quality of individuals. PMID:18711125

  8. What role does sensation play in our awareness of bodily position?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandilands, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    I attempt to draw out some difficulties with what may at first seem an intuitive and uncontroversial picture of tactile sensation - a picture of tactile sensation as perception of spatial locations where these spatial locations serve as the units out of which we build our awareness of bodily position. Given these shortcomings, rather than continue to labour under this overall picture of tactile sensation as the epistemic foundation of our awareness of bodily position, I reverse the direction ...

  9. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Mariska eKret; Jeroen eStekelenburg; Karin eRoelofs; Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2013-01-01

    Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emo...

  10. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extraction may be accomplished by other qualified medical personnel. (iii) The authorizing official may... qualified medical personnel is independent of, and not limited by, provisions defining medical care, such as... will be accomplished by qualified medical personnel. (See MRE 312(g)). (1) In performing this...

  11. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H;

    2016-01-01

    : Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS...... anomalous bodily experiences had significantly lower physical activity compared with patients with fewer such experiences (p = 0.030). In linear regression analyses only negative symptoms were significantly correlated with low physical activity (β = -0.88; 95% confidence interval = -1.48 to -0.29; p < 0...

  12. A neuroscientific account of how vestibular disorders impair bodily self-consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eLopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of vestibular disorders on balance, oculomotor control and self-motion perception have been extensively described in humans and animals. More recently, vestibular disorders have been related to cognitive deficits in spatial navigation and memory tasks. Less frequently, abnormal bodily perceptions have been described in patients with vestibular disorders. Altered forms of bodily self-consciousness include distorted body image and body schema, disembodied self-location (out-of-body experience, altered sense of agency, as well as more complex experiences of dissociation and detachment from the self (depersonalization. In this article, I suggest that vestibular disorders create sensory conflict or mismatch in multisensory brain regions, producing perceptual incoherence and abnormal body and self perceptions. This hypothesis is based on recent functional mapping of the human vestibular cortex, showing vestibular projections to the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and in several multisensory areas found to be crucial for bodily self-consciousness.

  13. ‘“It’s all about the body”: the bodily capital of armed response officers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diphoorn, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the role of bodily capital in the daily policing practices of armed response officers, a specific type of private security officers, in Durban, South Africa. Based on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork, I argue that the masculinized bodily capital of armed response office

  14. The Complexity of Bodily Events through an Ethnographer's Gaze: Focusing on the Youngest Children in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossholt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical, methodological and analytical strategies for researching the material subject. The discussion relates to discursive practices in a preschool setting with children of one and two years of age, where the material subject includes both bodily and discursive practices. Using critical ethnography research, the author…

  15. Features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlanova M.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the peculiarities of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men. The urgency of this work due to the fact that currently in Russia to study the influence of the bodily aspect to the whole structure of gender identity is given little attention. At the present time the problem of studying the physicality involved in domestic psychologists: Arina G. A., V. V. Nikolaev, A. S. Kostov, A. N. Borojevic, B. T. Sokolov, V. Yu., Baskakov, who agree in opinion on the necessity to study the influence of the morpho-biological patterns of gender identity, her social and personal "add-on" – of sex-role stereotypes, perceptions, behavior, preferences. However, studies supporting their interaction was not performed [7]. In the paper the following definitions: "gender identity", "gender", "differential socialization", "the Adonis complex". Produced comprehensive analysis of foreign sources for a detailed understanding of the studied phenomenon; analysis of the structural components and characteristics of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men with the help of specifically chosen tutorials. Discovered the distinctive features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men and their reflection in sex-role behavior. We assume that men who are not satisfied with the perception of his own body, prone to distorted perceptions of sex-role images. The data obtained can provide the basis and prospects for development of programs of prevention, diagnostics and correction.

  16. Effects of bodily mood expression of a robotic teacher on students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our investigation into the effects of bodily mood expression of a humanoid robot in a scenario close to real life. To this end, we used the NAO robot to perform as a lecturer in a university class. To display either a positive or a negative mood, we modulated 41 co-verbal gestures

  17. Japanese Children's and Adults' Reasoning about the Consequences of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…

  18. ECAG 2008 Workshop: Facial and Bodily Expressions for Control and Adaptation of Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Poppe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In this workshop of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG 2008), the emphasis is on research on facial and bodily expressions for the control and adaptation of games. We distinguish between two forms of expressions, depending on whether the user has the

  19. Becoming a normal guy: Men making sense of long-term bodily changes following bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Synne Groven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, research on bodily changes following bariatric surgery has focused predominantly on women, leaving the long-term experience of men relatively unexplored. In this paper, we draw on interviews with men who have undergone an irreversible gastric bypass procedure to explore their bodily changes more than 4 years post-surgery. We apply a phenomenological framework that draws on Leder's perspectives on the “disappearing” and “dys-appearing” body, combined with a gender-sensitive lens that draws on Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity and Robertson's conceptions of embodied masculinity. Findings: Our principal finding was that the men negotiated their bodily changes following bariatric surgery in profoundly ambivalent ways. Although they enthusiastically praised the surgery for improving their health, self-esteem, and social functioning, they also emphasized their efforts to cope with post-surgical side effects and life-threatening complications. Our analysis elaborates on their efforts to adjust to and come to terms with these changes, focusing on episodes of hypoglycemia, severe pain and internal herniation, and the significance of physical activity and exercise. Conclusions: Our findings point to the need to acknowledge men's ways of making sense of profound and ongoing bodily changes following bariatric surgery and how these negotiations are closely intertwined with masculine ideals of embodiment and social value.

  20. Sexuality and subjectivity: erotic practices and the question of bodily sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spronk

    2014-01-01

    Although the history of anthropology shows various shifts in the way sexuality has been theorised, studies of the relation between sexuality and bodily sensations have remained limited. In this article I explore the concept of body-sensorial knowledge to understand the relation between the social si

  1. Senses, bodily knowledge, and autoethnography: unbeknown knowledge from an ICU experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotinen, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I discuss the possibilities and limits of bodily knowledge for research. The text is based on my personal experiences as a patient in an intensive care unit (ICU). It seems that through my senses I unconsciously gained knowledge of the time I spent in the ICU. To describe this specific form of bodily knowledge, I introduce the concept of "unbeknown" knowledge, and suggest that autoethnography is a useful method for analyzing this knowledge. In conclusion, I maintain that there is a certain hierarchy for both senses and knowledge and, in spite of the possible vagueness and fuzziness of the concept, unbeknown knowledge both enhances recovery and can be used for research purposes. PMID:21709128

  2. Senses, bodily knowledge, and autoethnography: unbeknown knowledge from an ICU experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotinen, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I discuss the possibilities and limits of bodily knowledge for research. The text is based on my personal experiences as a patient in an intensive care unit (ICU). It seems that through my senses I unconsciously gained knowledge of the time I spent in the ICU. To describe this specific form of bodily knowledge, I introduce the concept of "unbeknown" knowledge, and suggest that autoethnography is a useful method for analyzing this knowledge. In conclusion, I maintain that there is a certain hierarchy for both senses and knowledge and, in spite of the possible vagueness and fuzziness of the concept, unbeknown knowledge both enhances recovery and can be used for research purposes.

  3. Nathan Field's theatre of excess: youth culture and bodily excess on the early modern stage

    OpenAIRE

    Orman, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation argues for the reappraisal of Jacobean boy actors by acknowledging their status as youths. Focussing on the repertory of The Children of the Queen’s Revels and using the acting and playwriting career of Nathan Field as an extensive case-study, it argues, via an investigation into cultural and theatrical bodily excess, that the theatre was a profoundly significant space in which youth culture was shaped and problematised. In defining youth culture as a space for the assertion...

  4. Panic Reactivity to Voluntary Hyperventilation Challenge Predicts Distress Tolerance to Bodily Sensations among Daily Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Erin C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Gregor, Kristin; Gibson, Laura E.; Leyro, Teresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation examined the extent to which panic reactivity to bodily sensations is related to distress tolerance (DT) among daily smokers. It was hypothesized that panic reactivity to an initial voluntary hyperventilation (i.e., whether participants met criteria for a DSM-IV panic attack; PA) would predict the relative degree of task persistence on a second hyperventilation trial (DT) above and beyond the variance accounted for by anxiety sensitivity (AS), negative affectivity (N...

  5. Bodily Attraction: How Self-Perceived Attractiveness May Influence Judgement of Potential Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary theory has suggested that there are specific bodily traits that humans find attractive when looking for a potential partner. If the aspiration levels of attractiveness were based on personality measures such as self-perceived attractiveness, self-esteem, narcissism and self-perceived mating success then those who score highly in these measures would have higher aspirational levels and rate bodies with sexually dimorphic traits as more attractive. This study aimed to look at t...

  6. Squid Have Nociceptors That Display Widespread Long-Term Sensitization and Spontaneous Activity after Bodily Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, Robyn J.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Walters, Edgar T.

    2013-01-01

    Bodily injury in mammals often produces persistent pain that is driven at least in part by long-lasting sensitization and spontaneous activity (SA) in peripheral branches of primary nociceptors near sites of injury. While nociceptors have been described in lower vertebrates and invertebrates, outside of mammals there is limited evidence for peripheral sensitization of primary afferent neurons, and there are no reports of persistent SA being induced in primary afferents by noxious stimulation....

  7. ECAG 2008 Workshop: Facial and Bodily Expressions for Control and Adaptation of Games

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Poppe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In this workshop of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG 2008), the emphasis is on research on facial and bodily expressions for the control and adaptation of games. We distinguish between two forms of expressions, depending on whether the user has the initiative and consciously uses his or her movements and expressions to control the interface, or whether the application takes the initiative to adapt itself to the affective state of the user as ...

  8. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska eKret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body compounds. Participants’ fixations were measured and their pupil size recorded with eye-tracking equipment, and their facial reactions measured with electromyography (EMG. The behavioral results support our prediction that the recognition of a facial expression is improved in the context of a matching posture and importantly, also vice versa. From their facial expression, it appeared that observers acted with signs of negative emotionality (increased corrugator activity to angry and fearful facial expressions and with positive emotionality (increased zygomaticus to happy facial expressions. What we predicted and found, was that angry and fearful cues from the face or the body, attracted more attention than happy cues. We further observed that responses evoked by angry cues were amplified in individuals with high anxiety scores. In sum, we show that people process bodily expressions of emotion in a similar fashion as facial expressions and that the congruency between the emotional signals from the face and body ameliorates the recognition of the emotion.

  9. Doubles everywhere: literary contributions to the study of the bodily self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The topic of the double is a hallmark of romantic, gothic, and fantastic literature. In the guise of the second self, the alter ego or the doppelgänger, fictional doubles have long fascinated critics, clinicians, and scientists. We review classical approaches to the theme and propose a broad clinical and neurocognitive framework from which to examine major instances of the motif in literature. Based on neurological disorders of the bodily self (including unilateral and whole body illusions and duplications), as well as related experimental approaches, we provide examples of literary depictions of bodily fragmentation and splitting; autoscopic hallucinations; the classical doppelgänger, second self, or heautoscopic double; the feeling of a presence; out-of-body experiences; and so-called near-death experiences. Examples include works from Guy de Maupassant, E.T.A. Hoffman, Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Rudyard Kipling, and others. We discuss these literary cases of doubles from a neurocognitive perspective, and suggest that common mechanisms of the bodily self are involved in the emergence of pathological illusory doubles, literary creations of the double, as well as widespread cultural and religious beliefs about the existence of doubles and the soul.

  10. Bodily-material resources in CSCL:Children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning of scale around touchscreens

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation to communication, learning and collaboration and how they are used to organise intra- and inter-psychological processes. By presenting two short video excerpts of children working with the concept of scale ...

  11. Bodily Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

      Sport has gained increasing importance for welfare society. In this process, however, the term of ‘sport' has become less and less clear. Larger parts of what nowadays is called ‘sport for all' are non-competitive and derived from traditions of gymnastics, dance, festivity, games, outdoor activ...... to a philosophy of practice as well as to a phenomenological understanding of ‘the people', of civil society and the ‘demos' of democracy - as folk in movement....

  12. Bodily Tides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardling Rosemary.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium tide model in the weak friction approximation is used by the binary star and exoplanet communities to study the tidal evolution of short-period systems. However, each uses a slightly different approach which potentially leads to different conclusions about the timescales on which various processes occur. Here we present an overview of these two approaches, and show that for short-period planets the circularization timescales they predict differ by at most a factor of a few. A discussion of the timescales for orbital decay, spin-orbit synchronization and spin-oribt alignment is also presented.

  13. Wandering body, wandering mind? The relationship between bodily movement, creativity and mind wandering

    OpenAIRE

    Opdal, Ida Marie

    2015-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that creativity may be related to mind wandering. Recent work has shown that bodily movement is related to both creativity and mind wandering. In the current experiment, we examined the question as to whether mind wandering and creativity would be simultaneously enhanced during an active walking condition relative to an inactive control condition. The experiment included 30 students (between the age of 19 and 32, 18 females and 12 males) from the UiT – Norway’s A...

  14. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not. PMID:25009441

  15. The body language: The spontaneous influence of congruent bodily arousal on the awareness of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kever, Anne; Grynberg, Delphine; Eeckhout, Coralie; Mermillod, Martial; Fantini, Carole; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, the idea of a reciprocal influence of physiological and psychological processes seems to be widely accepted. For instance, current theories of embodied emotion suggest that knowledge about an emotion concept involves simulations of bodily experienced emotional states relevant to the concept. In line with this framework, the present study investigated whether actual levels of physiological arousal interact with the processing of emotional words. Participants performed 2 blocks of an attentional blink task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal) and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Concretely, participants were instructed to detect and report 2 target words (T1 and T2) presented among a series of nonword distractors. T1 and T2 were either neutral, high arousal, or low arousal words. Results revealed that increased physiological arousal led to improved reports of high arousal T2 words, whereas reduced physiological arousal led to improved reports of low arousal T2 words. Neutral T2 remained unaffected by the arousing conditions. These findings emphasize that actual levels of physiological arousal modulate the cognitive access to arousal (in-)congruent emotional concepts and suggest a direct grounding of emotion knowledge in our bodily systems of arousal. PMID:25915069

  16. Using Virtual Reality to Distract Overweight Children from Bodily Sensations During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Escobar, Patricia; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Alvarez Pitti, Julio; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Botella, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the potential of virtual reality (VR) to enhance attentional distraction in overweight children as they experience bodily sensations during exercise. It has been suggested that one reason why obese children stop exercising is the perception of bodily sensations. In a counterbalanced design, a total of 109 children (33 overweight, 10-15 years old) were asked to walk twice for 6 minutes on a treadmill under one of two conditions: (a) traditional condition (TC)-focusing their attention on their physical feelings and sensations or (b) distraction condition (DC)-focusing their attention on a virtual environment. Attentional focus during exercise, bad-good feeling states (pre- and postexperimental), perceived exertion (3 minutes and post), heart rate, and enjoyment were assessed. Results indicated that overweight children focused on internal information under the TC, but they significantly shifted their attention to regard the external environment in the DC. This attentional distraction effect of VR was more intense in overweight than in normal-weight children. No differences between groups were found when examining changes in feeling states and perceived exertion. VR increased enjoyment during exercise, and children preferred exercise using virtual environments. VR is useful to promote distraction and may help overweight and obese children to enjoy exercise. PMID:26882326

  17. The Impact of Aging and Alzheimer's Disease on Decoding Emotion Cues from Bodily Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Insch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both healthy aging and dementia cause problems with emotion perception, and the impairment is generally greater for specific emotions (anger, sadness and fear. Most studies to date have focused on static facial photographs of emotions. The current study investigated the effects of healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD on the ability to decode emotions from bodily motion displayed by point light stimuli. Response biases were controlled to investigate whether these influenced the specificity of impairment in perceiving individual emotions. Study 1 compared healthy young and older adults, and Study 2 people with AD and age-matched controls, on an emotion perception task using point light stimuli. Accuracy and the pattern of errors were investigated. Specific age-related impairments were found in labeling sadness, anger and fear from point light displays. Response biases were also found, and controlling for these biases indicated that older adults were worse at labeling all emotions. People with AD were less accurate than healthy older controls at labeling fear, anger and sadness. After controlling for response biases, AD caused impairment in perceiving all emotions. These results indicate a general age-related impairment in decoding emotions from bodily motion, and a further impairment in this skill in AD. Apparent specificity of deficits in emotion labeling tasks needs to be interpreted cautiously, and correction for response bias should be considered. Problems perceiving emotion cues from biological motion might impair social interaction in older adults, particularly those with dementia.

  18. Individual differences in bodily freezing predict emotional biases in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena eLy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental decision making has long been argued to be vulnerable to emotional responses. Literature on multiple decision making systems suggests that this emotional biasing might reflect effects of a system that regulates innately specified, evolutionarily preprogrammed responses. To test this hypothesis directly, we investigated whether effects of emotional faces on instrumental action can be predicted by effects of emotional faces on bodily freezing, an innately specified response to aversive relative to appetitive cues. We tested forty-three women using a novel emotional decision making task combined with posturography, which involves a force platform to detect small oscillations of the body to accurately quantify postural control in upright stance. On the platform, participants learned whole body approach-avoidance actions based on monetary feedback, while being primed by emotional faces (angry/happy. Our data evidence an emotional biasing of instrumental action. Thus, angry relative to happy faces slowed instrumental approach relative to avoidance responses. Critically, individual differences in this emotional biasing effect were predicted by individual differences in bodily freezing. This result suggests that emotional biasing of instrumental action involves interaction with a system that controls innately specified responses. Furthermore, our findings help bridge (animal and human decision making and emotion research to advance our mechanistic understanding of decision making anomalies in daily encounters as well as in a wide range of psychopathology.

  19. DIALOGISM, DECODING AND INTERACTIVE DIGITAL MARKETING CONCERNING THE BODILY PRACTICES IN THE ON-LINE VIDEO OLYMPIKUS.MOV FESTIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Godoi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to understand the meanings associated bodily practices in the videos of the festival OLYMPIKUS.MOV, and also analyze the reception/interaction Internet users on these videos. The methodology consisted the description of the videos, the selection of comments and further analysis based on the notion of dialogic language of Mikhail Bakhtin and the types of decoding Stuart Hall. We concluded that there was a large range of bodily practices and meanings related to them in the videos. Reception/interaction Internet provides a critical dialogue, congratulation, and suggestive questioning on the videos.

  20. Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor...... ability test "Korperkoordinationstest fur Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient ...

