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Sample records for bodily anxiety symptom

  1. Negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction cigarette smoking outcome expectancies: incremental validity for anxiety focused on bodily sensations and panic attack symptoms among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Gonzalez, Adam; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation evaluated the incremental validity of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Participants included 171 daily smokers (82 women, 89 men; mean age = 25.67 years, SD = 10.54). Consistent with prediction, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies were significantly predictive of anxiety focused on bodily sensations and postchallenge intensity of cognitive panic attack symptoms, but not of physical panic symptoms. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the statistically significant variance accounted for by the covariates of anxiety sensitivity, negative affectivity, cigarettes per day, and weekly alcohol use and independent of other smoking outcome expectancy factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and vulnerability for panic symptoms and psychopathology.

  2. Symptoms and syndromes of bodily distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Per; Toft, Tomas; Hansen, Morten Steen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical complaints not attributable to verifiable, conventionally defined diseases, i.e., medically unexplained or functional somatic symptoms, are prevalent in all medical settings, but their classification is contested as numerous overlapping diagnoses and syndrome labels have been...... introduced. This study aims to determine whether functional somatic symptoms cluster into distinct syndromes and diagnostic entities. METHODS: The 978 consecutively admitted patients from a neurological department (n = 120), a medical department (n = 157), and from primary care (n = 701) were interviewed...... using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) diagnostic instrument. RESULTS: Patients complained of a median of five functional somatic symptoms; women of six, men of four (p symptoms stood out as distinctive for patients with multiple symptoms. Principal...

  3. The structure of emotional and cognitive anxiety symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , and anger), cognitions about cognitive dysfunction (difficulty concentrating, confusion, and loss of control) and social phobic cognitions. It was positively correlated with severity of bodily anxiety symptoms and with the neuroticism personality trait. The second factor, fear of physical sensations......A sample of 327 patients with primary panic disorder or social phobia completed a questionnaire comprising 77 emotional and cognitive anxiety symptoms from which 12 index scales were constructed. Explorative factor analysis yielded two factors, but confirmatory factor analysis indicated......, was positively correlated with a cardio-respiratory dimension of bodily anxiety symptoms in panic disorder, lending support to the hypothesis of specific threat-relevant links between bodily symptoms and catastrophic cognitions....

  4. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  5. Anxiety symptoms in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Reyes, Darcel

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most frequent symptoms recognized by providers who care for persons living with HIV disease (PLWH). This evidence-based review of anxiety and HIV disease includes an overview of anxiety symptoms, their prevalence in PLWH, and co-existing mood and behavioral disorders. Harmful physiologic effects are also highlighted. Valid and reliable clinical measurement tools used for assessing anxiety include the Clinical Diagnostic Questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Profile of Mood States, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapy as a recommended intervention for the treatment of anxiety symptoms and/or anxiety disorders in PLWH. Medications for use with more severe and disabling anxiety are discussed, as well as evidence based on expert opinion for anxiety self-management.

  6. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Primeau, Loree A; Levine, Ruth E; Olson, Gayle L; Wu, Z Helen; Berenson, Abbey B

    2006-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the distribution of anxiety symptoms among pregnant, non-pregnant, and postpartum women of lower socioeconomic status. Participants were 807 women who were pregnant (24-36 weeks), postpartum (2-8 weeks), or not pregnant. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed by the state-trait anxiety index and the Beck depression inventory, respectively. English and Spanish versions of the instrument were available. Group differences in anxiety were evaluated using analysis of variance. Multivariate regression was performed to evaluate differences in anxiety while controlling for marital status, education, race/ethnicity, employment, cohabitation, income, parity, history of depression/anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Anxiety scores were lower among postpartum women relative to pregnant and non-pregnant women (both P < 0.001), who did not differ (P = 0.99). After controlling for depressive symptoms and patient characteristics, anxiety remained lowest among postpartum women. Additionally, history of depression/anxiety and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of anxiety in the multivariate analysis. Comparatively low anxiety and depressive symptoms were observed among women who were 2-8 weeks postpartum. Anxiety symptoms that occur postpartum may not appear until later in the postpartum period.

  7. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  8. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  9. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  10. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  11. Social anxiety and insomnia: the mediating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence.

  12. The association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W

    2009-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk.

  13. Bodily symptoms in patients with post traumatic stress disorder: A comparative study of traumatized refugees, Danish war veterans, and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth; Nyboe, Lene; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased general health symptoms and patients suffer from numerous bodily complaints such as increased pain, increased muscular tension, and restricted breathing. Methods and material: This study applied the Body Awareness...... Movement Quality and Experience scale (BAS MQ-E) in assessing and comparing bodily symptoms, including movement function, in traumatized refugees (N Z 14) and Danish war veterans with PTSD (N Z 19) and healthy controls (N Z 20). Results: Patients with PTSD had significantly poorer stability, balance...

  14. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D H M P; Blay, S L; Schor, N

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001), anxiety trait (P = 0.005) and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62). The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002) and depression (P renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  15. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and body mass index among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers: A preliminary examination of the role of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-30

    Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons.

  17. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions...

  18. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory...

  19. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  20. Association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna de Abreu Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A total of 239 individuals aged 10-17 years were randomly selected from schools located in the catchment area of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED was used to evaluate the presence of anxiety symptoms, and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, to evaluate alcohol use. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (53.1% reported having already used alcohol. Of these, 14 individuals showed problematic alcohol use (5.8% . There was no association between lifetime use of alcohol and anxiety symptoms, but mean SCARED scores in individuals with problematic alcohol use was higher if compared to those without problematic use, even after adjustment for age and gender (29.9±8.5 vs. 23.7±11.8, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation of a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use early in life.

  1. Skills not pills: learning to cope with anxiety symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Pam Teare

    1984-01-01

    A pilot project to assess the benefit of a psychology service in general practice for patients with anxiety is described. A course of lessons in `anxiety management skills' was provided at two practices. At a follow-up appointment one year later two thirds of the 35 patients studied had stopped taking anxiolytic medication and two thirds reported an elimination of their anxiety symptoms. It is proposed that a psychology service be provided for general practitioners, in health centres and heal...

  2. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Hypoglycemia Symptoms Improved with Diet Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Aucoin; Sukriti Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of ...

  4. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. Purpose To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. Methods The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI. Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). Results Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between SSAS, APQ, and IEI, while small and inverse associations were seen between TAS and IEI. Conclusions The association with SSAS and APQ suggests that perceptual personality characteristics are important in understanding this disorder. PMID:19953345

  5. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...

  6. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.

  7. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative populatio

  8. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representati

  9. Mitral valve prolapse: associations with symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Lachman, A S; McLaren, M J; Schulman, P; Leach, C N; Farrish, G C

    1990-03-01

    Mitral valve prolapse has been studied extensively in the adult population, but less is known about it in children. Therefore, 813 children between 9 and 14 years of age were examined by a team of cardiologists and technicians. The children also responded to a questionnaire concerning the presence of symptoms and the What I Think and Feel anxiety instrument. The prevalence of mitral valve prolapse using auscultatory criteria was 4.2% (6.2% for girls, 2.3% for boys). Of those with mitral valve prolapse, 85% had a solitary click, 9% had a click and systolic murmur, and 6% had multiple clicks. Children with auscultatory mitral valve prolapse were less likely to have symptoms than those free of cardiac abnormalities. No difference in average anxiety scores was detected between the two groups. It is concluded that auscultatory mitral valve prolapse is common in children and not accompanied by an increased likelihood of symptoms or anxiety.

  10. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  11. Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Symptoms Intensity Reduction and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Montazeri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of schema therapy on symptoms intensity reduction and anxiety in a special case with obsessive compulsive personality disorder. In this study a single case method with A-B design was used on a woman with obsessive compulsive personality disorder that was diagnosed by semi-structure interview for axis I and II of DSM-IV-TR (SCID. Martukovich -s obsessive compulsive personality disorder questionnaire and Beck -s anxiety inventory were used to collect data. Schema therapy intervention was effective in symptom reduction of obsessive compulsive personality disorder.

  12. Validation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seul-Ah; Kim, Keun-Hyang; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test th...

  13. Improvement of the symptoms of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity through the application of a mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yagüe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety

  14. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, psmoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  15. Agreement and discrepancy between mother and child in the evaluation of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Rita; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the agreement and discrepancy between mother and child reports of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference. A large community sample of 1,065 Portuguese children aged between 7 and 14 years and their mothers completed a DSM-based anxiety symptoms scale. For a subsample of 135 children with an anxiety disorder, additional data on children's anxiety life interference and maternal anxiety and depression symptoms were collected. The results showed that children generally reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms than their mothers. Overall, most correlations between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms were significant but in the low to moderate range, with the strongest associations for symptoms of specific phobias and school phobia. In the subsample of children with an anxiety disorder, mothers reported higher levels of anxiety life interference than children, and the correlation between mother and child reports of anxiety life interference was significant but again modest in magnitude. Lastly, maternal anxiety was positively associated with the discrepancy between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms. Together, the results of this study further underline the importance of a multi-informant approach in the evaluation of children's anxiety problems.

  16. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  17. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  18. The combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms: Specificity to anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns among patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Kelley, Lance P; Griggs, Jackson O

    2016-05-30

    Prior research has found that health anxiety is related to poor patient outcomes in primary care settings. Health anxiety is characterized by at least two presentations: with either severe or no/mild somatic symptoms. Preliminary data indicate that anxiety sensitivity may be important for understanding the presentation of health anxiety with severe somatic symptoms. We further examined whether the combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms was related to anxiety sensitivity. Participants were adults presenting for treatment at a community health center (N=538). As predicted, the interactive effect between health anxiety and somatic symptoms was associated with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. Health anxiety shared a stronger association with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns when coupled with severe, relative to mild, somatic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, the interactive effect was not associated with the other dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. We discuss the potential relevancy of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns to the combined presentation of health anxiety and severe somatic symptoms, as well as how this dimension of anxiety sensitivity could be treated in primary care settings.

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Influence of the severity and location of bodily injuries on post-concussive and combat stress symptom reporting after military-related concurrent mild traumatic brain injuries and polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Louis M; Lange, Rael T; Marshall, Kathryn; Prokhorenko, Olga; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; Asmussen, Sarah B; Ivins, Brian; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained in combat frequently co-occur with significant bodily injuries. Intuitively, more extensive bodily injuries might be associated with increased symptom reporting. In 2012, however, French et al. demonstrated an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting. This study expands on that work by examining the influence of location and severity of bodily injuries on symptom reporting after mild TBI. Participants were 579 US military service members who sustained an uncomplicated mild TBI with concurrent bodily injuries and who were evaluated at two military medical centers. Bodily injury severity was quantified using a modified Injury Severity Score (ISSmod). Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C), on average, 2.5 months post-injury. There was a significant negative association between ISSmod scores and NSI (r=-0.267, p<0.001) and PCL-C (r=-0.273, p<0.001) total scores. Using linear regression to examine the relation between symptom reporting and injury severity across the six ISS body regions, three body regions were significant predictors of the NSI total score (face; p<0.001; abdomen; p=0.003; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 9.3% of the variance (p<0.001). For the PCL-C, two body regions were significant predictors of the PCL-C total score (face; p<0.001; extremities; p<0.001) and accounted for 10.5% of the variance. There was an inverse relation between bodily injury severity and symptom reporting in this sample. Hypothesized explanations include underreporting of symptoms, increased peer support, disruption of fear conditioning because of acute morphine use, or delayed expression of symptoms.

  1. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  2. The clinical effect of clomipramine in chronic idiopathic pain disorder revisited using the Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) as outcome scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    only the negatively phrased items was used to measure the pure anxiolytic effect. The analgesic effect was measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for bodily pain. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to identify minor affective states. RESULTS: In total 171 patients with chronic non......BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale...

  3. The Course of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms: Developmental Trajectories and Child-Related Factors in Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.

    2013-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…

  4. Somatic symptoms evoked by exam stress in university students: the role of alexithymia, neuroticism, anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zunhammer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. METHODS: This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization - and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d. Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II. These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. RESULTS: Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. CONCLUSION: Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not

  5. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  6. Health anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Thomsen, Per H; Rask, Charlotte U

    2017-02-01

    Health anxiety (HA) is an overlooked area in paediatric research. Little is known about the occurrence of HA symptoms in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting, and there are no age-appropriate diagnostic criteria and only limited number of assessment tools. It is therefore likely that HA is seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a normal curve shifted to the right compared with a normal population of Danish children, and 30 % presented with high HA symptoms. Chi-squared tests were used to examine the proportion of children and adolescents with high HA symptoms in relation to various clinical characteristics. Clinician-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries. Further research in the description of childhood HA is important in order to understand whether HA is a distinct disorder early in life.

  7. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Mild form of anxiety is much more common among medical students and majority of these medical students are females. Moreover, the symptoms of anxiety including tension, anxious mood, depressed mood, insomnia, fear and CVS symptoms appear with moderate severity in majority of medical students while on the other hand some symptoms including general somatic muscular and sensory symptoms, difficulties in concentration and memory, genitor-urinary symptoms, respiratory symptoms, GIT symptoms and other autonomic symptoms appear with least severity among majority of medical students. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2297-2304

  8. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winthorst Wim H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1 healthy controls 2 patients with a major depressive disorder, 3 patients with any anxiety disorder and 4 patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and

  9. Anxiety mediates the impact of stress on psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2015-01-01

    The literature has stipulated that stress causes somatic symptoms; however, the pathway has not been empirically examined. This study examines the relationship between stress, anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms by investigating the mediating roles of anxiety and depression in the relationship between stress and somatic symptoms in the general Chinese population. Data were collected from 202 Chinese participants in a household survey conducted between August and September 2013 in Hong Kong. The measurements included a Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Sociodemographics. By using structural equation modeling, anxiety was a significant mediator of the effect of stress on somatic symptoms (Z = 4.328, p anxiety.

  10. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  11. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  12. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  13. Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety During Pregnancy Affect Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg-Eddes, T. van; Groot, L. de; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  14. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  15. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  16. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  17. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  18. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…

  19. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  20. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety participant

  1. Relationship between appetite levels and anxiety symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elihud Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.

  2. [Attachment Patterns and their Relation to the Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Müller, Jörg Michael; Postert, Christian; Wessing, Ida; Mayer, Andreas; Romer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of attachment theory, insecure attachment can be seen as a key risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This systematic review addresses the current state of empirical research on the relationship between attachment status and anxiety symptoms respective anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. 21 current international studies published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this systematic review. These studies were heterogeneous in target populations, methods and study design. The majority of studies supported the assumed correlation between insecure attachment and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorders. These findings are more evident in studies with school-age children than with preschool children or adolescents. Furthermore, the disorganized-disoriented type of attachment seems to be a particular risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. Results were discussed in relation to attachment theory and with reference to the results of previous relevant reviews.

  3. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duits, Puck; Cath, Danielle C; Heitland, Ivo; Baas, Johanna M P

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  4. High current anxiety symptoms, but not a past anxiety disorder diagnosis, are associated with impaired fear extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puck eDuits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual reality environment. Results indicated no differences in fear extinction between treated anxiety patients and control subjects. However, scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory across all participants revealed impaired extinction of fear potentiated startle in subjects with high compared to low anxiety symptoms over the past week. Taken together, this exploratory study found no support for impaired fear extinction in treated anxiety patients, and implies that current anxiety symptoms rather than previous patient status determine the success of extinction.

  5. Bodily Distress Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Lilly, Anna; Vestergaard, Mogens; Moth, Grete

    2011-01-01

    , and their interpretation of the content of the contact. The patients were asked to complete questionnaires on symptom score for BDS, self evaluated health (SF-12), mental health (Symptom Check List: SCL), health anxiety (Whiteley-7), smoking, alcohol dependency (CAGE) and patient evaluation of practice (DanPEP). Results...

  6. Clarifying the prospective relationships between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms and underlying vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Several explanations for these high levels of comorbidity have been theorized. First, social anxiety might be a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Second, eating disorders might be a vulnerability factor for social anxiety. Third, the two kinds of disorders may have common, shared psychological vulnerabilities. The current study (N = 300 undergraduate women) investigates a model of social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms that examines each of these possibilities across two time points (Time 1 and six months later). We do not find support for either social anxiety or eating disorder symptoms per se predicting each other across time. Instead, we find that some underlying vulnerabilities prospectively predict symptoms of both disorders, whereas other vulnerabilities are specific to symptoms of one disorder. Specifically we find that maladaptive perfectionism is a shared prospective vulnerability for social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Alternatively, we find that social appearance anxiety is specific for eating disorder symptoms, whereas high standards is specific for social anxiety symptoms. These data help clarify our understanding of how and why social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms frequently co-occur.

  7. Controlled study of withdrawal symptoms and rebound anxiety after six week course of diazepam for generalised anxiety.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A group of patients suffering from anxiety, as assessed by general practitioners and psychologists using research criteria for generalised anxiety, were treated with either diazepam or placebo double blind for six weeks. This active treatment period was preceded by a one week single blind placebo "wash in" period and followed by a two week single blind placebo "wash out" period. The results suggest that diazepam can produce rebound anxiety and withdrawal symptoms when used in moderate doses a...

  8. SELF REPORT ASSESSMENT OF ANXIETY - A CROSS VALIDATION OF THE LEHRER WOOLFOLK ANXIETY SYMPTOM QUESTIONNAIRE IN 3 POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    This study was meant to investigate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Lehrer Woolfolk Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ), an instrument for assessment of somatic, behavioral and cognitive aspects of anxiety. Confirmatory factor analysis on data from social phobics (n = 108),

  9. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care.

  10. Anxiety Mediates the Relationship between Perfectionism and Insomnia Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Akram

    Full Text Available Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Investigation of these factors together has been limited. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the association between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms was mediated by anxiety and depression, concurrently and longitudinally.Seventy-six members from the general-population participated at baseline. Data from 57 participants were subsequently analysed at twelve-month follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were assessed using The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. Perfectionism was assessed using two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales (F-MPS; HF-MPS. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Correlational analysis examined longitudinal associations between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis examined whether significant associations remained after controlling for anxiety and depression.Baseline insomnia symptoms were associated with future doubts about action. Further, this relationship was mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety and concurrent symptoms of insomnia. Similarly, baseline insomnia symptoms were also associated with future parental criticism. However this relationship was partially mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety, and was not mediated by concurrent insomnia symptoms.Symptoms of insomnia appear to be related to an increase in negative perfectionistic thinking in the form of doubts about action and parental criticism, however these relationships appear to be mediated by symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, treatments for insomnia should address anxiety symptoms with the prospect of preventing the accentuation of aspects of perfectionism due to poor sleep.

  11. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E; Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were -1.82 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to -0.83; Pmajor depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety.

  12. Associations between Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviour and Anxiety Symptoms in Mothers with Young Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Teychenne

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children.During 2013-2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2-5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A. Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms.In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA, computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377 and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205 were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model.Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations.

  13. Developmental Differences in the Expression of Childhood Anxiety Symptoms and Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine age differences in the expression of childhood fears and anxiety symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional design was used to test recently formulated developmental hypotheses regarding the differential expression of childhood anxiety symptoms and fears in a community sample of youths (N = 145). Three groups of youths were…

  14. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as…

  15. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  16. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  17. Do Family Mealtime Interactions Mediate the Association between Asthma Symptoms and Separation Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Anbar, Ran D.; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory problems have been shown to be associated with the development of panic anxiety. Family members play an essential role for children to emotionally manage their symptoms. This study aimed to examine the relation between severity of respiratory symptoms in children with asthma and separation anxiety. Relying on direct…

  18. Differential associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t

  19. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  20. Symptoms and development of anxiety in children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Berkovits, Lauren D; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in presentation and trajectory of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and children with typical cognitive development (TD). Examined anxiety disorders and symptoms in children with ID (n=74) or TD (n=116) annually from ages 5 through 9 using a parent structured interview and questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine odds of meeting anxiety criteria and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine anxiety trajectory. Children with ID had significantly higher rates of clinical levels of anxiety on the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 8 and 9 and higher rates of separation anxiety disorder at age 5 compared to those with TD. Children with ID were also more likely to have externalizing problems co-occurring with anxiety. The rate of increase of anxiety symptoms over time was positive and similar in the two groups, and neither group showed sex differences in anxiety rates. Results suggest that children with ID have both higher rates of anxiety across time and are delayed in showing typical decreases in separation anxiety in early childhood. Implications for intervention are discussed in terms of the importance of screening for and treating anxiety in children with ID.

  1. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovic, Elmedina; de Roos, Carlijn; van Rood, Yanda; Dommerholt, Agnes; Rodenburg, Roos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (sub)clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session). Conclusions In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy. Highlights of the article The first study to examine the potential effects of EMDR to reduce clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms in children with epilepsy. After 1–3 EMDR (45 min) sessions, positive treatment effects were found on a range of seizure-related PTSD symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. During treatment, no seizures, absences, or any other adverse events were observed; the seizure diaries showed that none of the children experienced more seizures (or an unusual pattern) after treatment. At the reevaluation of EMDR, all children and parents

  2. Impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes of depression: an observational study in Asian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Jaume Aguado,3 Xiaomei Peng,4 Josep Maria Haro3 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objective: To investigate the impact of anxiety symptoms on depression outcomes in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (n=714. Methods: The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17, overall severity, somatic symptoms, and quality of life (QOL (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Anxiety was measured using items 10 and 11 from the HAMD-17. Linear, tobit, and logistic multiple regression models analyzed the impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes. Baseline anxiety was related to age and the presence of pain symptoms at baseline. Results: Regression models showed that a higher level of anxiety was associated with a lower frequency of remission and lower QOL at 3 months. Patients with lower baseline anxiety symptoms had higher remission rates (odds ratio for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.829 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.723–0.951]. Patients with higher levels of baseline anxiety had a lower QOL at 3 months (a decrease in EQ-5D tariff score for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.023 [95% CI: 0.045–0.001]. Conclusion: In conclusion, the presence of anxiety symptoms negatively impacts the outcomes of depression. Keywords: depression, anxiety, Asia, observational, outcomes

  3. The effect of schema therapy on reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: schema therapy is an effective method to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students. Counselors and therapist can use schema therapy to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder.

  4. Anxiety and depression symptoms as risk factors for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Remien, Robert H

    2010-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among HIV-infected people and rank among the strongest predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This longitudinal study aimed to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and depression are predictors of non-adherence among patients initiating ART at two public referral centers (n = 293) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prevalence of severe anxiety and depression symptoms before starting ART was 12.6% and 5.8%, respectively. Severe anxiety was a predictor of non-adherence to ART during follow-up period (RH = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.14-3.06) adjusted for low education, unemployment, alcohol use in the last month and symptoms of AIDS; while a history of injection drug use had borderline statistical significance with non-adherence. These findings suggest that using a brief screening procedure to assess anxiety and depression symptoms before initiating ART help identify individuals for interventions to improve adherence and quality of life.

  5. The Effects of Transdiagnostic Group CBT for Anxiety on Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Espejo, Emmanuel P; Balliett, Noelle; Werdowatz, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is a common feature among individuals with anxiety disorders. Studies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety report moderate effects on concomitant insomnia symptoms, but further research is still needed especially toward understanding how CBT for anxiety renders beneficial effects on insomnia. The current study examined changes in insomnia symptoms reported by 51 Veterans who participated in a group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety intervention. In addition, insomnia symptoms were examined in relation to symptoms of general distress (GD), anhedonic depression (AD), and anxious arousal (AA) pre- to post-treatment. Results revealed a small, though statistically significant (p CBT for anxiety can be largely attributed to changes in AA.

  6. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  7. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  8. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmedina Dautovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18 with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results: Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (subclinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session. Conclusions: In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy.

  9. Lower-leg symptoms in peripheral arterial disease are associated with anxiety, depression, and anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2009-01-01

    were associated with mood states such as anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (i.e. lack of positive affect). A cohort of consecutive PAD patients (n = 628) from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the San Diego...... Claudication questionnaire. The ankle-brachial index and clinical factors were assessed in all patients at baseline. Anxiety was present in 29%, depressive symptoms in 30%, and anhedonia in 28% of patients. Pain at rest was independently associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (ORs between......Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) report diverse clinical manifestations that are not always consistent with classic intermittent claudication. We examined the degree to which atypical exertional leg symptoms, intermittent claudication, and exertional leg symptoms that begin at rest...

  10. Course of symptom change during anxiety treatment: Reductions in anxiety and depression in patients completing the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel; Craske, Michelle G; Chavira, Denise A; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy S; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B

    2015-09-30

    When treating anxious patients with co-occurring depression, research demonstrates that both types of symptoms independently improve. The current analyses examined how reductions in anxiety and depression may be interrelated both during treatment, as well as over time following treatment. Participants were 503 individuals with one or more DSM-IV anxiety disorders who completed a collaborative care anxiety management program. Anxiety and depression were assessed at each treatment session (i.e., session by session data) and also at 6, 12, and 18-month post-baseline assessments (i.e., long-term outcomes data). Mediation analyses examined changes in symptoms in session by session data and long-term outcomes data. Anxiety and depression changed reciprocally in session by session data; change in anxiety mediated change in depression to a greater extent than vice versa. In the long-term outcomes data, change in anxiety mediated change in depression. However, the reverse mediation model of the long-term outcomes period revealed that accounting for changes in depression altered the effect of time on anxiety. Thus, temporal change during active treatment may share similarities with those related to maintaining gains after treatment, although differences arose in the reverse mediation models. Limitations of the methodology and implications of anxiety treatment for depression outcomes are discussed.

  11. The Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) Symptom Endorsement and Self-Reported Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    syndromal ” presentation of PTSD where criterion B was met and either criterion C or D but not both. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms were...disorders. Patient health questionnaire. JAMA 282: 1737-1744. 21. Sheehan DV, Harnett- Sheehan K, Raj BA (1996) The measurement of disability. Int Clin...depressive disorders. Med Care 26: 775- 789. 23. Coyne JC, Thompson R (2007) Posttraumatic stress syndromes : Useful or negative Heuristics? J Anxiety Disord

  12. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  13. Relationship of generalized anxiety symptoms to urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vanillylmandelic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, M J; Noyes, R; Woodman, C; Laukes, C

    1995-06-29

    Urinary levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the norepinephrine metabolite vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were measured in 45 patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the severity of several anxiety symptoms was predicted by levels of 5-HIAA and VMA. These data are consistent with the proposal that serotonin and norepinephrine may be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety.