  1. Establishment of Exposure to Organophosphorus Warfare Agents by Means of SPME-GSMS Analysis of Bodily Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable chemical analytical procedures for revealing an exposure to toxic chemicals, identifying the active substance, and assessing the degree of exposure are necessary as a component of medical and forensic activities in cases of the possible use of highly toxic chemicals in war conflicts and terrorism acts, as well as emergency situations in chemical industry, specifically at chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities. According to Chemical Weapons Convention, Part XI, Appendix 4, e-17, 'samples of importance in the investigation of alleged use include biomedical samples from human or animal sources (blood, urine, excreta, tissue etc.)'. Urinary metabolites, O-alkyl esters of methylphosphic acid, offer one of the simplest means of confirming an exposure to organophosphorus warfare agents (OPWA). Urine, unlike blood or tissues, does not require invasive collection demanding in terms of sterility. Excretion with urine is the major route of elimination of OPWA from an organism. According to published data, 90% of OPWA metabolites are excreted within 48-72 h after intoxication. We developed an SPME-GCMS procedure for the determination of O-alkyl esters methylphosphonic acid in urine, with the following detection limits,: isopropyl and isobutyl esters 5 ng/ml and pinacolyl ester 1 ng/ml. The procedure involves derivatization of the target compounds directly on the microfiber. The total analysis time is 1-1.5 h. In animal experiments in vivo we could establish the exposure to OPWA at a half-LD50 level within no less than 48 h after intoxication. In principle, OPWA metabolites could be detected in urine within two weeks after intoxication but at higher doses. Retrospective analysis of urinary metabolites in cases of the exposure to low doses of OPWA requires lower detection limits (0.1-1 ng/ml). Optimal objects for the retrospective analysis of OPWA in an organism are long-lived blood protein adducts. We developed a procedure for revealing an exposure to soman, involving reactivation of inhibited blood butyryl choline esterase with fluoride ion to liberate soman and its subsequent combined SPME-GCMS analysis. The procedure allows determination of total blood soman and separate determination of reactivated and intact soman. Analysis for total blood soman is used to reveal an exposure to this agent. Separate determination of reactivated and intact soman provides a valuable tool for toxicokinetic research. The sensitivity of the determination is no worse than 0.5 ng/ml. The average total analysis time is 1.5 h. The procedure was approved in experiments with human blood in vitro and with rat blood in vivo.(author)

  2. Fallen uterus: social suffering, bodily vigor, and social support among women in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Oka, Vania

    2014-03-01

    This article focuses on rural indigenous Mexican women's experiences with uterine prolapse, particularly the illness's expression of social suffering. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted during 2004-2005 and 2007 in a Nahua village in the state of Veracruz, the article analyzes the multifactorial nature of women's social suffering. Results show that the roots of uterine displacement for the women lie in lack of social relations and in perceptions of bodily vigor. Additionally, inequality present in the women's interactions with mainstream Mexico brings into focus the larger structural factors that shape their reproductive health. The implications of research on the effect of social support on women's embodiment of social suffering can extend beyond one illness, linking it to broader issues shaping the health of marginalized populations.

  3. System of estimations and prognostications of bodily condition of skilled sportsmen in track-and-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnyk V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of estimation and prognostication of bodily condition of skilled athletes is presented. The system includes the complex of pedagogical tests, evaluation tables, estimation of the functional state vegetative, nervous, cardiovascular systems, system of the external breathing. 436 sportsmen took part in research (212 women and 224 men. The analysis of electrocardiography is conducted, variability of cardiac rhythm, determination of vegetative balance, state of myocardium, violations of rhythm of heart, spirometric researches. The estimation of efficiency of activity of sportsman in extreme terms on the basis of type and properties of temperament, level of personality anxiety and estimation of psychological reliability of sportsmen is presented. The criteria of estimation of physical preparedness are certain, functional state of the basic systems of organism, influencing in a greater degree on achievement of high sporting results, psychological state of sportsmen.

  4. Living with digestive stomas: strategies to cope with the new bodily reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Bonill-de-las-Nieves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the objective in this study was to describe the strategies developed by digestive stoma patients to cope with their situation.METHOD: a qualitative and descriptive study was undertaken, involving 21 stoma patients living in the provinces of Málaga and Granada (Spain. The informants were selected in accordance with criteria of appropriateness and diversity, through intentional sampling. The data were collected by means of semistructured interviews.RESULTS: the content analysis revealed three categories around which the distinct strategies were developed: Self-care, Adaptation to the bodily change and Self-help.CONCLUSION: the strategies developed are focusing on achieving the effective management of the stoma and are closely linked with the achievement of autonomy. Discovering the strategies applied is fundamental for the nursing professionals to offer high-quality care, centered on people and their process.

  5. Pain and disgust: the facial signaling of two aversive bodily experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Peter, Jessica; Huster, Sonja; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The experience of pain and disgust share many similarities, given that both are aversive experiences resulting from bodily threat and leading to defensive reactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether facial expressions are distinct enough to encode the specific quality of pain and disgust or whether they just encode the similar negative valence and arousal level of both states. In sixty participants pain and disgust were induced by heat stimuli and pictures, respectively. Facial responses (Facial Action Coding System) as well as subjective responses were assessed. Our main findings were that nearly the same single facial actions were elicited during pain and disgust experiences. However, these single facial actions were displayed with different strength and were differently combined depending on whether pain or disgust was experienced. Whereas pain was mostly encoded by contraction of the muscles surrounding the eyes (by itself or in combination with contraction of the eyebrows); disgust was mainly accompanied by contraction of the eyebrows and--in contrast to pain--by raising of the upper lip as well as the combination of upper lip raise and eyebrow contraction. Our data clearly suggests that facial expressions seem to be distinct enough to encode not only the general valence and arousal associated with these two bodily aversive experiences, namely pain and disgust, but also the specific origin of the threat to the body. This implies that the differential decoding of these two states by an observer is possible without additional verbal or contextual information, which is of special interest for clinical practice, given that raising awareness in observers about these distinct differences could help to improve the detection of pain in patients who are not able to provide a self-report of pain (e.g., patients with dementia).

  6. Bodily lower stratum in mediatic images O rebaixamento corporal nas imagens midiáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Arimathéia Cordeiro Custódio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reading of grotesque shown in visual medias, mainly television. The discussion is supported by the ideas of bodily lower stratum as proposed by Mikhail Bakhtin in his work about popular culture at final Middle Ages and Renaissance, based on François Rabelais’s literary creations. The study explains the anthropological dimensions of the human body; defines the bodily lower stratum from the standpoint of bakhtinian thought; presents aspects of the mentality and the cultural scenario at the end of the medieval period, with emphasis on carnivalization and desacralization of the human body; and discusses the notions of renascentist grotesque realism updated in the context of contemporary mediatic images. Este artigo faz uma leitura do grotesco apresentado nas mídias visuais, sobretudo a televisão. Fundamenta a reflexão nas idéias de rebaixamento corporal propostas por Mikhail Bakhtin em sua obra sobre a cultura popular no final da Idade Média e Renascimento, à luz das criações literárias de François Rabelais. O estudo expõe dimensões antropológicas do corpo humano; define o rebaixamento a partir do pensamento bakhtiniano; apresenta aspectos da mentalidade e do cenário cultural do fim do medievo, com ênfase na carnavalização e dessacralização do corpo humano; e discute as noções do realismo grotesco renascentista atualizadas no contexto das imagens midiáticas contemporâneas.

  7. Pain and disgust: the facial signaling of two aversive bodily experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kunz

    Full Text Available The experience of pain and disgust share many similarities, given that both are aversive experiences resulting from bodily threat and leading to defensive reactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether facial expressions are distinct enough to encode the specific quality of pain and disgust or whether they just encode the similar negative valence and arousal level of both states. In sixty participants pain and disgust were induced by heat stimuli and pictures, respectively. Facial responses (Facial Action Coding System as well as subjective responses were assessed. Our main findings were that nearly the same single facial actions were elicited during pain and disgust experiences. However, these single facial actions were displayed with different strength and were differently combined depending on whether pain or disgust was experienced. Whereas pain was mostly encoded by contraction of the muscles surrounding the eyes (by itself or in combination with contraction of the eyebrows; disgust was mainly accompanied by contraction of the eyebrows and--in contrast to pain--by raising of the upper lip as well as the combination of upper lip raise and eyebrow contraction. Our data clearly suggests that facial expressions seem to be distinct enough to encode not only the general valence and arousal associated with these two bodily aversive experiences, namely pain and disgust, but also the specific origin of the threat to the body. This implies that the differential decoding of these two states by an observer is possible without additional verbal or contextual information, which is of special interest for clinical practice, given that raising awareness in observers about these distinct differences could help to improve the detection of pain in patients who are not able to provide a self-report of pain (e.g., patients with dementia.

  8. Relationships of Depression to Child and Adult Abuse and Bodily Pain among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…

  9. Thinking big: The effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral m

  10. Bodily Moral Disgust: What It Is, How It Is Different from Anger, and Why It Is an Unreasoned Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Pascale Sophie; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2013-01-01

    With the recent upswing in research interest on the moral implications of disgust, there has been uncertainty about what kind of situations elicit moral disgust and whether disgust is a rational or irrational player in moral decision making. We first outline the benefits of distinguishing between bodily violations (e.g., sexual taboos, such as…

  11. The Thread of the Research on Japanese Bodily Knowledge%日本身体知研究的脉络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水泉; 刘小璐; 黄霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to clear the possibility of research on sports’ bodily knowledge ,clearing totally in some Japanese researches and some results as follows .(1) Concerning about the bodily knowledge in sports field aims to publicize the special value of sports in school education;But the purpose of bodily knowledge concerned in school education is criticizing the disadvantage .(2)The research orientation can be divided into three types as below .The movement learning and education in sports studies in general;The cultural studies focused on bodily knowledge;The mechanism theory in revealing the structure and function of bodily knowledge .(3)Resear‐ches in the mechanism theory and the significance of phenomenology on bodily knowledge has given prominence to emphasize on the bodily knowledge’s origin features in movement learning ,and mainly investigated the mechanism of its occurrence ,development and derivation ;Researches in physical science field aim to improve the effective of movement learning ,and attach importance to recurring to the digital description to take the internal perception into verbal .%为了清晰体育中身体知研究的可能性,对日本的相关研究进行了全面梳理,结论如下。(1)体育领域关注身体知,主要是为了宣扬学校教育中体育的独特价值;学校教育关注身体知,则是为了批判此前学校教育的弊端。(2)研究取向上,可归为三类:广义的运动学习与运动教育论、以身体知为焦点的文化论、揭示身体知的结构及机能的机制论。(3)身体知的机制论研究方面,现象学意义上的相关研究,突出强调身体知在运动学习中的始源特征,主要探讨了其发生、发展与传承的机制,自然科学领域的相关研究,以提高运动学习的实效性动机,重视借助数学描述把内在知觉言语化。

  12. Seeing and feeling architecture: how bodily self-consciousness alters architectonic experience and affects the perception of interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella ePasqualini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries architectural theory evolved several notions of embodiment, proposing in the 19th and 20th century that architectonic experience is related to physiological responses of the observer. Recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of embodiment (or bodily self-consciousness enable empirical studies of architectonic embodiment. Here, we investigated how architecture modulates bodily self-consciousness by adapting a video-based virtual reality setup previously used to investigate visuo-tactile mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness. While standing in two different interiors, participants were filmed from behind and watched their own virtual body online on a head-mounted display. Visuo-tactile strokes were applied in synchronous or asynchronous mode to the participants and their virtual body. Two interiors were simulated in the laboratory by placing the sidewalls either far or near from the participants, generating a large and narrow room. We tested if bodily self-consciousness was differently modulated when participants were exposed to both rooms and whether these changes depend on visuo-tactile stimulation. We measured illusory touch, self-identification and performed length estimations. Our data show that synchronous stroking of the physical and the virtual body induces illusory touch and self-identification with the virtual body, independent of room-size. Moreover, in the narrow room we observed weak feelings of illusory touch with the sidewalls and of approaching walls. These subjective changes were complemented by a stroking-dependent modulation of length estimation only in the narrow room with participants judging the room-size more accurately during conditions of illusory self-identification. We discuss our findings and previous notions of architectonic embodiment in the context of the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness and propose an empirical framework grounded in architecture, cognitive neuroscience

  13. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  14. Xenomelia: a social neuroscience view of altered bodily self-consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBrugger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenomelia, the "foreign limb syndrome", is characterized by the non-acceptance of one or more of one’s own extremities and the resulting desire for elective limb amputation or paralysis. Formerly labeled 'body integrity identity disorder' (BIID, the condition was originally considered a psychological or psychiatric disorder, but a brain-centered Zeitgeist and a rapidly growing interest in the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness has shifted the focus towards dysfunctional central nervous system circuits. The present article outlays both mind-based and brain-based views highlighting their shortcomings. We propose that full insight into what should be conceived a xenomelia spectrum disorder will require interpretation of individual symptomatology in a social context. A proper social neuroscience of xenomelia respects the functional neuroanatomy of corporeal awareness, but also acknowledges the brain’s plasticity in response to an individual’s history, which is lived against a cultural background. This integrated view of xenomelia will promote the subfield of consciousness research concerned with the unity of body and self.

  15. Embodied mental rotation: A special link between egocentric transformation and the bodily self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eKaltner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the influence of motor expertise on object-based versus egocentric transformations in a chronometric mental rotation task using images of either the own or another person’s body as stimulus material. According to the embodied cognition viewpoint, we hypothesized motor-experts to outperform non-motor experts specifically in the egocentric condition because of higher kinesthetic representation and motor simulations compared to object-based transformations. In line with this, we expected that images of the own body are solved faster than another person’s body stimuli. Results showed a benefit of motor expertise and representations of another person’s body, but only for the object-based transformation task. That is, this other-advantage diminishes in egocentric transformations. Since motor experts didn’t show any specific expertise in rotational movements, we concluded that using human bodies as stimulus material elicits embodied spatial transformations, which facilitates performance exclusively for egocentric transformations. Regarding stimulus material, the other-advantage ascribed to increased self-awareness-consciousness distracting attention-demanding resources, disappeared in the egocentric condition. This result may be due to the stronger link between the bodily self and motor representations compared to that emerging in object-based transformations.

  16. A novel route for the removal of bodily heavy metal lead (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weirong; Zhang, Penghua; Xu, Hui; Chang, Shengli; He, Yongju; Wang, Fei; Liang, Gaowei

    2015-09-01

    The lead ion concentration in bile is considerably higher than in blood, and bile is released into the alimentary tract. Thiol-modified SBA-15 administered orally can combine with lead ions in the alimentary tract. In this paper, the in vitro lead absorption of bile was investigated. This thiol-modified SBA-15 material was used in pharmacodynamics studies on rabbits. The result that the lead content in faeces was notably higher indicates that thiol-modified SBA-15 can efficiently remove lead. The mechanism could include the following: thiol-modified SBA-15 material cuts off the heavy metal lead recirculation in the process of bile enterohepatic circulation by chelating the lead in the alimentary tract, causing a certain proportion of lead to be removed by the thiol mesoporous material, and the lead is subsequently egested out of the body in faeces. The results indicate that this material might be a potential non-injection material for the removal bodily heavy metal lead in the alimentary tract. This material may also be a useful means of lead removal, especially for non-acute sub-poisoning symptoms.

  17. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)

  18. The Theory of Bodily Tides. I. The Models and the Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Efroimsky, M

    2006-01-01

    The MacDonald-Kaula-Gerstenkorn theory of bodily tides assumes constancy of the geometric lag angle, while the Singer-Mignard theory asserts constancy of the time lag. Each of these two models is tacitly based on a particular law of the geometric lag's dependence upon the main frequency of the tidal flexure. In the theory of Gerstenkorn (1955), MacDonald (1964), and Kaula (1964) the angular lag is proportional to the frequency to the power of zero, while in the theory of Singer (1968) and Mignard (1979, 1980) it is proportional to the frequency to the power of one. The actual dependence of the lag on the frequency is expected to be more complicated. Its functional form will be determined by the rheology of the planet. Each particular functional form of this dependence will unambiguously fix the form of the frequency dependence of the tidal quality factor Q. Since at present we know the functional dependence of Q upon the frequency, it enables us to reverse our line of reasoning and to single out the appropria...

  19. The afterlife of the slide: exploring emotional attachment to artefactualised bodily traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I explore the role of the slide, not as familiar scientific object, but rather as a fixed remnant that testifies to the lived experience of an individual. Returning to the scene of the public scandal that surrounded the unauthorised retention of children's organs and tissues at two British hospitals in the late 1990s, I investigate the emotional significance that here came to be attached to archived slides. In so doing I draw attention to the ways in which the facticity of the slide--its ability to testify to the fact, or the existence, not only of the person from whom it is drawn, but also, when created for histopathological reasons, the disease that ultimately killed them--acts to efface their presumed ephemerality. In the final section of the paper I turn to consider how the events that I describe have come to shape the ways in which this kind of highly artefactualised bodily material is now accommodated in the institutional setting of the tissue bank and with what implications for research and the wider dissemination of scientific knowledge. Specifically, I explore how and why slides have come to acquire a "personality" and, with it, something akin to legally constituted "personality rights" including rights relating to publicity and privacy.

  20. Bodily Practices as Vehicles for Dehumanization in an Institution for Mental Defectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Malacrida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of dehumanization that occurred in the Michener Center, a total institution for the purported care and training of people deemed to be mental defectives[1] that operated in Alberta, Canada. I report on qualitative interviews with 22 survivors, three ex-workers, and the institutional archival record, drawing out the ways that dehumanization was accomplished through bodily means and the construction of embodied otherness along several axes. First, inmates’ bodies were erased or debased as unruly matter out of place that disturbed the order of rational modernity, a move that meant inmates were not seen as deserving or even requiring of normal human consideration. Spatial practices within the institution included panopticism and isolation, constructing inmates as not only docile but as unworthy of contact and interaction. Dehumanization was also seen as necessary to and facilitative of patient care; to produce inmates as subhuman permitted efficiency, but also neglect and abuse. Finally, practices of hygiene and sequestering the polluting bodies of those deemed mentally defective sustained and justified dehumanization. These practices had profound effects for inmates and also for those charged with caring for them.[1] This was the terminology used to describe people deemed to have intellectual disabilities during much of the 20th century in the West.

  1. Infant attachment predicts bodily freezing in adolescence: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. M. Niermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Early life-stress, particularly maternal deprivation, is associated with long-lasting deviations in animals’ freezing responses. Given the relevance of freezing for stress-coping, translational research is needed to examine the relation between insecure infant-parent attachment and bodily freezing-like behavior in humans. Therefore, we investigated threat-related reductions in body sway (indicative of freezing-like behavior in 14-year-old adolescents (N=79, for whom attachment security was earlier assessed in infancy. As expected, insecure (versus secure attachment was associated with less body sway for angry versus neutral faces. This effect remained when controlling for intermediate life-events. These results suggest that the long-lasting effects of early negative caregiving experiences on the human stress and threat systems extend to the primary defensive reaction of freezing. Additionally, we replicated earlier work in adults, by observing a significant correlation (in adolescents assessed as securely attached between subjective state anxiety and reduced body sway in response to angry versus neutral faces. Together, this research opens venues to start exploring the role of freezing in the development of human psychopathology.

  2. Appraisal of space words and allocation of emotion words in bodily space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos

    Full Text Available The body-specificity hypothesis (BSH predicts that right-handers and left-handers allocate positive and negative concepts differently on the horizontal plane, i.e., while left-handers allocate negative concepts on the right-hand side of their bodily space, right-handers allocate such concepts to the left-hand side. Similar research shows that people, in general, tend to allocate positive and negative concepts in upper and lower areas, respectively, in relation to the vertical plane. Further research shows a higher salience of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the performance of sensorimotor tasks. The aim of the paper is to examine whether there should be a dominance of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane, not only at a sensorimotor level but also at a conceptual level. In Experiment 1, various participants from diverse linguistic backgrounds were asked to rate the words "up", "down", "left", and "right". In Experiment 2, right-handed participants from two linguistic backgrounds were asked to allocate emotion words into a square grid divided into four boxes of equal areas. Results suggest that the vertical plane is more salient than the horizontal plane regarding the allocation of emotion words and positively-valenced words were placed in upper locations whereas negatively-valenced words were placed in lower locations. Together, the results lend support to the BSH while also suggesting a higher saliency of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the allocation of valenced words.