  14. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed.

  15. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  16. Aggression among Children with ADHD, Anxiety, or Co-Occurring Symptoms: Competing Exacerbation and Attenuation Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…

  17. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…

  18. Associations among Selective Attention, Memory Bias, Cognitive Errors and Symptoms of Anxiety in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sarah E.; Weems, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages among selective attention, memory bias, cognitive errors, and anxiety problems by testing a model of the interrelations among these cognitive variables and childhood anxiety disorder symptoms. A community sample of 81 youth (38 females and 43 males) aged 9-17 years and their parents completed…

  19. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  20. Symptoms of anxiety and cardiac hospitalizations at 12 months in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Pelle, Aline J; Szabó, Balázs M;

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization. Clinical and socio-demographic factors have been associated with cardiac admissions, but little is known about the role of anxiety. We examined whether symptoms of anxiety were associated with cardiac hospitalizations at 12 months in HF...

  1. Mother-Child Attachment Patterns and Different Types of Anxiety Symptoms: Is There Specificity of Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to…

  2. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  3. Metacognitive, Cognitive and Developmental Predictors of Generalised Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shary; Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most significant and common of the anxiety disorders. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and negative metacognitive beliefs are two prominent cognitive factors in models of GAD, however only one study to date has examined the relative contribution of these factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate…

  4. Association of temporomandibular disorder symptoms with anxiety and depression in Portuguese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Morgado, Marcos; Caro, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its association with anxiety and depression among 1,493 Portuguese college students (age 17-69 years) at Piaget Institute. The assessment instruments were the Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TMD was present in 633 (42.4%) students, and anxiety or depression was present in 456 (30.5%) students. Regarding the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, 280 of the 633 students (61.4%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety or depression (P students without signs of anxiety or depression, students with such signs had an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.42-3.84; P College students from various fields of study and regions of Portugal had a high prevalence of TMD, which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression.

  5. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the demographic, psychological, and social moderators in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms.

  6. Moderate antenatal anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes of boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitz, Marsha; Mankuta, David; Rokem, Ann Marie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-12-01

    Women's antenatal anxiety, especially if paired with significant life stressors or comorbid physical or mental health disorders, can predict adverse birth outcomes, defined in terms of birth weight, gestational age at birth and obstetric complications. Here, we tested for an impact of moderate anxiety symptoms on these outcomes because many women experience these kinds of symptoms during pregnancy, and even subtle differences in birth outcomes can have significant effects on children's development. We also tested for moderation of anxiety effects by infant gender. The sample comprised 219 women with anxiety symptoms ranging from none to moderate levels on the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate models estimated main effects of Group (no/minimal versus moderate symptoms) and interactions between Group and infant Gender. Results indicate that moderate anxiety predicted more obstetric complications, particularly among mothers of daughters. Results also demonstrate a Group × Gender interaction on BW, indicating that sons of anxious mothers weighed more than sons of controls; whereas, daughters of anxious mothers weighed less than daughters of controls. These findings show that moderate anxiety symptoms may affect some birth outcomes, and differently for males and females.

  7. EXAMINING PARENTS' ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT STYLES AND DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AS PREDICTORS OF CAREGIVING EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention.

  8. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not.

  9. Anxiety symptoms in Chinese and German adolescents: their relationship with early learning experiences, perfectionism, and learning motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Leung, Patrick W L; Conradt, Judith; Cheng, Halina; Wong, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency and correlates of DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms among non-referred adolescents in Germany and in Hong Kong. A total of 1,022 adolescents (594 from Germany and 428 from Hong Kong) between the ages of 12 and 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in Hong Kong reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than adolescents in Germany. Anxiety symptoms showed different correlates in different cultures. Specifically, academic motivational goals to compete to get good grades and to be rewarded for their performance correlated significantly with anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong. In Germany, anxiety symptoms correlated significantly with reinforcement received for anxiety-related problems (i.e., instrumental learning) and with parental verbal transmission about the danger of anxiety (i.e., informational learning). The findings underscore the importance of cultural factors on adolescent's anxiety.

  10. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  11. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  12. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Judith L; Bockting, Claudi L H; Stolk, Ronald P; Kotov, Roman; Ormel, Johan; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we i

  13. Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

  14. Prevention Services for Externalizing and Anxiety Symptoms in Low-Income Children: the Role of Parent Preferences in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.

  15. Modeling the cognitive mechanisms linking autism symptoms and anxiety in adults.

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    Maisel, Max E; Stephenson, Kevin G; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark H; Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2016-07-01

    Emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) contribute to anxiety disorders in neurotypical populations. Their association with anxiety in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been studied. We aimed to model the contributions of these constructs on the relationship between dimensional measures of autism and anxiety. Participants were 151 adults recruited from 2 sites, including those diagnosed with ASD (n = 76) and a matched comparison group (n = 75). All participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring core autism symptoms, anxiety, emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty. Structural equation modeling with mediation was used to examine directional relationships among these variables. Autism symptoms directly predicted less emotional acceptance and increased alexithymia and IU. Alexithymia and acceptance were shown to explain 64% of the effect between autism symptom severity and anxiety level. This suggests that people with ASD experience increased levels of anxiety because they are more likely to react aversively to their emotional experiences, while lacking the ability to identify and understand their emotions. Developing and implementing mindfulness-based interventions aimed at assuaging alexithymia and IU, while increasing emotional acceptance, may be especially helpful in treating anxiety in ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Dysregulated fear predicts social wariness and social anxiety symptoms during kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Kristin A; Davis, Elizabeth L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Brooker, Rebecca J; Beekman, Charles; Early, Martha C

    2013-01-01

    Fearful temperament is associated with risk for the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood; however, not all fearful children become anxious. Identifying maladaptive trajectories is thus important for clarifying which fearful children are at risk. In an unselected sample of 111 two-year-olds (55% male, 95% Caucasian), Buss ( 2011 ) identified a pattern of fearful behavior, dysregulated fear, characterized by high fear in low threat situations. This pattern of behavior predicted parent- and teacher-reported withdrawn/anxious behaviors in preschool and at kindergarten entry. The current study extended original findings and examined whether dysregulated fear predicted observed social wariness with adults and peers, and social anxiety symptoms at age 6. We also examined prosocial adjustment during kindergarten as a moderator of the link between dysregulated fear and social wariness. Consistent with predictions, children with greater dysregulated fear at age 2 were more socially wary of adults and unfamiliar peers in the laboratory, were reported as having more social anxiety symptoms, and were nearly 4 times more likely to manifest social anxiety symptoms than other children with elevated wariness in kindergarten. Results demonstrated stability in the dysregulated fear profile and increased risk for social anxiety symptom development. Dysregulated fear predicted more social wariness with unfamiliar peers only when children became less prosocial during kindergarten. Findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the dysregulated fear construct for specifying maladaptive trajectories of risk for anxiety disorder development.

  17. Anxiety symptoms in 74+ community-dwelling elderly: associations with physical morbidity, depression and alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Forlani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety among community-dwelling older adults has not been studied sufficiently. The aims of this cross-sectional population-based study were to estimate the point prevalence of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms and to describe their socio-demographic and clinical features, with particular focus on the association with somatic illnesses. METHODS: Three-hundred-sixty-six non-demented older adults (mean age 83.7±6.2, range 74-99 years from the Faenza Project (Northern Italy were assessed using the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised (CAMDEX-R and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory short form (GAI-sf. Multi-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. RESULTS: Clinically relevant anxiety symptoms occurred in one out of five participants (point prevalence 21.0% and were significantly associated with depression (OR 5.6 per rank; 95% CI: 3.1-10.1, physical morbidity (OR 3.5 per illness; 95% CI: 1.0-11.9 and female gender (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.5. Further, there were significant associations with a consumption of alcohol exceeding 1 alcoholic unit/day. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety symptoms are very common in older subjects, especially when medically ill. Depression and alcohol consumption often co-occur with late-life anxiety symptoms, thus requiring special attention in daily clinical practice.

  18. Preliminary validation of the French translation of the anxiety sensibility index-revised (ASI-R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvard, M; Ayxeres-Vighetto, A; Dupont, H; Aupetit, J; Portalier, S; Arrindell, W

    2003-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity represents a stimulus-outcome expectancy that reflects individual differences in the propensity to experience fear in response to one's arousal related bodily sensations. It refers to the fear of anxiety related symptoms that are based on beliefs that such sensations have negativ

  19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  20. Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p < 0.05) and more anxiety and depressive symptoms (p < 0.05) than controls. In the IGT, acromegalic patients presented an altered decision-making strategy compared to controls, choosing a lower number of the safer cards (p < 0.05) and higher number of the riskier cards (p < 0.05). Moreover, multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.

  1. Interpersonal style moderates the effect of dating violence on symptoms of anxiety and depression.

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    Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2013-11-01

    Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal style. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on the association between dating violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Warmth exhibited a main effect on anxious and depressive symptoms over and above the effects of dating violence and other life stressors. Dominance moderated the association between dating violence and anxious and depressive symptoms. When levels of dating violence were high, women with higher levels of dominance reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than women with lower dominance. These results indicated that whereas high warmth was associated with fewer symptoms of psychopathology generally, high dominance was a buffer against the effect of dating violence on symptoms more specifically. Directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Media multitasking is associated with symptoms of depression and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W; Alzahabi, Reem; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    We investigated whether multitasking with media was a unique predictor of depression and social anxiety symptoms. Participants (N=318) completed measures of their media use, personality characteristics, depression, and social anxiety. Regression analyses revealed that increased media multitasking was associated with higher depression and social anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for overall media use and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. The unique association between media multitasking and these measures of psychosocial dysfunction suggests that the growing trend of multitasking with media may represent a unique risk factor for mental health problems related to mood and anxiety. Further, the results strongly suggest that future research investigating the impact of media use on mental health needs to consider the role that multitasking with media plays in the relationship.

  3. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): a short version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.

  4. Trichotillomania symptoms in African American women: are they related to anxiety and culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Statom, Deborah; Stadulis, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a little understood disorder that has been underresearched in the African American community. Furthermore, the incorporation of cultural factors into TTM research has virtually been ignored. Existing data from an African American college student population suggest TTM is associated with high levels of anxiety. In this study, we explored anxiety symptoms and cultural hair messages in an African American female community sample with TTM symptoms. We predicted high levels of TTM severity and impairment would be associated with high level of anxiety symptoms. We also predicted that cultural messages about hair will influence both TTM and anxiety symptoms. In this telephone study, 41 African American females participated in interviews about their TTM. TTM impairment and severity was positively correlated with general anxiety symptoms as measured on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R(®) ). Severity was also positively correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given the significance of hair for African American women, we also explored the childhood cultural messages receive about hair. Over half the sample received at least one cultural message about hair. Although many women received the same message, the value they placed on the message differed. Messages received about hair were not associated with TTM severity or impairment. The association among obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hair messages approached significance. Results highlight the importance of assessing anxiety comorbidity and culture with African American TTM samples. Little is known about TTM in African American samples. Existing research indicates this population seeks TTM help from their hairdressers. Among college students, a significant correlation has been found for anxiety as measured on the Beck Anxiety Inventory and TTM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine cultural messages about hair in an African American sample. In addition

  5. Anxiety symptoms among Chinese nurses and the associated factors: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yu-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5% for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score ≥ 40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event, lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise, work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving, job content (social support and decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501, overcommitment (OR 2.018, chronic diseases (OR 1.541, worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434, higher social support (OR 0.573, lower hospital grade (OR 0.629, taking regular

  6. Overlap of symptom domains of separation anxiety disorder in adulthood with panic disorder-agoraphobia.

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    Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to explain the high level of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in adulthood and panic disorder with agoraphobia (Pd-Ag). One possibility is that inadequate specification of symptom domains and/or diagnostic questions accounts for some of the comorbidity. The present anxiety clinic study examined responses of adult patients (n = 646) with SAD and/or Pd-Ag on eight symptom domains based on a previous factor analysis of a commonly used separation anxiety measure, the ASA-27, as well as on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. We also examined questionnaire items that did not load on the factor structure. All separation anxiety domains distinguished strongly between SAD and Pd-Ag. Comparisons across three groups (SAD alone, Pd-Ag alone and comorbid SAD/Pd-Ag) revealed that two symptom domains (anxiety about embarking on trips, and sleep disturbances) showed some overlap between Pd-Ag and SAD. Two of the items of the ASA-27 that did not load with other items in the factor analysis also showed overlap with Pd-Ag, with both referring to anxieties about leaving home. Patients with SAD (with or without Pd-Ag) returned higher scores on anxiety sensitivity than those with Pd-Ag alone. The findings support the distinctiveness of the construct of SAD and the capacity of the ASA-27 to discriminate between that disorder and Pd-Ag. SAD appears to be a more severe form of anxiety than Pd-Ag. There may be a need to refine items to include the reasons for avoiding leaving home, reluctance to sleep alone and to embark on trips, to ensure accurate discrimination between Pd-Ag and SAD in adulthood.

  7. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  8. The diagnostic utility of separation anxiety disorder symptoms: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is not clear whether the current definition of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the optimal classification of developmentally inappropriate, severe, and interfering separation anxiety in youth. Much remains to be learned about the relative contributions of individual SAD symptoms for informing diagnosis. Two-parameter logistic Item Response Theory analyses were conducted on the eight core SAD symptoms in an outpatient anxiety sample of treatment-seeking children (N = 359, 59.3 % female, M Age = 11.2) and their parents to determine the diagnostic utility of each of these symptoms. Analyses considered values of item threshold, which characterize the SAD severity level at which each symptom has a 50 % chance of being endorsed, and item discrimination, which characterize how well each symptom distinguishes individuals with higher and lower levels of SAD. Distress related to separation and fear of being alone without major attachment figures showed the strongest discrimination properties and the lowest thresholds for being endorsed. In contrast, worry about harm befalling attachment figures showed the poorest discrimination properties, and nightmares about separation showed the highest threshold for being endorsed. Distress related to separation demonstrated crossing differential item functioning associated with age-at lower separation anxiety levels excessive fear at separation was more likely to be endorsed for children ≥9 years, whereas at higher levels this symptom was more likely to be endorsed by children <9 years. Implications are discussed for optimizing the taxonomy of SAD in youth.

  9. The effect of military training on anxiety symptoms in Chinese recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongzheng; Wen Jian; Huang Pinde; Lei Meiying; Zhao Donghai; Zhao Liqiong; Ye Changqing; Zhou Hongkui; Liu Gen; Qin Mei; Li Jiefeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in army recruits and the effect of military training on anxiety.Methods A cluster sampling of 1431 new army recruits was conducted.The anxiety level of recruits was determined by Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) and Adult EPQ questionnaires prior to,one month after,and two months after entering basic military training.Self compiled biographic variables of the recruits were collected before the training.Results The highest BAI score (32.71±7.87) was observed 2 days before training,followed by 1 month after training (31.49±7.75) and 2 months after training (29.87±6.95).BAI score before training correlated with neuroticism and extraversion of recruits,the psychological trauma,suicide feeling and frequency of exercise before recruiting.A significant decrease in the percentage of severe symptom of wobbliness in legs,instability to relax,racing heart,dizziness,fear of the worst happening and trembling hands was observed after 1 month and/or 2 months of military training.Conclusion A higher BAI score and percentage of severe anxiety symptoms were observed before the training which correlated with psychological characteristics of recruits as well as the psychological experience before entering training.A combination of early psychological interference and physical exercise could reduce the anxiety.

  10. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder in Students in Isfahan

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    Shahla Mohamadirizi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.  Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242.  Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety  in  school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.

  11. Simultaneous Changes of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Variations in Sexual Function of Young Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Izadi Dehnavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Th present study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety symptoms and their correspondence to fluctuations in sexual dysfunction with daily diary approach. Methods: Th present study was of the correlation type, conducted in 2015. To investigate this study, at fist, 120 young married women from the University of Tehran were selected in a manner available nationwide. First, using female sexual distress inventory, Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory, the baseline was conducted. Thn, for 14 days, mood and anxiety symptoms and sexual function by the mood and anxiety symptoms questionnaire and female sexual function index were evaluated and fially, data were obtained and analyzed by HLM7. Results: In the study of simultaneous relation, there was more general distress, with less orgasm (P = 0.001, vaginal lubrication (P = 0.001, and anhedonia, with less desire (P = 0.001. Also, anxious arousal was associated with less sexual arousal (P = 0.001 and desire (P = 0.001. Conclusions: In general, simultaneous changes in symptoms of depression and anxiety with changes in sexual function were associated.

  12. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  13. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

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    Aasvik, Julie K.; Woodhouse, Astrid; Jacobsen, Henrik B.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Stiles, Tore C.; Landrø, Nils I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints (SMCs) among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167) who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value < 0.001) and anxiety (p-value = 0.001) were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression, and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice. PMID:26441716

  14. Subjective memory complaints among patients on sick leave are associated with symptoms of fatigue and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kristine Aasvik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167 who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Everyday Memory Questionnaire – Revised. General linear modeling (GLM was used to analyze variables associated with SMCs. Results: Symptoms of fatigue (p-value <= 0.001 and anxiety (p-value = 0.001 were uniquely and significantly associated with perceived memory failures. The associations with symptoms of pain, depression and insomnia were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints should be recognized as part of the complex symptomatology among patients who report multiple symptoms, especially in cases of fatigue and anxiety. Self-report questionnaires measuring perceived memory failures may be a quick and easy way to incorporate and extend this knowledge into clinical practice.

  15. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

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    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  16. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  17. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  18. The effect of the video game Mindlight on anxiety symptoms in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder [study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children

  19. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  20. Validation of a short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) in adolescents and young adults

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    Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J

    2014-01-01

    The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present stud

  1. The prevalence of long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, S. W. M. C.; Roorda, C.; Berendsen, A. J.; Verhaak, P. F. M.; de Bock, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is unclear whether breast cancer survivors have a higher risk of long-term symptoms of depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence about long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Study design: Systematic review.

  2. The prevalence of long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, S.W.M.C.; Roorda, C.; Berendsen, A.J.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bock, G.H. de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is unclear whether breast cancer survivors have a higher risk of long-term symptoms of depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence about long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Study design: Systematic review.

  3. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

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    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  4. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

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    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  5. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  6. Simulating Computer Adaptive Testing With the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Flens; N. Smits; I. Carlier; A.M. van Hemert; E. de Beurs

    2015-01-01

    In a post hoc simulation study (N = 3,597 psychiatric outpatients), we investigated whether the efficiency of the 90-item Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) could be improved for assessing clinical subjects with computerized adaptive testing (CAT). A CAT simulation was performed on each o

  7. The Cultural and Developmental Significance of Parenting Processes in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

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    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…

  8. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

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    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  9. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

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    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…

  10. Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: The Role of Puberty and Biological Sex

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    Carter, Rona

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some…

  11. Resilience, self-efficacy, coping styles and depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Kristanto, Stef; Kiropoulos, Litza A

    2015-01-01

    High levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms have been reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the associations between resilience, self-efficacy and coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms and whether resilience, self-efficacy and coping were predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients newly diagnosed with MS. A sample of 129 individuals newly diagnosed with MS participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire assessing resilience, self-efficacy, coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy. Anxiety symptoms were also significantly associated with employment status and level of disability. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the resilience subscale of personal competence, the avoidance coping style of substance use and emotion-focused coping styles of venting predicted depressive symptoms and uniquely accounted for 63.8% of the variance in the depression score, F (18, 124) = 10.36, p = .000. Level of disability and employment status accounted for 13.2% of the anxiety score and avoidance coping style of denial and emotion-focused coping style of humour accounted for 36.4% of the variance in the anxiety symptom score, F (15, 112) = 6.37, p = .000. Our findings suggest that resilience and avoidance and emotion-focused coping strategies are predictive of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. Resilience and coping styles may be another target for interventions aimed at managing depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS.

  12. Mindfulness and bodily distress.

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    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    2012-11-01

    We have created a mindfulness approach to treat patients who experience multiple, persistent, and disabling physical symptoms that cannot be explained by a well-defined medical or surgical condition. Randomized controlled trials in this area are few, and research is hampered by the lack of clear definitions. Bodily distress syndrome (BDS) or bodily stress is an empirically defined definition unifying various conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and somatization disorder. In the present PhD, we explored whether patients suffering from BDS may be committed to mental training in the form of mindfulness therapy, which is a mindfulness program specifically targeted patients suffering from BDS. The theoretical model for including mindfulness training in the treatment of BDS is based on identified neurobiological impairments in these patients and the neurobiological improvements that mindfulness training may offer. BDS is a major public health issue possibly associated with the pathology of the immuno-endocrine and autonomic nervous system. BDS patients are often stigmatized, and effective treatment is rarely delivered, which leaves these patients isolated, left by themselves, vulnerable to potentially harming medical and/or alternative treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for non-harming practical tools that patients can learn to master so that they can improve the ability to take responsibility for their own health and wellbeing. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group program that employs mindfulness practice to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is designed to prevent depressive relapse. Paper I and II present systematic literature reviews only of randomized controlled trials on MBSR and MBCT. The effect of MBSR has been explored on fibromyalgia in three studies, none of them showed convincing results, but gave some indications as to

  13. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in medical students in the city of Santos

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    Rosana Denobile Serra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Ascertain the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in medical students, considering data in the literature that indicate higher vulnerability to emotional disorders in this population. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 657 (98% students. The instruments used were: questionnaire of socioeconomic-demographic characteristics, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results Predominance of the female gender (61%, aged between 17 and 30 years (98%, Catholic religion (64.2% from the city of São Paulo (40.7% and other cities in the state (35.7%; 30% presented depressive symptoms and 21% anxiety symptoms. Female students had higher scores both for depression (34.8% and for anxiety (26.8%. As regards the course year, the highest rates were found in the 5th year (40.7% for depression and in the 2nd year for anxiety (28.8%. Conclusion The data obtained in this study (30% agreed with the literature regarding the prevalence of depressive symptoms in medical students, but this index was higher compared to the population in general (15.1% to 16.8%, and related to people in São Paulo city (18.5%. Concerning anxiety the rates found were slightly lower than those in specific literature but higher than those in literature for the population in general (8% to 18% and in city São Paulo (16.8%. These indices indicate that the school of medicine may play a role as a predisposing and/or triggering factor in some students. The results suggest that more attention should be directed to 5th year students, who are beginning the internship period.

  14. Using Symptom and Interference Questionnaires to Identify Recovery Among Children With Anxiety Disorders.

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    Evans, Rachel; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2016-08-15

    Questionnaires are widely used in routine clinical practice to assess treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. This study was conducted to determine whether 2 widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Child Anxiety Scale [SCAS-C/P] and Child Anxiety Impact Scale [CAIS-C/P]) accurately identify recovery from common child anxiety disorder diagnoses as measured by a 'gold-standard' diagnostic interview. Three hundred thirty-seven children (7-12 years, 51% female) and their parents completed the ADIS-IV-C/P diagnostic interview and questionnaire measures (SCAS-C/P and CAIS-C/P) before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) treatment or wait-list. Time 2 parent reported interference (CAIS-P) was found to be a good predictor of absence of any diagnoses (area under the curve [AUC] = .81). In terms of specific diagnoses, Time 2 SCAS-C/P separation anxiety subscale (SCAS-C/P-SA) identified recovery from separation anxiety disorder well (SCAS-C-SA, AUC = .80; SCAS-P-SA, AUC = .82) as did the CAIS-P (AUC = .79). The CAIS-P also successfully identified recovery from social phobia (AUC = .78) and generalized anxiety disorder (AUC = .76). These AUC values were supported by moderate to good sensitivity (.70-.78) and specificity (.70-.73) at the best identified cut-off scores. None of the measures successfully identified recovery from specific phobia. The results suggest that questionnaire measures, particularly the CAIS-P, can be used to identify whether children have recovered from common anxiety disorders, with the exception of specific phobias. Cut-off scores have been identified that can guide the use of routine outcome measures in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Children's Internal Attributions of Anxiety-Related Physical Symptoms: Age-Related Patterns and the Role of Cognitive Development and Anxiety Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Freher, Nancy Kramer; Duncan, Sylvana; van den Hout, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related patterns in children's anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response of the main character who experienced anxiety-related physical…

  16. Differential association of somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression and anxiety with inflammation : Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

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    Duivis, Hester E.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kupper, Nina; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety have been suggested to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation. However, results are not always consistent, which may be due to symptom heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. There are some indications that associations with inflammation are mainly d

  17. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

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    Renata André Laurino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.

  18. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on depressive and anxiety symptoms after oophorectomy

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    Danijela D. Ðoković

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the effect of hormone replacement therapy on postoperative depression and anxiety symptoms. Methods In observational prospective study 80 women divided into two groups were evaluated: women who received estrogen and androgen replacement therapy after hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy before onset of menopause (35-45 years old and a control group that consisted of perimenipausal women (45-55 years old. Hormone replacement therapy began one week after surgery. The severity of depression and anxiety was evaluated through the use of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Subjects from the study group were interviewed right after the surgical treatment, one, two and three months later. Subjects from the control group were interviewed only once. Results The women who underwent surgery had a statistically significantly higher score in Hamilton Depression Scale (p<0.001 and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (p=0.002 compared to the control perimenopausal women. There was a significant reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms during hormone replacement therapy. Statistically significant difference in depressive score was found immediately after one month of hormone replacement therapy (first week/one month later: p=0.0057. Statistically significant difference in anxiety score appeared three months after the introduction of hormone therapy (first week/one month later: p=0.309; first week/two months later: p=0.046; first week/three months later: p<0.001. Level of serum luteinizing hormone was in correlation with depressive and anxiety score. Conclusion Estrogen-androgen replacement therapy may reduce the risk of psychiatric disorders developing in women with bilateral oophorectomy (indication for hysterectomy with oophorectomy was leiomyomata uteri.

  19. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

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    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  20. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  1. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.

  2. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.

  3. Medial Cranial Fossa Meningioma Diagnosed as Mixed Anxiety Disorder with Dissociative Symptoms and Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Mehmet Ceylan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are mostly benign tumors of the meninges that may stay clinically silent or present first with psychiatric symptoms only. We present a case of medial cranial fossa meningioma that was first diagnosed as mixed anxiety disorder with dissociative symptoms and vertigo. In light of the intact neurological and vestibular system examination, our patient’s vertigo and depersonalization were firstly addressed as psychosomatic symptoms of the psychiatric syndrome. Despite decreased anxiety and improved mood, dissociative symptoms and vertigo were resistant to treatment which prompted further research yielding a left hemisphere localized meningioma. Resection of meningioma resulted in full remission of the patient proving it to be responsible for the etiology of the psychiatric syndrome and vertigo. We suggest that brain imaging should be performed for patients with late-onset (>50 years psychiatric symptoms and those with treatment resistance. It is important to keep in mind always that medically unexplained symptoms may become explicable with detailed assessment and regular follow-up of the patient.

  4. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence.

  5. Development and Validation of New Anxiety and Bipolar Symptom Scales for an Expanded Version of the IDAS (The IDAS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Koffel, Erin; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Stasik, Sara M.; Ruggero, Camilo J.

    2012-01-01

    The original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) contains 11 nonoverlapping scales assessing specific depression and anxiety symptoms. In creating the expanded version of the IDAS (the IDAS-II), our goal was to create new scales assessing other important aspects of the anxiety disorders as well as key symptoms of bipolar disorder.…

  6. Insomnia Symptoms Following Treatment for Comorbid Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Héloïse; Marchand, André; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bélanger, Claude; Gosselin, Patrick; Langlois, Frédéric; Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J; Belleville, Geneviève

    2016-04-01

    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) frequently also suffer from insomnia. However, the impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders on insomnia has been understudied. Furthermore, comorbidity between anxiety disorders is common. Our main objective was to assess the impact of CBT for PDA or GAD on insomnia. In a quasi-experimental design, 86 participants with PDA and GAD received conventional CBT for their primary disorder or combined CBT for both disorders. Overall, CBTs had a significant impact on reducing insomnia symptoms (η = 0.58). However, among people with insomnia at pretest (67%), 33% still had an insomnia diagnosis, and the majority (63%) had clinically significant residual insomnia following treatment. In conclusion, the CBTs had a positive effect on the reduction of insomnia, but a significant proportion of participants still had insomnia problems following treatment. Clinicians should address insomnia during CBT for PDA and GAD.

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity Among First-Time Fathers Moderates the Relationship Between Exposure to Stress During Birth and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Magal, Ortal

    2016-05-01

    This longitudinal study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety symptoms among men attending the birth of their first offspring. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty in the association between exposure to stress during birth and PTSD and anxiety symptoms. Participants were Israeli men (n = 171) who were assessed with self-report questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy (T1) and approximately a month following birth (T2). Results show that the rates of postnatal PTSD and anxiety symptoms were relatively low. Subjective exposure to stress during birth and AS predicted PTSD in T2, above and beyond other negative life events and PTSD in T1. In addition, AS moderated the relations between subjective exposure to stress during birth and PTSD symptoms. Pregnancy and childbirth professionals may benefit from the insight that men with high levels of AS might experience childbirth as a highly stressful situation with possible posttraumatic stress symptoms.

  8. Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A; Kim, Kevin H; Larkby, Cynthia A; Swartz, Holly A; Day, Nancy L

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

  9. Comparative study between patients with infarction and angina about the fear of pain, anxiety pain symptoms, heart focused anxiety, psychopathology and hostility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakella P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the fear of pain, anxiety pain symptoms, heart focused anxiety, psychopathology and hostility between patients with infarction and angina. Method: Subjects were 104 patients with infarction or angina, who completed the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 and the Fear of Pain Questionnaire – III. Results: For all patients higher levels of fear and anxiety of pain, heart-focused anxiety psychopathology, and a tendency to develop a hostile attitude were observed. For angina group higher levels of fearfull thinking and total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization and anxiety (SCL-90. In addition, all patients were found to be significantly correlated (P< .005 with sex, fearfull PASS-20, physiological responses PASS-20, total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization SCL-90, anxiety SCL-90 Conclusion: There is a variety of general factors that may promote the development of cardiophobia. These processes are likely nonspecific in the sense that they increase the chance of negative emotional responding and poor affect regulatory strategies. For persons exposed to cardiac-related illnesses or persons who model the potential dangers of cardiac-related sensations, there may be an enhanced specificity to that general vulnerability.

  10. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  11. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, M M P; van Dooren, Fleur E P; Pop, V J M

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study...... with type 2 diabetes that evaluated the effect of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and/or emotional well-being compared with usual care. RESULTS: Of 1,261 retrieved articles, 20 RCTs were included with a total of 1,719 participants. Quality of life...... of depression. Emotional well-being was evaluated in four studies, which also showed conflicting results. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated in one study, which showed a significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The effects of exercise training on psychological outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes...

  12. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, Ppersonality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  13. Effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Andersen, Lærke T; Madsen, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances are known problems in patients with breast cancer. The effect of melatonin as an antidepressant in humans with cancer has not been investigated. We investigated whether melatonin could lower the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer...... in a three-month period after surgery and assessed the effect of melatonin on subjective parameters: anxiety, sleep, general well-being, fatigue, pain and sleepiness. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken from July 2011 to December 2012 at a department of breast surgery in Copenhagen......, Denmark. Women, 30-75 years, undergoing surgery for breast cancer and without signs of depression on Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were included 1 week before surgery and received 6 mg oral melatonin or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of depressive symptoms measured by MDI...

  14. Working Memory Training and CBT Reduces Anxiety Symptoms and Attentional Biases to Threat: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A; Richards, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that cognitive processes linked to the detection of threat stimuli are associated with poor attentional control, placing children and adolescents at increased risk for the development of anxious affect. The current study aimed to provide preliminary data to assess whether an intervention designed to improve attentional control (via working memory; WM) would lead to better performance in tests of WM and would be associated with positive changes in symptoms of trait and test anxiety, increased inhibitory control and reduced attention to threat. Forty adolescents aged 11-14 years who reported elevated anxiety and low attentional control were randomly allocated to a WM training or an active cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) control group. Post intervention, WM training was associated with greater improvements (versus. CBT) in trained WM tasks. Both groups, however, reported fewer anxiety symptoms, demonstrated increased inhibitory control and a reduction in attentional biases to threat post intervention and these results were maintained at follow up. The study provides indicative evidence which suggests that WM training has similar benefits to a more traditional CBT intervention on reduced anxiety and attentional biases for threat. Future research should aim to replicate the findings in a large sample size and explore the broader impact of training on day-to-day functioning. In addition, further research is needed to identify which participants benefit most from different interventions (using baseline characteristics) on treatment compliance and outcome.

  15. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  16. Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Russell, Laurie H

    2016-03-01

    Searching for medical information online is a widespread activity that increases distress for many individuals. Researchers have speculated that this phenomenon, referred to as cyberchondria, overlaps substantially with both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This study sought to examine: (1) the distinguishability of cyberchondria from health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and (2) the components of health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms that cluster most strongly with cyberchondria. The sample consisted of community adults in the United States with no current reported medical problems (N=375). Results from confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) support the idea that cyberchondria is distinct from, yet related to, health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Results from zero-order correlations and regression analyses suggest that cyberchondria clusters with the affective (health worry) component of health anxiety. Regression results diverged from prior findings, as obsessive-compulsive symptoms did not share associations with cyberchondria after accounting for negative affect and health anxiety. The present results indicate that cyberchondria is possibly discernible from both health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while also providing insight into areas of potential overlap.

  17. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Relate to Distinct Components of Pain Experience among Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Galloway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among women worldwide, with more than 210,000 new cases and 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Pain, anxiety, and depression can be significant factors during the course of breast cancer. Pain is a complex experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. While depression and anxiety symptoms are relatively common among breast cancer patients, little is known about the relation between these psychiatric factors and distinct components of the pain experience. In the present study 60 females presenting to an NCI-designated Cancer Center with newly diagnosed breast cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale, the State Instrument of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Findings indicate that anxiety and depression are common among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients; furthermore, patients experience an appreciable amount of pain even before oncologic treatment starts. State anxiety serves as a predictor of the sensory dimension of the pain experience, whereas depression serves as a predictor of the affective dimension of the pain experience.

  18. Reducing children's social anxiety symptoms: exploring a novel parent-administered cognitive bias modification training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Pettit, Eleanor; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    Social fears and worries in children are common and impairing. Yet, questions have been raised over the efficacy, suitability and accessibility of current frontline treatments. Here, we present data on the effectiveness of a novel parent-administered Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training tool. CBM-I capitalises on findings demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and biased interpretations, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively. Through CBM-I training, participants are exposed to benign resolutions, and reinforced for selecting these. In adults and adolescents, CBM-I training is effective at reducing symptoms and mood reactivity. In the present study, we developed a novel, child-appropriate form of CBM-I training, by presenting training materials within bedtime stories, read by a parent to the child across three consecutive evenings. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 17), children receiving CBM-I (n = 19) reported greater endorsement of benign interpretations of ambiguous situations post-training (compared to pre-training). These participants (but not the test-retest control group) also showed a significant reduction in social anxiety symptoms. Pending replication and extensions to a clinical sample, these data may implicate a cost-effective, mechanism-driven and developmentally-appropriate resource for targeting social anxiety problems in children.

  19. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...

  20. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms and usage of computers and mobile phones among working-age Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very often and 77 (1.3%) suffered anxiety very often during the last 12 months. Symptoms uncovered in the comparative analysis of respondents who had quite often or more often depression to respondents who had less depression showed differentiation. The same result was obtained in the analysis of self-reported anxiety symptoms. With the logistical regression models (from depression and anxiety), we found associations between physical symptoms (in shoulder) and depression and between different mental symptoms and anxiety or depression. In the future, it is important to take into accout that persons with physical symptoms can also have mental symptoms (depression or anxiety).

  1. Can you feel the beat? Interoceptive awareness is an interactive function of anxiety- and depression-specific symptom dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Stefanovitch, Iolanta; Evans, Davy; Oliver, Clare; Hawkins, Amy; Dalgleish, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Delineating the differential effects of anxiety versus depression on patterns of information processing has proved challenging. The tripartite model of mood disorders (Clark & Watson, 1991) suggests that one way forward is to adopt a dimensional rather than categorical approach, making it possible to explore the main and interaction effects of depression- and anxiety-specific symptoms on a given cognitive-affective process. Here we examined how the interplay of anxiety-specific arousal and de...

  2. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…

  3. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng Hai; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20 % of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation a

  4. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  5. The Association of Quality of Social Relations, Symptom Severity and Intelligence with Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Verheij, Fop; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Limited quality of social relations, milder symptom severity and higher intelligence were shown to account for higher anxiety levels in autism spectrum disorders. The current study replicated and extended earlier findings by combining these three determinants of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders in one study. The sample consisted of 134…

  6. Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms in young adolescents: Evidence for distinctions between DSM-IV subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, R.F.; Dieleman, G.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population. M

  7. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  8. Relationship among nausea, anxiety, and orthostatic symptoms in pediatric patients with chronic unexplained nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Sally E; Shaltout, Hossam A; Wagoner, Ashley L; Diz, Debra I; Fortunato, John E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the relationship among nausea, anxiety, and orthostatic symptoms in pediatric patients with chronic unexplained nausea. We enrolled 48 patients (36 females) aged 15 ± 2 years. Patients completed the Nausea Profile, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and underwent 70° head upright tilt testing (HUT) to assess for orthostatic intolerance (OI) and measure heart rate variability (HRV). We found nausea to be significantly associated with trait anxiety, including total nausea score (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) and 3 subscales: somatic (r = 0.64, p < 0.01), gastrointestinal (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), and emotional (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Nausea was positively associated with state anxiety, total nausea (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), somatic (r = 0.48, p < .01), gastrointestinal (r = .30, p < .05), and emotional (r = .64, p < .01) subscales. Within 10 min of HUT, 27 patients tested normal and 21 demonstrated OI. After 45 min of HUT, only 13 patients (27%) remained normal. Nausea reported on the Nausea Profile before HUT was associated with OI measured at 10 min of tilt (nausea total r = 0.35, p < 0.05; nausea emotional subscale r = 0.40, p < 0.01) and lower HRV at 10 min of HUT (F = 6.39, p = 0.01). We conclude that nausea is associated with both anxiety symptoms and OI. The finding of decreased HRV suggests an underlying problem in autonomic nervous system function in children and adolescents with chronic unexplained nausea.

  9. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Hartman, Catharina A; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-07-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual genes are small, analysis of genetic data at the pathway-level provides more power to detect associations and yield valuable biological insight. In 1,398 individuals with a Major Depressive Disorder, the symptom dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, General Distress, Anhedonic Depression, and Anxious Arousal, were measured with the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (30-item Dutch adaptation; MASQ-D30). Association of these symptom dimensions with candidate gene sets and gene sets from two public pathway databases was tested using the Global test. One pathway was associated with General Distress, and concerned molecules expressed in the endoplasmatic reticulum lumen. Seven pathways were associated with Anhedonic Depression. Important themes were neurodevelopment, neurodegeneration, and cytoskeleton. Furthermore, three gene sets associated with Anxious Arousal regarded development, morphology, and genetic recombination. The individual pathways explained up to 1.7% of the variance. These data demonstrate mechanisms that influence the specific dimensions. Moreover, they show the value of using dimensional phenotypes on one hand and gene sets on the other hand.

  10. Amygdala activation during emotional face processing in adolescents with affective disorders: the role of underlying depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G Van Den Bulk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDepressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future

  11. Hostility/anger as a mediator between college students' emotion regulation abilities and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.

  12. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Hipólito Merino; Carmen Senra; Fátima Ferreiro

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroti...

  13. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Ahmadi; Mohamed Sharif Mustaffa; Amirmudin Udin; AliAkbar Haghdoost

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always...

  14. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Lu, Qian

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment.

  15. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.

  16. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  17. Simulating computer adaptive testing with the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flens, Gerard; Smits, Niels; Carlier, Ingrid; van Hemert, Albert M; de Beurs, Edwin

    2016-08-01

    In a post hoc simulation study (N = 3,597 psychiatric outpatients), we investigated whether the efficiency of the 90-item Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) could be improved for assessing clinical subjects with computerized adaptive testing (CAT). A CAT simulation was performed on each of the 3 MASQ subscales (Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Somatic Anxiety). With the CAT simulation's stopping rule set at a high level of measurement precision, the results showed that patients' test administration can be shortened substantially; the mean decrease in items used for the subscales ranged from 56% up to 74%. Furthermore, the predictive utility of the CAT simulations was sufficient for all MASQ scales. The findings reveal that developing a MASQ CAT for clinical subjects is useful as it leads to more efficient measurement without compromising the reliability of the test outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Parental-reported health anxiety symptoms in 5- to 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Elberling, Hanne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    . METHODS: Parents of 1323 children (49.7% boys), recruited from the birth cohort: Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000, completed questionnaires regarding their child's HAS, and physical and mental health. Associations were examined using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for concurrent chronic...... in childhood with onset as early as preschool age. However, little research has addressed health anxiety in children. In the present study we explored parental-reported health anxiety symptoms (HAS) and their association with physical and mental health in a population-based sample of 5- to 7-year-old children...... physical disease. RESULTS: HAS were present in 17.6% and present 'a lot' (categorized as considerable HAS) in 2.4% of the children. Children with considerable HAS demonstrated more physical health problems and internalizing disorders than children with no or non-considerable HAS, but in the majority (71...

  19. Escitalopram versus paroxetine for social anxiety disorder: an analysis of efficacy for different symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Lader, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous factor analysis of pooled data demonstrated that the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) can be divided into six subscales. This paper examines data from a fixed-dose trial of escitalopram versus paroxetine, in order to determine the differential effects of these agents...... on symptom dimensions in social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: Data from a 24-week randomised, placebo-controlled, comparative study of fixed doses of escitalopram (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg) versus paroxetine (20 mg) in SAD were examined. The six factors identified in a previous factor analysis of baseline data...... from escitalopram studies on the primary efficacy scale, the LSAS, were used to compute subscale scores. These were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and standardised effect sizes were calculated. RESULTS: The combined escitalopram data and the paroxetine data both demonstrated...

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Group Transdiagnostic Therapy and Group Cognitive Therapy on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive behavioral interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach for emotional disorders have received useful empirical supports in recent years. Most of the researches on this area have been conducted without any control group. Moreover, little information about comparative effectiveness has reported. The current study was compared transdiagnostic group therapy with classical cognitive group therapy.Methods: Thirty three collages students with anxiety and depressive symptoms participated in eight two-hour sessions in Akhavan Hospital, Tehran, Iran during May and June 2011. The results were analyzed by The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale in pre and post intervention.Results: Both groups showed the significant difference in research variables pre and post test. However, there was no significant difference in the results analysis using ACOVAs except for anxiety symptoms.Conclusions: The effectiveness of transdiagnostic group therapy was confirmed in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Implications of the study are discussed.

  1. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  2. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Sleep Problems, and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Gudiño, Omar G; Fite, Paula J; Grande, Jessica M

    2016-12-15

    Limited research has examined the relation between exposure to stressors and internalizing symptoms among Latino adolescents, including factors that account for this relation. This study examined whether sleep played a role in the relation between exposure to neighborhood- (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage) and individual-level (i.e., negative life events) stressors and symptoms of anxiety and depression among a sample of 144 low-income, Latino adolescents (54% males, mean age = 16.25, SD = 1.46) attending a charter high school in a large, Midwestern city. The bias corrected bootstrap method was used to evaluate indirect effects. Significant findings indicated an indirect effect via sleep problems in the link between negative life events and anxiety. Alternative models were also explored. Results suggest that sleep problems are important to consider for interventions among Latino youth, particularly those exposed to neighborhood and individual stressors, as this may also have implications for reducing internalizing symptoms among this population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  4. Pain-related anxiety in relation to anxiety and depression among persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles P; Zvolensky, Michael J; Daumas, Stephanie D; Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) experience clinically significant pain as a result of HIV and such pain is often related to increased levels of anxiety/depression. Pain-related anxiety has been identified as a mechanism in the onset and progression of pain experience and associated affective distress. However, there has not been empirical study of pain-related anxiety in relation to affective processes among PLHA. To address this gap, hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using SPSS v.21 to examine pain-related anxiety (as measured using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale) in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms (as measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire) among 93 PLHA (10.8% female; Mean age = 49.63, SD = 8.89). Pain-related anxiety was significantly related to anxious arousal symptoms (β = .43) and anhedonic depressive symptoms (β = .25); effects were evident beyond the variance accounted for by CD4 count, race, sex, income level, and current level of bodily pain. The present results suggest that pain-related anxiety may play a role in the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms among PLHA.

  5. Symptoms of anxiety on both sides of the US-Mexico border: the role of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zamora, Beatriz; García, José; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Zemore, Sarah E; Breslau, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011-2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n = 2336) and Mexico (n = 2460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR = reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR = 1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR = 2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR = 3.3) and finally US born 3rd + generation of 25.9% (PR = 3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk.

  6. Parental Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms during Pregnancy and Attention Problems in Children: A Cross-Cohort Consistency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; Brion, M. J.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Lawlor, D. A.; Smith, G. Davey; Tiemeier, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy have been associated with offspring-attention deficit problems. Aim: We explored possible intrauterine effects by comparing maternal and paternal symptoms during pregnancy, by investigating cross-cohort consistency, and by investigating whether parental symptoms in early childhood may…

  7. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  8. Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2012-12-15

    Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.

  9. Psychological factors: anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdulbari Bener,1–3 Mohamud Verjee,4 Elnour E Dafeeah,5 Omar Falah,4 Taha Al-Juhaishi,4 Josia Schlogl,4 Alhasan Sedeeq,4 Shehryar Khan41Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3Department of Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 4Department of Medical Education, Weill Cornell Medical College, 5Department of Psychiatry, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarAim: To determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP, investigate the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with LBP, and examine its association with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression, and somatization.Subjects and methods: Of the 2742 patients approached, 2180 agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study (79.5% response rate. The survey was conducted among primary health care visitors from March to October 2012 and collected sociodemographic details and LBP characteristics. General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to identify the probable cases. Anxiety was assessed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, depression was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and somatization was measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-15.Results: The study sample consisted of 52.9% males and 47.1% females. The prevalence of LBP was 59.2%, comprising 46.1% men and 53.9% women. LBP was significantly higher in Qataris (57.9%, women (53.9%, housewives (40.1%, and individuals with higher monthly income (53.9%. Somatization (14.9% was observed more in LBP patients, followed by depression (13.7% and anxiety disorders (9.5%. The most frequently reported symptoms were "headaches" (41.1% and "pain in your arms, legs, or joints" (38.5% in LBP patients with somatization. The most frequent symptoms among depressed LBP patients were "thinking of suicide or wanting to hurt yourself

  10. Use of a religious hymn in remission of symptoms of social phobia (social anxiety disorder): a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul; Ghafoori, Bita; Nichols, Emma E A

    2005-04-01

    This case report described a veteran with social anxiety disorder who reported fears of negative evaluation by others, social avoidance, and accompanying physiological symptoms of heart palpitations, gastrointestinal discomfort, muscle tension and mental confusion. The symptoms of social anxiety disorder subsided with the use of a Christian hymn "Be Still My Soul" and its accompanying musical poem, in Finlandia. The veteran attributed the symptom remission to the feeling of stillness and surrender to God conveyed by the words and music of the hymn. Although previous studies have shown that both music and religious beliefs can affect mental health, the findings in this case cannot be generalized without conducting further prospective empirical studies.

  11. The Associations Between Pre- and Postnatal Maternal Symptoms of Distress and Preschooler's Symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Aase, Heidi; Diep, Lien My;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1,195), rec......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to examine the associations between pre- and postnatal maternal distress and preschooler's symptoms of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and anxiety, by timing and gender. METHOD: Children, aged 3.5 years (N = 1...

  12. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, P.; Cath, D.C.; Heitland, I.; Baas, J.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in

  13. Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy for gad on insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Langlois, Frédéric; Ladouceur, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical practice suggests that sleep complaints are frequent among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), frequency, severity, types of insomnia complaints, and relationship to GAD diagnosis severity in patients diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria are not well documented. Clinical data about the impact on insomnia symptoms of treating GAD worries are also lacking. The present study examined these aspects in 44 GAD patients who participated in a treatment study specifically addressing excessive worries through CBT interventions. All patients were assessed using a structured clinical interview and the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-IV (ADIS-IV). They also completed anxiety and insomnia inventories, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a self-report measure which assesses insomnia type, severity and interference with daily life. Among this sample, 47.7% reported difficulties initiating sleep, 63.6% reported difficulties maintaining sleep, and 56.8% complained of waking too early in the morning. The majority of these patients (86.5%) reported never having experienced insomnia without having excessive worries. However, insomnia severity and GAD severity were not correlated. In this sample, patients with severe GAD did not necessarily report more severe insomnia symptoms. Regarding treatment impact on insomnia complaints, ISI post-treatment scores were significantly lower after treatment. Mean post-treatment scores almost reached ISI's "absence of clinical insomnia" category. Results indicate that this CBT package for GAD does have a significant impact on sleep quality even if sleep disturbances were not specifically addressed during treatment.

  14. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  15. Longitudinal and concurrent links between memory span, anxiety symptoms, and subsequent executive functioning in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVisu-Petra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been conjectured that basic individual differences in attentional control influence higher-level executive functioning and subsequent academic performance in children. The current study sets out to complement the limited body of research on early precursors of executive functions. It provides both a cross-sectional, as well as a longitudinal exploration of the relationship between executive functions and more basic attentional control mechanisms, assessed via children’s performance on memory storage tasks, and influenced by individual differences in anxiety. Multiple measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM were administered to children between 3 and 6 years old, alongside a nonverbal measure of intelligence, and a parental report of anxiety symptoms. After 9 months, children were re-tested on the same STM measures, at which time we also administered multiple measures of executive functioning: verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM, inhibition, and shifting. A cross-sectional view of STM development indicated that between 3 and 6 years the trajectory of visuospatial STM and executive functions underwent a gradual linear improvement. However, between 5 and 6 years progress in verbal STM performance stagnated. Hierarchical regression models revealed that trait anxiety was negatively associated with WM and shifting, while nonverbal intelligence was positively related to WM span. When age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, and anxiety were controlled for, STM (measured at the first assessment was a very good predictor of overall executive performance. The models were most successful in predicting WM, followed by shifting, yet poorly predicted inhibition measures. Further longitudinal research is needed to directly address the contribution of attentional control mechanisms to emerging executive functioning and to the development of problematic behavior during early development.

  16. Children's internal attributions of anxiety-related physical symptoms: Age-related patterns and the role of cognitive development and anxiety sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); B.N. Mayer (Birgit); N.K. Freher (Nancy Kramer); S. Duncan (Sylvana); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined age-related patterns in children's anxiety-related interpretations and internal attributions of physical symptoms. A large sample of 388 children aged between 4 and 13 years completed a vignette paradigm during which they had to explain the emotional response o

  17. Quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms in early and late pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Nicoline C; Secher, Anna L; Cramon, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110....... The HADS anxiety score improved slightly from 5.0 (3.3) to 4.5 (3.4) (p = 0.04) whereas the HADS depression score remained unchanged. The prevalence of women with HADS anxiety or depression score ≥8 did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Physical quality of life deteriorated whereas mental quality of life improved...... slightly during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. A minor reduction in anxiety and stable depression symptoms was observed. The results on mental health are reassuring, considering the great demands that pregnancy places on women with pregestational diabetes....