  3. Modifying Bodily Self-Awareness during Acupuncture Needle Stimulation Using the Rubber Hand Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rubber hand illusion (RHI is an experimental paradigm that manipulates important aspects of body self-awareness. Objectives. We were interested in whether modifying bodily self-awareness by manipulation of body ownership and visual expectations using the RHI would change the subjective perception of pain as well as the autonomic response to acupuncture needle stimulation. Methods. Acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the real hand during the RHI with (experiment 1 or without (experiment 2 visual expectation while measuring concurrent autonomic changes such as the skin conductance response (SCR. Subjective responses such as perception of the RHI and perceived pain were measured by questionnaires. Results. In experiment 1, the amplitude of the increase in SCR was visibly higher during the synchronous session compared with that of the asynchronous session. In experiment 2, the amplitude of the increase of SCR was lower for the synchronous session compared with that for the asynchronous session. Comparing these two experiments, the visual expectation of needle stimulation produced a greater autonomic response to acupuncture stimulation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the sympathetic response to acupuncture needle stimulation is primarily influenced by visual expectation rather than by modifications of body ownership.

  4. Methods of estimation of bodily condition of sportsmen of different qualification, specialized in at run on short and middle distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryvoruchenko O.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of bodily condition of sportsmen of different qualification, which are specialized in at run on short and middle distances, is presented. A method takes into account the informing criteria of estimation of physical preparedness and functional state of the cardiovascular system of sportsmen. It contains the complex of pedagogical tests, evaluation tables, model indexes of cardiography, determinations of type of the vegetative adjusting of cardiac rhythm and classification of the functional states of sportsmen. 110 skilled sportsmen took part in an experiment (men, age is 16 - 21 year. Indexes, which possibility operatively to estimate the bodily condition of sportsmen, select leaders from the group of sportsmen with an identical sporting result for the subsequent including in the complement of collapsible command is on, are set. Directions of prognostication of sporting result of concrete sportsman are rotined.

  5. Attempt at a medicolegal assessment of radiation damage as bodily injury. Der Versuch einer gerichtsmedizinischen Beurteilung des Strahlenschadens als Koerperverletzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J.

    1970-02-20

    The dissertation shows on which basis an unsuccessful therapy or the inevitable consequence of therapy, radiation damage, can be prosecuted under penal law as bodily injury. A description is given of the nature and the different types of ionizing radiation, effects on the cell and on the human organism, types of damage, different degrees of sensitivity of the various organs, signs and symptoms in the human body, maximum doses, legal restrictions for different patient groups and organs. The problems involved in objectification and establishing a causal relationship between ionizing radiation and the manifest damage are pointed out clearly. The legal part of the work examines negligence, obligation to inform the patient, obligation to exercise due care, failure to do so and malpractice as possible criteria for culpable infliction of bodily injury. (HSCH).

  6. Vestibular contributions to a right-hemisphere network for bodily awareness: combining galvanic vestibular stimulation and the "Rubber Hand Illusion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Berlot, Eva; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    An altered sense of one's own body is a common consequence of vestibular damage, and also of damage to vestibular networks in the right hemisphere. However, few experimental studies have investigated whether vestibular signals contribute to bodily awareness. We addressed this issue by combining an established experimental model of bodily awareness (Rubber Hand Illusion -RHI) with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in healthy participants. Brief left anodal and right cathodal GVS (which predominantly activates vestibular networks in the right hemisphere), or right anodal and left cathodal GVS, or sham stimulation were delivered at random, while participants experienced either synchronous or asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of a rubber hand and their own hand. The drift in the perceived position of the participant's hand towards the rubber hand was used as a proxy measure of the resulting multisensory illusion of body ownership. GVS induced strong polarity-dependent effects on this measure of RHI: left anodal and right cathodal GVS produced significantly lower proprioceptive drift than right anodal and left cathodal GVS. We suggest that vestibular inputs influence the multisensory weighting functions that underlie bodily awareness: the right hemisphere vestibular projections activated by the left anodal and right cathodal GVS increased the weight of intrinsic proprioceptive signals about hand position, and decreased the weight of visual information responsible for visual capture during the RHI. PMID:25619847

  7. Motion Tracker: Camera-Based Monitoring of Bodily Movements Using Motion Silhouettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kory Westlund

    Full Text Available Researchers in the cognitive and affective sciences investigate how thoughts and feelings are reflected in the bodily response systems including peripheral physiology, facial features, and body movements. One specific question along this line of research is how cognition and affect are manifested in the dynamics of general body movements. Progress in this area can be accelerated by inexpensive, non-intrusive, portable, scalable, and easy to calibrate movement tracking systems. Towards this end, this paper presents and validates Motion Tracker, a simple yet effective software program that uses established computer vision techniques to estimate the amount a person moves from a video of the person engaged in a task (available for download from http://jakory.com/motion-tracker/. The system works with any commercially available camera and with existing videos, thereby affording inexpensive, non-intrusive, and potentially portable and scalable estimation of body movement. Strong between-subject correlations were obtained between Motion Tracker's estimates of movement and body movements recorded from the seat (r =.720 and back (r = .695 for participants with higher back movement of a chair affixed with pressure-sensors while completing a 32-minute computerized task (Study 1. Within-subject cross-correlations were also strong for both the seat (r =.606 and back (r = .507. In Study 2, between-subject correlations between Motion Tracker's movement estimates and movements recorded from an accelerometer worn on the wrist were also strong (rs = .801, .679, and .681 while people performed three brief actions (e.g., waving. Finally, in Study 3 the within-subject cross-correlation was high (r = .855 when Motion Tracker's estimates were correlated with the movement of a person's head as tracked with a Kinect while the person was seated at a desk (Study 3. Best-practice recommendations, limitations, and planned extensions of the system are discussed.

  8. Motion Tracker: Camera-Based Monitoring of Bodily Movements Using Motion Silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline; Westlund, Jacqueline Kory; D'Mello, Sidney K; Olney, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in the cognitive and affective sciences investigate how thoughts and feelings are reflected in the bodily response systems including peripheral physiology, facial features, and body movements. One specific question along this line of research is how cognition and affect are manifested in the dynamics of general body movements. Progress in this area can be accelerated by inexpensive, non-intrusive, portable, scalable, and easy to calibrate movement tracking systems. Towards this end, this paper presents and validates Motion Tracker, a simple yet effective software program that uses established computer vision techniques to estimate the amount a person moves from a video of the person engaged in a task (available for download from http://jakory.com/motion-tracker/). The system works with any commercially available camera and with existing videos, thereby affording inexpensive, non-intrusive, and potentially portable and scalable estimation of body movement. Strong between-subject correlations were obtained between Motion Tracker's estimates of movement and body movements recorded from the seat (r =.720) and back (r = .695 for participants with higher back movement) of a chair affixed with pressure-sensors while completing a 32-minute computerized task (Study 1). Within-subject cross-correlations were also strong for both the seat (r =.606) and back (r = .507). In Study 2, between-subject correlations between Motion Tracker's movement estimates and movements recorded from an accelerometer worn on the wrist were also strong (rs = .801, .679, and .681) while people performed three brief actions (e.g., waving). Finally, in Study 3 the within-subject cross-correlation was high (r = .855) when Motion Tracker's estimates were correlated with the movement of a person's head as tracked with a Kinect while the person was seated at a desk (Study 3). Best-practice recommendations, limitations, and planned extensions of the system are discussed. PMID:26086771

  9. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  10. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  11. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  12. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  13. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  14. The Body as a Tool for Anger Awareness--Differential Effects of Angry Facial and Bodily Expressions on Suppression from Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minye Zhan

    Full Text Available Emotional signals are perceived whether or not we are aware of it. The evidence so far mostly came from studies with facial expressions. Here, we investigated whether the pattern of non-conscious face expression perception is found for whole body expressions. Continuous flash suppression (CFS was used to measure the time for neutral, fearful, and angry facial or bodily expressions to break from suppression. We observed different suppression time patterns for emotions depending on whether the stimuli were faces or bodies. The suppression time for anger was shortest for bodily expressions, but longest for the facial expressions. This pattern indicates different processing and detection mechanisms for faces and bodies outside awareness, and suggests that awareness mechanisms associated with dorsal structures might play a role in becoming conscious of angry bodily expressions.

  15. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesised that analyses of expressive expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors differed according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigour and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive

  16. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication.

  17. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  18. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  19. From armchair to wheelchair: how patients with a locked-in syndrome integrate bodily changes in experienced identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzi, Marie-Christine; Demertzi, Athena; Gosseries, Olivia; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Jouen, François; Laureys, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Different sort of people are interested in personal identity. Philosophers frequently ask what it takes to remain oneself. Caregivers imagine their patients' experience. But both philosophers and caregivers think from the armchair: they can only make assumptions about what it would be like to wake up with massive bodily changes. Patients with a locked-in syndrome (LIS) suffer a full body paralysis without cognitive impairment. They can tell us what it is like. Forty-four chronic LIS patients and 20 age-matched healthy medical professionals answered a 15-items questionnaire targeting: (A) global evaluation of identity, (B) body representation and (C) experienced meaning in life. In patients, self-reported identity was correlated with B and C. Patients differed with controls in C. These results suggest that the paralyzed body remains a strong component of patients' experienced identity, that patients can adjust to objectives changes perceived as meaningful and that caregivers fail in predicting patients' experience. PMID:22100276

  20. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  1. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue. PMID:27665563

  2. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  3. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  4. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  5. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  6. Statistical methods for detecting and comparing periodic data and their application to the nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm: A population based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stroebel, Armin M

    2010-11-08

    Abstract Background Animals, including humans, exhibit a variety of biological rhythms. This article describes a method for the detection and simultaneous comparison of multiple nycthemeral rhythms. Methods A statistical method for detecting periodic patterns in time-related data via harmonic regression is described. The method is particularly capable of detecting nycthemeral rhythms in medical data. Additionally a method for simultaneously comparing two or more periodic patterns is described, which derives from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This method statistically confirms or rejects equality of periodic patterns. Mathematical descriptions of the detecting method and the comparing method are displayed. Results Nycthemeral rhythms of incidents of bodily harm in Middle Franconia are analyzed in order to demonstrate both methods. Every day of the week showed a significant nycthemeral rhythm of bodily harm. These seven patterns of the week were compared to each other revealing only two different nycthemeral rhythms, one for Friday and Saturday and one for the other weekdays.

  7. Negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction cigarette smoking outcome expectancies: incremental validity for anxiety focused on bodily sensations and panic attack symptoms among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology. PMID:18266553

  8. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Reactivity to Bodily Sensations: Relation to Quit-Day (Acute) Nicotine Withdrawal Symptom Severity Among Daily Smokers Making a Self-Guided Quit Attempt

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Erin C.; Johnson, Kirsten; Bergman, Jenna; Gibson, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation explored the main and interactive effects of panic attacks in response to laboratory-induced bodily sensations and anxiety sensitivity in predicting acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms among daily smokers making a self-guided quit attempt. Participants were 99 daily smokers (58% women; Mage = 28.4 years, SD = 11.7) who completed a battery of questionnaires, a voluntary hyperventilation challenge, and a measure of nicotine withdrawal symptoms 12 hr after making a self-...

  9. Young women with a disorder of sex development: learning to share information with health professionals, friends and intimate partners about bodily differences and infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Caroline; Carter, Bernie; Lwin, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the experiences of young women with a disorder of sex development when sharing information about their body with healthcare professionals, friends and intimate partners. Background Disorders of sex development are lifelong conditions that create bodily difference such as absence of reproductive organs which can impact on young women’s fertility and sexual experiences. Design Interpretive phenomenological analysis with thirteen young women (14-19 years old) with a disorder of...

  10. The Comparison of Ibn Sina and Molla Sadra’s Views Concerning the Immateriality of the Imagination and its Relation to Bodily Resurrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yazdani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   One of the important issues which has differentiated Ibn Sina’s views from Sadra’s on psychology is the immateriality of imagination. Although Ibn Sina dealt with immateriality of imagination by scepticism in some of his writings such as al- Mobahesat, but on the basis of his philosophy, which considers intellect as simply perceiving general notions and ascribes any partial perception to material faculty, he dosenot belive in the immateriality of imagination. Hence, he states implicitly in his al-Najat that imaginative perception is material and not immaterial. In his booKs. al-Nafs men-al-Shefa he presents three different arguments for the materiality of imagination. In contrast, Sadra believes in the immateriality of imagination and argues for the immateriality of imagination in his varied writings. In his book. al-Shavahed al-Robobiyeh Sadra argues metaphysically for the bodily resurrection through the immateriality of imagination. He contends that nobody could argue metaphysically for bodily resurrection. The purpose of this paper is firstly, the comparision of Ibn Sina and Molla Sadra’s views concerning the immateriality of imagination and then to assess their arguments, and secondly, to assess Sadra’s arguments for the bodily resurrection through the immateriality of imagination. It is show that the truth of some of the arguments he presented are doubtfull.  

  11. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  13. Bodily Distress Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Lilly, Anna; Vestergaard, Mogens; Moth, Grete;

    2011-01-01

    , and their interpretation of the content of the contact. The patients were asked to complete questionnaires on symptom score for BDS, self evaluated health (SF-12), mental health (Symptom Check List: SCL), health anxiety (Whiteley-7), smoking, alcohol dependency (CAGE) and patient evaluation of practice (DanPEP). Results...

  14. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  15. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  16. Influence of the severity and location of bodily injuries on post-concussive and combat stress symptom reporting after military-related concurrent mild traumatic brain injuries and polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Louis M; Lange, Rael T; Marshall, Kathryn; Prokhorenko, Olga; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; Asmussen, Sarah B; Ivins, Brian; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained in combat frequently co-occur with significant bodily injuries. Intuitively, more extensive bodily injuries might be associated with increased symptom reporting. In 2012, however, French et al. demonstrated an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting. This study expands on that work by examining the influence of location and severity of bodily injuries on symptom reporting after mild TBI. Participants were 579 US military service members who sustained an uncomplicated mild TBI with concurrent bodily injuries and who were evaluated at two military medical centers. Bodily injury severity was quantified using a modified Injury Severity Score (ISSmod). Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C), on average, 2.5 months post-injury. There was a significant negative association between ISSmod scores and NSI (r=-0.267, p<0.001) and PCL-C (r=-0.273, p<0.001) total scores. Using linear regression to examine the relation between symptom reporting and injury severity across the six ISS body regions, three body regions were significant predictors of the NSI total score (face; p<0.001; abdomen; p=0.003; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 9.3% of the variance (p<0.001). For the PCL-C, two body regions were significant predictors of the PCL-C total score (face; p<0.001; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 10.5% of the variance. There was an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting in this sample. Hypothesized explanations include underreporting of symptoms, increased peer support, disruption of fear conditioning because of acute morphine use, or delayed expression of symptoms.

  17. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffic injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are one of the main contributors to mortality and disability in elderly populations in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the annual road traffic and other bodily (not including falls) injury prevalence and associated risk factors among older adults across six lower and upper middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face household interviews were conducted in China (n=13,177), Ghana (n=4305), India (n=6560),...

  18. Bodily Renderings of the Jarabe Tapatio in Early Twentieth-Century Mexico and the Millennial United States: Race, Nation, Class, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Garcia, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation project examines past and current understandings of the Jarabe Tapatío, which has come to be widely recognized as the national dance of Mexico. To conduct this investigation, I have utilized textual sources and oral accounts from personal interviews. I have also drawn on bodily renderings of the Jarabe Tapatío - some from my own practice of the dance, others that I observed in performance, and still others that I taught students to embody as imparted by Alura Flores de Angele...

  19. Psychological profile of bodily self features of young Polish women – comparative analysis of bodily self structure of woman with eating disorders and psychosis [Psychologiczny profil cech ja cielesnego u młodych kobiet polskich – analiza porównawcza struktury ja cielesnego u kobiet chorych na zaburzenia odżywiania się i zaburzenia psychotyczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was psychological diagnosis of body self structure in Polish group of women (120 young women suffering from eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa and schizophrenic psychosis.Method. The authoress used the following method: Eating Disorder Inventory EDI D.Garner, Satisfaction of Body Questionnaire T.Thompson and projection methods: Thompson’s Figures Test and drawing test “body image”. 120 women in age 20–26 took part in the study.Results. Conducted statistical analysis (focussing analysis indicated the presence of five main clusters (types of women who expose a variety self bodily constellation. It allowed to form psychological profile of the features of these types.Conclusions. Preparation of bodily structure’s psychological profile can diversify and direct the psychological diagnosis process and psychological therapy of this group suffering women.

  20. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  1. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  2. The Dancing Nurses and the Language of the Body: Training Somatic Awareness, Bodily Communication, and Embodied Professional Competence in Nurse Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Helle; Grøntved, Susanne Næsgaard; Kold Gravesen, Eva; Ilkjær, Ingeborg

    2015-09-01

    At first glance, dance and movement may appear foreign to the idea of nurse education. On closer inspection, it could be high time. The flow of words may stop, but the body is always in movement--always communicating. Still, the language of the body, and certainly movement, is an often overlooked potential in education. This is also true for nurse education: in spite of the often bodily close meetings with vulnerable and crisis-stricken patients. These meetings make great demands on the nurse to both contain own feelings and be able to "read" and understand patients' often only sense-based communication. This dimension of the nursing profession can be overwhelming, touching, and shocking for young nursing students. This research project examines, whether a course composed of theory, dance and movement lessons, and increased focus on the bodily communication between students and patients may be developmental for the nursing students' beginning embodied professionality. Results from the project have innovative educational potentials. They also give concrete indications of how nursing educations can develop new holistic anchored embodied training in a very accessible, as well as essential, ancient, and unavoidably present part of the nursing profession.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  4. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  5. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  6. The association between bodily anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The association between anxiety disorders and different measures of personality has been extensively studied to further the understanding of etiology, course, and treatment, and to possibly prevent the development of anxiety disorders. We have proposed a hierarchical model of bodily anxiety...... to the general severity factor. Structural equation modeling of data on 120 patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and 207 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder was used to examine the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Temperament and Character...... the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions, harm avoidance and novelty seeking, and the severity factor became nonsignificant. Harm avoidance was negatively associated with the vertigo first-order factor, whereas neuroticism was negatively associated with the cardio-respiratory first-order factor...

  7. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi;

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....

  8. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  9. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  10. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  11. A fluid particle model

    OpenAIRE

    Español, Pep

    1997-01-01

    We present a mechanistic model for a Newtonian fluid called fluid particle dynamics. By analyzing the concept of ``fluid particle'' from the point of view of a Voronoi tessellation of a molecular fluid, we propose an heuristic derivation of a dissipative particle dynamics algorithm that incorporates shear forces between dissipative particles. The inclusion of these non-central shear forces requires the consideration of angular velocities of the dissipative particles in order to comply with th...