  18. Multi-method assessments of sleep over the transition to college and the associations with depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Leah D; Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Breitenstein, Reagan S

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated links between sleep problems and symptoms of depression and anxiety in community and clinical samples of adolescents and young adults. Scant longitudinal research, however, has examined reciprocal associations over socio-contextual shifts such as the transition to college. Using multiple methods of assessment (e.g., actigraphy, subjective report), the current study assessed whether sleep quantity, quality or variability changed over the transition to college and investigated the potential cross-lagged relationships between adolescents' sleep and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The participants (N = 82; 24% male) were studied at three time points over approximately 1 year: spring of their senior year of high school (T1), fall of their first year of college (T2), and spring of their first year of college (T3). Sleep minutes, sleep efficiency, wake time variability and anxiety increased over the transition to college. Subjective reports of sleep problems decreased. Cross-lagged panel models indicated significant relationships between subjective sleep quality and anxiety symptoms over time where subjective sleep problems at T1 were associated with anxiety at T2, and anxiety at T2 was associated with subjective sleep problems at T3. In contrast, greater depressive symptoms at T1 preceded increases in subjective sleep problems, sleep latency and sleep start time variability at T2. Importantly, there were concurrent associations between symptoms of anxiety or depression at T2 and sleep efficiency, sleep start time variability, and subjective sleep problems. These findings suggest that, overall, sleep quantity and quality improved over the transition to college, although the overall amounts of sleep were still below developmental recommendations. However, for some youth, the first semester of college may be a sensitive period for both sleep problems and symptoms of anxiety. In contrast, depressive symptoms were stable across

  19. The influence of sociodemografic and medical variables on severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms during particular trimesters of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to research the effect of selected socio-demographic and medical variables on the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in different trimesters of pregnancy. Materials and methods. The study was prospective, longitudinal, the group consisted of 314 adult pregnant women. To assess the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used. The results were statistically analyzed. To assess the normal distribution the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Non-parametric tests: Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were used due to the distribution of the variables tested against the intergroup comparisons that deviate from the normal distribution. Results. Only the assessment of the financial and housing situation given by the respondents was related to the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the course of the entire pregnancy. The unmarried respondents had greater severity of depressive symptoms in the first and third trimesters. Other socio-demographic variables were not associated with the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in different trimesters of pregnancy. Medical variables (associated with an obstetric-gynecological history, such as a history of miscarriage, complications in a previous pregnancy, the mode of delivery in a previous pregnancy, generally did not affect the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Only major symptoms of depression during the third trimester were associated with complications in a previous pregnancy. An unplanned pregnancy turned out to be one of the most crucial variables determining higher severity of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Conclusions. The knowledge of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy may facilitate better monitoring the groups of women being particularly vulnerable to

  20. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  1. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  2. Does Worrying Mean Caring Too Much? Interpersonal Prototypicality of Dimensional Worry Controlling for Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Siebert, Erin C; Carlile, Jessica A; Scarsella, Gina M; Abelson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms are dimensions that have each been linked to heterogeneous problems in interpersonal functioning. However, the relationships between these symptoms and interpersonal difficulties remain unclear given that most studies have examined diagnostic categories, not accounted for symptoms' shared variability due to general distress, and investigated only interpersonal problems (neglecting interpersonal traits, interpersonal goals, social behavior in daily life, and reports of significant others). To address these issues, students (Study 1; N=282) endorsed symptoms and interpersonal circumplex measures of traits and problems, as well as event-contingent social behaviors during one week of naturalistic daily interactions (N=184; 7,036 records). Additionally, depressed and anxious patients (N=47) reported symptoms and interpersonal goals in a dyadic relationship, and significant others rated patients' interpersonal goals and impact (Study 2). We derived hypotheses about prototypical interpersonal features from theories about the functions of particular symptoms and social behaviors. As expected, worry was uniquely associated with prototypically affiliative tendencies across all self-report measures in both samples, but predicted impacting significant others in unaffiliative ways. As also hypothesized, social anxiety was uniquely and prototypically associated with low dominance across measures, and general distress was associated with cold-submissive tendencies. Findings for depressive symptoms provided less consistent evidence for unique prototypical interpersonal features. Overall, results suggest the importance of multimethod assessment and accounting for general distress in interpersonal models of worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  3. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  4. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Merino

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor, the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD. One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection, anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  5. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Hipólito; Senra, Carmen; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.

  6. Are Generalized Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Associated with Social Competence in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Krista Haley Smith; Iarocci, Grace

    2017-02-20

    Generalized anxiety and depression symptoms may be associated with poorer social outcomes among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability. The goal of this study was to examine whether generalized anxiety and depression symptoms were associated with social competence after accounting for IQ, age, and gender in typically developing children and in children with ASD. Results indicated that for the TD group, generalized anxiety and depression accounted for 38% of the variance in social competence and for children with ASD, they accounted for 29% of the variance in social competence. However, only depression accounted for a significant amount of the variance. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the social impact of internalizing symptoms in children with ASD.

  7. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  8. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  9. Social skills training versus cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder characterized by fear of blushing, trembling, or sweating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current interpersonal models suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by interpersonal difficulties. Individuals with SAD and fear of showing bodily symptoms also suffer from interpersonal problems, such as not being open and avoidance of expressing insecurity. Training in social

  10. Symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R: a test of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, R A; Clark, D A; Ranieri, W F

    1994-06-01

    To determine the extent to which the SCL-90-R assesses general distress or specific dimensions of psychopathology, two principal components analyses were conducted based on 900 outpatients diagnosed with mixed psychiatric disorders. The first component explained 30.5% of the total variance and was interpreted as reflecting overall symptom distress. Partialling the first component out of the correlations among the symptoms in a second principal components analysis, we found four specific residual components reflecting somatic anxiety, depression, irritability, and attention problems. The results were discussed as partially supporting Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

  11. Negative emotionality and its facets moderate the effects of exposure to Hurricane Sandy on children's postdisaster depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Danzig, Allison P; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Olino, Thomas M; Bhatia, Vickie; Black, Sarah R; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    According to diathesis-stress models, temperament traits such as negative emotionality (NE) may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of symptoms of psychopathology, although little research has tested such models in children. Moreover, there are few data on whether specific facets of NE (sadness, fear, or anger) may specifically moderate the effects of stress on depression versus anxiety. Finally, there is a paucity of research examining whether childhood temperament moderates the effect of disaster exposure on depressive or anxiety symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, which affected many thousands of people in New York State and the surrounding regions in October 2012, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Seven to eight years prior to Hurricane Sandy, 332 children 3 years old completed lab-based measures of NE and its facets. Six years later, when they were 9 years old, each mother rated her child's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Approximately 8 weeks post-Sandy (an average of 1 year after the age 9 assessment), mothers again rated their child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as a measure of exposure to stress from Hurricane Sandy. Adjusting for symptom levels at age 9, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms only in participants with high levels of temperamental sadness and predicted elevated levels of anxiety symptoms only in participants high in temperamental fearfulness. These findings support the role of early childhood temperament as a diathesis for psychopathology and highlight the importance of considering facets of temperament when examining their relationship to psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period.

  13. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. METHODS: 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995-97 completed the Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline...... elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. RESULTS: At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n...

  14. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder's dysphoria dimension and relations with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Tory A; Elhai, Jon D; Fine, Thomas H; Tamburrino, Marijo; Cohen, Gregory; Shirley, Edwin; Chan, Philip K; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2015-07-30

    The present study investigated symptom relations between two highly comorbid disorders--posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)--by exploring their underlying dimensions. Based on theory and prior empirical research it was expected that the dysphoria factor of PTSD would be more highly related to GAD. As part of a longitudinal project of mental health among Ohio National Guard Soldiers, 1266 subjects were administered the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted to examine two models of PTSD and to determine which PTSD factors were more related to the GAD factor. The results indicate that the GAD factor was significantly more highly correlated with PTSD's dysphoria factor than with all other PTSD factors, including PTSD's reexperiencing factor, avoidance factor, and hyperarousal factor. Results indicate GAD was not significantly more highly correlated with numbing than most other factors of PTSD. The results are consistent with prior research. Implications of the results are discussed in regards to PTSD in DSM-5, comorbidity and diagnostic specificity.

  16. Pathways from uncertainty to anxiety: An evaluation of a hierarchical model of trait and disorder-specific intolerance of uncertainty on anxiety disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara A

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty is central to anxiety-related pathology and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) appears to be a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a hierarchical model to identify the unique contributions of trait and disorder-specific IU (i.e., uncertainty specific to generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and panic disorder) to disorder-specific symptoms, beyond other disorder-specific cognitive vulnerabilities (i.e., negative metacognitive beliefs, fear of negative evaluation, inflated responsibility, and agoraphobic cognitions, respectively). Participants (N=506) completed a battery of online questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate model fit, as well as direct and indirect pathways. Trait and disorder-specific IU were significantly associated with multiple cognitive vulnerability factors and disorder symptoms. Indirect effects between trait IU and symptoms were observed through disorder-specific IU and cognitive vulnerabilities. The relative contribution of trait IU and disorder-specific IU to symptoms varied and theoretical and clinical implications are highlighted. Limitations include the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-report. Avenues for further research include a need for replication and extension of the model in different samples and using experimental and multi-method research methods.

  17. Depression, anxiety, and symptom profiles among female and male victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Smith, Merideth; Bossarte, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. Few existing studies have examined the prevalence and patterns of adverse mental health among victims of sexual violence using data from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults. The main objectives of this study were to identify patterns in the associations between sexual violence victimization and depression and anxiety (DA) symptoms using data from the sexual violence and DA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) modules. Stratified multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to test the associations between sexual violence victimization and DA controlling for demographic characteristics. Multiple stratified MANOVA models were used to detect the effect of sexual violence victimization on DA symptoms while controlling for key demographic characteristics. Among all 61,187 participants, more than 5% (n = 3,240) were victims of sexual violence, out of which 18.82% reported being diagnosed with depression, 8.37% reported an anxiety disorder, and 28.28% reported being diagnosed with DA disorder. Victims of sexual violence reported significantly higher number of days when they had trouble concentrating, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, little interest or pleasure in activities, blamed themselves for personal failure, felt depressed, and had little energy. The present study highlights the importance of collecting nationally representative data from victims of sexual violence and extends previous findings from clinically based studies. This study also serves as an example of an analytic approach that addresses a public health priority area by drawing on data from multiple topic-specific BRFSS modules.

  18. Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelid, Andrea; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Henrich, Christopher C; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  19. Exploring Anxiety Symptoms in a Large-Scale Twin Study of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Their Co-Twins and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Colvert, Emma; Ames, Catherine; Woodhouse, Emma; Lietz, Stephanie; Garnett, Tracy; Gillan, Nicola; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Scahill, Lawrence; Bolton, Patrick; Happé, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience difficulties with anxiety, the manifestation of these difficulties remains unresolved. The current study assessed anxiety in a large population-based twin sample, aged 10-15 years. Phenotypic analyses were used to explore anxiety symptoms in children with ASDs,…

  20. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587

  1. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann E. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    . The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.

  2. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-08-03

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students' levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group.

  3. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes.

  4. Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzenana Kartal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees’ mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method: Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results: Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion: These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.

  5. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  6. The Transaction Between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Sexual Functioning: A Prospective Study of Premenopausal, Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-01

    A number of studies have called attention to the problematic interplay between depression and anxiety symptoms and sexual difficulties. However, despite the bidirectional conceptualization of the association between affective and sexual problems, few studies have adequately examined temporal precedence or state-level fluctuations between these two constructs. Using Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression, the current study employed a repeated measures design to examine how weekly changes in affective symptoms were related to weekly changes in sexual functioning in a non-clinical sample of premenopausal women. First, we examined how general distress, anxious arousal, and anhedonia were concurrently related to various indices of sexual functioning. Next, we examined lagged effects of mood and anxiety symptoms predicting later levels of sexual functioning. Finally, we tested sexual functioning's influence on later reports of affective symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that, of the three symptom types tested, anhedonic depression was the most consistently related to sexual problems, and that these relations were more proximal than distal. The preponderance of data suggested temporal precedence of mood on sexual symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance of prospective studies in the investigation of mental and sexual health.

  7. Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Balle, Maria; Sesé, Albert

    2010-10-01

    The relationship between negative affectivity (NA) and emotion regulation (ER) in determining anxiety and depressive symptomatology was examined in a large (n=1441) sample of adolescents (12-17 years old). Two models, diverging only as to inclusion or exclusion of a path from NA to negative ER, were analyzed through structural equation modeling; the goal was to explore the mediational or non-mediational role of ER in determining anxiety symptoms. The models yielded similar adequate fit to data, indicating that both NA and negative ER contribute to anxiety symptoms which, in turn, significantly determine depressive symptomatology. The mediational model better captures the relationships revealed in the data, with NA determining negative ER to a great extent. Additionally, most individuals scoring highly in NA also tend to score highly in negative ER, indicating that adolescents with heightened NA are prone to a dysfunctional style of ER.

  8. The association between bodily anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Inventory and of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. When both sets of personality measures were simultaneously modeled as predictors, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory scales, neuroticism and extraversion, remained significantly associated with the severity factor, whereas the association between...... the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions, harm avoidance and novelty seeking, and the severity factor became nonsignificant. Harm avoidance was negatively associated with the vertigo first-order factor, whereas neuroticism was negatively associated with the cardio-respiratory first-order factor...

  9. Co-Occurring Trajectories of Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional Defiance from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Thompson, Kara; Gruppuso, Vincenza

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a cohort-sequential longitudinal design to examine the patterns of change and codevelopment of anxiety, depression, and oppositional defiant symptoms (ODS) from late adolescence to young adulthood. Four waves of data were collected biennially by individual interview with a random, community-based sample of 662 youth ages 12 to 18…

  10. The relationship between specific anxiety syndromes and somatic symptoms in adolescents with asthma and other chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; van Beest, I.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of a chronic disease on the emotional well-being of children and adolescents is controversial in the literature. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) a specific approach is required to assess emotional deviations in adolescents with chronic diseases and 2) specific anxiety symptoms ar

  11. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  12. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Anxiety as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among South African University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R.; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Participants: Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Methods: Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the…

  13. Cognitive processes as mediators of the relation between mindfulness and change in social anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica R; Price, Matthew; Schmertz, Stefan K; Johnson, Suzanne B; Masuda, Akihiko; Calamaras, Martha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether pretreatment mindfulness exerts an indirect effect on outcomes following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive processes of probability and cost bias (i.e., overestimations of the likelihood that negative social events will occur, and that these events will have negative consequences when they do occur) were explored as potential mediators of the relation between mindfulness and social anxiety symptom change. People with higher levels of mindfulness may be better able to benefit from treatments that reduce biases because mindfulness may aid in regulation of attention. Sixty-seven individuals with a primary diagnosis of social phobia identifying public speaking as their greatest fear received eight sessions of one of two types of exposure-based CBT delivered according to treatment manuals. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, probability bias, cost bias, and social anxiety symptoms. Mediation hypotheses were assessed by a bootstrapped regression using treatment outcome data. Pretreatment mindfulness was not related to change in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. However, mindfulness had an indirect effect on treatment outcome via its association with probability bias, but not cost bias, at midtreatment. These findings were consistent across three metrics of social anxiety symptoms. Mindfulness may play a role in response to CBT among individuals with social phobia through its relation with probability bias--even when the treatment does not target mindfulness.

  14. Secondary Symptoms of Dyslexia: A Comparison of Self-Esteem and Anxiety Profiles of Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita, Shally

    2016-01-01

    The secondary symptoms of individuals with dyslexia, such as high anxiety and low self-esteem, have aroused various debates not only in the educational, but also in the clinical context. Since pro and contra arguments are supported by a more or less equal number of empirical findings, no final conclusion could be drawn for this specific…

  15. Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety : an important factor for severity of GI symptoms and quality of life in IBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerndal, P.; Ringstrom, G.; Agerforz, P.; Karpefors, M.; Akkermans, L. M.; Bayati, A.; Simren, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI)-specific anxiety (GSA) has been proposed to influence symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI) is a recently developed, reliable and valid measure of GSA. Our aim was to evaluate

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  17. Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: The Role of Intrapersonal Characteristics and Stress Processing Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katherine; Barakat, Lamia P.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Dampier, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications place patients at risk for poor psychosocial adaptation, including depression and anxiety symptoms. This study aimed to test a mediator model based on the Risk and Resistance model to explore the role of intrapersonal characteristics and stress processing variables in psychosocial functioning. Participants…

  18. Co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence : differential links with implicit and explicit self-esteem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P. J.; Sportel, B. E.; de Hullu, E.; Nauta, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Social anxiety and depression often co-occur. As low self-esteem has been identified as a risk factor for both types of symptoms, it may help to explain their co-morbidity. Current dual process models of psychopathology differentiate between explicit and implicit self-esteem. Explicit se

  19. Online visual search attentional bias modification for adolescents with heightened anxiety and depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voogd, E L; Wiers, R W; Salemink, E

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, are both characterized by a negative attentional bias. As Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) can reduce such a bias, and might also affect emotional reactivity, it could be a promising early intervention. However, a growing number of studies also report comparable improvements in both active and placebo groups. The current study investigated the effects of eight online sessions of visual search (VS) ABM compared to both a VS placebo-training and a no-training control group in adolescents with heightened symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 108). Attention bias, interpretation bias, and stress-reactivity were assessed pre- and post-training. Primary outcomes of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and secondary measures of emotional resilience were assessed pre- and post-training and at three and six months follow-up. Results revealed that VS training reduced attentional bias compared to both control groups, with stronger effects for participants who completed more training sessions. Irrespective of training condition, an overall reduction in symptoms of anxiety and depression and an increase in emotional resilience were observed up to six months later. The training was evaluated relatively negatively. Results suggest that online ABM as employed in the current study has no added value as an early intervention in adolescents with heightened symptoms.

  20. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Aupperle

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  1. Cognitive coping, goal adjustment, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in people undergoing infertility treatment : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, V.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.; Weijmer, J.; Helmerhorst, F.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal adjustment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were studied in people with fertility problems. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 313 patients attending an infertility clinic. Self-report ques

  2. Cognitive Coping, Goal Adjustment, and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in People Undergoing Infertility Treatment A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Weijmer, Janneke; Helmerhorst, Frans

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal adjustment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were studied in people with fertility problems. Both cross-sectional and prospective relationships were studied in a sample of 313 patients attending an infertility clinic. Self-report ques

  3. Improving Screening Cut-Off Scores for DSM-5 Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptom Dimensions with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Hale III

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently most adolescent anxiety disorder screening instruments make their determination of running a high risk for an anxiety disorder on the basis of a cut-off score measured by a single screening which can lead to false positives. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine whether a repeated administration of the SCARED screening instrument for DSM-5 anxiety disorder symptoms could help in the detection of true positives while also avoiding false positives. Participants were 923 early adolescents from the general community. The adolescents’ ages at the first annual screening ranged from 10 to 15 with an average of 12.5 years. In a prospective five-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed the SCARED screening instrument for anxiety disorder symptoms on a yearly basis. To detect true positives and avoid false positives, the data were analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC cut-off score analyses. ROC cut-off score analyses revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of high risk were greatly improved for repeated screenings above those of a single screening. The findings of this study demonstrate that a screening instrument (such as the SCARED should be administered not just once but several times in order to better determine true positives and avoid false positives.

  4. Investigating the association between tinnitus severity and symptoms of depression and anxiety, while controlling for neuroticism, in a large middle-aged UK population

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Abby; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Fortnum, Heather; Dawes, Piers D; Middleton, Hugh; Kevin J. Munro; Moore, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Clinical studies indicate increased risk for depression and anxiety among tinnitus patients. However population data are scarce, and no studies have controlled for neuroticism. We examined associations between tinnitus and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a large UK population, controlling for neuroticism, to explore whether neuroticism, as previously reported, fully explains the association between symptoms of depression and anxiety, and tinnitus. Design: We used the...

  5. High Current Anxiety Symptoms, But Not a Past Anxiety Disorder Diagnosis, are Associated with Impaired Fear Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Puck eDuits; Danielle C. eCath; Ivo eHeitland; Johanna M. P. eBaas

    2016-01-01

    Although impaired fear extinction has repeatedly been demonstrated in patients with anxiety disorders, little is known about whether these impairments persist after treatment. The current comparative exploratory study investigated fear extinction in 26 patients treated for their anxiety disorder in the years preceding the study as compared to 17 healthy control subjects. Fear-potentiated startle and subjective fear were measured in a cue and context fear conditioning paradigm within a virtual...

  6. Clinical, functional and health-related quality of life correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Nguyen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36. Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD (defined cut-off≥8. RESULTS: 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc. Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. CONCLUSION: High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ

  7. Does Coping With Music as an Art Reduce Anxiety and Depression Symptoms? A Comparison of Conservatoire and Other Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Karaoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 17–29 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties’ students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut– off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didn’t made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472

  8. Zolpidem extended-release improves sleep and next-day symptoms in comorbid insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Maurizio; Asnis, Gregory M; Shrivastava, Ram; Lydiard, Bruce; Bastani, Bijan; Sheehan, David; Roth, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of zolpidem extended-release coadministered with escitalopram in patients with insomnia and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Patients (N = 383) received open-label escitalopram 10 mg/d and were randomized to either adjunct zolpidem extended-release 12.5 mg or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 8 in subjective total sleep time. Secondary efficacy measures included subjective sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, wake time after sleep onset, sleep quality, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Sleep Impact Scale, the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. The last-observation-carried-forward method was used to impute missing values for most efficacy measures. Safety was monitored at each visit. At week 8 and all time points, there was a significant improvement in the zolpidem extended-release/escitalopram group compared with placebo/escitalopram for total sleep time (P escitalopram, compared with placebo/escitalopram, significantly improved insomnia and sleep-related next-day symptoms, but not anxiety symptoms, in patients with comorbid insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder.

  9. Comparing the Effectiveness of Paroxetine, Attention Modification Program and Combination of both on Improving Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Asgharnejad Farid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the effectiveness of paroxetine and Attention Modification Program has been studied separately in treating social anxiety disorder, there has been no research comparing them according to the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of paroxetine, Attention Modification Program (AMP and combination of both on improving the Social Anxiety Symptoms.Methods:33 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned in 3 groups: 11 in paroxetine group, 11 in AMP group and 11 in combined group. Treatment intervention was done during 8 weeks period. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered before and after treatment intervention. One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was used to determine the differences and efficacy of treatment interventions between groups. Data analysis was done by SPSS-16 software.Results:28 participants completed the treatment period. One-way ANCOVA results showed statistically significant differences in post-treatment scores of social phobia (p=0/007, depressive symptoms (p=0.007 and daily life functioning (p=0.011 between three groups. Bonferroni correction showed that combined treatment is significantly more effective than AMP in reducing social phobia symptoms (p=0.007, depressive symptoms (p=0.022 and enhancing daily life functioning (0.019. Yet, there were no significant differences between Paroxetine and combined treatment in all post-treatment scores (p=0.890, p=1.000, p=1.000 for social phobia, depressive symptoms and daily life functioning respectively. Paroxetine showed more significant improvement of depressive symptoms (p=0.016 and enhancing daily life functioning (p=0.045 than AMP. Also, there were no significant differences between paroxetine and AMP in reducing social anxiety symptoms.Discussion:It seems that paroxetine has wider effect in reducing social

  10. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats.

  11. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić-Vukomanović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. Methods. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002, type of faculty (p = 0.014, satisfaction with college major choice (p < 0.001, satisfaction with grade point average (p < 0.001. Female students (odds ratio - OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval - CI = 1.351-2.374, older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172, students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162, not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95% CI = 1.103-2.074, dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027 were more likely to show depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034, type of faculty (p < 0.001, family economic situation (p = 0.011, college residence (p = 0.001 satisfaction with the college major choice (p = 0.001, and satisfaction with graduate education (p < 0.001. Female students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI = 1.490-2.425, and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.022-1.630 were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university

  12. Symptom provocation in dental anxiety using cross-phobic video stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hoyer, Jürgen; Siegert, Jens; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Although video stimulation has been successfully employed in dental phobia, conclusions regarding the specificity of reactions are limited. A novel, video-based paradigm using cross-phobic video stimulation was validated based on subjective and autonomic responses. Forty subjects were stratified according to dental anxiety as measured by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) using a median-split procedure (high-DFS and low-DFS groups). Anxiety stimuli comprised dental-anxiety scenes and non-dental-anxiety control scenes (snake stimuli). Neutral scenes were tailored to each anxiety stimulus. Dental, but not snake, stimuli were rated as more anxiety provoking only in the high-DFS group. Elevated skin-conductance amplitudes were observed in the high-DFS group for dental anxiety vs. neutral videos, but not for snake anxiety vs. neutral videos. State and trait anxiety and autonomic reactivity were correlated according to expectations. Using cross-phobic video stimulation, it was demonstrated that phobogenic reactions in dental anxiety are specific to the respective stimulus material and do not generalize to other non-dental-anxiety control conditions. The validation of the paradigm may support and stimulate future research on the characterization of dental anxiety on different response systems, including its underlying neural substrates.

  13. Bodily Synchronization Underlying Joke Telling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Schmidt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock-knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily dance occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this dance is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction.

  14. Amygdala functional connectivity as a longitudinal biomarker of symptom changes in generalized anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Meeten, Frances; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Cercignani, Mara; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry, autonomic dysregulation and functional amygdala dysconnectivity, yet these illness markers have rarely been considered together, nor their interrelationship tested longitudinally. We hypothesized that an individual’s capacity for emotion regulation predicts longer-term changes in amygdala functional connectivity, supporting the modification of GAD core symptoms. Sixteen patients with GAD (14 women) and individually matched controls were studied at two time points separated by 1 year. Resting-state fMRI data and concurrent measurement of vagally mediated heart rate variability were obtained before and after the induction of perseverative cognition. A greater rise in levels of worry following the induction predicted a stronger reduction in connectivity between right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and enhanced coupling between left amygdala and ventral tegmental area at follow-up. Similarly, amplified physiological responses to the induction predicted increased connectivity between right amygdala and thalamus. Longitudinal shifts in a distinct set of functional connectivity scores were associated with concomitant changes in GAD symptomatology over the course of the year. Results highlight the prognostic value of indices of emotional dysregulation and emphasize the integral role of the amygdala as a critical hub in functional neural circuitry underlying the progression of GAD symptomatology. PMID:27369066

  15. Effects of lorazepam on brain activity pattern during an anxiety symptom provocation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, T; Mathis, A; Erb, G; Namer, I J; Demazières, A; Luthringer, R

    2010-05-01

    Human models of anxiety are useful to develop new effective anxiolytics. The objective of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that a single dose of lorazepam modifies brain activation during an anxiety challenge. Eighteen healthy male subjects underwent fMRI associated with a challenge based on the anticipation of aversive electrical stimulations after pretreatment, either with placebo or with 1.0 mg of oral lorazepam. Anxiety was rated before fMRI and after, referring to the threat condition periods, using State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton scales. The conditioning procedure induced anxiety, as indicated by clinical rating score changes. Lorazepam did not modify anxiety rating as compared to placebo. Lorazepam reduced cerebral activity in superior frontal gyrus, anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. The current finding provides the first evidence of the modulatory effects of an established anxiolytic agent on brain activation related to anticipatory anxiety.

  16. Synergistic effects of pain intensity and anxiety sensitivity in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among economically disadvantaged latinos in a community-based primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Ricardo Valdés; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Walker, Rheeda L; Viana, Andres G; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Paulus, Daniel J; Robles, Zuzuky; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in relation to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms and disorders among 203 Latino adults with an annual income of less than $30,000 (84.4% female; Mage=38.9, SD=11.3 and 98.6% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. As expected, the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity was significantly related to increased anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as number of depressive/anxiety disorder diagnoses. The form of the significant interactions indicated that participants reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity evinced the greatest levels of anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as higher levels of depressive and anxiety disorders. These data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in regard to a relatively wide array of anxiety and depressive variables among Latinos in a primary care medical setting.

  17. Discrepancies between dimensions of interoception in autism: Implications for emotion and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Tiley, Claire; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Harrison, Neil A; Seth, Anil K; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-02-01

    Emotions and affective feelings are influenced by one's internal state of bodily arousal via interoception. Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are associated with difficulties in recognising others' emotions, and in regulating own emotions. We tested the hypothesis that, in people with ASC, such affective differences may arise from abnormalities in interoceptive processing. We demonstrated that individuals with ASC have reduced interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tests) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires), reflecting an impaired ability to objectively detect bodily signals alongside an over-inflated subjective perception of bodily sensations. The divergence of these two interoceptive axes can be computed as a trait prediction error. This error correlated with deficits in emotion sensitivity and occurrence of anxiety symptoms. Our results indicate an origin of emotion deficits and affective symptoms in ASC at the interface between body and mind, specifically in expectancy-driven interpretation of interoceptive information.

  18. Escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: analysis of efficacy for different clinical subgroups and symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Kasper, Siegfried; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram has demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in two placebo-controlled trials and for long-term treatment in a relapse-prevention study. Social anxiety disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. This study questions whether this new selective serotonin...... reuptake inhibitor is effective across different subgroups of patients. Data from two randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-week escitalopram SAD trials were pooled. General linear models were used to determine the efficacy of escitalopram in different patient subgroups. Furthermore, a factor analysis...... of the primary efficacy scale, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), was undertaken, and a determination made of whether treatment effects were similar for the different symptom dimensions. Escitalopram was effective in both younger and older patients, in male and female patients, and in patients with more...

  19. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- postand follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion: If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African anxiety intervention programmes can be built.

  20. An Examination of the Relationship between Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Symptoms of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Stacey R.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have found significant comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders in children (e.g., Bauermeister et al., 2007; Busch et al., 2002), but limited research has examined factors that may underlie or explain this relationship (e.g., Lilienfeld, 2003; Baldwin & Dadds, 2008). This study…

  1. Working Memory Training and CBT Reduce Anxiety Symptoms and Attentional Biases to Threat: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Hadwin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that cognitive processes linked to the detection of threat stimuli are associated with poor attentional control, placing children and adolescents at increased risk for the development of anxious affect. The current study aimed to provide preliminary data to assess whether an intervention designed to improve attentional control (via working memory; WM would lead to better performance in tests of WM and would be associated with positive changes in symptoms of trait and test anxiety, increased inhibitory control and reduced attention to threat. Forty adolescents aged 11-14 years who reported elevated anxiety and low attentional control were randomly allocated to a WM training or an active cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT control group. Post intervention, WM training was associated with greater improvements (versus. CBT in trained WM tasks. Both groups however reported fewer anxiety symptoms, demonstrated increased inhibitory control and a reduction in attentional biases to threat post intervention and these results were maintained at follow up. The study provides indicative evidence which suggests that WM training has similar benefits to a more traditional CBT intervention on reduced anxiety and attentional biases for threat. Future research should aim to replicate the findings in a large sample size and explore the broader impact of training on day to day functioning. In addition, further research is needed to identify which participants benefit most from different interventions (using baseline characteristics on treatment compliance and outcome.

  2. The Effect of Qigong on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Chec...

  3. Depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among diabetics in Malaysia: a cross sectional study in an urban primary care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tee, Guat Hiong; Ariaratnam, Suthahar; Krishnapillai, Ambigga S; China, Karuthan

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, ...

  4. Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, Worry and Social Avoidance in a Normal Sample of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmassian, Karineh; Jalali Moghadam, Niloufar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. Regarding to similar findings it is supposed that concept of self efficacy has a general role on mental health. The present study focused on examining the relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of depression, anxiety, worry and social avoidance in a large sample of normal students (n=549). Methods: The sample included of 266 female and 283 male high school students from schools of dist...

  5. Dimensions of Negative Thinking and the Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rood, L.; Roelofs, J; Bogels, S.M.; Alloy, L. B.

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to examine three forms of negative, repetitive thinking in non-clinical children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18. More specifically, this study addressed the degree to which stress-reactive rumination can be differentiated from other forms of repetitive thinking, such as emotion-focused rumination and worry, and the associations between the various indices of repetitive thinking and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participants completed a battery of self-re...

  6. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  7. Modeling the Cognitive Mechanisms Linking Autism Symptoms and Anxiety in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Maisel, M. E.; Stephenson, K. G.; South, M.; Rodgers, J; Freeston, M. H.; Gaigg, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) contribute to anxiety disorders in neurotypical populations. Their association with anxiety in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been studied. We aimed to model the contributions of these constructs on the relationship between dimensional measures of autism and anxiety. Participants were 151 adults recruited from 2 sites, including those diagnosed with ASD (n = 76) and a matched comparison group ...

  8. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  9. The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test scale: relationship to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azmeh Shahid,1–5 Sharon A Chung,1,2,5 Lance Maresky,1 Affan Danish,1 Arina Bingeliene,1,4,5 Jianhua Shen,1 Colin M Shapiro1–5 1Sleep Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 2Youthdale Treatment Centres, 3Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep Centre, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test (THAT scale was designed to measure alertness, defined as the capacity of the mind to respond appropriately to external and internal stimuli. The present study’s aim is to determine normative values of alertness on the THAT and to explore the relationship among excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and alertness. Methods: Normative data were collected from 60 healthy males and females. To explore the relationship among alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, data were collected from charts of sleep clinic patients. All study subjects completed measures for fatigue, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Results: The average score on the THAT was 34.9±7.2 (range 22–50 for the control group. The cutoff score for the THAT, indicative of clinically significant reduced alertness, was determined to be ≤20.5 (mean –2 SD. THAT alertness scores were found to be modestly, significantly, and negatively correlated with fatigue levels (r=–0.39, P<0.001, depressive symptoms (r=–0.53, P<0.001, and anxiety symptoms (r=–0.41, P<0.001. No correlations were found between alertness levels and daytime sleepiness. Regression analyses revealed a significant model (F=19.9, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.35 with depressive symptoms (P<0.001 and fatigue (P=0.006 emerging as the only significant predictors of scores on the THAT. Conclusion: The findings of this study support that sleepiness is not the same as

  10. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  11. Association between Types of Involvement in School Bullying and Different Dimensions of Anxiety Symptoms and the Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in Taiwanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent…

  12. Type D personality is associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van Domburg, Ron T; Theuns, Dominic A M J;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and their partners, and the role of personality factors and social support as determinants of distress.......We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and their partners, and the role of personality factors and social support as determinants of distress....

  13. The Effect of Qigong on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist. Results. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms when compared to waiting-list controls or usual care only (SMD = −0.75; 95% CI, −1.44 to −0.06, group newspaper reading (SMD = −1.24; 95% CI, −1.64 to −0.84, and walking or conventional exercise (SMD = −0.52; 95% CI, −0.85 to −0.19, which might be comparable to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (P=0.54. Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted.

  14. The effect of qigong on depressive and anxiety symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Ho, Rainbow T H; Tsang, Hector W H; Chan, Celia Hoi Yan; Ng, Siu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist. Results. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms when compared to waiting-list controls or usual care only (SMD = -0.75; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.06), group newspaper reading (SMD = -1.24; 95% CI, -1.64 to -0.84), and walking or conventional exercise (SMD = -0.52; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.19), which might be comparable to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (P = 0.54). Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted.

  15. Reduced white matter integrity and its correlation with clinical symptom in first-episode, treatment-naive generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD.

  16. Bodily-material resources in CSCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation...... and methodologically from focusing on bodily-material resources in CSCL....

  17. Validation of a short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J

    2014-03-30

    The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the MASQ-D30 in a sample of adolescents and young adults. Help-seeking adolescents from Australia (N=147; mean age: 17.7 years; 58.8% female) completed the original, 90-item MASQ. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the construct validity (a 3-factor structure) of the original MASQ and the MASQ-D30. Internal consistencies and correlations with other instruments were calculated and compared between versions. CFA showed that the intended 3-factor structure fit adequately to the MASQ-D30 data (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.08). Internal consistencies ranged from 0.85 to 0.92 across the scales and patterns of correlations with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) indicated adequate convergent/divergent properties. Importantly, the observed psychometric characteristics were comparable with the original MASQ and alternative short-forms. Results indicated that the MASQ-D30 is a valid and reliable instrument in young people, allowing for quick assessment of the tripartite dimensions of depression and anxiety.

  18. A cross-sectional study of associations between casual partner, friend discrimination, social support and anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANXIETY & DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH 1 ST EPISODE OF CHEST PAIN ATTENDING MEDICINE OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT OF TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavik S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: As chest pain is an important symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD and other non - cardiac diseases , the presentation of the symptom often prompts referral to physicians for further investigation. Previous studies h ad shown significant as sociation between chest pain and D e pr e ssive and anxiety symptoms. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluate and screen depressive symptoms , anxiety symptoms and somatic symptoms in patients with 1 st episode of chest pain attending medicine out - patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODOLGY : Cross - sectional observational study. Prior permission from institutional ethics committee of ‘SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH’ had been taken. 100 patients having first episosde of chest pain coming to M edicine opd of DHIRAJ HOSPITAL are recruited randomly after 1st December 2014. Each patient is given case r eport form containing sociodemographic data , patients medical history , depression and somatic symptoms scale and Hamilton’s anxiety scale (HAM - A. All data are entered in spss 16 and analysed with different ( S tatistical tests. Differences on categorical m easures will be reported as P value. The result is significant if P <0.05. RESULT: 38% & 49% patients have clinically significant depression and anxiety respectively. DSSS score is positively correlated with duration of chest pain. CONCLUSION : significant level of depression and anxiety found in 1 st episode of chest pain patients.

  20. The Moderation of an Early Intervention Program for Anxiety and Depression by Specific Psychological Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Smith, Phillip N.; Hohmeister, Holly C.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of a number of psychological factors on the effectiveness of an early intervention program targeting anxiety and depression in a non-clinical sample of college students. The program was influenced by the Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (McCullough, 2000) delivered in a two-hour computer-based educational program. Participants completed measures of depression, anxiety, and general distress prior to the prevention program and then a...

  1. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  2. Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauquier-Maccotta, Berengere; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Picquet, Anne-Laure; Carrier, Aude; Bussières, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Monochronioric (MC) twin pregnancies are considered as high-risk pregnancies with potential complications requiring in-utero interventions. We aimed to assess prenatal attachment, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in MC pregnancies complicated with Twin-To-Twin-transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in comparison to uncomplicated monochorionic (UMC) and dichorionic pregnancies (DC). Auto-questionnaires were filled out at diagnosis of TTTS and at successive milestones. Prenatal attachment, PTSD, anxiety and perinatal depression were evaluated respectively by the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) completed for each twin, the Post-traumatic Checklist Scale (PCLS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS). There was no significant difference in the PAI scores between the two twins. In the DC and UMC groups, PAI scores increased throughout pregnancy, whilst it didn't for TTTS group. TTTS and DC had a similar prenatal attachment while MC mothers expressed a significantly higher attachment to their fetuses and expressed it earlier. At the announcement of TTTS, 72% of the patients present a score over the threshold at the EPDS Scale, with a higher score for TTTS than for DC (p = 0.005), and UMC (p = 0.007) at the same GA. 30% of mothers in TTTS group have PTSD during pregnancy. 50% of TTTS- patients present an anxiety score over the threshold (STAI-Scale), with a score significantly higher in TTTS than in UMC (pPTSD, high level of anxiety and an alteration of the prenatal attachment. These results should guide the psychological support provided to these patients.

  3. Validations and psychological properties of a simplified Chinese version of pain anxiety symptoms scale (SC-PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Wu, Sui-Yi; Yang, Yi-Lin; Li, Ming; Huang, Jian-Ming; Wei, Xian-Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) has been developed to evaluate pain anxiety, which leads to avoidance of daily activities and normal movements. However, a simplified Chinese version of PASS is still not available. Physicians are not aware of which patients are prone to anxiety, and what the risk factors are.To cross-culturally adapt the PASS into a simplified Chinese version and test the reliability and validity. Factors affecting pain anxiety were also explored.The PASS was first translated into a simplified Chinese version according to a forward-backward method. Then, validations were tested including content validity, construct validity, and reliability. Content validity was analyzed by response trend. Construct validity was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis, and priori hypotheses testing. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Risk factors of catastrophizing were analyzed by performing multivariate liner regression.A total of 219 patients were included in the study. The scores of items were well distributed. Both CFA and exploratory factor analysis suggested a 2nd-order, 4-factor model, accounting for 65.42% of the total variance according to principle component analysis. SC-PASS obtained good reliability with a Cronbach α = 0.92 and ICC = 0.90. College education, long pain duration, and both married and divorced status were risk factors. Factors reduced pain-related anxiety were no medication assumption, female sex, widowed status, non-Han ethnicity, and having no religious belief.The SC-PASS was applicable in Chinese patients and it was suitable for the clinical uses in mainland China.

  4. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms in newly-diagnosed patients.

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    Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Kumar, Rajesh; Cross, Rebecca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2010-04-16

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI), and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), as well as sex and body mass index (BMI). AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.

  5. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms in newly-diagnosed patients.

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    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight <125 kg. We evaluated relationships between the AHI and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI, depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI, and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI, as well as sex and body mass index (BMI. AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.

  6. Blood gene expression profiles suggest altered immune function associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

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    Wingo, Aliza P; Gibson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) can impair immune function and increase risk for cardiovascular disease or events. Mechanisms underlying the physiological reverberations of anxiety, however, are still elusive. Hence, we aimed to investigate molecular processes mediating effects of anxiety on physical health using blood gene expression profiles of 336 community participants (157 anxious and 179 control). We examined genome-wide differential gene expression in anxiety, as well as associations between nine major modules of co-regulated transcripts in blood gene expression and anxiety. No significant differential expression was observed in women, but 631 genes were differentially expressed between anxious and control men at the false discovery rate of 0.1 after controlling for age, body mass index, race, and batch effect. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that genes with altered expression levels in anxious men were involved in response of various immune cells to vaccination and to acute viral and bacterial infection, and in a metabolic network affecting traits of metabolic syndrome. Further, we found one set of 260 co-regulated genes to be significantly associated with anxiety in men after controlling for the relevant covariates, and demonstrate its equivalence to a component of the stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity profile. Taken together, our results suggest potential molecular pathways that can explain negative effects of GAD observed in epidemiological studies. Remarkably, even mild anxiety, which most of our participants had, was associated with observable changes in immune-related gene expression levels. Our findings generate hypotheses and provide incremental insights into molecular mechanisms mediating negative physiological effects of GAD.

  7. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

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    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  8. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  9. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

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    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  10. Using a hybrid model to investigate the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders.

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    Gros, Daniel F; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

    2013-11-30

    New hybrid models of psychopathology have been proposed that combine the current categorical approach with symptom dimensions that are common across various disorders. The present study investigated the new hybrid model of social anxiety in a large sample of participants with anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders to improve understanding of the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia (SOC) and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders. Six hundred and eighty two participants from a specialized outpatient clinic for anxiety treatment completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA). A hybrid model symptom profile was identified for SOC and compared with each of the other principal diagnoses. Significant group differences were identified on each of the MASA scales. Differences also were identified when common sets of comorbidities were compared within participants diagnosed with SOC. The findings demonstrated the influence of both the principal diagnosis of SOC and other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders as well as the influence of comorbid diagnoses with SOC on the six symptom dimensions. These findings highlight the need to shift to transdiagnostic assessment and treatment practices that go beyond the disorder-specific focus of the current categorical diagnostic systems.

  11. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

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    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  12. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

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    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  13. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

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    Soares JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Eugenio Zacarias,1,2 Gloria Macassa,3 Joaquim JF Soares,1 Leif Svanström,1 Diddy Antai1,41Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique; 3University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Health Sciences, Gävle, Sweden; 4Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust – Nigeria, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion. This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration

  14. The symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with diabetic foot treated with hyperbaric oxygen - preliminary results

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    Koźmin-Burzyńska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the level of anxiety and depressiveness in patients who had qualified for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT for the treatment of ulcerative lesions in the lower limbs, occurring as a result of diabetic foot syndrome (DFS,. A total of 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot syndrome were enrolled to the study. All patients have received 30 sessions of HBOT. During the therapy blood glucose was measured and photographic documentation was carried out. All patients underwent the following procedures: medical history and socioeconomic interview, psychiatric examination, self-report and objective psychometric tests to measure anxiety and depressiveness. Based on the obtained results, we reported that patients with a greater degree of tissue damage had higher levels of depressive symptoms in the self-report tests as well as in the objective evaluation of the investigator. In terms of location of ulcerative lesions - the level of depressiveness was greater when the affected area included toes, and the level of anxiety was increased when it concerned the heel. Regarding other parameters, statistically significant correlations were not observed.

  15. Does symptom reduction after cognitive behavioural therapy of anxiety disordered patients predict personality change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Kaarsemaker, M.; Kreuzkamp, R.

    2010-01-01

    For decades, personality was thought to be a set of stable characteristics However, in the dimensional approach, personality traits are considered to vary on a continuum This retrospective cohort study examines changes in personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, in anxiety-d

  16. Low birth weight in offspring of women with depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: results from a population based study in Bangladesh

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    Nasreen Hashima E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of antepartum depression and low birth weight (LBW in Bangladesh. In high- and low-income countries, prior evidence linking maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms with infant LBW is conflicting. There is no research on the association between maternal mental disorders and LBW in Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the independent effect of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on infant LBW among women in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods A population-based sample of 720 pregnant women from two rural subdistricts was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression, using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS, and antepartum anxiety, using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and followed for 6-8 months postpartum. Infant birth weight of 583 (81% singleton live babies born at term (≥37 weeks of pregnancy was measured within 48 hours of delivery. Baseline data provided socioeconomic, anthropometric, reproductive, obstetric, and social support information. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-sample t tests were done as descriptive statistics, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of LBW. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, depressive (OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.37-3.68 and anxiety (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.30-3.25 symptoms were significantly associated with LBW (≤2.5 kg. Poverty, maternal malnutrition, and support during pregnancy were also associated with LBW. Conclusions This study provides evidence that maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy predict the LBW of newborns and replicates results found in other South Asian countries. Policies aimed at the detection and effective management of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy may reduce the burden on mothers and also act as an important measure in the prevention of LBW

  17. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

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    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  18. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

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    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  19. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Derya Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p>0.05. The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p>0.05 although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p<0.05. Conclusion. We determined that the external application of apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  20. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Derya; Atik, Cem; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to determine the effect of external apple vinegar application on the symptoms and social appearance anxiety of varicosity patients who were suggested conservative treatment. Method. The study was planned as an experimental, randomized, and controlled study. 120 patients were randomly selected and then were randomly allocated to either experimental or control group by simple blind random sampling method. In the collection of research data, a questionnaire questioning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) were used. The patients in the study group were suggested to apply apple vinegar to the area of the leg with varicosity alongside the treatment suggested by the doctor. The patients in the control group received no intervention during the study. Results. The sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of both groups were found to be similar (p > 0.05). The patients were evaluated with regard to cramps, pain, leg fatigue perception, edema, itching, pigmentation, and weight feelings in the leg, VAS, and SAAS averages in the second evaluation; the control group had a decrease in such symptoms (p > 0.05) although the decrease in the application group was higher and statistically meaningful (p apple vinegar on varicosity patients, which is a very easy application, increased the positive effects of conservative treatment.

  1. Effects of qigong exercise on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yuen, Lai Ping; Sham, Jonathan S T; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2013-01-01

    Background. Anxiety/depressive symptoms are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness. Qigong as a modality of complementary and alternative therapy has been increasingly applied by patients with chronic illnesses, but little is known about the effect of Qigong on anxiety/depressive symptoms of the patients with CFS-like illness. Purpose. To investigate the effects of Qigong on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in patients with CFS-illness. Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CFS-like illness were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a waitlist control group. Participants in the intervention group received 10 sessions of Qigong training twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks, followed by home-based practice for 12 weeks. Fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Results. Total fatigue score [F(1,135) = 13.888, P Qigong group compared to controls. The anxiety score was not significantly improved in the Qigong group. Conclusion. Qigong may not only reduce the fatigue symptoms, but also has antidepressive effect for patients with CFS-like illness. Trial registration HKCTR-1200.

  2. Effects of Qigong Exercise on Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anxiety/depressive symptoms are common in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness. Qigong as a modality of complementary and alternative therapy has been increasingly applied by patients with chronic illnesses, but little is known about the effect of Qigong on anxiety/depressive symptoms of the patients with CFS-like illness. Purpose. To investigate the effects of Qigong on fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in patients with CFS-illness. Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven participants who met the diagnostic criteria for CFS-like illness were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a waitlist control group. Participants in the intervention group received 10 sessions of Qigong training twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks, followed by home-based practice for 12 weeks. Fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Results. Total fatigue score [F1,135=13.888, P<0.001], physical fatigue score [F1,135=20.852, P<0.001] and depression score [F1,135=9.918, P=0.002] were significantly improved and mental fatigue score [F1,135=3.902, P=0.050] was marginally significantly improved in the Qigong group compared to controls. The anxiety score was not significantly improved in the Qigong group. Conclusion. Qigong may not only reduce the fatigue symptoms, but also has antidepressive effect for patients with CFS-like illness. Trial registration HKCTR-1200.

  3. First- and last-year medical students: is there a difference in the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms?

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    Ana M. Bassols

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medical training is considered a significant stress factor. We sought to assess the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in medical students and compare samples of first-year and sixth-year students. Method: This was a cross-sectional study of first- and sixth-year medical students who attended classes regularly. The study instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Results: A total of 232 students (110 first-year, 122 sixth-year completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 67.4%. Overall 50.4% of respondents were male (56.4% of first-year and 45.1% of sixth-year students. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 30.8% of first-year students and 9.4% of sixth-year students (p < 0.001. Female students were more affected by anxiety. There were no significant between-group differences in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was found in first-year medical students as compared with sixth-year students. Strategies should be developed to help medical students, particularly female students, manage these symptoms at the beginning of their medical training.

  4. General anxiety, depression, and physical health in relation to symptoms of heart-focused anxiety- a cross sectional study among patients living with the risk of serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death

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    Hamang Anniken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the role of three distinct symptoms of heart-focused anxiety (cardio-protective avoidance, heart-focused attention, and fear about heart sensations in relation to general anxiety, depression and physical health in patients referred to specialized cardio-genetics outpatient clinics in Norway for genetic investigation and counseling. Methods Participants were 126 patients (mean age 45 years, 53.5% women. All patients were at higher risk than the average person for serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD because of a personal or a family history of an inherited cardiac disorder (familial long QT syndrome or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patients filled in, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, two weeks before the scheduled counseling session. Results The patients experienced higher levels of general anxiety than expected in the general population (mean difference 1.1 (p Conclusion Avoidance and fear may be potentially modifiable symptoms. Because these distinct symptoms may have important roles in determining general anxiety, depression and physical health in at-risk individuals of inherited cardiac disorders, the present findings may have implications for the further development of genetic counseling for this patient group.

  5. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension.

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    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-09-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.

  6. Synergistic effects of pain intensity and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety symptoms and disorders among economically disadvantaged latinos in a community-based primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Viana, Andres G; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-09-06

    Latinos are subject to numerous health inequalities, including mental health disparity for anxiety and its disorders. In fact, there is strikingly little understanding of transdiagnostic risk factors for the onset and development of anxiety symptoms and disorders among Latinos. To build knowledge in this domain, the present investigation examined the interactive effects of experiential avoidance and pain intensity in relation to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and anxiety disorders among 361 Latino adults with annual incomes of less than $30,000 (87.5% female; Mage=38.8, SD=11.4, and 98.5% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. As hypothesized, the interaction between experiential avoidance and pain intensity was significantly related to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and a number of anxiety disorders over and above the effects of other factors. The form of the significant interactions indicated that participants reporting co-occurring higher levels of experiential avoidance and pain intensity evinced the greatest levels of anxious arousal, social anxiety, and anxiety disorders. These data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is clinically-relevant interplay between experiential avoidance and pain intensity in regard to a relatively wide array of anxiety problems among Latinos in a primary care medical setting.

  7. Beta-blocker therapy is not associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogwegt, Madelein; Kupper, Nina; Theuns, Dominic; Jordaens, Luc; Pedersen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBeta-blockers are frequently prescribed to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. Beta-blocker therapy has been proposed to induce emotional distress such as depression and anxiety, but a paucity of studies has examined the relationship between beta-blockers and distress. We investigated the association between beta-blocker therapy, including type and dosage, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a consecutive cohort of patients receiving an ICD. Between 2003 a...

  8. A Test of the Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on General and Specific Self-Reported Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: An Experimental Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite...

  9. Beta-blocker therapy is not associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. Beta-blocker therapy has been proposed to induce emotional distress such as depression and anxiety, but a paucity of studies has examined the relationship between beta-blockers and distress. We...... investigated the association between beta-blocker therapy, including type and dosage, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a consecutive cohort of patients receiving an ICD....