  12. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  13. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  14. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation fo

  15. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  16. From perceptual rags to metaphoric riches--bodily, social, and cultural constraints on sociocognitive metaphors: comment on Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Koole, Sander L

    2011-03-01

    What leads people to describe some of their interpersonal relationships as "close" and "warm" and others as "distant" and "cold"? Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010) proposed that conceptual metaphors facilitate social cognition by allowing people to use knowledge from a relatively concrete (source) domain (e.g., physical distance) in understanding a different, usually more abstract (target) concept (e.g., love). We concur that such a notion of metaphors can greatly enrich the field of social cognition. At the same time, we believe it is important to devote greater theoretical attention to the nature of metaphorical representations in social cognition. We believe that Landau et al. place too much emphasis on sociocognitive metaphors as top-down knowledge structures and pay too little attention to the constraints that shape metaphors from the bottom up. In the present contribution, we highlight important bottom-up constraints, imposed through bodily constraints and social scaffolds. Sociocognitive metaphors do not exist just for mental representation but for action as well. We discuss the relevance of grounding sociocognitive metaphors for broader motivational purposes.

  17. From perceptual rags to metaphoric riches--bodily, social, and cultural constraints on sociocognitive metaphors: comment on Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Koole, Sander L

    2011-03-01

    What leads people to describe some of their interpersonal relationships as "close" and "warm" and others as "distant" and "cold"? Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010) proposed that conceptual metaphors facilitate social cognition by allowing people to use knowledge from a relatively concrete (source) domain (e.g., physical distance) in understanding a different, usually more abstract (target) concept (e.g., love). We concur that such a notion of metaphors can greatly enrich the field of social cognition. At the same time, we believe it is important to devote greater theoretical attention to the nature of metaphorical representations in social cognition. We believe that Landau et al. place too much emphasis on sociocognitive metaphors as top-down knowledge structures and pay too little attention to the constraints that shape metaphors from the bottom up. In the present contribution, we highlight important bottom-up constraints, imposed through bodily constraints and social scaffolds. Sociocognitive metaphors do not exist just for mental representation but for action as well. We discuss the relevance of grounding sociocognitive metaphors for broader motivational purposes. PMID:21355634

  18. The Bodily Expressive Action Stimulus Test (BEAST. Construction and validation of a stimulus basis for measuring perception of whole body expression of emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole body expressions are among the main visual stimulus categories that are naturally associated with faces and the neuroscientific investigation of how body expressions are processed has entered the research agenda this last decade. Here we describe the stimulus set of whole body expressions termed Bodily Expressive Action Stimulus Test (BEAST, and we provide validation data for use of these materials by the community of emotion researchers. The database was composed by 254 whole body expressions resulting from 46 actors expressing 4 emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness. In all pictures the face of the actor was blurred and participants were asked to categorize the emotions expressed in the stimuli in a four alternative forced choice task. The results show that all emotions are well recognized, with sadness being the easiest, followed by fear, whereas happiness was the most difficult. The BEAST appears as a valuable addition to currently available tools for assessing recognition of affective signals. It can be used in explicit recognition tasks as well as in matching tasks and in implicit tasks, combined either with facial expressions, with affective prosody or presented with affective pictures as context in healthy subjects as well as in neurologically atypical populations.

  19. The late Greco-Roman and Byzantine contribution towards the evolution of laboratory examinations of bodily excrement. Part 2: sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios A; Goudas, Pavlos C

    2005-01-01

    Although the establishment of medical laboratory institutions was a continuous process that matured only after the 16th century, several attempts had already been made to attain a diagnosis by investigating bodily excrement. In the first part of our work, published in a previous issue of this journal, we presented data on urine, sperm, menses and stools. In this paper we present data on sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, and autopsies, thus completing the list of human materials used for laboratory examinations. All the data used are extracted from codices of Late Antiquity and Byzantium and translated by us. We did not study medical texts from the other great ancestors of Western medicine, namely Arabic and Jewish writings. From the texts cited, it is apparent that the lack of technological means was no obstacle for the doctor to create an "examinational" mind, i.e., to try to correlate the macroscopic findings in the excrement with the pathophysiological mechanism that induced them, solely with the use of the senses. This not only applies to the examination of urine, as is commonly assumed, but also to many other excrements of the upper and lower orifices of the body, as well as the human body as a whole. PMID:15653449

  20. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  1. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  2. Deep-sequencing of microRNA associated with Alzheimer’s disease in biological fluids: From biomarker discovery to diagnostic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley eCheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tools for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD currently involve subjective neuropsychological testing and specialised brain imaging techniques. While definitive diagnosis requires a pathological brain evaluation at autopsy, neurodegenerative changes are believed to begin years before the clinical presentation of cognitive decline. Therefore, there is an essential need for reliable biomarkers to aid in the early detection of disease in order to implement preventative strategies. microRNAs (miRNA are small non-coding RNA species that are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Expression levels of miRNA’s have potential as diagnostic biomarkers as they are known to circulate and tissue specific profiles can be identified in a number of bodily fluids such as plasma, CSF and urine. Recent developments in deep sequencing technology present a viable approach to develop biomarker discovery pipelines in order to profile microRNA signatures in bodily fluids specific to neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the potential use of microRNA deep sequencing in biomarker identification from biological fluids and its translation into clinical practice.

  3. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Lenert, Andrej; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2012-01-01

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based on a new figure of merit capturing the combined effects of thermal storage capacity, convective heat transfer characteristics, and hydraulic performance of the fluids. Thermal stability, freezing point, and safety issues are also discussed. Through a comparative analysis, we...

  4. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  5. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  6. Spiral fluid separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  7. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  8. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  9. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and spinal cord. It protects the brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura ...

  11. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary oe

  12. Information and Other Bodily Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, Anders

    2011-01-01

    the answers to these questions, the article introduces insight from the work of the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann that bear upon how a mundane technology like stool records can function as a mediator between theory and practice, the body and the social, and between different care tasks in residential...

  13. Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although changes to visual acuity in spaceflight have been observed in some astronauts since the early days of the space program, the impact to the crew was considered minor. Since that time, missions to the International Space Station have extended the typical duration of time spent in microgravity from a few days or weeks to many months. This has been accompanied by the emergence of a variety of ophthalmic pathologies in a significant proportion of long-duration crewmembers, including globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking, among others. The clinical findings of affected astronauts are reminiscent of terrestrial pathologies such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension that are characterized by high intracranial pressure. As a result, NASA has placed an emphasis on determining the relevant factors and their interactions that are responsible for detrimental ophthalmic response to space. This article will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, link it to key factors in physiological adaptation to the microgravity environment, particularly a cephalad shifting of bodily fluids, and discuss the implications for ocular biomechanics and physiological function in long-duration spaceflight.

  14. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  15. Synthetic Base Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  16. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  17. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  18. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  19. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  20. Basic fluid system trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  1. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  2. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  3. Fluid management system technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  4. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  5. Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, H.

    1985-06-01

    Conventional cerebrospinal fluid scanning (CSF scanning) today is mainly carried out in addition to computerized tomography to obtain information about liquor flow kinetics. Especially in patients with communicating obstructive hydrocephalus, CSF scanning is clinically useful for the decision for shunt surgery. In patients with intracranial cysts, CSF scanning can provide information about liquor circulation. Further indications for CSF scanning include the assessment of shunt patency especially in children, as well as the detection and localization of cerebrospinal fluid leaks.

  6. Dense Fluid Flow Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Corpetti, Thomas; Memin, Etienne; Pérez, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of estimating and analyzing the motion in image sequences showing fluid phenomenon. Due to the great deal of spatial and temporal distortions that luminance patterns exhibit in images of fluid, standard techniques from Computer Vision, originally designed for quasi-rigid motions with stable salient features, are not well adapted in this context. In that prospect, we investigate a dedicated energy-based motion estimator. The considered functional includes a...

  7. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. SURVEY AND RESEARCH ON MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS' BODILY SELF-ESTEEM IN SHAANXI PROVINCE%陕西省男大学生身体自尊的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霄

    2011-01-01

    At present, college students' physical quality has been laid enough emphasis by state education departments.On one hand, students' physical quality should be strengthened; on the other hand, students' psychological health should also be given adequate attention and bodily self-esteem is a very important aspect of it.In this paper, the author conducted sample investigation and analysis on the present situation of male students body self-esteem in some of the universities in Shaanxi only to find that there are obvious differences in college students' bodily self-esteem level in four grades.Meanwhile, the paper raised some suggestions on improving college students' bodily self-esteem.%当前大学生的身体素质问题已经受到了国家教育部门的高度重视,在注重提高大学生身体素质的同时,还应注重大学生的心理健康,而身体自尊是人心理健康的一个重要方面.作者对陕西省部分高校在校男大学生的身体自尊现状进行了抽样调查分析,结果发现在校男大学生的身体自尊水平在四个年级存在着一定的差异,对其原因进行了分析并提出了相关建议.

  9. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulati...

  10. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  11. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  12. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  13. Analysis of feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Werner R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the stationary behaviour of a class of feedback fluid queues. A feedback fluid queue is a natural generalisation of the well-known Markov modulated fluid queue. The essential difference is that the current state of the fluid buffer influences the behaviour of the regulating process. Ther

  14. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  15. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  16. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  17. Stochastic interpenetration of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, M.J.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.

  18. Dimension and structure:a research on the maximum benefits of school sports bodily enlightenment%维度与结构--学校体育身体教化效益最大化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文奇; 扈春荣; 井文华

    2015-01-01

    The bodily enlightenment is a functional reflection and value orientation of school sports.As to how to effectively implement it,you need to appeal to the two aspects of bodily enlightenment:dimension (comprehensiveness)and structure (holistic),focusing on both the guidance and implementation in order to achieve the maximum benefits of school sports physical enlightenment.%身体教化是学校体育的功能体现和价值取向,而如何将这种意义进行有效性的实施,需要诉求于身体教化维度(全面性)和结构(整体性)两个方面,注重引导取向与实施操作的“两手硬”,从而实现学校体育身体教化的最大化效益。

  19. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Third Edition presents students, engineers, and scientists with all they need to gain a solid understanding of the numerical methods and principles underlying modern computation techniques in fluid dynamics. By providing complete coverage of the essential knowledge required in order to write codes or understand commercial codes, the book gives the reader an overview of fundamentals and solution strategies in the early chapters before moving on to cover the details of different solution techniques. This updated edition includes new

  1. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  2. Effect of synovial fluid, phosphate-buffered saline solution, and water on the dissolution and corrosion properties of CoCrMo alloys as used in orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A C; Kilburn, M R; Papageorgiou, I; Allen, G C; Case, C P

    2005-06-15

    The corrosion and dissolution of high- and low-carbon CoCrMo alloys, as used in orthopedic joint replacements, were studied by immersing samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), water, and synovial fluid at 37 degrees C for up to 35 days. Bulk properties were analyzed with a fine ion beam microscope. Surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy showed surprisingly that synovial fluid produced a thin oxide/hydroxide layer. Release of ions into solution from the alloy also followed an unexpected pattern where synovial fluid, of all the samples, had the highest Cr concentration but the lowest Co concentration. The presence of carbide inclusions in the alloy did not affect the corrosion or the dissolution mechanisms, although the carbides were a significant feature on the metal surface. Only one mechanism was recognized as controlling the thickness of the oxide/hydroxide interface. The analysis of the dissolved metal showed two mechanisms at work: (1) a protein film caused ligand-induced dissolution, increasing the Cr concentration in synovial fluid, and was explained by the equilibrium constants; (2) corrosion at the interface increased the Co in PBS. The effect of prepassivating the samples (ASTM F-86-01) did not always have the desired effect of reducing dissolution. The release of Cr into PBS increased after prepassivation. The metal-synovial fluid interface did not contain calcium phosphate as a deposit, typically found where samples are exposed to calcium rich bodily fluids. PMID:15900610

  3. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  4. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  5. Additive for drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, A.E.

    1983-09-13

    A water-based gas or oil well drilling fluid is disclosed comprising an aqueous clay dispersion containing as a thinner and water loss control agent, the essentially water-soluble product obtained by heating together quebracho, lignite, gilsonite and sulfonating, methylating and causticizing agents.

  6. Fluid resuscitation in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate fluid replacement is an essential component of trauma fluid resuscitation. Once hemorrhage is controlled, restoration of normovolemia is a priority. In the presence of uncontrolled haemorrhage, aggressive fluid management may be harmful. The crystalloid-colloid debate continues but existing clinical practice is more likely to reflect local biases rather than evidence based medicine. Colloids vary substantially in their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics,and the experimental finding based on one colloid cannot be extrapolated reliably to another. In the initial stages of trauma resuscitation the precise fluid used is probably not important as long as an appropriate volume is given. Later, when the microcirculation is ′leaky′, there may be some advantages to high or medium weight colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch. Hypertonic saline solutions may have some benefit in patients with head injuries. A number of hemoglobin solutions are under development, but one of the most promising of these has been withdrawn recently. It is highly likely that at least one of these solutions will eventually become routine therapy for trauma patient resuscitation. In the meantime, contrary to traditional teaching, recent data suggest that restrictive strategy of red cell transfusion may improve outcome in some critically ill patients.

  7. Continuous feedback fluid queues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Scheinhardt; N. van Foreest; M.R.H. Mandjes

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves 'as a continuous-tim

  8. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Foreest, N.D. van; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a continuous-time Markov

  9. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  10. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  11. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  12. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  13. Flows of Reactive Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of reactive flows has progressed mainly with advances in aerospace, which gave birth to a new science called aerothermochemistry, as well as through developments in chemical and process engineering. The methods employed, the phenomena investigated, and the aims of modeling differ for each field; however, in all cases, the results obtained have considerably enriched the working knowledge of reactive flows. This work examines basic concepts and methods necessary to study reactive flows and transfer phenomena in areas such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and chemistry. Specific topics covered include: * Equations of state * Transfer phenomena and chemical kinetics * Balance equations of reactive flows * Dimensionless numbers and similarity * Chemical reactors * Coupled phenomena * Turbulent flow concepts * Boundary layers and fluid layers * Reactive and nonreactive waves * Interface phenomena * Multiphase flow concepts The book presents tools of interest to graduate students, researchers in math...

  14. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  15. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  16. Production of MHD fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  17. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  18. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  19. Issues in contemporary fluid management

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2000-01-01

    Fluid management strategies need to be guided by an understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fluid imbalance. In the hypovolaemic patient, reduced circulating blood volume and venous return and, in severe cases, altered tissue perfusion may initiate a cascade of pathophysiologic processes culminating in multiple organ failure. The objectives of fluid management are to maintain adequate blood pressure, tissue oxygenation and intravascular fluid volume. Both crystalloids and ...

  20. Fluids in the continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, BWD; Bodnar, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Fluids play a critical role in the geochemical and geodynamical evolution of the crust, and fluid flow is the dominant process associated with mass and energy transport in the crust. In this Perspectives, we summarise the occurrence, properties and role that fluids play in crustal processes, as well as how geoscientists’ understanding of these various aspects of fluids have evolved during the past century and how this evolution in thinking has influenced our own research careers. Despite the ...

  1. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Nayak; Sushma V

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left side...

  2. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  3. Physics of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alicia M.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2011-01-01

    Using focused shadowgraphs, we investigate steady flows of a magnetically non-susceptible fluid interacting with ferrofluid aggregates comprised of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The ferrofluid aggregate is retained at a specific site within the flow channel using two different applied magnetic fields. The bulk flow induces shear stresses on the aggregate, which give rise to the development of interfacial disturbances, leading to Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities and shedding of ferroflu...

  4. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  5. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  6. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  7. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  8. Literature in fluid-to-fluid critical heat flux modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature in fluid-to-fluid critical heat flux (CHF) modelling has been assessed for its application in rod bundle geometries as well as in its potential for further development. A subdivision has been made into empirical scaling laws with restricted application and semi-phenomenological modelling methods basing on dimensionsless numbers with broader use. As result the Ahmad fluid-to-fluid model is for the time being the best fit method from phenomenological and experimental verification point of view. Alternative to the scaling laws is the derivation of fluid independent phenomenological CHF correlations. These correlations can also be used to derive scaling factors. (orig.)

  9. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  10. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  11. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  12. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  13. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  14. Hazards of organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present several brief reviews on working fluids proposed for use in organic Rankine and bi-phase bottoming cycles. There are several general problems with many organic working fluids: flammability, toxicity, and a tendency to leak through seals. Besides, two of the proposed working fluids are to be used at temperatures above the manufacturer's maximum recommended temperature, and one is to be used in a way different from its customary usage. It may, in some cases, be more profitable to first seek alternative working fluids before committing large amounts of time and money to research projects on unsafe working fluids

  15. Active colloids in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Patteson, Alison E; Arratia, Paulo E

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work on active colloids or swimmers, such as self-propelled microorganisms, phoretic colloidal particles, and artificial micro-robotic systems, moving in fluid-like environments. These environments can be water-like and Newtonian but can frequently contain macromolecules, flexible polymers, soft cells, or hard particles, which impart complex, nonlinear rheological features to the fluid. While significant progress has been made on understanding how active colloids move and interact in Newtonian fluids, little is known on how active colloids behave in complex and non-Newtonian fluids. An emerging literature is starting to show how fluid rheology can dramatically change the gaits and speeds of individual swimmers. Simultaneously, a moving swimmer induces time dependent, three dimensional fluid flows, that can modify the medium (fluid) rheological properties. This two-way, non-linear coupling at microscopic scales has profound implications at meso- and macro-scales: steady state suspension proper...

  16. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  17. Hydraulic fluid - element of construction; Hydraulik-Fluid - ein Konstruktionselement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, W.; Lingg, G. [Fuchs Petrolub AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Apart from engine oils, hydraulic fluids are the second important group of lubricants. They make up about 15% of the total lubricant consumption. Mineral oil-based hydraulic fluids account for about 85-90% of all hydraulic fluids, fire-resistant fluids have a market share of about 5%, rapidly biodegradable fluids and specialities of about 5%. The increase in effective life of lubricants combined with smaller volumes, extended oil change intervals and lower lubricant consumption have the combined effect of increasing the stress on lubricants. Higher temperatures, smaller oil volumes and greater performance requirements all have the effect of increasing performance and quality demands made on hydraulic fluids. In this paper we would like to present results of thermal and oxidation stability tests of different hydraulic fluids, as well as results of friction coefficient measurements of different kinds of hydraulic fluids. We will show how we can influence evaporating losses by the careful selection of the base oil and we will describe the filtration behaviour of different additive packages under the influence of water in a dynamic filtration test rig. The hydraulic fluid as an important part of compatible fluid family systems in machine tools will be described. (orig.)

  18. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  19. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  20. Reliability of fluid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopáček Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  1. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  2. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  3. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  4. RHABDOMYOBLASTS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy, not uncommonly seen in adults. The location of this malignancy is quite ubiquitous. However, a parameningeal location is uncommon and accounts for about 16% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. We report an instance where rhabdomyoblasts were seen infiltrati ng the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. A 35 year old female patient presented to our hospita l with the primary complaints of bilateral nose block and left sided headache since1 month. Clinically, a deviated nasal septum was diagnosed which needed a septal surgery. Since t he hematological parameters showed a pancytopenia, the surgery was postponed. The patient pr esented 3 weeks later with additional complaints of worsening headache and significant blu rring of vision in her left eye. The MRI scan revealed a midline, dural-based mass. A therape utic tap of the cerebrospinal fluid sent to the clinical laboratory for analysis which showed l arge abnormal cells (figure 1. The bone marrow also showed similar cells, with karyomegaly, dense chromatin, and coalescing vacuoles which were Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS negative. The biopsy from the mass was diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma (parameningeal type. Immunohistoc hemistry showed positivity for Myogenin and Myo-D1.

  5. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE. The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high.

  6. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  7. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...

  8. Elastic effects in superposed fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amey

    2014-02-01

    A non-uniform electric field of suitable gradient can make specific weights of two superposed dielectric fluids identical. If the fluids are Newtonian, this choice of electric field makes the interface resilient to small perturbations, even if the fluid on the top is heavier than the one at bottom. On the other hand, if the fluids are viscoelastic, the interface continues to remain unstable. We point out that although the right choice of electric field succeeds in overcoming the effects of gravity, the fluids' elasticity makes the interface unstable. The same effect can be achieved in the case of paramagnetic or ferro-fluids in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field.

  9. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  10. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  11. Ecotoxicological testing of performance fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with a project comprising the testing of drilling fluids concerning ecotoxicology, biological degradation, and toxicity. Two types of drilling fluids were tested for toxic effects on marine algae and biological degradability. A fluid based on mineral oil was readily degradable (98% DOC removal in 28 days) while an ether based oil degraded more slowly (56% DOC removal in 28 days). The toxicity of both fluids was tested after emulsification of the oils in water and separating the oil and water phase after equilibration. The EC50 values obtained with this approach were 8.15 g/l for the oil based fluid and 116 g/l for the ether fluid. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Conductivity effect in electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yu; WEN; Shizhu; MENG; Yonggang

    2004-01-01

    Based on conduction model and cubic particle model, the relationship between current density and shear yield stress of electrorheological (ER) fluids was calculated and compared with some reported experimental results. The conductivity of the insulating oils is found to have been changed by the mixed particles. Several ways to decrease insulating liquid conductivity and increase the conductivity ratio of ER fluids have been proposed to prepare ER fluids with high shear yield stresses but low current densities.

  13. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion. The severity of anemia can be predicted by measurement of bilirubin in amniotic fluid. We showed that this concentration is based on bilirubin in fetal blood and on albumin concentrations. Albumin...

  14. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  15. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  16. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  17. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  18. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  19. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Brato

    2015-01-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite ra...

  20. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  1. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  2. Supercritical fluid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  3. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svaasand, Eldrid

    2008-04-15

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nano fluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powder consisting of carbon particles with the shape of disks and cones and a small amount of amorphous carbon particles. The length or diameter of the particles vary between 0.5-5 mum with thickness varying between 10-50 nm. The results confirm the cone angles as predicted by theory. The various microscopy images show that the surfaces of the particles seem corrugated. It should be noted that it is the mixed particle powder which it is referred to when it is written 'carbon cone particles' or 'CC particles'. The dispersion of CC particles in silicon oil was studied under the influence of an electric field. The particles were found to align in an ac electric field and structure formation was observed at very low electric fields. The growth rate was found to vary exponentially with the electric field. The structure formations were permanent (under zero shear rate), not dissolving when the electric field was turned off. This was attributed to the strong Van der Waals forces associated with carbon particles. Electrorheological measurements were carried out for dispersions with varying CC particle concentrations. All samples showed a Bingham fluid behavior with a finite yield stress. The yield stress was found to depend only weakly on the electric field. The results showed that the ER efficiency as measured by the relative increase in viscosity compared to the zero field viscosity, increases with decreasing concentration with a maximum factor of approx10 for the

  4. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S

    2003-01-01

    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  5. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  6. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  7. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  8. Coiling of yield stress fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rahmani; M. Habibi; A. Javadi; D. Bonn

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the coiling of a filament of a yield stress fluid falling on a solid surface. We use two kinds of yield stress fluids, shaving foam and hair gel, and show that the coiling of the foam is similar to the coiling of an elastic rope. Two regimes of coiling (el

  9. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  10. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  11. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion.

  13. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  14. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  15. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  16. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed.

  17. Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh

    Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.

  18. Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; ZHANG Yun-feng; TIAN Xin

    2008-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction of panel in supersonic fluid passage is studied with subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme.The passage is formed with two parallel panels,one is risid and the other is flexible.The interaction between fluid flows and flexible panel is numerically studied,mainly focused on the effect of dynamic pressure and distance between two parallel panels.Subcycling and spline interpolation based predict-correct scheme is utihzed to combine the vibration and fluid analysis and to stabilize long-term calculations to get accurate resuhs.It's demonstrated that the flutter characteristic of flexible panel is more complex with the increase of dynamic pressure and the decrease of distance between two parallel panels.Via analyzing the propagation and reflection of disturbance in passage,it's determined as a main cause of the variations.

  19. Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...

  20. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  1. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  2. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  3. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  4. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  5. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  6. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  7. Annual review of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. Topics covered include: modeling of two-phases slug flow; vortex rings; numerical models of mantle convection; and wavelet transforms

  8. Body fluid identification in forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of amolecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling orDNA methylation detection has been recently proposed tosupplant conventional body fluid identification methods.Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentiallymethylated regions which are specific to forensically relevantbody fluids have been identified, and their specificities andsensitivities have been tested using various samples. In thisreview, we provide an overview of the present knowledge andthe most recent developments in forensic body fluididentification and discuss its possible practical application toforensic casework.

  9. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember, some foods, such as soups, puddings, gelatin, ice cream, popsicles and others contain fluids. When you eat ... and Metabolism; American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. State of the ...

  10. Lung fluid during postnatal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sture Andersson; Olli Pitk(a)nen; Cecilia Janér; Otto Helve

    2010-01-01

    @@ Successful postnatal pulmonary adaptation is dependent on cessation of fetal fluid secretion into the luminal space of the lung and a switch to fluid absorption during the perinatal period. Most infants undergo this transformation rapidly, but some encounter difficulties.Failure in adaptation may result, in preterm infants, in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and, in near-term and term infants, in transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). In both entities, among other causes, lung liquid clearance, i.e. the inability to clear the lung of perinatal fluid, may be ineffective.1-4 In addition, there are data connecting bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to decreased ion transport.5-7 However, only limited data are available on the association of lung fluid transport and neonatal respiratory distress in human infants.

  11. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  12. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Berryman, James

    2003-10-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery.

  13. Blackfold as a Conformal Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we review some properties of higher dimensional black holes. In that case we take advantages of fluid/gravity duality and obtain the fluid properties of higher dimensional black holes on the boundary. So we consider two natural and charged blackfold cases and extract the Brown-York stress energy tensor (tensor of fluid) on the boubdary. As we konw, the compactification of some directions in any asymptotically AdS black branes corresponds to some kind of Ricci-flat spacetime. For example the nautral black holes spacetime is Ricci-flat. So by calculating the AAdS form of that metric the dual renormalized holographic stress tensor has been exracted. This stress tensor is conserved and traceless, also it is same as perfect fluid.

  14. The Quantum Theory of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gripaios, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behaviour is radically different to both classical fluids and quantum fields, with interesting physical consequences for fluids in the low temperature regime.

  15. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  16. Fluid pumped by magnetic stress

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, R; Reimann, B; Richter, R; Rehberg, I; Krauss, Robert; Liu, Mario; Reimann, Bert; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic field rotating on the free surface of a ferrofluid layer is shown to induce considerable fluid motion towards the direction the field is rolling. The measured flow velocity i) increases with the square of the magnetic field amplitude, ii) is proportional to the thickness of the fluid layer, and iii) has a maximum at a driving frequency of about 3 kHz. The pumping speed can be estimated with a two-dimensional flow model.

  17. Viscosity of Quantum Hall Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Seiler, R.; Zograf, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    The viscosity of quantum fluids with an energy gap at zero temperature is non-dissipative and is related to the adiabatic curvature on the space of flat background metrics (which plays the role of the parameter space). For a quantum Hall fluid on two dimensional tori this viscosity is computed. In this case the average viscosity is quantized and is proportional to the total magnetic flux through the torus.

  18. Body fluid identification in forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ja Hyun An1, Kyoung-Jin Shin1,2, Woo Ick Yang1 & Hwan Young Lee1,2,*

    2012-01-01

    At a crime scene can give important insights into crime scenereconstruction by supporting a link between sample donorsand actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numeroustypes of body fluid identification methods have beendeveloped, such as chemical tests, immunological tests,protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods andmicroscopy. However, these conventional body fluididentification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carriedout for only one body fluid at a time. The...

  19. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  20. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    OpenAIRE

    García-García, Carlos; Maroto, Antonio L.; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function...

  1. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  2. Base isolation of fluid containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Cygna Group Inc./ICF Kaiser International, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design.

  3. Base isolation of fluid containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid containers often constitute critical internal equipment in power plants. However, due to possible structure-equipment interaction effect they are particularly vulnerable during strong earthquake events. An effective technique for protecting fluid containers is base isolation. By deflecting the possible seismic input energy into the superstructure, base isolation can substantially reduce seismic demand on the containers, making it more cost effective than equivalent conventional design

  4. Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is concerned with the development of a quantitative scientific description of the thermodynamic and transport properties of supercritical and subcritical fluids and fluid mixtures. It is known that the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures asymptotically close to the critical point satisfy scaling laws with universal critical exponents and universal scaling functions. However, the range of validity of these asymptotic scaling laws is quite small. As a consequence, the impact of the modern theory of critical phenomena on chemical engineering has been limited. On the other hand, an a priori estimate of the range of temperatures and densities, where critical fluctuations become significant, can be made on the basis of the so-called Ginzburg criterion. A recent analysis of this criterion suggests that this range is actually quite large and for a fluid like carbon dioxide can easily extend to 100 degrees or so above the critical temperature. Hence, the use of traditional engineering equations like cubic equations is not scientifically justified in a very wide range of temperatures and densities around the critical point. We have therefore embarked on a scientific approach to deal with the global effects of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures. For this purpose it is not sufficient to consider the asymptotic critical fluctuations but we need to deal also with the nonasymptotic critical fluctuations. The goal is to develop scientifically based questions that account for the crossover of the thermophysical properties from their asymptotic singular behavior in the near vicinity of the critical point to their regular behavior very far away from the critical point

  5. Prion-seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of deer with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Haley

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, or prion diseases, are a uniformly fatal family of neurodegenerative diseases in mammals that includes chronic wasting disease (CWD of cervids. The early and ante-mortem identification of TSE-infected individuals using conventional western blotting or immunohistochemistry (IHC has proven difficult, as the levels of infectious prions in readily obtainable samples, including blood and bodily fluids, are typically beyond the limits of detection. The development of amplification-based seeding assays has been instrumental in the detection of low levels of infectious prions in clinical samples. In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of CWD-exposed (n=44 and naïve (n=4 deer (n=48 total for CWD prions (PrP(d using two amplification assays: serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification with polytetrafluoroethylene beads (sPMCAb and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC employing a truncated Syrian hamster recombinant protein substrate. Samples were evaluated blindly in parallel with appropriate positive and negative controls. Results from amplification assays were compared to one another and to obex immunohistochemistry, and were correlated to available clinical histories including CWD inoculum source (e.g. saliva, blood, genotype, survival period, and duration of clinical signs. We found that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC were capable of amplifying CWD prions from cervid CSF, and results correlated well with one another. Prion seeding activity in either assay was observed in approximately 50% of deer with PrP(d detected by IHC in the obex region of the brain. Important predictors of amplification included duration of clinical signs and time of first tonsil biopsy positive results, and ultimately the levels of PrP(d identified in the obex by IHC. Based on our findings, we expect that both sPMCAb and RT-QuIC may prove to be useful detection assays for the detection of prions in

  6. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  7. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  8. Fluid Behavior and Fluid-Solid Interactions in Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Although shale oil/gas production in the US has increased exponentially, the low energy recovery is a daunting problem needed to be solved for its sustainability and continued growth, especially in light of the recent oil/gas price decline. This is apparently related to the small porosity (a few to a few hundred nm) and low permeability (10-16-10-20 m2) of tight shale formations. The fundamental question lies in the anomalous behavior of fluids in nanopores due to confinement effects, which, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined experimental characterization and observations, particularly using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with pore-scale modeling using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to examine the fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions in nanopores at reservoir conditions. Experimentally, we characterized the compositions and microstructures of a shale sample from Wolfcamp, Texas, using a variety of analytical techniques. Our analyses reveal that the shale sample is made of organic-matter (OM)-lean and OM-rich layers that exhibit different chemical and mineral compositions, and microstructural characteristics. Using the hydrostatic pressure system and gas-mixing setup we developed, in-situ SANS measurements were conducted at pressures up to 20 kpsi on shale samples imbibed with water or water-methane solutions. The obtained results indicate that capillary effect plays a significant role in fluid-nanopore interactions and the associated changes in nanopore structures vary with pore size and pressure. Computationally, we performed LBM modeling to simulate the flow behavior of methane in kerogen nanoporous structure. The correction factor, which is the ratio of apparent permeability to intrinsic permeability, was calculated. Our results show that the correction factor is always greater than one (non-continuum/non-Darcy effects) and increases with decreasing nanopore size, intrinsic permeability and pressure. Hence, the

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  10. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    CERN Document Server

    García-García, Carlos; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by ...

  11. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L

    2013-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  12. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  13. Lecture notes: Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Gordon I

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes, and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is 'frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, includin...

  14. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  15. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  16. Mécanique des fluides

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Y A

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des fluides est un outil performant qui permet d'expliquer les phénomènes qui nous entourent de l'échelle microscopique à l'échelle macroscopique. Elle est aussi à la base du développement de nombreuses technologies. Cet ouvrage à destination des étudiants donne une vision complète de la mécanique des fluides. Bien que la mécanique des fluides puisse souvent paraître rébarbative aux yeux des étudiants, cet ouvrage valorise ce domaine d'enseignement en l'illustrant de nombreux exemples issus de l'ingénierie navale, l'aéronautique, la météorologie, etc.

  17. The behavior of simple fluids in microfractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Diestler, D.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schoen, M. [Universitaet Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    1993-06-01

    The behavior of fluids in molecularly narrow microfractures (vicinal fluids) differs from that of their bulk-phase counterparts. The differences are especially dramatic when the fractures are lass than 10 fluid molecular diameters in width. The behavior of fluids in these ultrathink fractures is poorly understood. This talk discusses recent efforts to begin to understand these fluids on the molecular and continuum scales. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Bodily tides near spin-orbit resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the astronomical literature, spin-orbit coupling is described in two approaches, both of which were pioneered in the seminal paper by Goldreich and Peale (1966). The "MacDonald torque", based on a tidal theory of Gerstenkorn (1955) and MacDonald (1964), has long become the textbook standard (Kaula 1968, Murray and Dermott 1999) due to its apparent simplicity. The "Darwin torque" rests on a more fundamental theory by Darwin (1879, 1880) and Kaula (1964). While their theory is general enough to accommodate an arbitrary frequency-dependence of Q, this advantage has not yet been exploited in the literature, where Q is either assumed constant or set to scale as inverse tidal frequency, the latter assertion making the Darwin torque equivalent to a corrected version of the MacDonald torque. However neither a constant Q nor an inverse-frequency Q reflect the properties of realistic mantles and crusts, because the actual frequency-dependence of the quality factor is complex. Hence the necessity to enrich the Darwin...

  19. Bodily experiences in secondary school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2011-09-01

    This is a study of teaching about the human body. It is based on transcribed material from interviews with 15-year-old students and teachers about their experiences of sex education and from recordings of classroom interactions during a dissection. The analysis is focused on the relationship between what students are supposed to learn about the biological body and their expressed experiences and meaning making of bodies in the schoolwork. The results indicate that the negotiations associated with the encounters between the bodies of the classroom (student, teacher, and animal bodies) are important for what directions meaning making takes and what students are afforded to learn about bodies, biologically as well as in terms of values. We suggest that these negotiations should be taken into account at schools, be regarded as an important part of the learning processes in science education and in that way open up for new possibilities for students' meaning making.

  20. Attunement and Bodily Dialogues in Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink-Jensen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    for den enkelte lærer er da at forstå hvad der bliver meningsfuldt for en person i en given situation. 'Kropslig dialog' er en metafor for en hermeneutisk forståelsesproces, som fokuserer på betydningen af kropslige aspekter i lærerens svar på et barns musikalsk stemte artikulationer. Dette fokus kan...

  1. Visual processing and the bodily self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Spence, Charles; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    modalities, and can be extended to incorporate indirect representations of the body and functional portions of tools. In the present study, we investigate the source of a facilitatory effect of viewing the body on speeded visual discrimination reaction times. Participants responded to identical visual...... that the facilitatory effect depends critically on participants attributing the context to a real body. An intermediate effect was observed when the stimuli were presented on another person's body, suggesting that the effect of viewing one's own body might represent a conjunction of an interpersonal body effect...... and an egocentric effect....

  2. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  3. Impedance Spectroscopy of Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.; Sitsko, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the laws governing the change in the electrophysical properties of decane-, turbine oil-, and kerosene-based magnetic fluids with the electric field frequency, dispersed phase concentration, and temperature. We have determined the optimal electric field frequencies, dispersed phase concentrations, and temperatures within the limits of which the electrophysical characteristics such as the relative permittivity, specific electric resistance, and the loss tangent of a dielectric appear to be the most informative to estimate the structure, composition, and properties of magnetic fluids.

  4. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  5. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  6. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  7. Mixing in shear thinning fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ameur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a CFD characterization of the flow generated by curved-blade impellers in a cylindrical unbaffled vessel was carried out. The tank diameter was 300 mm, with a flat bottom. The liquid height was equal to the vessel diameter. The fluids simulated have a shear thinning behavior. Analyses concern the effect of the impeller speed, the fluid rheology and the number of impeller blades on the induced flow patterns and the power consumption. The predictions were compared with literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

  8. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  9. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  10. Activities report in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The research conducted at the Lille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFL) concerns four areas: flight mechanics, structural mechanics, aerodynamics and applied fluid mechanics. Within these four areas, these topics are discussed: characterization of the unsteady pressures on an airfoil in turbulence; adaptation of the Kalman-Rauch filtering-smoothing method to instrumented free spin tests; vulnerability of aircraft fuel tanks; water surface impact; influence of an oscillating spoiler on the surrounding aerodynamic field; gunfiring similarity theory and rules; flow around a cylinder at low Reynolds number by holographic velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry; compressible turbulent flow computation; and the wake of wind turbine towers are discussed.

  11. Fluid Dynamic Evidence for Extremely Low Viscosity Coseismic Fault Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Meneghini, F.; Rowe, C. D.; Moore, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We combine geological observations of fault rock textures with fluid mechanics to constrain the mechanics of a fault zone during a subduction earthquake. We analyze buoyant intrusive features in a fault rock that formed at 12- 14 km depth in a large-scale thrust fault embedded in a paleo-accretionary prism in Kodiak Island, AK. The fault rock can been interpreted as either a pseudotachylyte or fluidized ultracataclasite. The intrusive structures provide new, direct evidence on the coseismic rheology of the fault. The asymmetric buoyant intrusions are most readily understood as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with an unusually short wavelengths relative to the thickness of the layer. The geometry requires a moderately high Reynolds number flow (Re~1-10) in order to produce the observed wavelength to thickness ratio. The resulting rise velocity under these conditions is ~40 cm/s. Since the shear strain in the layer is over order 1 and the deformation is continuous, the rise velocity must be comparable to the horizontal shear velocity during emplacement. Thus, the geometry alone requires that the fault rocks were intruded coseismically. Furthermore, the Reynolds number constraint combined with the computed rise velocity provides a maximum bound on the viscosity of the fluid during emplacement. The coseismic fault fluid at this locality must have had a viscosity of \\ll 10 Pa-s. This viscosity constraint is compatible with the viscosity of the silicate melt of the observed composition at 1300-1400°, which is consistent with the temperature constraints imposed by the absence of plagioclase survivor grains. In summary, both the fluid dynamical and geological evidence points to an extraordinarily low viscosity fluid in the fault zone during rupture and hence extremely low local stress in the fault during an earthquake.