  10. Cumulative effects of HIV illness and caring for children orphaned by AIDS on anxiety symptoms among adults caring for children in HIV-endemic South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie; Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler

    2014-06-01

    Adults caring for children in HIV-endemic communities are at risk for poor psychological outcomes. However, we still have a limited understanding of how various HIV impacts--including caregiver's own HIV illness, responsibilities of caring for a child orphaned by AIDS, or both--affect psychological outcomes among caregivers. Furthermore, few studies have explored the relationship between stigma, HIV, and psychological outcomes among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic communities. A cross-sectional survey conducted from 2009 to 2010 assessed anxiety among 2477 caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa. Chi-square tested differences in anxiety among caregivers living with HIV, caregivers of a child orphaned by AIDS, and caregivers affected with both conditions. Multivariate logistic regressions identified whether the relationship between HIV impacts and anxiety remained after controlling for socio-demographic co-factors. Mediation analysis tested the relationship between stigma, HIV, and anxiety. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were two and a half times greater among caregivers living with HIV compared to nonaffected caregivers. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were greatest among caregivers living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS. Exposure to AIDS-related stigma partially mediated the relationship between HIV and anxiety. Interventions are needed to address caregiver psychological health, particularly among caregivers affected with both conditions of living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS.

  11. Changes in respiration mediate changes in fear of bodily sensations in panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuret, A.E.; Rosenfield, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Suvak, M.K.; Roth, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether changes in pCO(2) mediate changes in fear of bodily sensation (as indexed by anxiety sensitivity) in a bio-behavioral treatment for panic disorder that targets changes in end-tidal pCO(2). Thirty-five panic patients underwent 4 weeks of capnometry-assi

  12. No Evidence for Long-Term Causal Associations Between Symptoms of Premature Ejaculation and Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Sexual Distress in a Large, Population-Based Longitudinal Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventus, Daniel; Gunst, Annika; Kärnä, Antti; Jern, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common male sexual complaints, but its etiology is unclear. Psychological problems, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression, have traditionally been seen as causal or maintaining etiological components of PE, and previous cross-sectional studies have found weak positive associations between them. The aim of the present study was to test possible causal pathways over time between PE and symptoms of the psychological problems anxiety, depression, and sexual distress. A sample of 985 male Finnish twins and brothers of twins completed a questionnaire in 2006 and 2012. Significant bivariate correlations were found both within and across time between PE and the psychological problems. When fitting structural equation models to test hypothesized causal pathways, symptoms of anxiety and sexual distress at the first measurement time point did not predict future PE. Likewise, PE symptoms at the first measurement did not predict increments or decrements in anxiety, sexual distress, or depression later on. These null findings regarding hypothesized associations may partly be explained by the relatively long time between measurements, or that the measures possibly did not capture the aspects of anxiety that are related to PE.

  13. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  14. A social work study for comparison of thought action–fusion and anxiety sensitivity among normal student versus obsessive compulsive symptom in high school Esfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Niknejadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical and nonclinical extent. The survey selects 384 high school students in city of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire among them. All questions are designed in Likert scale and participants are divided into two groups of with and without OCD. The results show that there is a significant and positive difference in thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having or symptoms in clinical and nonclinical l extent (P<0.01.

  15. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B;

    2014-01-01

    psychiatric day hospital. The factor structure of the SCL-D16 and the SCL-A14 was investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and the unidimensionality of all scales was estimated by Mokken analysis. Finally, the discriminant validity of the scales, i.e. their ability to distinguish between...... and the IPS5 were unidimensional. Interestingly, the same three scales displayed discriminant validity for depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study is based on data from Denmark. This may limit the validity of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Three unidimensional...

  16. Depression and anxiety symptoms among women who carry the FMR1 premutation: impact of raising a child with fragile X syndrome is moderated by CRHR1 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Leslie, Mary; Novak, Gloria; Hamilton, Debra; Shubeck, Lisa; Charen, Krista; Abramowitz, Ann; Epstein, Michael P; Lori, Adriana; Binder, Elisabeth; Cubells, Joseph F; Sherman, Stephanie L

    2012-07-01

    The fragile X mental retardation gene, FMR1, contains a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of exon 1. Once unstable, this repeat is capable of expansion across generations. Women who carry a premutation allele (55-199 repeats) are at risk of passing on a full mutation allele (>200 repeats) to their offspring. A full mutation leads to the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome (FXS). Mounting evidence suggests that premutation carriers may be vulnerable to symptoms of anxiety and depression. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that among women who carry a premutation, the stress of raising a child with FXS would be moderated by genetic factors influencing endogenous cortisol responses, which could in turn modulate anxiety and depression symptoms. To this end, we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor 1 locus (CRHR1) in 460 women. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression [Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD)], anxiety [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI)], and mood [Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)]. Results indicate a statistically significant interaction between CRHR1 genotype and the status of raising a child with FXS to predict social anxiety symptoms reported on the SPAI (rs7209436, P = 0.0001). Our data suggest that genetic variants in CRHR1 that associate with differential cortisol activation may also modulate levels of anxiety related to the stress of raising a child with FXS among women who carry an FMR1 premutation.

  17. The relationship of body image with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa during outpatient psychotherapy: Results of the ANTOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Zipfel, Stephan; Wild, Beate; Martus, Peter; Giel, Katrin; Resmark, Gaby; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Teufel, Martin; de Zwaan, Martina; Dinkel, Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; Tagay, Sefik; Rothermund, Eva; Zeeck, Almut; Ziser, Katrin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Löwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Body image disturbance represents a central characteristic of anorexia nervosa (AN). Depression and anxiety are the most common mental comorbidities in patients with AN. This study aims to investigate the relationship of body image with symptoms of depression and anxiety during outpatient psychotherapy in AN. Analyses were conducted using the data set of the Anorexia Nervosa Treatment Outpatient Study (ANTOP) randomized controlled trial. The ANTOP study included N = 242 females with AN between 18 and 56 years of age. The trial was designed to compare enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) and focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) with optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) for patients with AN. The analyses on body image dimensions were conducted using measures of correlations and multiple linear regression analyses to assess the relationship and longitudinal prediction of symptoms of depression and anxiety by body image dimensions. Results showed that body image perceptions were significantly associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with AN at all treatment stages. In addition, body image dimensions at early treatment stages predict depression and anxiety in follow-up measurements. The correlation of symptoms of depression and anxiety by body image perceptions increased along treatment course. The persistence of body image disturbance, while body mass index increases under treatment (persistency effect), may constitute a relevant factor contributing to the course of the most common affective comorbidities of depression and anxiety in patients with AN. Body image disturbances in patients with AN should therefore be explicitly targeted within the specialized psychotherapy of affected patients. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  19. Bodily integrity and male and female circumcision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.J.M.; Hoffer, C.; Wils, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the ambiguous notion of bodily integrity, focusing on male and female circumcision. In the empirical part of the study we describe and analyse the various meanings that are given to the notion of bodily integrity by people in their daily lives. In the philosophical part we distin

  20. Inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among youth with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R Meredith; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur in childhood. Inattention symptoms can be hallmarks of both conditions, however assessment tools of inattention may not effectively distinguish between the two conditions. The present study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the high-end specificity of the Attention Problems Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for detecting comorbid ADHD among youth with GAD (N=46). Results support the utility of the Attention Problems Scale for accurately distinguishing between the two groups (AUC=.84, SE=.06). Specifically, a cut score of 63 achieved the most favorable values across diagnostic utility indices; 74% of GAD youth with ADHD scored above this cutoff and 91% of GAD youth without ADHD scored below this cutoff. Findings provide support for the use of the CBCL Attention Problems Scale to supplement diagnostic interviews and identify inattention associated with ADHD among GAD youth.

  1. Development and validation of the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) in patients with depressive, anxiety and somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Ingrid; Schulte-Van Maaren, Yvonne; Wardenaar, Klaas; Giltay, Erik; Van Noorden, Martijn; Vergeer, Peter; Zitman, Frans

    2012-12-30

    Self-report measures of psychological distress or psychopathology are widely used and can be easily implemented as psychiatric screening tools. Positive psychological constructs such as vitality/optimism and work functioning have scarcely been incorporated. We aimed to develop and validate a psychological distress instrument, including measures of vitality and work functioning. A patient sample with suspected depressive, anxiety, and somatoform disorders (N=242) and a reference sample of the general population (N=516) filled in the 48-item Symptom Questionnaire (SQ-48) plus a battery of observer-rated and self-report scales (MINI Plus, MADR, BAS, INH, BSI), using a web-based ROM programme. The resulting SQ-48 is multidimensional and includes the following nine subscales: Depression (MOOD, six items), Anxiety (ANXI, six items), Somatization (SOMA, seven items), Agoraphobia (AGOR, four items), Aggression (AGGR, four items), Cognitive problems (COGN, five items), Social Phobia (SOPH, five items), Work functioning (WORK, five items), and Vitality (VITA, six items). The results showed good internal consistency as well as good convergent and divergent validity. The SQ-48 is meant to be available in the public domain for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) and can be used as a screening/ monitoring tool in clinical settings (psychiatric and non-psychiatric), as a benchmark tool, or for research purposes.

  2. The measurement of perceived Emotional Intelligence for Spanish adolescents with social anxiety disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Mar Diaz-Castela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence (EI is a concept that has been discussed for decades in Psychology but has received very little empirical study until recently. And with this growing interest, its accompanying concept, Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI, has also received more attention. It is due to this growing interest in PEI that this paper explores two important aspects of the PEI: the measurement of PEI and the implications PEI may have for adolescent anxiety disorder symptomology. This study explores a well-known questionnaire of PEI, namely the Trait Meta-Mood Scale questionnaire (TMMS. The Spanish shortened version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale questionnaire (TMMS-24 and a series of well-known questionnaires of Social Anxiety Disorder symptomology were administrated to 425 Spanish high-school adolescents. The results of this study corroborated that the TMMS-24 has good psychometric properties in adolescents, and that one of its three scales (Emotional Repair appears to be involved in adolescent SAD symptomology.

  3. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  4. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  5. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J.; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2012-01-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual gene

  6. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

  7. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Therapy on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…

  8. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Are Associated With Satisfaction With Information Provision and Internet Use Among 3080 Cancer Survivors: Results of the PROFILES Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, N.; Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Eenbergen, M. van; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dissatisfaction with information provided by healthcare providers may be a reason for cancer survivors to seek health information on the Internet and may also result in more symptoms of anxiety and depression among this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whet

  9. Effect of variation in BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, smoking, and nicotine dependence on symptom severity of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking, especially nicotine dependence is associated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) VaI(66)Met polymorphism on the seve

  10. Good for the Self: Self-Compassion and Other Self-Related Constructs in Relation to Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Non-clinical Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Pierik, Anna; de Kock, Bo

    This study examined relationships among self-compassion, self-esteem, and self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a sample of 132 non-clinical adolescents aged 12-17 years. The results first of all indicated that the Shortened Self-Compassion Scale for Adolescents was reliable (i.e., all Cronbach's alphas were >.70) and valid in terms of both construct (as demonstrated by a principal components analysis which revealed the hypothesized three-factor structure) and concurrent validity (i.e., as shown by means of positive correlations with self-esteem and self-efficacy). Further, the expected negative correlations were found between self-compassion and anxiety and depression, indicating that higher levels of this self-related construct are associated with lower symptom levels, and vice versa. Of the three components of self-compassion, mindfulness appeared most convincingly related to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Finally, when controlling for other self-related constructs, self-compassion no longer accounted for a significant proportion in the variance of symptom levels. In contrast, self-esteem (depression) and in particular self-efficacy (anxiety and depression) did show unique explanatory power.

  11. Impact of Treatments for Depression on Comorbid Anxiety, Attentional, and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…

  13. Use of the Transcendental Meditation Technique to Reduce Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by Reducing Stress and Anxiety: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosswald, Sarina J.; Stixrud, William R.; Travis, Fred; Bateh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study tested the feasibility of using the Transcendental Meditation[R] technique to reduce stress and anxiety as a means of reducing symptoms of ADHD. Students ages 11-14 were taught the technique, and practiced it twice daily in school. Common ADHD inventories and performance measures of executive function were administered at…

  14. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  15. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J.; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Hartman, Catharina A; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2012-01-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual genes are small, analysis of genetic data at the pathway-level provides more power to detect associations and yield valuable biological insight. In 1,398 individuals with a Major Depressive Disorder, t...

  16. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  17. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  18. Patterns of alpha asymmetry in those with elevated worry, trait anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A test of the worry and avoidance models of alpha asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ezra E; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2016-05-01

    Some authors have argued that worry cues lateralization of frontal brain activity leftward, whereas other varieties of avoidance motivation cue lateralization of frontal brain activity rightward. By comparison, more right-than-left parietal activity correlates with anxious arousal. The purpose of the present report was to test two models of brain lateralization and anxiety: one model that proposed that worry correlates with more left-frontal activity and another model that proposed that avoidance motivation (including worry) correlates with more right-frontal activity. Undergraduate students were selected for worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and trait anxiety using self-report questionnaires. A subset of participants also met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Alpha asymmetry and also a global-power-adjusted metric of alpha power were calculated from each participant's resting-state EEG. It was expected that participants with elevated worry and participants meeting criteria for GAD would show more left-than-right frontal activity. In contrast, participants with elevated trait anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and those with an OCD diagnosis were expected to exhibit more right-than-left frontal activity. Participants with elevated worry, participants with a GAD diagnosis, and participants with elevated obsessive-compulsive symptoms, had more left frontal activity than low symptom individuals. Those with high scores on trait anxiety, but low worry, had greater right frontal and parietal activity compared to controls. The present results suggest that brain lateralization is not solely related to avoidance motivation, and suggest that facets of anxiety may cut across dimensions not well-represented by DSM-based categories.

  19. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery......-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores on items 1, 3, and 7 at randomization. RESULTS: All studies showed a statistically significant (P symptoms (MADRS score...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  20. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  1. Post-Myocardial Infarction Anxiety or Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Nielsen, Tine Jepsen

    2014-01-01

    Angst eller depression efter en blodprop i hjertet (myokardieinfarkt eller blot MI) er tidligere kædet sammen med en øget risiko for nye sygdomstilfælde eller endda dødsfald. Tidligere studier har dog kun i ringe grad taget forbehold for andre mulige årsagsfaktorer. Derfor er det stadig uvist, om...... angstsymptomer i sig selv udgør en risiko. Dette studie ser nærmere på, om der er en sammenhæng mellem angstsymptomer efter MI og nye tilfælde af hjerte-kar-sygdom, herunder øget risiko for at dø. Resultaterne viser, at symptomer på angst efter MI ikke udgør en selvstændig risikofaktor for hverken nye tilfælde...

  2. An empirical investigation of the structure of anxiety and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: cross-sectional study using the Greek version of the revised Clinical Interview Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapinakis, Petros; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Bellos, Stefanos; Magklara, Konstantina; Lewis, Glyn; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2011-04-30

    Several studies in the past have examined whether the hierarchical structure of anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain the high comorbidity between them but more studies are needed from other settings and with different methods. The present study aimed to examine the structure of common anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents 16-18 years old attending secondary schools using the Greek version of the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), a fully structured psychiatric interview. A total of 2431 adolescents were interviewed with the computerized version of the CIS-R. The hierarchical structure of 12 depressive and anxiety symptoms was examined with confirmatory factor analytical methods. Four alternative models of increasing complexity were tested. The best-fitting model included three first-order factors, representing the dimensions of anxiety, depression and non-specific distress respectively. A model with a higher-order factor representing the broader internalizing dimension was less supported by the data. The findings of this and other studies should be taken into account in future classifications of psychiatric disorders and may have clinical practical implications.

  3. Subjective Social Status and Rumination in Relation to Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Psychopathology Among Economically Disadvantaged Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David C; Paulus, Daniel J; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Manning, Kara; Walker, Rheeda; Businelle, Michael; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-03-09

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of subjective social status and rumination in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 276 Latinos (82% female; Mage = 39.2, SD = 11.1; 97.0% reported Spanish as first language) who attended a community-based primary health care clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between rumination and subjective social status was significantly associated with depression (B = -.04, t = -3.52, p < .001, 95% CI [-.06, -.02]), social anxiety (B = -.01, t = -3.84, p < .001, 95% CI [-.02, -.01]), and the number of mood and anxiety disorders (B = -.004, t = -2.80, p = .005, 95% CI [-.006, -.001]), after controlling for main effects of rumination and subjective social status. The form of the interactions suggested that the associations of rumination and the outcome variables were stronger for those with lower compared to higher subjective social status. For anxious arousal symptoms, however, there was not a statistically significant interaction. These findings underscore the potential importance of examining the interplay between rumination and subjective social status in regard to better understanding, and intervening to reduce, various forms of anxiety/depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2015-01-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3–6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children’s levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the tem...

  5. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression: symptom structure in depressive and hypertensive patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Grant N; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Meredith, Lisa S; Camp, Patti; Hays, Ron D

    2003-04-01

    The structure of self-reported symptoms representative of the tripartite model was examined using data drawn from the Medical Outcomes Study (Tarlov et al., 1989). Participants were persons who had been diagnosed 48 months previously as suffering from either depression (N = 315) or hypertension (N = 403). Results of confirmatory factor analyses were broadly consistent with the tripartite model (L. A. Clark & Watson, 1991). Factors emerged corresponding to each of the 3 posited first-order dimensions of negative affect, positive affect, and physiologic arousal. Nonetheless, some discrepancies were found between the observed data and the hypothesized tripartite model. First, the obtained physiologic arousal factor was best viewed as reflecting nonspecific somatic distress rather than physiologic arousal. Finally, although differentiable in the strictest statistical sense, all three domains were significantly correlated (.36 to.86, absolute value). In particular, contrary to the tripartite model, positive and negative affect covaried markedly (-.81 to -.86). Findings raise issues concerning the utility of the tripartite model as a heuristic framework for enhancing understanding of individual differences in normal mood as well as mood disorders.

  6. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaak Peter FM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety

  7. Work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care providers and the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jacoba; Lok, Anja; Van't Verlaat, Ellen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bakker, Arnold B; Smit, Bert J

    2011-07-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed existing data on the impact of work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care professionals. Work-related critical incidents may induce post-traumatic stress symptoms or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression and may negatively affect health care practitioners' behaviors toward patients. Nurses and doctors often cope by working part time or switching jobs. Hospital administrators and health care practitioners themselves may underestimate the effects of work-related critical incidents. Relevant online databases were searched for original research published from inception to 2009 and manual searches of the Journal of Traumatic Stress, reference lists, and the European Traumatic Stress Research Database were conducted. Two researchers independently decided on inclusion and study quality. Effect sizes were estimated using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Consistency was evaluated, using the I(2)-statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Eleven studies, which included 3866 participants, evaluated the relationship between work-related critical incidents and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Six of these studies, which included 1695 participants, also reported on the relationship between work-related critical incidents and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Heterogeneity among studies was high and could not be accounted for by study quality, character of the incident, or timing of data collection. Pooled effect sizes for the impact of work-related critical incidents on post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression were small to medium. Remarkably, the effect was more pronounced in the longer than in the shorter term. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that work-related critical incidents are positively related to post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression in hospital-based health care professionals

  8. Prolonged consumption of trans fat favors the development of orofacial dyskinesia and anxiety-like symptoms in older rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Teixeira, Angélica Martelli; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Quatrin, Andréia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2014-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) are cell membrane components involved in brain functions. We hypothesized that long-term trans fat consumption is able to modify the membrane FAs composition impairing behavioral parameters related to aging. In this study, a comparison of behavioral parameters at 10 and 15 months of trans fat consumption by male Wistar rats was made. Animals were fed for 10 and 15 months from weaning with diets containing either 20% w/w soybean oil (SO), rich in n-6 PUFA, hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans FAs, or a standard diet (control - C). At both evaluation times, HVF-fed rats showed progressively increased parameters of orofacial dyskinesia, fear and anxiety-like symptoms. The HVF diet reduced locomotor and exploratory activities progressively over 10 and 15 months of supplementation, while the standard and SO diets did not. In this study, we showed that chronic trans FAs consumption from weaning is able to favor the development of neuromotor and neuropsychiatric diseases, whose intensity was time dependent.

  9. Influencing factors of anxiety symptoms in patients with depression%抑郁症伴焦虑症状的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小婷; 孙宁; 杜巧荣; 杨春霞; 刘志芬; 王彦芳; 李素萍; 张克让

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of depression with anxiety symptoms, and analyze the influencing factors of anxiety symptoms from demographic data and social psychological factors. Methods Hamilton depression rat⁃ing scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), life event scale (LES), trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ) and social support scale (SSS) were used to evaluate 729 patients with de⁃pression. According to HAMA scores, patients were divided into non anxiety symptoms group (HAMA14). Social psychological factors were compared between two groups, and the influencing fac⁃tors of anxiety symptoms were analyzed. Results The incidence of anxiety symptoms in depression was 58.85% (429/729), and 119 cases (16.32%) were certainly without anxiety symptoms. Compared with the group without anxiety symp⁃toms, the anxiety symptoms group had higher scores on neuroticism, psychoticism, negative life events and negative cop⁃ing style (P14分),比较两组社会心理因素,并分析抑郁症伴焦虑症状的影响因素。结果抑郁症患者中焦虑症状(HAMA>14分)的发生率为58.85%(429/729),16.32%(119/729)肯定不伴焦虑症状(HAMA<7分)。伴焦虑症状组神经质、精神质、负性生活事件、消极应对方式的得分高于不伴焦虑症状组(P<0.001);外倾性的得分低于不伴焦虑症状组(P=0.010)。抑郁程度(OR=9.255,95%CI:4.726~18.127)、神经质(OR=1.595,95%CI:1.197~2.125)、负性生活事件(OR=1.009,95%CI:1.001~1.017)、消极应对方式(OR=1.046,95%CI:1.013~1.080)均是抑郁症患者伴焦虑症状的危险因素(P<0.05)。结论抑郁症患者焦虑症状的发生率高。抑郁症状严重、高神经质水平、经历更多负性生活事件、倾向于采用消极应对方式的抑郁症患者更有可能伴焦虑症状。

  10. Cognitive function, health-related quality of life and symptoms of depression and anxiety sensitivity are impaired in patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake W Anderson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS is a condition in which heart rate increases abnormally when the individual assumes an upright position. In addition to the marked tachycardia, presyncope and syncope, patients with POTS often complain of light-headedness, fatigue and difficulty in concentrating. The present study assessed individuals with POTS for psychiatric comorbidity, anxiety sensitivity and health related quality of life and examined general cognitive ability. Data was obtained from patients with POTS (n=15, 12 female, aged 30±3 years and age matched healthy subjects (n=30, 21 female, aged 32±2 years. Patients with POTS commonly presented with symptoms of depression, elevated anxiety and increased anxiety sensitivity, particularly with regards to cardiac symptoms, and had a poorer health related quality of life in both the physical and mental health domains. While patients with POTS performed worse in tests of current intellectual functioning (verbal and non-verbal IQ and in measures of focused attention (digits forward and short term memory (digits back, test results were influenced largely by years of education and the underlying level of depression and anxiety. Acute changes in cognitive performance in response to head up tilt were evident in the POTS patients. From results obtained, it was concluded that participants with POTS have an increased prevalence of depression and higher levels of anxiety. These underlying symptoms impact on cognition in patients with POTS, particularly in the cognitive domains of attention and short-term memory. Our results indicate that psychological interventions may aid in recovery and facilitate uptake and adherence of other treatment modalities in patients with POTS.

  11. Study of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Depression and Anxiety Symptoms%多囊卵巢综合征患者情绪障碍研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瓈琼; 虞一萍; 张敏; 徐鸣; 李昕

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidences of depression and anxiety in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their clinical characteristics.Methods:A total of 100 patients with PCOS aged 19~40 years were enrolled in this study.The anthropometric measurements,endocrinometabolic profiles,self-rating depression scale(SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale(SAS) were detected.Results:In 100 patients with PCOS,28(28%) patients had depression or anxiety symptoms (1 patient only had anxiety symptom,13 patients had depression symptom and 14 patients had both depression and anxiety symptoms).SDS and SAS scores in group with depression and/or anxiety symptoms were 58.70 ± 5.37 and 51.53 ± 8.07,respectively,which were significantly higher than those in group without depression and anxiety symptoms [41.10 ± 6.37 and 36.63 ± 5.64],respectively (all P<0.01).Prolactin(PRL) and cortisol(F) in group with both depression and anxiety symptoms were (16.20 ± 10.77)ng/mL and (228.3 ± 36.3)μg/dL,respectively,which were higher than those in group without depression or anxiety symptoms[(13.49 ± 6.35)ng/mL and (133.0 ± 51.3) μg/dL] and group with depression or anxiety symptoms[(8.93± 3.80)ng/mL and (103.8± 19.6)μg/L](all P<0.05).Conclusions:Although no clear association was found in depression and anxiety symptoms with endocrinometabolic profiles,mild to midrange depression symptoms distinguishes in patients with PCOS and also coexist with anxiety symptoms.%目的:调查多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)患者抑郁和焦虑症状情况及其临床特征.方法:对100例19~40岁的PCOS患者进行人体测量学和内分泌及糖脂代谢指标测定,并进行抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)及焦虑自评量表(self-rating anxiety scale,SAS)测评.结果:100例PCOS患者中,28例(28%)有焦虑和(或)抑郁症状(1例仅存在焦虑症状,13例仅存在抑郁症状,14例同时具有抑郁和焦虑症状).有焦虑和(

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in treatment of major depressive disorder with anxiety symptoms: a 24-week, open-label, prospective study in Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaida; Li, Lingjiang; Wang, Xueyi; Fang, Maosheng; Shi, Jianfei; Cao, Qiuyun; He, Jincai; Wang, Jinan; Tan, Weihao; Hu, Cuili

    2017-01-01

    Background Significant anxiety symptoms are associated with poor clinical course and outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). This single-arm, open-label study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram treatment in patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms. Methods Adult patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms (Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥22 and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] ≥14) were enrolled and received escitalopram (10–20 mg/day) treatment for 24 weeks. Symptom status was assessed by MADRS, 17-item-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAM-A, and Clinical Global Impression Scale at baseline and the following visits. Quality of life was assessed by Short Form-12, and safety was evaluated by adverse events, laboratory investigations, vital signs, and physical findings. Results Overall, 200 of 318 (66.2%) enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment. The remission (MADRS ≤10 and HAM-A ≤7) rate in the full analysis set (N=285) was 73.3% (95% confidence interval: 67.80, 78.38) at week 24. Mean (± standard deviation) MADRS total score was 33.4 (±7.13) and HAM-A score was 27.6 (±7.26) at baseline, which reduced to 6.6 (±10.18) and 6.0 (±8.39), respectively, at week 24. Patients with higher baseline depression and anxiety level took longer to achieve similar remission rates. Overall, 80 of the 302 (26.5%) patients included in the safety set reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). Most frequently reported TEAEs (>2%) were headache (4.0%), nasopharyngitis (3.6%), nausea (3.0%), and dizziness (2.6%). Serious TEAEs were reported by 1.3% patients; no deaths were reported. Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day was effective and well-tolerated in the long-term treatment of MDD with anxiety symptoms in adult Chinese population. PMID:28255239

  13. Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A

    1999-06-01

    The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.

  14. Qigong exercise alleviates fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, and shortens sleep latency in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wang, Chong-Wen; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Ng, Siu-Man; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS-) like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9) were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.064) group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the "subjective sleep quality" and "sleep latency" items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in "subjective sleep quality" was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  15. Qigong Exercise Alleviates Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms, Improves Sleep Quality, and Shortens Sleep Latency in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie S. M. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome- (CFS- like illness and to determine the dose-response relationship. Methods. One hundred fifty participants with CFS-like illness (mean age = 39.0, SD = 7.9 were randomly assigned to Qigong and waitlist. Sixteen 1.5-hour Qigong lessons were arranged over 9 consecutive weeks. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at baseline, immediate posttreatment, and 3-month posttreatment. The amount of Qigong self-practice was assessed by self-report. Results. Repeated measures analyses of covariance showed a marginally nonsignificant (P= 0.064 group by time interaction in the PSQI total score, but it was significant for the “subjective sleep quality” and “sleep latency” items, favoring Qigong exercise. Improvement in “subjective sleep quality” was maintained at 3-month posttreatment. Significant group by time interaction was also detected for the ChFS and HADS anxiety and depression scores. The number of Qigong lessons attended and the amount of Qigong self-practice were significantly associated with sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusion. Baduanjin Qigong was an efficacious and acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance in CFS-like illness. This trial is registered with Hong Kong Clinical Trial Register: HKCTR-1380.

  16. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  17. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  18. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Taylor, Kristin P.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder’s constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety ...

  19. Anxiety and depressive symptoms related to parenthood in a large Norwegian community sample: the HUNT2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Wallander, Jan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class. METHODS: All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. RESULTS: The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents...

  20. Anxiety sensitivity, catastrophic misinterpretations and panic self-efficacy in the prediction of panic disorder severity: towards a tripartite cognitive model of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Bonifacio; Sánchez-Arribas, Carmen; Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the contribution of three main cognitive factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily symptoms, and panic self-efficacy) in predicting panic disorder (PD) severity in a sample of patients with a principal diagnosis of panic disorder. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity (AS), catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations, and panic self-efficacy are uniquely related to panic disorder severity. One hundred and sixty-eight participants completed measures of AS, catastrophic misinterpretations of panic-like sensations, and panic self-efficacy prior to receiving treatment. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that AS, catastrophic misinterpretations and panic self-efficacy independently predicted panic disorder severity. Results of path analyses indicated that AS was direct and indirectly (mediated by catastrophic misinterpretations) related with panic severity. Results provide evidence for a tripartite cognitive account of panic disorder.

  1. The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of aging, anxiety, and depression, and to determine if sexual dysfunction could be a differentiating characteristic in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Methods: One hundred seventy-six male psychiatric outpatients participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing symptoms of aging, depression, and anxiety. Symptoms of aging were assessed by the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Erectile dysfunction was considered if a response to item 15 on the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale (impaired sexual potency was rated with 4 or 5 points. Affective disturbance was assessed by the total scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Age was correlated with less anxiety and more sexual symptoms. Anxiety and depression were associated with more severe symptoms of aging, and depression was associated with more sexual symptoms than was anxiety. Impaired sexual potency was the only sexual symptom not significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Depression was associated with an interspousal age gap of ≥6 years. The point prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 28.4%, and age and affective disturbance were associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Impaired sexual potency should raise the suspicion of androgen deficiency rather than depression

  2. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  3. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  4. Impact of anxiety and depressive symptoms on perceptions of stigma in persons living with HIV disease in rural versus urban North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Stephanie; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Brion, John; MacKain, Sally; Reid, Paula; Frampton, Art; Rigsbee, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationships between HIV-related stigma, depression, and anxiety in rural and urban sites. Participants were HIV-positive urban (n = 100) and rural (n = 100) adult residents of a US southern state, drawn from a sample for a larger international study of self-esteem and self-compassion. Measures included demographic and health information, the HIV Stigma Scale, the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-R-90) anxiety scale. Independent sample t-tests showed no significant differences between urban/rural groups on measures of HIV-related stigma, anxiety, or depression, except that rural participants reported greater disclosure concerns (t = 2.11, df = 196, p = .036). Both groups indicated high levels of depression and anxiety relative to published norms and clinically relevant cut-off scores. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for the HIV Stigma Scale including its four subscales and total stigma scores. Block 1 (control) contained health and demographic variables known to predict HIV-related stigma. Block 2 included the CES-D and the SCL-R-90, and Block 3 was urban/rural location. Mental health symptom scores contributed a significant amount to explained variance in total stigma scores (5.5%, FΔ = 6.020, p stigma (4.8%, FΔ = 5.035, p disclosure concerns. Urban/rural location made significant additional contributions to the variance for total stigma (1.7%, FΔ = 3.899, p disclosure concerns (2.6%, FΔ = 5.446, p stigma or negative self-image. Depression scores consistently and significantly predicted perceived stigma total and subscale scores. Findings suggest that mental health symptoms and urban/rural location play important roles in perceived stigma, and treatment implications are presented.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following media exposure to tragic events: impact of 9/11 on children at risk for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Henin, Aude; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Pollack, Mark H; Biederman, Joseph; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2007-01-01

    With the extensive media coverage on September 11, 2001, adults and children indirectly witnessed the terrorist attacks leading to the deaths of almost 3,000 people. An ongoing longitudinal study provided the opportunity to examine pre-event characteristics and the impact of this media exposure. We assessed symptoms of PTSD in 166 children and 84 mothers who had no direct exposure to the 9/11 attacks. The sample included children who had parents with or without anxiety and mood disorders, and who had been assessed for the presence or absence of temperamental behavioral inhibition (BI). We found a 5.4 percent rate of symptomatic PTSD in response to 9/11 in children and 1.2 percent in their mothers. Children's identification with victims of the attack, and for younger children, the amount of television viewing predicted increased risk of PTSD symptoms. Parental depression was associated with higher symptoms, and pre-event levels of family support was associated with a lower risk for PTSD symptoms. BI in children was also linked to lower rates of PTSD symptoms, suggesting that a cautious and fearful approach to novelty may offer protection against exposure to media-based traumatic images. Media viewing of tragic events is sufficient to produce PTSD symptoms in vulnerable populations such as children. Given the links between PTSD symptoms and viewing habits, parental monitoring of media exposure may be important for younger children.

  6. Regulating the use of human bodily material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Loane

    2013-12-01

    The articles in this special issue consider recent developments in the law regulating the use of human bodily material and the wider implications of those developments. For some time, the law has accepted that a person who has undertaken "work and skill" on excised bodily material may obtain at least a possessory right; but the person from whom the material came did not have such a right. Now, however, the law has recognised that people may have some legal rights regarding their own bodily material. What is the nature and source of those rights? Should they be expanded? If so, what legal principles are best to do that? The most frequent suggestion is the law of property but many other areas of law are also relevant: the law of contract; tort (bailment and consent); criminal law (e.g., forensic testing); gifts; custodianship and others. These regulatory options are outlined in this editorial and discussed by lawyers and other contributors in their articles in this special issue. There are also stimulating philosophical reflections on the nature of human bodily material.

  7. Anxiety During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for Mom Frequently Asked Questions Useful Links Media Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety Approximately 6% of pregnant women and 10% of postpartum women develop anxiety. Sometimes ...

  8. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  9. Prevention of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents: 42 and 54 Months Follow-Up of the Aussie Optimism Program-Positive Thinking Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eJohnstone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are the most commonly reported mental health problems amongst Australian children and adolescents. The Aussie Optimism Program: Positive Thinking Skills (AOP- PTS is a universal intervention program based on cognitive and behavioral strategies and aimed to prevent anxiety and depression in the middle primary school children aged 9-10 years old. 370 students randomly assigned to the intervention and control condition participated in the 42 and 54 months follow – up study. The intervention group received the AOP-PTS 10-week program and the control group received the regular Health Education curriculum. Students were assessed on anxiety, depression and attribution style at school whilst parents reported on their child’s externalizing and internalising problems at home. Results showed there were no significant reduction across groups in the depressive and anxiety symptoms, and attribution style at either 42 or 54 months follow-up. These findings suggest that AOP-PTS has short and medium term effects but were not sustained in longer term period. Future strategies to achieve the desirable outcomes in a longitudinal study are discussed.

  10. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Taylor, Kristin P; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder's constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test-retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).

  11. Association of Psychiatric History and Type D Personality with Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Health Status Prior to ICD Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; Palen, van der Job

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). PURPOSE: We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive diso

  12. Childhood trauma is associated with a specific admixture of affective, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms cutting across traditional diagnostic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, M; Viechtbauer, W; Gunther, N; van Zelst, C; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; Bak, M; van Winkel, R; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses link childhood trauma to depression, mania, anxiety disorders, and psychosis. It is unclear, however, whether these outcomes truly represent distinct disorders following childhood trauma, or that childhood trauma is associated with admixtures of affective, psychotic, anxiet

  13. Anxiety symptoms of left-behind children in rural China%农村留守儿童焦虑症状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶旭炜

    2013-01-01

    农村留守儿童是中国近年来突出的社会现象,这些儿童因为家庭结构改变、亲子依恋缺乏等原因出现一系列情绪问题,焦虑为其中常见的一种.该文对农村留守儿童焦虑情绪的发病率及相关因素进行阐述.%Left-behind children in rural China have become a prominent social phenomenon in recent years.These children have performed a series of emotional problems due to the family structural transformation,insufficient parent-child attachment and other reasons.Among these problems,anxiety is the commonest one.This paper describes the prevalence and the related factors of anxiety symptoms of left-behind children in rural China.

  14. The effects of spatially varying earthquake impacts on mood and anxiety symptom treatments among long-term Christchurch residents following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of disruptions to different community environments, community resilience and cumulated felt earthquake intensities on yearly mood and anxiety symptom treatments from the New Zealand Ministry of Health's administrative databases between September 2009 and August 2012. The sample includes 172,284 long-term residents from different Christchurch communities. Living in a better physical environment was associated with lower mood and anxiety treatment rates after the beginning of the Canterbury earthquake sequence whereas an inverse effect could be found for social community environment and community resilience. These results may be confounded by pre-existing patterns, as well as intensified treatment-seeking behaviour and intervention programmes in severely affected areas. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that adverse mental health outcomes can be found in communities with worse physical but stronger social environments or community resilience post-disaster. Also, they do not necessarily follow felt intensities since cumulative earthquake intensity did not show a significant effect.

  15. Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Stefano Pini,1 Marina Carlini,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Elisabetta Macchi,2 Federica Gorrasi,2 Francesco Mengali,1 Rosalba Tognetti,2 Gabriele Massimetti1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, 2Prorectorate to Students Affairs and Right to Education, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is a common condition often associated with severe impairment in educational career. The aim of this paper was to evaluate prevalence rates and correlates of mild, moderate, and severe forms of social anxiety spectrum in a large sample of university students. Overall, 717 university students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report questionnaire. Using two cut-off scores, 61.4% of subjects were classified as low scorers, 10% as medium scorers, and 28.6% as high scorers. Both high and medium scorers reported fears related to social situations. Interpersonal sensitivity and specific phobias were more common among women with low scores. Childhood/adolescence social anxiety features were more common among males with medium scores. Behavioral inhibition was more common among males with high scores. Functional impairment was severe among high scorers and, to a lesser extent, among medium scorers. Social anxiety spectrum is largely represented among university students. Future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or end their professional objectives prematurely. Keywords: social anxiety spectrum, behavioral inhibition, gender, subthreshold, self-rating, DSM-5

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in treatment of major depressive disorder with anxiety symptoms: a 24-week, open-label, prospective study in Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang KD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaida Jiang,1 Lingjiang Li,2 Xueyi Wang,3 Maosheng Fang,4 Jianfei Shi,5 Qiuyun Cao,6 Jincai He,7 Jinan Wang,8 Weihao Tan,8 Cuili Hu8 1Psychiatry Department, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, 2Psychiatry Department,The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 3Psychiatry Department, First affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 4Psychiatry Department, Wuhan Mental Health Center, Wuhan, 5Psychiatry Department, Hangzhou the 7th Hospital, Hangzhou, 6Psychology Department, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, 7Neurology Department, First affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 8Medical Affairs Department, Xi’an Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Significant anxiety symptoms are associated with poor clinical course and outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD. This single-arm, open-label study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram treatment in patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Adult patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms (Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥22 and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] ≥14 were enrolled and received escitalopram (10–20 mg/day treatment for 24 weeks. Symptom status was assessed by MADRS, 17-item-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAM-A, and Clinical Global Impression Scale at baseline and the following visits. Quality of life was assessed by Short Form-12, and safety was evaluated by adverse events, laboratory investigations, vital signs, and physical findings. Results: Overall, 200 of 318 (66.2% enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment. The remission (MADRS ≤10 and HAM-A ≤7 rate in the full analysis set (N=285 was 73.3% (95% confidence interval: 67.80, 78.38 at week 24. Mean (± standard deviation MADRS total score was 33.4 (±7.13 and HAM-A score was 27.6 (±7.26 at baseline, which reduced to 6.6 (±10.18 and 6.0 (±8

  17. Japanese Children's and Adults' Awareness of Psychogenic Bodily Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    In Experiment 1, Japanese children (4-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds (n = 78)) and adults (n = 36), answered questions about the possibility of psychogenic bodily reactions, i.e., bodily outcomes with origins in the mind. The 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers typically denied that bodily conditions could originate in mental states. Developmentally,…

  18. 伴焦虑症状的抑郁症患者认知功能研究%The cognitive impairment in depression patients with anxiety symptom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小婷; 孙宁; 杜巧荣; 李素萍; 徐勇; 左丽娜; 张玉欣; 张克让

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognitive impairment in depression with anxiety symptom and its influencing factors.Methods 458 first-episode depression patients were assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA).According to the score of HAMA,the patients with depression were divided into with anxiety symptom group (n=266) and without anxiety symptom group (n=76).Using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST),Stroop Color-Word Test,Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to assess neuropsychological function.Results (1)The group without anxiety symptom had higher scores on categories completed (2.88 ± 2.14),learning to learned (64.16 ± 24.20),immediately memory(81.78± 17.16),visual span(84.08± 15.41),attention(106.45±20.72) and delayed memory (86.12 ±13.06) than the group with anxiety symptom had ((2.07± 1.98),(54.33±27.05),(70.47± 17.61),(79.76± 14.63),(98.25± 17.11),(79.97± 16.10) respectively),and all these differences were significant (P<0.01or P<0.05).The group without anxiety symptom had lower scores on response error(61.21±21.50),perseverative error percentage(17.11±6.10),monochrome time (19.04±6.57),time of meaning interference (15.01 ±9.11) and time of color interference (2.79 ± 2.82) than the group with anxiety symptom had ((67.20 ±21.87),(19.21±7.18),(21.03±7.69),(17.92± 10.64),(3.86±5.61) respectively),and all these differences were significant (P<0.05).(2)The combination of educational years,age,somatic anxiety and psychic anxiety explained the 28.1% variances of immediately memory(F=25.015,P<0.01);the combination of educational years and psychic anxiety explained the 19.8% variances of delayed memory(F=31.625,P<0.01);and the combination of age and psychic anxiety explained the 13.6% variances of time of meaning interference (F=20.293,P<0.01).Conclusion Depression with anxiety symptom has more severe impairment on executive function,processing speed,memory and attention.Educational years

  19. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello;

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body...... conclude by providing a preliminary synthesis of the data on bodily self-consciousness and its neural correlates.......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  20. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  1. Maps and Paths: bodily practices and transculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Mencarelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Grotowski’s interest in practices from different cultures had special importance during his transition from the Paratheatre phase (1969-1978 to the so-called Theatre of Sources (1976-1982. This article deals with the way this occurred and how was conceived this experience in its transcultural dimension based on bodily practices present in different cultures and which are transmitted as embodied knowledge.

  2. Urban Choreography: Bodily Experience, Emotions and Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekaterina Lavrinec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the mechanism of urban rituals, the paper refers to a concept of the city as a dynamic field of everyday practices as well as to a concept of "urban choreography", which actualizes the interconnection between urban spatial structures, citizens' emotional and bodily experience, and rules and conventions, which are embedded in the spatial structures. Following the notion of "spatial practices", it is distinguished between passive practices, which reproduce conventional everyday scenarios, and active practices, which reveal the hidden potential of the place. One of the forms of practices that extend the functions of urban spaces is urban art interventions, which encourage citizens to use the space in a new, alternative way. Those urban art interventions, which imply an active interpretation and bodily participation of citizens, enable the formation of urban rituals, i.e. repetitive symbolic actions, which are connected with the particular place. In their turn, urban rituals produce a long-term impact on the public space by changing "choreography" of the particular place and (reforming it's "emotional scape". For example, a ritual of making a wish by performing a simple movement at some special place in the city, changes usual trajectories and rhythms of the passers-by and saturates the place with joy and hope. The meaning of an urban ritual and emotions, evoked by it, are collectively shared by citizens, and "ritualized" places become a point of attraction for locals and travellers. Initiating new urban rituals by installing interactive art objects and by introducing simple scenarios of alternative use of public spaces could be considered as an efficient way to raise awareness of the urgent topic of deactivation of public spaces. A possible solutions of this problem are rooted in the understanding of the interplay between the spatial structures and our bodily-emotional experience.  In the paper urban interventions by Lithuanian

  3. A Structural Assessment of the 30-Item Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children and Its Relations to Anxiety Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Holm, Jon Måløv

    2013-01-01

    in the process of developing the skills that are being assessed. Psychometrically sound assessment tools are therefore needed for this developing population, in order to ensure the early detection of mechanisms leading to anxiety disorders in children. This study examined if metacognitions, which play a key role...... in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults, can also be reliably assessed in childhood. The study investigated the psychometric properties of the 30-item Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children (MCQ-C₃₀; Gerlach, Adam, Marschke, & Melfsen, 2008) in a national sample of 974 children and adolescents (538...

  4. Effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Andersen, Lærke T; Madsen, Michael T; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars S; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances are known problems in patients with breast cancer. The effect of melatonin as an antidepressant in humans with cancer has not been investigated. We investigated whether melatonin could lower the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer in a three-month period after surgery and assessed the effect of melatonin on subjective parameters: anxiety, sleep, general well-being, fatigue, pain and sleepiness. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken from July 2011 to December 2012 at a department of breast surgery in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women, 30-75 years, undergoing surgery for breast cancer and without signs of depression on Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were included 1 week before surgery and received 6 mg oral melatonin or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of depressive symptoms measured by MDI. The secondary outcomes were area under the curve (AUC) for the subjective parameters. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26) and 11 withdrew from the study (10 placebo group and 1 melatonin group, P = 0.002). The risk of developing depressive symptoms was significantly lower with melatonin than with placebo (3 [11 %] of 27 vs. 9 [45 %] of 20; relative risk 0.25 [95 % CI 0.077-0.80]), giving a NNT of 3.0 [95 % CI 1.7-11.0]. No significant differences were found between AUC for the subjective parameters. No differences in side effects were found (P = 0.78). Melatonin significantly reduced the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer during a three-month period after surgery.

  5. Metacognitive beliefs moderate the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Robin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    Catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily symptoms have a central role in cognitive-behavioural models of health anxiety. However, the metacognitive (S-REF) model postulates that psychological disturbance is linked more to beliefs about thinking i.e., metacognition. Equally the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety should be moderated by metacognition, in particular negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thinking (MCQNeg). Participants (N = 351) completed measures to examine the relationship between these variables. Results indicated positive relationships between metacognition, catastrophic misinterpretation, and health anxiety. Moderation analysis showed that the effect of catastrophic misinterpretations on health anxiety was explained by the proposed interaction with metacognition. Follow-up regression analysis demonstrated the interaction term explained variance in health anxiety when controlling for other variables, and was a stronger unique predictor of health anxiety than catastrophic misinterpretation. Metacognition appears to be an important factor in the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety, and would have important implications for existing models and treatment.

  6. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ: a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Balkom Anton JLM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. Methods Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. Results Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79, the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83, the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66, and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65. Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71. However, 30–40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other

  7. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  8. Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, A. J. Willem; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated a strong association of smoking with depression and anxiety disorders, but the direction of the relationship is uncertain. Most research has been done in general population samples. We investigated the effect of smoking and nicotine dependence on the sever

  9. Psychologists' Evaluation of Bariatric Surgery Candidates Influenced by Patients' Attachment Representations and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Floor; Hinnen, Chris; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Acherman, Yair; Brandjes, Dees P. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether patients self-reported attachment representations and levels of depression and anxiety influenced psychologists' evaluations of morbidly obese patients applying for bariatric surgery. A sample of 250 patients (mean age 44, 84 % female) who were referred for bariatric surg

  10. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management on depression and anxiety symptoms of patients with epilepsy and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghanifiroozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, cognitive behavioral stress management was effective on the depression and anxiety of epileptic and migraine patients, and chronic disease has no effect on this effectiveness. This method can be used in combination with drug therapy.

  11. Anxiety symptoms and disorders among adults living with HIV and AIDS: A critical review and integrative synthesis of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles; Zvolensky, Michael J; Woods, Steven P; Gonzalez, Adam; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall M

    2017-02-01

    There are over 35 million people worldwide infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and its progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS; WHO, 2014). With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (i.e., cART) in 1996, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now have much longer life expectancies. However, living with HIV remains challenging, as it is associated with a number of significant and recurrent (chronic) stressors including physical pain, side effects of cART, social stigma, and discrimination, among other social stressors. Presumably, as a result of these types of stressors, a disproportionately high number of PLWHA struggle with clinically-significant psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Although much scientific and clinical attention has focused on depressed mood and psychopathology among PLWHA, there has been comparably less focus on anxiety and its disorders. The paucity of work in this area is concerning from a public health perspective, as anxiety symptoms and disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and often maintain a large negative impact on life functioning.

  12. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nili Ahmadabady

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  13. Dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders

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    Zinchenko Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse (MVP patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders (AD and to investigate the psychological factors of their improvement in mental health as a result of psychotherapy. Thirty-two MVP patients with AD attended long-term integrative psychotherapy. Psychological and clinical examinations of the patients were made before and after the therapy courses and in a follow-up study after 2, 5, and 10 years. Data from the study show that 78.1% of the patients who attended psychotherapy sessions demonstrated valid improvements in self-rated psychological well-being and a reduction in their anxiety levels. Analysis of emotion-regulation strategies showed that psychotherapy encouraged the use of strategies effective for solving adaptive tasks. Positive dynamics in the development of personality reflection, the recognition of one’s emotional experiences, improved skills of self-regulation, and growing awareness of actual needs, individual purposes, and personality resources—all were associated with the reduction of MVP clinical symptoms. The psychiatrist who interviewed the patients reported that most of them were in sustained remission.

  14. Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Children: Investigating the Interplay of Theory of Mind and Expressions of Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-24

    Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.

  15. Comparison of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in relatives of ICU patients in an American and an Indian public hospital

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    Hrishikesh S Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An intensive care unit (ICU admission of a patient causes considerable stress among relatives. Whether this impact differs among populations with differing sociocultural factors is unknown. Aims: The aim was to compare the psychological impact of an ICU admission on relatives of patients in an American and Indian public hospital. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in ICUs of two tertiary care hospitals, one each in major metropolitan cities in the USA and India. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 relatives visiting patients were verbally administered a questionnaire between 48 hours and 72 hours of ICU admission that included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R for post-traumatic stress response. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests. Results: Relatives in the Indian ICU had more anxiety symptoms (median HADS-A score 11 [inter-quartile range 9-13] vs. 4 [1.5-6] in the American cohort; P30. 55% of all relatives had an incongruous perception regarding "change in the patient′s condition" compared to the objective change in severity of illness. "Change in worry" was incongruous compared to the "perception of improvement of the patient′s condition" in 78% of relatives. Conclusions: Relatives of patients in the Indian ICU had greater anxiety and depression symptoms compared to those in the American cohort, and had significant differences in factors that may be associated with this psychological impact. Both groups showed substantial discordance between the perceived and objective change in severity of illness.