  12. Shearfree Spherically Symmetric Fluid Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2013-01-01

    We try to find some exact analytical models of spherically symmetric spacetime of collapsing fluid under shearfree condition. We consider two types of solutions: one is to impose a condition on the mass function while the other is to restrict the pressure. We obtain totally of five exact models, and some of them satisfy the Darmois conditions.

  13. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  14. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  15. Fluid Dynamics and Entropic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A new entropic gravity inspired derivation of general relativity from thermodynamics is presented. This generalizes, within Einstein gravity, the "Thermodynamics of Spacetime" approach by T. Jacobson, which relies on the Raychaudhuri evolution equation. Here the rest of the first law of thermodynamics is incorporated by using the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation, known from the membrane paradigm for describing fluid dynamics on the horizon.

  16. The Geometrical Modelling of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Mikhail G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the nonlinear electrodynamics type model and its relation with relativistic hydrodynamics with no dissipation (including string and membrane hydrodynamics). We are able to convert arbitrary flux of fluid to the family of geodesics by the conformal transformation of metric. The conditions of transformation of nonlinear electrodynamics solution to linear electrodynamics solution by changing of metric are presented.

  17. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these

  18. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  19. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  20. Viscous fluid interpretation of some exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J.; Ibanez, J.

    1985-09-01

    An example of the equivalence between a perfect fluid and a viscous fluid is presented, showing that the Schwarzschild interior solution obtained from a perfect fluid can also be derived from a viscous fluid with heat conduction. The equivalence between a scalar field and a viscous fluid is investigated, showing that under certain circumstances, both can generate, from Einstein's equations, the same space-time geometry. Some examples are presented and, in particular, it is shown that every plane-symmetric solution deduced from a scalar field can also be derived from a viscous fluid.

  1. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  2. Sound scattering at fluid-fluid rough surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Extinction theorem was used to deduce the first order scattering cross-section including the double scattering effects for the fluid-fluid rough surface.If the dou- ble scattering effects are neglected in the present method,the scattering cross-section agrees with the result obtained by the perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothesis.Calculations of scattering strength were carried out,and comparisons with the first-order perturbation method based on Rayleigh hypothe- sis were also done.The results show that double scattering effects are obvious with the increase of the root mean square of surface height and the grazing angle when the valid condition k1h<1 is satisfied.

  3. Fluid spray simulation with two-fluid nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Two-phase interacting flow inside a two-fluid fuel atomizer was investigated and a correction of aerodynamic and liquid-surface forces with characteristic drop diameter was obtained for liquid-jet breakup in Mach 1 gas flow. Nitrogen gas mass-flux was varied from 6 to 50 g/sq cm sec by using four differently sized two-fluid atomizers with nozzle diameters varyig from 0.32 to 0.56 cm. The correlation was derived by using the acoustic gas velocity, V sub c, as a basic parameter in defining and evaluating the dimensionless product of the Weber (We) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. By using the definition of WeRe, it was found that the ratio of orifice diameter to Sauter mean drop diameter could be correlated with the dimensionless ratio WeRe and the gas to liquid density ratio.

  4. Kinetics of Surfactant Adsorption at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, H.; Andelman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for the kinetics of surfactant adsorption at the interface between an aqueous solution and another fluid (air, oil) phase. The model relies on a free-energy formulation. It describes both the diffusive transport of surfactant molecules from the bulk solution to the interface, and the kinetics taking place at the interface itself. When applied to non-ionic surfactant systems, the theory recovers results of previous models, justify their assumptions and predicts a diffusion-...

  5. MR features of fluid-fluid levels in ovarian masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Seong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Hospital, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Min Woo [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sun Ho [Dongguk University International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the frequency and imaging features of fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) in pathologically proven ovarian masses on magnetic resonance (MR) images. The authors reviewed the preoperative MR findings of 556 ovarian masses in 428 patients. Presence, numbers, and signal intensities (SI) of FFLs were analyzed. In non-teratomas, we assessed whether SI of the FFLs of benign masses and malignant neoplasms differed using the {chi}{sup 2} test. FFLs were observed in 66 of 556 ovarian masses (11.9%) on MR images, fat-fluid levels were observed in 11 of 80 teratomas, and FFLs attributed to hemorrhage in 54 of 476 non-teratomas and one twisted teratoma. Non-neoplastic cystic lesions were most common non-teratomas to contain FFLs (27/197, 13.7%), followed by malignant neoplasms (23/177, 13.0%). Benign neoplasms rarely contained FFLs (4/102, 3.9%); those that did were commonly associated with complications such as torsion or inflammation. A hypointense supernatant layer together with a hyperintense dependent layer on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) was significantly more common in malignant neoplasms than in benign masses (P < 0.0001). FFLs occurred in various ovarian masses ranging from benign to malignant neoplasms on MR images. In non-teratomas, a hypointense supernatant layer and a hyperintense dependent layer on T1WIs may favor a diagnosis of malignancy. (orig.)

  6. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  7. Visual Simulation of Multiple Unmixable Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zheng; Jun-Hai Yong; Jean-Claude Paul

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel grid-based method for simulating multiple unmixable fluids moving and interacting.Unlike previous methods that can only represent the interface between two fluids (usually between liquid and gas), this method can handle an arbitrary number of fluids through multiple independent level sets coupled with a constrain condition.To capture the fluid surface more accurately, we extend the particle level set method to a multi-fluid version.It shares the advantages of the particle level set method, and has the ability to track the interfaces of multiple fluids.To handle the dynamic behavior of different fluids existing together, we use a multiphase fluid formulation based on a smooth weight function.

  8. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  9. CEE3500 - Fluid Mechanics, Spring 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Urroz, Gilberto E.

    2006-01-01

    Explores fluid properties, hydrostatics, fluid dynamics, similitude, energy and momentum principles, closed conduit flow, open channel flow, and flow measurement. Includes laboratory exercises in flow measurement, open channel flow, pipe friction, physical modeling, and data collection.

  10. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  11. Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160986.html Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study Virus may ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika can be detected in fluid inside the eyelid ...

  12. Sound attenuation in magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, J.; Elvira, L.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the attenuation of ultrasonic elastic waves propagating through magnetorheological (MR) fluids is analysed as a function of the particle volume fraction and the magnetic field intensity. Non-commercial MR fluids made with iron ferromagnetic particles and two different solvents (an olive oil based solution and an Araldite-epoxy) were used. Particle volume fractions of up to 0.25 were analysed. It is shown that the attenuation of sound depends strongly on the solvent used and the volume fraction. The influence of a magnetic field up to 212 mT was studied and it was found that the sound attenuation increases with the magnetic intensity until saturation is reached. A hysteretic effect is evident once the magnetic field is removed.

  13. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Laboureur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC. It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering or highly specific (mass spectrometry detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

  14. Fluid replacement requirements in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1994-01-01

    Soccer is an endurance sport that consists of moderate activity levels interspersed with intermittent high-intensity bursts, leading to high rates of metabolic heat production. Even when the weather is cold, significant sweat loss will occur, leading to a degree of dehydration which impairs exercise performance. Fluid intake before and during the game will provide water to reduce the degree of dehydration and can also supply carbohydrate to supplement the body's limited carbohydrate stores. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are most effective for rehydration. The optimum formulation will vary between individuals and will also depend on climatic conditions. Players should be encouraged to experiment with fluid intake during training to identify the type of drink and the amount and frequency of drinks that best meet their needs.

  15. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly...

  16. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning;

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  17. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...

  18. Fluid dynamics theoretical and computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, ZUA

    2005-01-01

    Important Nomenclature Kinematics of Fluid Motion Introduction to Continuum Motion Fluid Particles Inertial Coordinate Frames Motion of a Continuum The Time Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Steady and Nonsteady Flow Trajectories of Fluid Particles and Streamlines Material Volume and Surface Relation between Elemental Volumes Kinematic Formulas of Euler and Reynolds Control Volume and Surface Kinematics of Deformation Kinematics of Vorticity and Circulation References Problems The Conservation Laws and the Kinetics of Flow Fluid Density and the Conservation of Mass Prin

  19. Fluid management in space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard

    1989-01-01

    The low-g fluids management group with the Center for Space Construction is engaged in active research on the following topics: gauging; venting; controlling contamination; sloshing; transfer; acquisition; and two-phase flow. Our basic understanding of each of these topics at present is inadequate to design space structures optimally. A brief report is presented on each topic showing the present status, recent accomplishings by our group and our plans for future research. Reports are presented in graphic and outline form.

  20. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...... as to monitor the performance of disease-modifying drugs. This chapter presents methods for SELDI-TOF profiling of CSF as well as useful advice regarding pre-analytical factors to be considered....

  1. Quantum Field Theory of Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a...

  2. Unsteady unidirectional micropolar fluid flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the unsteady unidirectional flow of a micropolar fluid, produced by the sudden application of an arbitrary time dependent pressure gradient, between two parallel plates. The no-slip and the no-spin boundary conditions are used. Exact solutions for the velocity and microrotation distributions are obtained based on the use of the complex inversion formula of Laplace transform. The solution of the problem is also considered if the upper boundary of the flow is a free surface. The particula...

  3. Reentrant Wetting of Network Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, N. R.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We use a simple mesoscopic Landau-Safran theory of network fluids to show that a reentrant phase diagram, in the “empty liquid” regime, leads to nonmonotonic surface tension and reentrant wetting, as previously reported for binary mixtures. One of the wetting transitions is of the usual kind, but the low temperature transition may allow the display of the full range of fluctuation regimes predicted by renormalization group theory.

  4. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  5. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  6. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Even in simple geometries many complex fluids display non-trivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known since several decades, but the recent years have seen an upsurge of studies offering an ever more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales and with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many pheno...

  7. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The wave-vector dependent shear viscosities for butane and freely jointed chains have been determined. The transverse momentum density and stress autocorrelation functions have been determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics in both atomic and molecular hydrodynamic formalisms. The density, tem...... that generalized hydrodynamics must be applied in predicting the flow properties of molecular fluids on length scales where the strain rate varies sufficiently in the order of these dimensions (e.g., nanofluidic flows)....

  8. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    The wave-vector dependent shear viscosities for butane and freely jointed chains have been determined. The transverse momentum density and stress autocorrelation functions have been determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics in both atomic and molecular hydrodynamic formalisms. The density...... that generalized hydrodynamics must be applied in predicting the flow properties of molecular fluids on length scales where the strain rate varies sufficiently in the order of these dimensions (e.g., nanofluidic flows)....

  9. Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Birendra; Juanes, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We study, by means of numerical simulation, the mixing of two fluids of different viscosities in advection-dominated flows in a porous medium. It is well known that when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the displacement front is unstable and leads to the formation of a pattern known as viscous fingering. We present a high-resolution simulation approach that is stable for arbitrary viscosity ratios, and study mixing under different configurations with viscosity contrasts up to M = 400. We observe, in agreement with lab experiments, that for high-M displacements, the growth of new fingers follows the trace of previous ones. This channeling effect, which is a result of the nonlocal coupling through the pressure field, greatly reduces mixing. A two-equation mixing model using the scalar variance and its dissipation rate is derived from the advection-diffusion equation. It provides a measure of effective diffusivity due to convective and diffusive mixing processes. Our analysis predicts the opt...

  10. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  11. 40 CFR 147.3103 - Fluid seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluid seals. 147.3103 Section 147.3103... Tribes § 147.3103 Fluid seals. Notwithstanding §§ 144.28(f)(2) and 146.12(c) of this chapter, owners and operators shall not use a fluid seal as an alternative to a packer....

  12. Time-machine in Perfect Fluid Cosmologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yan-zhi

    2009-01-01

    This letter investigates the time-machine problem in perfect fluid cosmologies. It solves the Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensors for perfect fluid and constructs a class of time-machine solutions,by which the time-machine problem in the perfect fluid cosmologies is solved.

  13. Method of hardening a fluid mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of hardening a fluid mass in contact with a wall, in a desirable shape. According to the invention, the fluid mass is a magneto-rheological fluid mixture that in addition to at least one hardening component comprises a particulate magnetic component, with minimally

  14. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling, lubrication, corrosion prevention, and reduced wear on the contact parts of machinery used for...

  15. Transient flows of a Burgers' fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is performed to develop the analytical solutions for some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a Burgers' fluid between two plates. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the fluid motion. The exact solutions are given for three problems. Results for the velocity fields are discussed and compared with the flows of Oldroyd-B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids. (author)

  16. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  17. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  18. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  19. On Radiative Fluids in Anisotropic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We apply the second-order Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic fluid- and thermodynamics to a physically realistic model of a radiative fluid in a simple anisotropic cosmological background. We investigate the asymptotic future of the resulting cosmological model and review the role of the dissipative phenomena in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the transport properties of the fluid alone, if described appropriately, do not explain the presently observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Also, we show that, in constrast to the mathematical fluid models widely used before, the radiative fluid does approach local thermal equilibrium at late times, although very slowly, due to the cosmological expansion.

  20. Artifacts in magnetic measurements of fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Dennis, C. L.

    2016-08-01

    Applications of magnetic fluids are ever increasing, as well as the corresponding need to be able to characterize these fluids in situ. Commercial magnetometers are accurate and well-characterized for solid and powder samples, but their use with fluid samples is more limited. Here, we describe artifacts which can occur in magnetic measurements of fluid samples and their impact. The most critical problem in the measurement of fluid samples is the dynamic nature of the sample position and size/shape. Methods to reduce these artifacts are also discussed, such as removal of air bubbles and dynamic centering.

  1. Physically-based fluid animation: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jie; YANG XuBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give an up-to-date survey on physically-based fluid animation research. As one of the most popular approaches to simulate realistic fluid effects, physically-based fluid animation has spurred a large number of new results in recent years. We classify and discuss the existing methods within three categories: Lagrangian method, Eulerian method and Lattice-Boltzmann method. We then introduce techniques for seven different kinds of special fluid effects. Finally we review the latest hot research areas and point out some future research trends, including surface tracking, fluid control, hybrid method, model reduction, etc.

  2. Mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Von Mises, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow covers the conceptual and mathematical aspects of theory of compressible fluid flow. This five-chapter book specifically tackles the role of thermodynamics in the mechanics of compressible fluids. This text begins with a discussion on the general theory of characteristics of compressible fluid with its application. This topic is followed by a presentation of equations delineating the role of thermodynamics in compressible fluid mechanics. The discussion then shifts to the theory of shocks as asymptotic phenomena, which is set within the context of

  3. Viscous fingering with partial miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible or perfectly immiscible. In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other. Following our recent work for miscible (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. Partial miscibility is characterized through the design of thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution.

  4. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  5. Pumping by flapping in a viscoelastic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, On Shun

    2010-01-01

    In a world without inertia, Purcell's scallop theorem states that in a Newtonian fluid a time-reversible motion cannot produce any net force or net flow. Here we consider the extent to which the nonlinear rheological behavior of viscoelastic fluids can be exploited to break the constraints of the scallop theorem in the context of fluid pumping. By building on previous work focusing on force generation, we consider a simple, biologically-inspired geometrical example of a flapper in a polymeric (Oldroyd-B) fluid, and calculate asymptotically the time-average net fluid flow produced by the reciprocal flapping motion. The net flow occurs at fourth order in the flapping amplitude, and suggests the possibility of transporting polymeric fluids using reciprocal motion in simple geometries even in the absence of inertia. The induced flow field and pumping performance are characterized and optimized analytically. Our results may be useful in the design of micro-pumps handling complex fluids.

  6. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  7. Electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Cunlu

    2010-01-01

    Owing to frequent processing of biofluids in Lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices, electroosmotic mobilities of non-Newtonian fluids are investigated numerically. The general Cauchy momentum equation governing the electroosmotic velocity is simplified by incorporation of the Gouy-Chapman solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Carreau fluid constitutive model. Then the finite element method for solving the simplified version of Cauchy momentum equation is validated through comparisons with two exact solutions, i.e., Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids. Analyses shows that different from Newtonian fluids with a constant dimensionless electroosmotic mobility of unit one, dimensionless electroosmotic mobilities for non-Newtonian Carreau fluids are dependent on four dimensionless groups, such as dimensionless surface zeta potential , Weissenberg number Wi, fluid power-law exponent n and transitional parameter {\\beta}. It is found out that with increasing and decreasing of n and {\\beta}, electroosmotic ...

  8. Gravitational collapse of Hagedorn fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    We consider a toy model for the relativistic collapse of a homogeneous perfect fluid that takes into account an equation of state for high density matter, in the form of a Hagedorn phase, and semiclassical corrections in the strong field. We show that collapse reaches a critical minimum size and then bounces. We discuss the conditions needed for the collapse to halt and form a compact object. We argue that implications of models such as the one presented here are of great importance for astrophysics as they show that black holes may not be the only final outcome of collapse of very massive stars.

  9. Gravitational collapse of Hagedorn fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We consider a toy model for relativistic collapse of an homogeneous perfect fluid that takes into account an equation of state for high density matter, in the form of an Hagedorn phase, and semiclassical corrections in the strong field. We show that collapse reaches a critical minimum size and then bounces. We discuss the conditions for collapse to halt and form a compact object. We argue that implications of models such as the one presented here are of great importance for astrophysics as they show that black holes may not be the only final outcome of collapse of very massive stars.

  10. Synthetic magnetism for photon fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Westerberg, N; Faccio, D; Wilson, K; Öhberg, P; Wright, E M

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory of artificial gauge fields in photon fluids for the cases of both second-order and third-order optical nonlinearities. This applies to weak excitations in the presence of pump fields carrying orbital angular momentum, and is thus a type of Bogoliubov theory. The resulting artificial gauge fields experienced by the weak excitations are an interesting generalization of previous cases and reflect the PT-symmetry properties of the underlying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We illustrate the observable consequences of the resulting synthetic magnetic fields for examples involving both second-order and third-order nonlinearities.

  11. Synthetic magnetism for photon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, N.; Maitland, C.; Faccio, D.; Wilson, K.; Öhberg, P.; Wright, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a theory of artificial gauge fields in photon fluids for the cases of both second-order and third-order optical nonlinearities. This applies to weak excitations in the presence of pump fields carrying orbital angular momentum and is thus a type of Bogoliubov theory. The resulting artificial gauge fields experienced by the weak excitations are an interesting generalization of previous cases and reflect the PT-symmetry properties of the underlying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We illustrate the observable consequences of the resulting synthetic magnetic fields for examples involving both second-order and third-order nonlinearities.

  12. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  13. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  14. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc A.; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Even in simple geometries, many complex fluids display nontrivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known for several decades, but in recent years, we have seen an upsurge in studies offering an ever-more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and soft glassy materials and highlight their similarities and disparities.

  15. Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.

  16. PERCOLATION TRANSITION IN ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Tian; CHEN Yihong; XU Zhengmiao; XU Yuanze; HUANG Yun

    1994-01-01

    The electric conductivity, dynamic modulus and yield stress of the developed electrorheological fluid (ERF) are measured at different volume fraction and different electric field strength using a modified Rheosetrics Mechanical Spectrometer (Model 605). The percolation theory is introduced to explain electrorheological effect and found that the ERF's have the similar percolated network structure as that of other ordinary suspensions with a critical volume fraction value independent of electric field strength. A master curve of dimensionless modulus against dimensionless volume fraction is obtained. which shows that the essence of ER phenomenon actually is one kind of the second ofder phase transition.

  17. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  18. Complex fluids modeling and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Saramito, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.

  19. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  20. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  1. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan David C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  2. Computational methods for fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H

    2002-01-01

    In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...

  3. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  4. Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino

    2013-05-01

    Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.

  5. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account

  6. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Carbon and sulfur isotopes as tracers of fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction in geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, A.; Keller, N. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Kjartansdottir, R.; Ono, S.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon and sulfur are among major components in geothermal systems. They are found in various oxidation state and present in solid phases and fluids (water and vapor). In order to study the reactions and mass movement within multiphase geothermal systems, we have combined geochemical fluid-fluid and fluid-rock modelling with sulfur and carbon isotope fractionation modelling and compared the results with measured carbon and sulfur isotopes in geothermal fluids (water and vapor) for selected low- and high-enthalpy geothermal systems in Iceland. In this study we have focused on δ34S for H2S in vapor and water and SO4 in water as well as δ13C for CO2 in vapor and water phases. Isotope fractionations for CO2 and H2S between vapor and liquid water, upon aqueous speciation and upon carbonate and sulfide mineral formation were revised. These were combined with reaction modelling involving closed system boiling and progressive water-rock interaction to constrain the mass movement and isotope abundance between various phases. The results indicate that for a closed system, carbon and sulfur isotope abundance is largely dependent on progressive fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction and the initial total δ34S and δ13C value of the system. Initially, upon progressive fluid rock interaction the δ34S and δ13C values for the bulk aqueous phase approach that of the host rocks. Secondary mineral formation may alter these values, the exact isotope value of the mineral and resulting aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation factor. In turn, aqueous speciation and mineral saturation depends on progressive fluid-rock interaction, fluid-fluid interaction, temperature and acid supply to the system. Depressurization boiling also results in isotope fractionation, the exact isotope value of the vapor and aqueous phase depending on aqueous speciation and isotope fractionation fractor. In this way, carbon and sulfur isotopes may be used combined with

  8. Evaluation on performance of three-fluid and four-fluid heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Alfonso, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the effectiveness of multi-fluid type heat exchangers, where more than two fluids are involved at the same time, three-fluid, four-fluid and double two-fluid heat exchangers have been studied using various methods. Using general definition of maximum heat transfer rate, which can be considered as a single definition of Qmax, the single effectiveness of multi-fluid heat exchangers can be developed. The maximum heat transfer rate (Qmax) depends on heat capacity ...

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Viscoelastic Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amey

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor instability between two linear viscoelastic fluids assuming that the perturbations at the interface are small. In the first half, the paper analyzes a stratified viscoelastic fluid in which I prove that the perturbations rise or fall exponentially without oscillating. The second half of the paper examines the effect of electric and magnetic fields on viscoelastic fluids. I show that it is possible to choose electric or magnetic field gradient such that the effective acceleration due to gravity is zero. If a heavy Newtonian fluid rests on top of a lighter Newtonian fluid such a choice of field gradient would have rendered the arrangement stable. If the fluids are viscoelastic, I show that a similar arrangement is unstable.

  10. Characteristics of fluid substitution in porous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shengjie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the effect of changes in fluid properties of rocks on the compressional-wave velocity VP and shear-wave velocity Vs is very important for understanding the rock physical properties, especially in oilfield exploration and development.The fluid substitution process was analyzed by using ultrasonic measurement and theoretical calculations.The results showed that the effect of fluid substitution on the rock elastic modulus was mainly controlled by fluid properties, saturation, and confining pressure.For a rock with specific properties and porosity, the result of theoretical prediction for fluid substitution accorded with the experimental result under high confining pressure (higher than 60 MPa for our experimental data), but failed to describe the trend of experimental result under low confining pressure and VP predicted by Gassmann's equation was higher than that measured by experiment.A higher porosity resulted in stronger sensitivity of the bulk modulus of saturated rocks to the change of fluid properties.

  11. Magnetic-fluid microelectromechanical light modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEO Jong-wook; WANG Xi-jun

    2005-01-01

    A new microfluidic microelectromechanical light modulator using a magnetic fluid is introduced. The optical reflection from the device is modulated by applying an electric current into an electrode, which is enclosed by ferromagnetic thin films as in an inductive head for a magnetic data storage device. The magnetic field produced by the current exerts a magnetic force on the magnetic fluid and drives the fluid to cover the cell surface. The surface tension of the fluid provides a restoring force when the field is reduced. The actuation of the fluid is completed in about 12 ms for both thin-to-thick and thick-to-thin fluid film switchings by magnetic forces and surface tension forces, respectively. It was observed that the switching speed was almost independent of the driving current, and no considerable thermal effect were observed when driven by a current up to 100 mA.

  12. Enhanced active swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    Swimming microorganisms often self propel in fluids with complex rheology. While past theoretical work indicates that fluid viscoelasticity should hinder their locomotion, recent experiments on waving swimmers suggest a possible non-Newtonian enhancement of locomotion. We suggest a physical mechanism, based on fluid-structure interaction, leading to swimming in a viscoelastic fluid at a higher speed than in a Newtonian one. Using Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model, we solve for the shape of an active swimmer as a balance between the external fluid stresses, the internal driving moments, and the passive elastic resistance. We show that this dynamic balance leads to a generic transition from hindered rigid swimming to enhanced flexible locomotion. The results are physically interpreted as due to a viscoelastic suction increasing the swimming amplitude in a non-Newtonian fluid and overcoming viscoelastic damping.

  13. One dimensional motion of a viscous fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PURUNI

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the friction has been studied on the one dimensional motion of a viscous fluid. This friction is usually schematized in various semiempirical formulae. In t-liis work the different scliematizations of the friction were not studied separately but it was shown that a solution exists for the fluid motion. The results give information on the damping of the fluid motion in the case of the seiches.

  14. Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, S.A.; Clark, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a collection of papers from the International Symposium on Complex and Supermolecular Fluids presents tutorials and minireviews focusing on the physical properties of complex fluids using the concepts and techniques of condensed matter physics. The book stresses the unifying principles, rather than chemical details, behind the physics of diverse materials. Principal topics include colloids, microemulsions, ferrofluids, and micellar systems. It characterizes supermolecular and complex fluids by exploiting their analogies to atomic systems.

  15. Lagrangian formulation of noncommutative fluid models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, M.V., E-mail: mateusmarcial@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Mendes, A.C.R., E-mail: albert@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Neves, C., E-mail: clifford@fat.uerj.b [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km 298, 27537-000, Resende, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, W., E-mail: wilson@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Takakura, F.I., E-mail: takakura@fisica.ufjf.b [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2010-08-02

    In this work we study Lagrangian formulations for the noncommutative versions of the irrotational and rotational fluid models. These formulations will be obtained by using the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism. In this context, interesting results will be revealed, for example, a chiral behavior into both fluid models comes up. In fact, distinct and non-dynamically equivalent Lagrangian descriptions of the noncommutative versions of the fluid models can be proposed.

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Viscoelastic Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Amey

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor instability between two linear viscoelastic fluids assuming that the perturbations at the interface are small. In the first half, the paper analyzes a stratified viscoelastic fluid in which I prove that the perturbations rise or fall exponentially without oscillating. The second half of the paper examines the effect of electric and magnetic fields on viscoelastic fluids. I show that it is possible to choose electric or magnetic field gradie...

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID PIPE LUMPED PARAMETER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiaowu; Wei Jianhua; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao

    2004-01-01

    The traditional lumped parameter model of fluid pipe is introduced and its drawbacks are pointed out.Furthermore, two suggestions are put forward to remove these drawbacks.Firstly, the structure of equivalent circuit is modified, and then the evaluation of equivalent fluid resistance is change to take the frequency-dependent friction into account.Both simulation and experiment prove that this model is precise to characterize the dynamic behaviors of fluid in pipe.

  18. Performance Comparison and Selection of Transformer Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yang; Liu Shi Jia

    2016-01-01

    Transformer fluid directly affects the working state of the components and the cooling efficiency of transformer. There are three kinds of transformer fluid used for electric locomotive, EMU and suburban rail vehicles: mineral oil, silicone liquid and synthetic ester based insulating oil. In this paper, the three kinds of oil are compared from the fire safety, environmental protection, reliability and low maintenance. It provides a strong basis for the selection of transformer fluid. By compr...

  19. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  20. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2000-06-12

    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  1. Improving fluid balance monitoring on the wards

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapala, Sobanakumari; Gerth, Alice; Patel, Aarti; Syed, Nazia

    2015-01-01

    Clinical experience and nursing metrics have consistently identified poor documentation of fluid balance monitoring at Milton Keynes University Hospital, compromising patient safety and quality of care. This project aimed to increase the percentage of fluid balance charts correctly completed on the wards. Three areas for improvement were identified: understanding the importance of good fluid balance monitoring, correct identification of patients requiring monitoring, and ease of completion of...

  2. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  3. Proceedings of industrial applications of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The is the fourth Forum on Industrial Applications of Fluid Mechanics sponsored by the Fluid Mechanics Committee of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division. The Forum objective is to promote the discussion and interchange of current information on developing and state-of-the-art applications of fluid mechanics technology. The program is organized as a technical forum to encourage the presentation of new ideas, especially those which may be so innovative that a conservative review process might delay their dissemination to the fluids engineering community. Four sessions and a total of 17 papers are scheduled for this program. Three of the four sessions were devoted to contributed papers, while the fourth is a panel discussion with three invited presentations. All papers were reviewed editorially to assure that they are related to the forum theme The papers were not evaluated technically, and therefore carry no endorsement from the Fluid Mechanics Committee or the Fluids Engineering Division with regard to peer evaluation. The forum presentations will focus on specific applications of fluid mechanics technology. Lively discussion of the papers is encouraged at the forum. The Fluid Mechanics Committee plans to sponsor a forum with an industrial applications theme each year at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting. In 1991, the scope of the forum will be enlarged to include the topic of textile applications of fluid mechanics, and another panel session featuring speakers with industrial experience in different areas of fluid mechanics applications. In future years, it is anticipated that the forum will solicit papers from other areas where fluid mechanics technology is applied

  4. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A. (Inventor); Grover, William H. (Inventor); Skelley, Alison (Inventor); Lagally, Eric (Inventor); Liu, Chung N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  5. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Michael A.; Woloshun, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  6. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  7. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  8. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Fluid Sealing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The sealing performance of magnetic fluid is related to the magnetic fluid itself. Many factors can influence the magnetic field and the seal pressure differences of magnetic fluid seals, such as the sealing gap, the shaft eccentricity, the shaft diameter, the volume of the magnetic fluid and the centrifugal force. These factors are analyzed by numerical computation . When the seal material and structure are the same, the seal pressure difference is directly proportional to the magnetic field intensity and the saturation magnetization of the magnetic fluid. The sealing performance of the magnetic fluid will reduce with the increase of the sealing gap and shaft eccentricity. The sealing performance will increase with the volume of the magnetic fluid and decrease with the increase of the shaft diameter taking gravity into account. The increase of the shaft diameter is the same as the reduction of the volume of the magnetic fluid. The magnetic fluid cross-section can change because of the centrifugal force. Some improvements can reduce the influence of the centrifugal force. The centrifugal force can be utilized to improve the sealing performance.

  11. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC50s were from 25 μ liter-1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  12. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  13. An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1999-01-01

    CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....

  14. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  15. Fluid Mechanics Optimising Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivadarou, Evgenia; Dalziel, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    The Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) is a new ``green'' approach in the synthesis of organic chemicals with many industrial applications in biodiesel generation, cosmetics, protein folding and pharmaceutical production. The VFD is a rapidly rotating tube that can operate with a jet feeding drops of liquid reactants to the base of the tube. The aim of this project is to explain the fluid mechanics of the VFD that influence the rate of reactions. The reaction rate is intimately related to the intense shearing that promotes collision between reactant molecules. In the VFD, the highest shears are found at the bottom of the tube in the Rayleigh and the Ekman layer and at the walls in the Stewardson layers. As a step towards optimising the performance of the VFD we present experiments conducted in order to establish the minimum drop volume and maximum rotation rate for maximum axisymmetric spreading without fingering instability. PhD candidate, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

  16. SALIVA AS A DIAGNOSTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezelj-Ribaric Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues’ integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  17. Molecular Rheology of Complex Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    –state viscosity between melts and solutions is still an open question. Branched polymer melts have more complex molecular structures. A stress maximum during the start–up of uniaxial extensional flow was reported in 1979 for a low–density polyethylene (LDPE) melt. Subsequently observations of a steady stress...... and branched polymer melts. We report the stress–strain measurements in extensional flows using a unique Filament Stretching Rheometer (FSR) in controlled strain rate mode and controlled stress mode. Extensional flow is difficult to measure reliably in Laboratory circumstances. In this thesis we first present...... fluids as a function of molecular chemistry has attracted a long history of collaboration between industry and academia. In industrial polymer processes, there is usually a combination of both shear and extensional flows. In some processing operations such as blow molding and fiber spinning, extensional...

  18. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified......Considering a coordinate-free formulation of helical symmetry rather than more traditional definitions based on coordinates, we discuss basic properties of helical vector fields and compare results from the literature obtained with other approaches. In particular, we discuss the role of the stream...

  19. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  20. A primer on quantum fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Barenghi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors. .

  1. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Phys. Fluids 25, 1949–1952) contains an infinite sum of modified Bessel functions. Using the approach by Okulov (Okulov, V. L. 1995 Russ. J. Eng. Thermophys. 5, 63–75) we obtain a closed-form approximation which is considerably easier to analyse. Critical points of the stream function can be found from...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified...... and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of parameters....

  2. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  3. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2007-10-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  4. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting.

  5. Fiber bundle model under fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, David; Girard, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    Internal fluid pressure often plays an important role in the rupture of brittle materials. This is a major concern for many engineering applications and for natural hazards. More specifically, the mechanisms through which fluid pressure, applied at a microscale, can enhance the failure at a macroscale and accelerate damage dynamics leading to failure remains unclear. Here we revisit the fiber bundle model by accounting for the effect of fluid under pressure that contributes to the global load supported by the fiber bundle. Fluid pressure is applied on the broken fibers, following Biot's theory. The statistical properties of damage avalanches and their evolution toward macrofailure are analyzed for a wide range of fluid pressures. The macroscopic strength of the new model appears to be strongly controlled by the action of the fluid, particularly when the fluid pressure becomes comparable with the fiber strength. The behavior remains consistent with continuous transition, i.e., second order, including for large pressure. The main change concerns the damage acceleration toward the failure that is well modeled by the concept of sweeping of an instability. When pressure is increased, the exponent β characterizing the power-law distribution avalanche sizes significantly decreases and the exponent γ characterizing the cutoff divergence when failure is approached significantly increases. This proves that fluid pressure plays a key role in failure process acting as destabilization factor. This indicates that macrofailure occurs more readily under fluid pressure, with a behavior that becomes progressively unstable as fluid pressure increases. This may have considerable consequences on our ability to forecast failure when fluid pressure is acting. PMID:27078437

  6. Super-strong magneto-rheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    2001-03-01

    A typical MR fluid is a suspension of magnetic particles of micrometer size in a liquid. Upon application of a strong magnetic field, the fluid turns into a solid. This process is reversible and the response time is of milliseconds. MR fluids presently have a yield shear stress around 80 kPa, which is adequate for applications in shock absorbers and vibration dampers, but is inadequate for automobile clutch etc. Efforts in searching for new materials in the past decades came with limited results. Thus we have developed a new approach to change the microstructure of MR fluids and make them super-strong. It is well known that under a strong magnetic field, the ideal structure of MR fluids is a body-centered tetragonal (bct) lattice. The mechanical strength of MR fluids strongly depends on the microstructure. A bct-lattice based thick column has a much higher yield stress than a single-chain structure. When a magnetic field is applied to a MR fluid, the particles first form chains. With time, the chains may aggregate into columns. However, the unassisted aggregation is not very useful, as it is slow and produces columns with a limited thickness. Our method is based on assisted aggregations. Immediately after a magnetic field is applied, we compress the MR fluid in the field direction before a shear force is applied. The compression pushes the induced chains together to form thick columns. This microstructure change greatly enhances the yield stress. The experiment on an iron-based MR fluid finds 800 kPa for the yield stress, ten times stronger than that without the compression. When the magnetic field is removed, the MR fluid still returns to the liquid state quickly. The upper limit of this structure-enhanced yield stress seems well above 800 kPa. The super-strong MR fluids are suitable for many industrial applications. *Supported by NSF Grant 0196022

  7. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Jian Ling; Cui, Sheng Jie; Sun, Ying Cal; Cui, Feng Zhen [Dept. of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laborary of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  8. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  9. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  10. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC...

  11. Final Progress Report for THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS AND FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Stell

    2009-01-28

    The DOE supported research is a theoretical statistical-mechanical based study of the thermophysical properties of fluids and fluid mixtures. It focuses upon thermodynamic and transport properties in particular. In addition the study covers the development of new ways for predicting the microscopic structure of fluids in a wide range of thermodynamic state parameters, including the critical point.

  12. Fast fluid registration of medical images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a new fast algorithm for non-rigid viscous fluid registration of medical images that is at least an order of magnitude faster than the previous method by (Christensen et al., 1994). The core algorithm in the fluid registration method is based on a linear elastic deformation...

  13. ZENO: A Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The ZENO experiment flew on the STS-62, it is designed to verify intriguing, but previously untested, theories in fluid physics. These theories attempt to describe dramatic changes in the properties of fluids near the critical temperature at which the vapor and liquid forms co-exist.

  14. Stirring faces: mixing in a quiescent fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Brunton, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the mixing that occurs as a two-dimensional flat plate plunges sinusoidally in a quiescent fluid. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents reveal sets that are attracting or repelling. As the flow field develops, strange faces emerge.

  15. Non-singular inhomogeneous stiff fluid cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Jambrina, L

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we show a stiff fluid solution of the Einstein equations for a cylindrically symmetric spacetime. The main features of this metric are that it is non-separable in comoving coordinates for the congruence of the worldlineS of the fluid and that it yields regular curvature invariants.

  16. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of magnetic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng Fang; Yimin Xuan; Qiang Li

    2009-01-01

    Considering the forces acting on the particles and the motion of the particles, this study uses a numerical simulation to investigate the three-dimensional microstructure of the magnetic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. A method is proposed for predicting the anisotropic thermal conductivity of magnetic fluids. By introducing an anisotropic structure parameter which characterizes the non-uniform distribution of particles suspended in the magnetic fluids, the traditional Maxwell formula is modified and extended to calculate anisotropic thermal conductivity of the magnetic fluids. The results show that in the presence of an external magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles form chainlike clusters along the direction of the external magnetic field, which leads to the fact that the thermal conduc-tivity of the magnetic fluid along the chain direction is bigger than that along other directions. The thermal conductivity of the magnetic fluids presents an anisotropic feature. With the increase of the magnetic field strength the chainlike clusters in the magnetic fluid appear to be more obvious, so that the anisotropic feature of heat conduction in the fluids becomes more evident.

  17. Fluid composition analysis device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates in particular to a device for determining one or more fluid properties of a fluid. The device preferably comprises a flow distributor comprising a cavity, an inlet to the cavity, one or more outlets from the cavity, and one or more flow deflecting elements present in the cav...

  18. Inflation in a viscous fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Passeig Lluis Companys, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    We explore a fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model in which the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid includes bulk viscosity. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology, i.e., the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit EoS for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of a fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of a fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Moreover, we show that the singular inflation can occur in a fluid model. Furthermore, we show that a fluid description of inflation can be equivalent to the description of inflation in terms of scalar field theories. (orig.)

  19. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show un...

  20. Molecular tumor-diagnostics in body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacques Benno de

    2000-01-01

    Tumor-derived nucleic acids are frequently present in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood, sputum, stool, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) that had contact with malignant or premalignant tissues. Detection of this mutant DNA or quantification of aberrant gene expression may offer new noninvasive methods fo

  1. The proteomic toolbox for studying cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, A.J. van; Hendrickson, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be considered the most promising biosample for the discovery and analysis of biomarkers in neuroscience, an area of great medical need. CSF is a body fluid that surrounds the brain and provides a rich pool of biochemical markers, both proteomic and metabolomic, that ref

  2. PKN problem for non-Newtonian fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents analytical solution for hydraulic fracture driven by a non-Newtonian fluid and propagating under plane strain conditions in cross sections parallel to the fracture front. Conclusions are drawn on the influence of the fluid properties on the fracture propagation.

  3. Byzantine Parthenogenesis as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Images Borne on Dewy Lightning Byzantine παρθένογένεσις as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance......Images Borne on Dewy Lightning Byzantine παρθένογένεσις as Hierotopy of Fluid Brilliance...

  4. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  5. Introducing fluid dynamics using dimensional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of fluid dynamics can be introduced using dimensional analysis, combined with some basic physical principles. This approach is concise and allows exploration of both the laminar and turbulent limits—including important phenomena that are not normally dealt with when fluid dynamics...

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomics of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MScl) is a highly heterogeneous disease of the central nervous system, and its pathology is characterized by a combination of factors such as inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage [1, 2]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a relatively interesting body fluid in whic

  7. Lattice Boltzmann scheme for relativistic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, M.; B. Boghosian; Herrmann, H. J.; Succi, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically verified through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shock-wave propagation in viscous quark-gluon plasmas. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the main advantages of Lattice Boltzmann methods to the relativistic context, which seems particularly useful for the simulation of relativistic fluids in complicated geometries.

  8. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively stabili

  9. Computational fluid dynamics for natural circulation flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of current methods employed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A description of the Navier-Stokes equations, and their extension to turbulent and multi-phase fluid flows, is presented; aspects of grid generation and numerical methods are also discussed. Lastly, to further elucidate some of the concepts presented, some sample applications are provided. (author)

  10. Interfacial fluid instabilities and Kapitsa pendula

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Madison Ski

    2015-01-01

    The onset and development of instabilities is one of the central problems in fluid mechanics. Here we develop a connection between instabilities of free fluid interfaces and inverted pendula. When acted upon solely by the gravitational force, the inverted pendulum is unstable. This position can be stabilised by the Kapitsa phenomenon, in which high-frequency low-amplitude vertical vibrations of the base creates a fictitious force which opposes the gravitational force. By transforming the dynamical equations governing a fluid interface into an appropriate pendulum, we demonstrate how stability can be induced in fluid systems by properly tuned vibrations. We construct a "dictionary"-type relationship between various pendula and the classical Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Plateau and the self-gravitational instabilities. This makes several results in control theory and dynamical systems directly applicable to the study of "tunable" fluid instabilities, where the critical wavelength depends on the e...

  11. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  12. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions. We use an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with polar anchoring at the droplet interface. Secondly, an active isotropic fluid consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way.

  13. Entropy current for non-relativistic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash; Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    We study transport properties of a parity-odd, non-relativistic charged fluid in presence of background electric and magnetic fields. To obtain stress tensor and charged current for the non-relativistic system we start with the most generic relativistic fluid, living in one higher dimension and reduce the constituent equations along the light-cone direction. We also reduce the equation satisfied by the entropy current of the relativistic theory and obtain a consistent entropy current for the non-relativistic system (we call it "canonical form" of the entropy current). Demanding that the non-relativistic fluid satisfies the second law of thermodynamics we impose constraints on various first order transport coefficients. For parity even fluid, this is straight forward; it tells us positive definiteness of different transport coefficients like viscosity, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity etc. However for parity-odd fluid, canonical form of the entropy current fails to confirm the second law of thermody...

  14. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  15. Theory of locomotion through complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Elfring, Gwynn

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria often swim in fluid environments that cannot be classified as Newtonian. Many biological fluids contain polymers or other heterogeneities which may yield complex rheology. For a given set of boundary conditions on a moving organism, flows can be substantially different in complex fluids, while non-Newtonian stresses can alter the gait of the microorganisms themselves. Heterogeneities in the fluid may also be characterized by length scales on the order of the organism itself leading to additional dynamic complexity. In this chapter we present a theoretical overview of small-scale locomotion in complex fluids with a focus on recent efforts quantifying the impact of non-Newtonian rheology on swimming microorganisms.

  16. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  17. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  18. Spontaneous oscillations in simple fluid networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karst, Nathaniel J; Geddes, John B

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena including multiple equilibria and spontaneous oscillations are common in fluid networks containing either multiple phases or constituent flows. In many systems, such behavior might be attributed to the complicated geometry of the network, the complex rheology of the constituent fluids, or, in the case of microvascular blood flow, biological control. In this paper we investigate two examples of a simple three-node fluid network containing two miscible Newtonian fluids of differing viscosities, the first modeling microvascular blood flow and the second modeling stratified laminar flow. We use a combination of analytic and numerical techniques to identify and track saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations through the large parameter space. In both models, we document sustained spontaneous oscillations and, for an experimentally relevant example of parameter analysis, investigate the sensitivity of these oscillations to changes in the viscosity contrast between the constituent fluids and the inlet fl...

  19. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609

  20. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  1. Towards a general fluid/gravity correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Pinzani-Fokeeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We set up the construction of generic (d+2)-dimensional metrics corresponding to (d+1)-dimensional fluids, representing holographically the hydrodynamic regimes of the putative dual theories. We give general seed equilibrium metrics appropriate to generic bulk stress energy tensors and discuss the implications of conformal rescalings of the hypersurface on which the fluid is defined. We then show how to obtain the corresponding hydrodynamic metrics using a relativistic gradient expansion and discuss the integrability conditions of the resulting equations. The stress energy tensors of the resulting fluids, both at and away from equilibrium, satisfy a quadratic constraint. We interpret this constraint in terms of two possible equations of state for the fluid and show that only one of the two equations is physical. We illustrate our discussions with the example of the cutoff AdS fluid, for which we find the precise interpretation in terms of deformations of the UV conformal field theory. Finally we discuss the r...

  2. FORMATE-BASED FLUIDS: FORMULATION AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Formate-based fluids has been successfully used in over hunders HPHT well operations since they introduced in field practice. They have many advantages when compared with conventional HPHT drilling and completion fluids such as: minimal formation damage, maintenance of additve properties at high temperatures, reduced hydraulic flow resistance, low potential for differential sticking, naturally lubricating, very low corrosion rates, biodegradable and pose little risk to the environment etc. Formate-based fluids can be applied during deep slim hole drilling, shale drilling, reservoir drilling, salt and gas hydrate formations drilling. The laboratory research was carried out to evaluate the rheological behavior of formate-based fluids as a function of temperature. Formate-based fluids were formulated using potassium formate brine, xanthan polymer, PAC, starch and calcium carbonate. Experimental results show that potassium formate improves the thermal stability of polymers.

  3. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2008-02-05

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  4. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  5. Modern trends in fluid therapy for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricklebank, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    The majority of burn centres use the crystalloid-based Parkland formula to guide fluid therapy, but patients actually receive far more fluid than the formula predicts. Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloid has numerous adverse consequences, including worsening of burn oedema, conversion of superficial into deep burns, and compartment syndromes. Resuscitation fluids influence the inflammatory response to burns in different ways and it may be possible, therefore to affect this response using the appropriate fluid, at the appropriate time. Starches are effective volume expanders and early use of newer formulations may limit resuscitation requirements and burn oedema by reducing inflammation and capillary leak. Advanced endpoint monitoring may guide clinicians in when to 'turn off' aggressive fluid therapy and therefore avoid the problems of over-resuscitation.

  6. Engineering Fracking Fluids with Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    2015-11-01

    There are no comprehensive simulation-based tools for engineering the flows of viscoelastic fluid-particle suspensions in fully three-dimensional geometries. On the other hand, the need for such a tool in engineering applications is immense. Suspensions of rigid particles in viscoelastic fluids play key roles in many energy applications. For example, in oil drilling the ``drilling mud'' is a very viscous, viscoelastic fluid designed to shear-thin during drilling, but thicken at stoppage so that the ``cuttings'' can remain suspended. In a related application known as hydraulic fracturing suspensions of solids called ``proppant'' are used to prop open the fracture by pumping them into the well. It is well-known that particle flow and settling in a viscoelastic fluid can be quite different from that which is observed in Newtonian fluids. First, it is now well known that the ``fluid particle split'' at bifurcation cracks is controlled by fluid rheology in a manner that is not understood. Second, in Newtonian fluids, the presence of an imposed shear flow in the direction perpendicular to gravity (which we term a cross or orthogonal shear flow) has no effect on the settling of a spherical particle in Stokes flow (i.e. at vanishingly small Reynolds number). By contrast, in a non-Newtonian liquid, the complex rheological properties induce a nonlinear coupling between the sedimentation and shear flow. Recent experimental data have shown both the shear thinning and the elasticity of the suspending polymeric solutions significantly affects the fluid-particle split at bifurcations, as well as the settling rate of the solids. In the present work, we use the Immersed Boundary Method to develop computer simulations of viscoelastic flow in suspensions of spheres to study these problems. These simulations allow us to understand the detailed physical mechanisms for the remarkable physical behavior seen in practice, and actually suggest design rules for creating new fluid recipes.

  7. Preparation and study of model magnetorheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Turczyn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was preparation of the model magnetorheological (MR fluids. Basic properties of prepared MR fluids, as their response to an external magnetic field and their stability, were investigated. Moreover (furthermore few results concerning stabilizing effect of various additives are presented.Design/methodology/approach: Model MR fluid was prepared using three type of carriers: silicone oil OKS 1050, synthetic oil OKS 352, mineral oil OKS 600 mixed with carbonyl iron powder CI HQ. Furthermore, to reduce sedimentation Aerosil 200 and 972, Arsil 1100 and Arabic gum were added as stabilizers. MR effect was measured using device working as Couette’s viscosimeter equipped with coil generating magnetic field. Sedimentation was measured by simply observation of changes in boundary position between clear and turbid part of MR fluid placed into glass tube.Findings: Influence of the additives presence on the MR effect was determined. The presence of additives did not diminish the magnetic effect but even increased the dynamic viscosity in existence of an external magnetic field. The stability of MR fluid was improved by adding additives to the formulation. Moreover, increasing stabilizer concentration further enhanced the MR fluid stability. The best result was achieved in case of Aerosil 9782 at 2 % content.Research limitations/implications: MR fluids with excellent properties can be applied in various fields of civil and safety engineering, transportation and life science. However, due to sedimentation, MR fluid response to magnetic field is restricted and in an extreme situation could lead to the fail that is why further efforts must be still made in order to obtain even better results.Originality/value: This article provides set of new data about improvement of MR fluid stability in the presence of selected stabilizers and contains few remarks how the formulation of MR fluid affect its properties.

  8. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  9. Fluid trapping during capillary displacement in fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    The spatial distribution of fluid phases and the geometry of fluid-fluid interfaces resulting from immiscible displacement in fractures cast decisive influence on a range of macroscopic flow parameters. Most importantly, these are the relative permeabilities of the fluids as well as the macroscopic irreducible saturations. They also influence parameters for component (solute) transport, as it usually occurs through one of the fluid phase only. Here, we present a numerical investigation on the critical role of aperture variation and spatial correlation on fluid trapping and the morphology of fluid phase distributions in a geological fracture. We consider drainage in the capillary dominated regime. The correlation scale, that is, the scale over which the two facing fracture walls are matched, varies among the investigated geometries between L/256 and L (self-affine fields), L being the domain/fracture length. The aperture variability is quantified by the coefficient of variation (δ), ranging among the various geometries from 0.05 to 0.25. We use an invasion percolation based model which has been shown to properly reproduce displacement patterns observed in previous experiments. We present a quantitative analysis of the size distribution of trapped fluid clusters. We show that when the in-plane curvature is considered, the amount of trapped fluid mass first increases with increasing correlation scale Lc and then decreases as Lc further increases from some intermediate scale towards the domain length scale L. The in-plane curvature contributes to smoothening the invasion front and to dampening the entrapment of fluid clusters of a certain size range that depends on the combination of random aperture standard deviation and spatial correlation.

  10. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid system study: Fluid systems configuration databook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L.; Bicknell, B.; Bergman, D.; Wilson, S.

    1987-01-01

    This databook contains fluid system requirements and system descriptions for Space Station program elements including the United States and International modules, integrated fluid systems, attached payloads, fluid servicers and vehicle accommodation facilities. Separate sections are devoted to each of the program elements and include a discussion of the overall system requirements, specific fluid systems requirements and systems descriptions. The systems descriptions contain configurations, fluid inventory data and component lists. In addition, a list of information sources is referenced at the end of each section.

  11. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  12. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  14. Fluid dynamics of planetary ices

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The role of water ice in the solar system is reviewed from a fluid-dynamical point of view. On Earth and Mars, water ice forms ice sheets, ice caps and glaciers at the surface, which show glacial flow under their own weight. By contrast, water ice is a major constituent of the bulk volume of the icy satellites in the outer solar system, and ice flow can occur as thermal convection. The rheology of polycrystalline aggregates of ordinary, hexagonal ice Ih is described by a power law, different forms of which are discussed. The temperature dependence of the ice viscosity follows an Arrhenius law. Therefore, the flow of ice in a planetary environment constitutes a thermo-mechanically coupled problem; its model equations are obtained by inserting the flow law and the thermodynamic material equations in the balance laws of mass, momentum and energy. As an example of gravity-driven flow, the polar caps of Mars are discussed. For the north-polar cap, large-scale flow velocities of the order of 0.1...1 mm/a are likely...

  15. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)

  16. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Bing-Sui

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation, and through the use of a saddle-point approximation transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero mode fluctuations of the membranes, and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area $S$, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the inter-membrane separation $d$ as $d^{-2}$ for $d \\ll \\sqrt{S}$, but crosses over to $d^{-4}$ scaling for $d \\gg \\sqrt{S}$, whereas the zero mode part of the steric potential always scales as $d^{-2}$. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude $\\sigma$, which becomes sma...

  17. The microbiology of metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ratul; Donofrio, Robert S

    2012-06-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are complex mixtures of chemicals and are indispensable materials in industry. They are used as cooling and lubricating agents in different machining process such as grinding, milling, and cutting. The quality of MWFs is affected by physical, chemical, and microbial contaminates. In particular, MWFs are highly vulnerable to microbial contamination, which may act both as potential pathogens and deteriorgens. Microbial contamination is of major concern due to potential health hazards such as skin dermatitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The contaminated MWFs can exhibit high degrees of microbial loading, ranging from 10(4) to 10(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Wide varieties of microorganisms are reported to colonize MWFs. Traditional culturing techniques are not only laborious and time consuming but also underestimate the actual distribution of the microorganisms present in the contaminated MWFs. Therefore, rapid molecular methods such as real-time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization are implemented to monitor the microbial load. In industry, biocides are presently used to control microbial contamination. However, it has its own disadvantages and therefore, in recent years, alternative methods such as UV irradiation were evaluated to reduce microbial contamination in MWFs. Microbes inhabiting the MWF are also capable of forming biofilm which is detrimental to the MWF system. Biofilm is resistant to common disinfectant methods, and thus further research and development is required to effectively control its formation within MWF systems. This review is intended to discuss the overall microbiological aspects of MWF. PMID:22543351

  18. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC...... of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output....... The net power outputs of all the feasible working fluids were ranked including their uncertainties. The method could propagate and quantify the input property uncertainty of the fluidproperty parameters to the ORC model, giving an additional dimension to the fluid selection process. In the given analysis...

  19. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Experimental and numerical studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible (e.g. water and glycerol) or perfectly immiscible (e.g. water and oil). In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other (e.g. CO2 and water). Following our recent work for miscible systems (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a porous medium, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. In our model, partial miscibility is characterized through the design of the thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We express the model in dimensionless form and elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution. Figure caption: final snapshots in simulations of viscous fingering with a two-fluid system mimicking that of CO2 and water. The colormap corresponds to the concentration of CO2. A band of less viscous gas phase rich in CO2 (red) displaces through the more viscous liquid phase that is undersaturated with CO2 (blue). At the fluid interface, an exchange of CO2 occurs as a result of local chemical potentials that drives the system towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This results in a shrinkage of gas phase as well as a local increase in

  20. A fluid biopsy as investigating technology for the fluid phase of solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Peter; Bethel, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Reliable measurement of internal bodily substances and structures is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. Progress in cancer medicine, like that in many medical fields, must encompass and take advantage of progress in the physical sciences. Historically, the development and refinement of physical sciences-based detection of biological entities precedes periods of great advancements in therapies. To treat broken limbs and arthritis, we are indebted to Conrad Roentgen's discovery of x-rays by which we can evaluate the bones; to apply gamma knife therapy for cancer, we are indebted to Marie Curie's discoveries about radioactivity by which we can eradicate tumors; to manage the complications of diabetes, we are indebted to Tom Clemens, Ames Pharmaceuticals and Dick Bernstein's refinement of direct blood glucose measurement technology by which we can count, hour-to-hour, the waxing and waning of blood sugar levels; to understand anything at all on the cellular level, we are indebted to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's microscope, by which we can see our cells. The application of physical sciences perspectives to biological and medical problems has a long and productive history. As of late, however, the increasing compartmentalization of science and exponential increases of knowledge in both arenas has resulted in a rift between the two. The NCI has initiated a research network establishing multiple centers of investigation, the Physical Sciences in Oncology Centers (http://physics.cancer.gov), which seek to mend the rift. Each headed by a pair of investigators, one in the physical sciences and one in the biological sciences, the centers seek to bring the advances and breakthroughs of the physical sciences world to bear on the question of cancer. This issue of physical biology contains a series of articles exploring the utility and applicability of a new method for measuring cancer as it spreads, developed at the Scripps Physical Oncology Center. Although some progress