  16. Features of the Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Their Influencing Factors%广泛性焦虑症状的特点及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the features of the generalized anxiety symptoms in university students and their influencing factors. Methods: The Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Meta-worry Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised and Intolerance of Uncertainty Questionnaire were used to investigate the generalized anxiety symptoms and their influencing factors in 1135 undergraduates. Results: Path analysis showed that neuroticism had the most important direct effect on the generalized anxiety symptoms, and also had indirect effect on the generalized anxiety symptoms through uncertainty-caused stress and meta-worry frequency. Conclusion: The influencing factors were neuroticism, uncertainty-caused stress and meta-worry frequency ordinally. And neuroticism also had indirect effect on generalized anxiety symptoms through uncertainty-caused stress and meta-worry frequency.%目的:考察大学生广泛性焦虑症状的特点及其影响因素.方法:采用宾州忧虑问卷、艾森克人格问卷简式量表、对不确定性的忍受力问卷、元担忧问卷对1135名大学生进行调查.结果:①大学生宾州忧虑问卷均分为2.54±0.64,男性焦虑总分显著低于女性;独生子女焦虑总分显著低于非独生子女;不同家庭经济状况大学生在在焦虑总分上存在显著差异.②路径分析表明:神经质、不确定性所带来的压力、元担忧频率对宾州忧虑问卷总分有直接效应,同时,神经质还通过不确定性所带来的压力、元担忧频率对宾州忧虑问卷总分起到间接效应.对宾州忧虑问卷总分影响由大到小依次是:神经质、不确定性所带来的压力和元担忧频率.结论:①大学生的广泛性焦虑症状处在中等水平,女生的广泛性焦虑症状高于男生,非独生子女的广泛性焦虑症状显著高于独生子女,家庭经济状况越差则广泛性焦虑症状也越高.②神经质对广泛性焦虑症状既有直接作用,又通过不确定性

  17. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  18. Association of anxiety symptoms with age and sex in children with anxiety disorders%焦虑障碍儿童的性别、年龄与焦虑症状的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷岩; 徐改玲; 甄龙; 徐广明; 杨桂伏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究焦虑障碍儿童的性别和年龄与焦虑症状的关系,了解儿童焦虑症状的性别、年龄特征. 方法:对4 500名6~15岁儿童使用长处和困难问卷、儿童和青少年发育和正常状况评定量表进行筛查和诊断,查出焦虑障碍儿童158例,对焦虑障碍儿童按年龄分组,并进行儿童焦虑障碍自评量表的测量,运用多因素方差分析对性别和年龄与自评量表得分之间的关系进行分析. 结果:方差分析结果显示,性别主效应显著,不同性别间广泛性焦虑(F=4.449,P=0.037)和社交焦虑维度(F =-3.880,P =0.050)差异有统计学意义,女童得分高于男童;不同年龄间在分离焦虑维度上(F=3.911,P=0.010)差异有统计学意义,得分随年龄增加而降低.交互作用分析结果显示,性别和年龄对焦虑症状的影响没有交互作用. 结论:焦虑障碍儿童的焦虑症状存在性别与年龄差异.%Objective:To explore the sex and age characteristic of symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Method;four thousands five hundred children aged 6~15 yaers were assessed by strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and were diagnosised by the development and well being assessment for children. 158 children were confirmed as anxiety disorder. The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorder were administered to the children with anxiety disorders and they were classified into four groups by age. The scores of the scale was analyzed. Results: Analysis of variance results indicated that the scores of girls were significantly higher than boys on generalized subscale (F = 4. 449,P =0.037)and social association subscales (F = 3. 880, P = 0.050). There was a significant difference between four age groups scores on separation subscale (F=3.911 ,P =0.010) ; the score decreased with age rise. There was no interaction between sex and age. Conclusion:The anxiety symptoms of children with anxiety disorder demonstrate age and sex differences.

  19. Heterogeneous classes of co-occurring externalizing symptoms in a sample of youth referred for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sandra; Dahan, Jessica; Silverman, Wendy K; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2013-04-01

    The present study used latent class analysis to identify patterns of externalizing symptoms in a predominantly Hispanic sample of clinic referred anxious youth (N=224; 6-16 years; 54% males) and their parents. Findings revealed that the sample of youth could be classified into three distinct classes: (1) High Externalizing, (2) Moderate Externalizing, and (3) Low Externalizing. The High Externalizing Class was characterized as having a relatively high probability of all ADHD and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range. The Moderate Externalizing Class was characterized as having a relatively high probability of three symptoms in the clinical range: "argues a lot", "disobedient at home", and "fails to finish." The Low Externalizing Class was characterized as having a relatively low probability of all ADHD and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range. The conceptual, empirical, and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. 有焦虑症状大学生的初始沙盘特征%Characteristics of initial sandplay in college students with anxiety symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭健烽; 邹晓波; 张淑红; 王文娜

    2013-01-01

    目的:以沙盘游戏为工具探讨有焦虑症状的大学生的内心世界,总结焦虑症状阳性人群的初始沙盘特征.方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)为工具,在某医学院筛选出焦虑因子≥3分的36人为有焦虑症状组,以任一因子分均<2分的36人为对照组,两组72人均参与沙盘游戏实验.采用沙盘作品编码表对沙盘游戏作品进行信息编码.结果:在沙具使用频率方面,有焦虑症状者使用现实人物(19.4%vs.80.6%)、男人(41.7% vs.77.8%)、女人(38.9% vs.75%)、鲜花(33.3% vs.63.9%)、草(33.3% vs.80.6%)、树木(27.8% vs.72.2%)、居民房屋(38.9% vs.72.2%)、商业建筑(5.6%vs.27.8%)、食物果实(11.1% vs.41.7%)、湖(30.6% vs.63.9%)、河流(11.1% vs.47.2%)、桥(30.6% vs.61.1%)的比例均少于对照组(均P<0.05).在沙盘游戏操作过程中,有焦虑症状者对沙的态度以不碰触为主(61.1% vs.22.2%),沙盘作品布局不平衡(52.8%vs.2.8%)、沙具摆设单一视角(47.2% vs.11.1%)、沙盘单一色调(36.1% vs.13.9%)、对自己的沙盘作品不满意(41.7%vs.2.8%)、缺乏自我像(50%vs.8.3%)、出现抽象场景(33.3%vs.2.8%)的比例均高于对照组(均P<0.05).沙盘主题特征回归分析显示,忽视和威胁两个创伤性主题与焦虑症状相关(β=34.76,31.55;均P<0.05).结论:本研究提示,有焦虑症状的大学生在初始沙盘的沙具使用频率、沙盘操作过程、沙盘主题特征维度中有特征性表现,沙盘游戏可作为焦虑症状阳性人群临床心理评估与治疗的工具.%Objective:To explore the particular inner world of the college students with anxiety symptoms by the sandplay therapy,and try to summarize the initial sandplay characteristics related to the anxiety symptoms.Methods:Thirty-six students with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) anxiety scores of 3 or higher were selected as the anxiety symptoms group,and other 36

  1. Older adults' recognition of bodily and auditory expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Sullivan, Susan; Dittrich, Winand

    2009-09-01

    This study compared young and older adults' ability to recognize bodily and auditory expressions of emotion and to match bodily and facial expressions to vocal expressions. Using emotion discrimination and matching techniques, participants assessed emotion in voices (Experiment 1), point-light displays (Experiment 2), and still photos of bodies with faces digitally erased (Experiment 3). Older adults' were worse at least some of the time in recognition of anger, sadness, fear, and happiness in bodily expressions and of anger in vocal expressions. Compared with young adults, older adults also found it more difficult to match auditory expressions to facial expressions (5 of 6 emotions) and bodily expressions (3 of 6 emotions).

  2. [Anxiety in progressive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michaela; Heydweiller, Katrin; Mücke, Martin; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in terminally ill patients has a high impact on symptoms, trajectory and quality of life. There are different screening instruments for diagnosis. The holistic approach of palliative care considers the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs and can improve the distress caused by anxiety. Early integration in palliative care decreases burden of symptoms and increases quality of life.

  3. Behavioral Indicators on a Mobile Sensing Platform Predict Clinically Validated Psychiatric Symptoms of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Skyler; Rubin, Channah; Gorrostieta, Cristina; Mead, Caroline; Kane, John; Marx, Brian P; Feast, Joshua; Deckersbach, Thilo; Pentland, Alex “Sandy”; Nierenberg, Andrew; Azarbayejani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. Objective The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. Methods A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial. Behavioral indicators were collected through the noninvasive mobile sensing platform on participants’ mobile phones. Clinical symptoms were measured through validated clinical interviews with a licensed clinical social worker. A combination hypothesis and data-driven approach was used to derive key features for modeling symptoms, including the sum of outgoing calls, count of unique numbers texted, absolute distance traveled, dynamic variation of the voice, speaking rate, and voice quality. Participants also reported ease of use and data sharing concerns. Results Behavioral indicators predicted clinically assessed symptoms of depression and PTSD (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] for depressed mood=.74, fatigue=.56, interest in activities=.75, and social connectedness=.83). Participants reported comfort sharing individual data with physicians (Mean 3.08, SD 1.22), mental health providers (Mean 3.25, SD 1.39), and medical researchers (Mean 3.03, SD 1.36). Conclusions Behavioral indicators passively collected through a mobile sensing platform predicted symptoms of depression and PTSD. The use of mobile sensing platforms can provide clinically validated behavioral indicators in real time; however, further validation of these models and this platform in large clinical samples is needed. PMID:28302595

  4. Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T; Sheppard, Sean C; Forsyth, John P; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness has received considerable attention as a correlate of psychological well-being and potential mechanism for the success of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Despite a common emphasis of mindfulness, at least in name, among MBIs, mindfulness proves difficult to assess, warranting consideration of other common components. Self-compassion, an important construct that relates to many of the theoretical and practical components of MBIs, may be an important predictor of psychological health. The present study compared ability of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) to predict anxiety, depression, worry, and quality of life in a large community sample seeking self-help for anxious distress (N = 504). Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that self-compassion is a robust predictor of symptom severity and quality of life, accounting for as much as ten times more unique variance in the dependent variables than mindfulness. Of particular predictive utility are the self-judgment and isolation subscales of the SCS. These findings suggest that self-compassion is a robust and important predictor of psychological health that may be an important component of MBIs for anxiety and depression.

  5. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures.

  6. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  7. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska eKret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body compounds. Participants’ fixations were measured and their pupil size recorded with eye-tracking equipment, and their facial reactions measured with electromyography (EMG. The behavioral results support our prediction that the recognition of a facial expression is improved in the context of a matching posture and importantly, also vice versa. From their facial expression, it appeared that observers acted with signs of negative emotionality (increased corrugator activity to angry and fearful facial expressions and with positive emotionality (increased zygomaticus to happy facial expressions. What we predicted and found, was that angry and fearful cues from the face or the body, attracted more attention than happy cues. We further observed that responses evoked by angry cues were amplified in individuals with high anxiety scores. In sum, we show that people process bodily expressions of emotion in a similar fashion as facial expressions and that the congruency between the emotional signals from the face and body ameliorates the recognition of the emotion.

  8. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had an…

  9. Exercise affects memory acquisition, anxiety-like symptoms and activity of membrane-bound enzyme in brain of rats fed with different dietary fats: impairments of trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A M; Pase, C S; Boufleur, N; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Segat, H J; Dias, V T; Reckziegel, P; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Soares, F A A; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2011-11-10

    Here we evaluated the influence of physical exercise on behavior parameters and enzymatic status of rats supplemented with different dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats fed diets enriched with soybean oil (SO), lard (L), or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) for 48 weeks were submitted to swimming (30 min/d, five times per week) for 90 days. Dietary FA per se did not cause anxiety-like symptoms in the animals, but after physical exercise, SO group showed a better behavioral performance than L and the HVF groups in elevated plus maze (EPM). In Barnes maze, HVF group showed impaired memory acquisition as compared to L group, and exercise reversed this effect. SO-fed rats showed an improvement in memory acquisition after 1 day of training, whereas lard caused an improvement of memory only from day 4. HVF-fed rats showed no improvement of memory acquisition, but this effect was reversed by exercise in all training days. A lower activity of the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in brain cortex of rats fed lard and HVF was observed, and this effect was maintained after exercise. Similarly, the HVF diet was related to lower activity of hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, and exercise reduced activity of this enzyme in the SO and L groups. Our findings show influences of dietary FA on memory acquisition, whereas regular exercise improved this function and was beneficial on anxiety-like symptoms. As FA are present in neuronal membrane phospholipids and play a critical role in brain function, our results suggest that low incorporation of trans FA in neuronal membranes may act on cortical and hippocampal Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, but this change appears to be unrelated to the behavioral parameters primarily harmed by consumption of trans and less so by saturated FA, which were reversed by exercise.

  10. 高职护生考试应激源下焦虑及应激症状的调查%Investigate higher vocational nursing students' anxiety and stress symptoms under exam stressor.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芃; 赵岳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨自然状态下学生考试焦虑、应激症状的变化及考试应激源下焦虑与应激症状的关系.方法:整群抽取天津医学高等专科学校护理系2010届8个班的护生,连续两次期末考试期间采用Sarason考试焦虑量表、考试应激症状问卷进行调查.结果:考试期间存在焦虑者更容易出现应激症状(P<0.05),学生第一次考试期间的焦虑程度高于第二次(P<0.05),学生第一次考试期间的应激症状程度高于第二次(P<0.05),Sarason考试焦虑量表与考试应激症状问卷之间呈正相关(r=0.522).结论:不良心理反应易使人产生应激症状,自然状态下随时间推移大部分学生焦虑及应激症状程度呈下降趋势.%Objective:Probing into students' exam anxiety stress symptoms variation and the relationship between the anxiety and the stress symptoms under natural state. Methods:Extract Tianjin medical college nursing department 2010 graduation 8 classes students by cluster sampling method to test by the inventory of Sarason exam anxiety and the questionnaire of exam stress symptoms during two continuous final exams. Results: Anxiety students has stress symptoms more easier than others ( P < 0, 05 ); the first final exam anxiety degree higher than the second one ( P < 0. 05 ); the first final exam stress symptom degree higher than the second one(P < 0.05) ;the relationship between the inventory of Sarason exam anxiety and the questionnaire of exam stress symptoms is positive correlation ( r = 0.522). Conclusion: Badness mental makes students produce stress symptoms, anxiety and stress symptoms degree descend to moet students under natural state.

  11. Suspect Subjects: Affects of Bodily Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Henne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of academic literature that scrutinises the effects of technologies deployed to surveil the physical bodies of citizens. This paper considers the role of affect; that is, the visceral and emotive forces underpinning conscious forms of knowing that can drive one’s thoughts, feelings and movements. Drawing from research on two distinctly different groups of surveilled subjects – paroled sex offenders and elite athletes – it examines the effects of biosurveillance in their lives and how their reflections reveal unique insight into how subjectivity, citizenship, harm and deviance become constructed in intimate and public ways vis-à-vis technologies of bodily regulation. Specifically, we argue, their narratives reveal cultural conditions of biosurveillance, particularly how risk becomes embodied and internalised in subjective ways.

  12. Using the Projective Drawing Test to Evaluate the Anxiety Symptom%焦虑症状的绘画评定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈侃; 宋斌; 申荷永

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the possibility of using the projective drawing test to evaluate anxiety.In this study,290 subjects from the college were invited randomly to complete the HTP drawing test and the Scl90 test the of Anxiety subscale.A regression analysis was made.The anxiety level was first determined by comparing the individual's Scl90 score of the subscale of Anxiety to the norm of the same age and gender.Those whose scores were two deviations higher than the norm were diagnosed as Anxiety.Among all the 290 subjects,36 of them met the diagnosis criteria.The study also used the most popular Buck and Hammer's House-Tree-Person projective drawing test to collect drawing characters.This test had the most culture equality,and has the most scientific evidence for its validity and reliability.The study has dcollected drawing characters that were assumed to be representation of anxiety.Those drawing characters came from literature study,clinical experience,as well as Chinese symbolism.A standard projective drawing evaluation handbook was then developed to describe those different drawing characters in a standard way.The final handbook involved 11 drawing characters in three categories,with a detailed description on every drawing character and picture sample.The three categories were: shade,detail,space.The study also invited two teachers from the psychology department to evaluate all the drawings separately.Both of them had the some experience in using the projective drawing test.And both of them had the same experience.Those assessors were trained at the same level to use the standard projective drawing evaluation handbook.Then a regression analysis was made to evaluate the validity of the projective drawing test to anxiety symptom.The results showed:of the 11 drawing characters,5 could significantly predict the anxiety symptom.A logistic regression diagnosis equation was established based on those 5 drawing characters.The S characters entered

  13. Physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences in patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Moeller, Marianne K; Vestergaard, Claus H

    2016-01-01

    were obtained from medical records of all patients. RESULTS: Physical activity and aerobic fitness was significantly lower in patients with FES compared with healthy controls (p fitness. Patients with more severe....... AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare physical activity in patients with FES with healthy controls; to investigate changes in physical activity over 1 year of follow-up; and to explore the correlations of physical activity and anomalous bodily experiences reported by patients with FES. METHODS......: Both physical activity and aerobic fitness were measured. Anomalous bodily experiences were measured by selected items from the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience and The Body Awareness Scale. Psychopathological data comprising negative and positive symptoms and data on psychotropic medication...

  14. Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Sleep, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Newly-Diagnosed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A; Rajesh Kumar; Cross, Rebecca L.; Ronald M Harper

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients wi...

  15. Video ergo sum: manipulating bodily self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenggenhager, Bigna; Tadi, Tej; Metzinger, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2007-08-24

    Humans normally experience the conscious self as localized within their bodily borders. This spatial unity may break down in certain neurological conditions such as out-of-body experiences, leading to a striking disturbance of bodily self-consciousness. On the basis of these clinical data, we designed an experiment that uses conflicting visual-somatosensory input in virtual reality to disrupt the spatial unity between the self and the body. We found that during multisensory conflict, participants felt as if a virtual body seen in front of them was their own body and mislocalized themselves toward the virtual body, to a position outside their bodily borders. Our results indicate that spatial unity and bodily self-consciousness can be studied experimentally and are based on multisensory and cognitive processing of bodily information.

  16. Treating women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) with a hybrid cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Huss, Ephrat

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of a combined, evaluated protocol, cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART), for the treatment of women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs). The protocol integrates cognitive behavioural interventions and art therapy. CB-ART focuses on changing distressing image, symptom or memory (ISM) that interferes with functioning. The method directs clients to identify compositional elements that characterize their stressful ISM and to alter the element in their imagination, in bodily sensations and on the page. Examples are provided to illustrate the therapeutic process.

  17. Soundoff: My Anxieties about Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)

  18. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  19. Emotion processing in joint hypermobility : A potential link to the neural bases of anxiety and related somatic symptoms in collagen anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Bulbena, A; Roé-Vellvé, N; Hoekzema, E; Carmona, S; Barba-Müller, E; Fauquet, J; Pailhez, G; Vilarroya, O

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) has repeatedly been associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and temporomandibular joint disorder. However, the neural underpinnings of these associations still remain unclear. This study explored brain respo

  20. Anxiety disorders moderate the association between externalizing problems and substance use disorders: data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Richey, J Anthony; Kashdan, Todd B; McKnight, Patrick E

    2009-05-01

    Anxiety disorders and externalizing problems are both associated with substance use disorders. However, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. To examine whether presence of an anxiety disorder changes the association between externalizing problems (conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and substance use disorders, we analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, which is based on a nationally representative sample of 9282 English-speaking adults. Presence of externalizing problems was associated with an increased odds for alcohol abuse (OR: 6.7, CI: 5.6-8.1), alcohol dependence (OR: 7.6, CI: 5.9-9.6), substance abuse (OR: 9.9, CI: 8.1-12.2), and substance dependence (OR: 13.1, CI: 9.6-17.8). Similarly, anxiety disorders were associated with increased odds for substance use disorders. The highest association was found between post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder (OR: 9.2, CI: 5.4-15.5). Individuals who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder and externalizing problems showed consistently and significantly lower odds for substance use problems than subjects with externalizing problems without a comorbid anxiety disorder. The results suggest that presence of any anxiety disorder reduces the association between externalizing problems and substance use disorders, possibly because the fear of bodily symptoms prevents individuals with externalizing problems from engaging in drug-seeking behaviors.

  1. A psychometric investigation of somatic and emotional symptoms of children and adolescents in Hong Kong : the role of physiological hyperarousal in differentiating anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Wai-Yee; 梁慧儀

    2013-01-01

    Emotional disorders of anxiety and depression have been recognized as the most prevalent mental disorders in children and adolescents. High rates of co-morbidity between anxiety and depression have been reported in both adults and youths. Clark and Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model to explain both the overlap and distinctiveness of anxiety and depression. In that model, negative affectivity (NA) is experienced in both anxiety and depression; lack of positive affectivity (PA) is specif...

  2. Plasticity and Awareness of Bodily Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Pazzaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the body is filtered by perceptual information, recalibrated through predominantly innate stored information, and neurally mediated by direct sensory motor information. Despite multiple sources, the immediate prediction, construction, and evaluation of one’s body are distorted. The origins of such distortions are unclear. In this review, we consider three possible sources of awareness that inform body distortion. First, the precision in the body metric may be based on the sight and positioning sense of a particular body segment. This view provides information on the dual nature of body representation, the reliability of a conscious body image, and implicit alterations in the metrics and positional correspondence of body parts. Second, body awareness may reflect an innate organizational experience of unity and continuity in the brain, with no strong isomorphism to body morphology. Third, body awareness may be based on efferent/afferent neural signals, suggesting that major body distortions may result from changes in neural sensorimotor experiences. All these views can be supported empirically, suggesting that body awareness is synthesized from multimodal integration and the temporal constancy of multiple body representations. For each of these views, we briefly discuss abnormalities and therapeutic strategies for correcting the bodily distortions in various clinical disorders.

  3. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious disease is unreasonable or unfounded. Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other symptoms, but the medical cause is not found. Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse will examine you and ...

  4. A proof of principle for using adaptive testing in routine Outcome Monitoring: the efficiency of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire -Anhedonic Depression CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM there is a high demand for short assessments. Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT is a promising method for efficient assessment. In this article, the efficiency of a CAT version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, - Anhedonic Depression scale (MASQ-AD for use in ROM was scrutinized in a simulation study. Methods The responses of a large sample of patients (N = 3,597 obtained through ROM were used. The psychometric evaluation showed that the items met the requirements for CAT. In the simulations, CATs with several measurement precision requirements were run on the item responses as if they had been collected adaptively. Results CATs employing only a small number of items gave results which, both in terms of depression measurement and criterion validity, were only marginally different from the results of a full MASQ-AD assessment. Conclusions It was concluded that CAT improved the efficiency of the MASQ-AD questionnaire very much. The strengths and limitations of the application of CAT in ROM are discussed.

  5. Sense of alexithymia in patients with anxiety disorders comorbid with recurrent urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogłodek EA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewa A Ogłodek,1 Anna M Szota,1 Marek J Just,2 Aleksander Araszkiewicz,1 Adam R Szromek3 1Department of Psychiatry, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Toruń, 2Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Municipal Hospital, Piekary Śląskie, 3Department of Organization and Management, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland Aim: Alexithymia is associated with limited cognitive processing of emotions by an individual suffering from recurrent urticaria and alexithymia and makes them focus on somatic manifestations of emotional arousal and on poorly controlled compulsive reactions to negative stimulation. Alexithymia is considered to be a personality trait, which, along with other factors, predisposes individuals toward developing somatic diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the measurement of alexithymic features in patients with recurrent urticaria and to assess the types of concurrent anxiety disorders and overall anxiety level.Methods: In order to diagnose clinical anxiety symptoms in patients, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were applied. Alexithymic features were measured by means of a shortened version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, characterized by high discrimination power, internal coherence, and reliability.Results: According to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale results, the greatest contributing factor was “inability to differentiate between feelings and bodily sensations”. This was observed in both males and females. Most frequently, the patients were found to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia.Conclusion: Alexithymia may result from the difficulty associated with expressing emotions caused by anxiety disorders. Undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders may contribute to reduced exacerbation of urticaria. Keywords: alexithymia, anxiety, recurrent urticaria

  6. Behavioral, Neural, and Computational Principles of Bodily Self-Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Olaf; Slater, Mel; Serino, Andrea

    2015-10-07

    Recent work in human cognitive neuroscience has linked self-consciousness to the processing of multisensory bodily signals (bodily self-consciousness [BSC]) in fronto-parietal cortex and more posterior temporo-parietal regions. We highlight the behavioral, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and computational laws that subtend BSC in humans and non-human primates. We propose that BSC includes body-centered perception (hand, face, and trunk), based on the integration of proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual bodily inputs, and involves spatio-temporal mechanisms integrating multisensory bodily stimuli within peripersonal space (PPS). We develop four major constraints of BSC (proprioception, body-related visual information, PPS, and embodiment) and argue that the fronto-parietal and temporo-parietal processing of trunk-centered multisensory signals in PPS is of particular relevance for theoretical models and simulations of BSC and eventually of self-consciousness.

  7. Reindeer & Wolves: Exploring Sensory Deprivation in Multiplayer Digital Bodily Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Velloso, Eduardo; Mitchell, Robb;

    2014-01-01

    Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer & W...... & Wolves, a role-playing game where blindfolded players capture other players relying on their hearing alone. Based on our design and play testing, we devised four strategies for designing games that incorporate sensory deprivation as an element of the core mechanic.......Games designed around digital bodily play involve bodily movement and expression to create engaging gameplay experiences. Most feedback in these games takes the form of visual stimuli. To explore the gameplay mechanics afforded by depriving players from these visual cues, we designed Reindeer...

  8. A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Palacios

    Full Text Available To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up.Longitudinal cohort study.16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London.803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years contributing up to 7 follow-up points.Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life.At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (p<0.001 for those screening positive at baseline, and for those screening negative, the probability of scoring below the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 97.6% (p<0.001. Total health care costs were 39% higher during follow-up for those screening positive (p<0.05. Quality of life as measured by the SF-12 was lower on the mental component during follow-up for those screening positive (-0.75, CI -1.53 to 0.03, p = 0.059, and significantly lower on the physical component (-4.99, CI -6.23 to -.376, p<0.001.A one-off measure for depression and anxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient's quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy-makers.

  9. Bodily ownership and self-location: components of bodily self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian; Costantini, Marcello; Mandrigin, Alisa; Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Lopez, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components-body ownership and self-location-are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction. We examine these results and consider them in relation to clinical evidence from patients with altered body perception and work on a variety of multisensory, body-related illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, the full body illusion, the body swap illusion and the enfacement illusion. We conclude by providing a preliminary synthesis of the data on bodily self-consciousness and its neural correlates.

  10. Autism in action: Reduced bodily connectedness during social interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. (Lieke E. Peper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills. New entry points for the development of such assessments may be found in 'bodily connectedness', the attunement of bodily movement between two individuals. In typical development, bodily connectedness is related to psychological connectedness, including social skills and relation quality. Limitations in bodily connectedness could be a central mechanism underlying the social impairment in autism. While bodily connectedness can be minutely assessed with advanced techniques, our understanding of these skills in autism is limited. This Perspective provides examples of how the potential relation between bodily connectedness and specific characteristics of autism can be examined using methods from the coordination dynamics approach. Uncovering this relation is particularly important for developing sensitive tools to assess the tendency to initiate social interactions and the dynamics of mutual adjustments during social interactions, as current assessments are not suited to grasp ongoing dynamics and reciprocity in behavior. The outcomes of such research may yield valuable openings for the development of diagnostic markers for autism that can be applied across the lifespan.

  11. Interoception and positive symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients’ positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients’ symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants’ age, BMI, anxiety levels and heart rate. Furthermore, patients’ illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations.

  12. Guided internet-administered self-help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): a study protocol for a feasibility trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, Malin; Wikman, Anna; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljungman, Gustaf; Woodford, Joanne; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; von Essen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15–25 years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive–behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was

  13. Experimental Study on Improving College Students' Anxiety Symptoms through Exercise Interventions%运动干预改善大学生焦虑症状的实验研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冲; 张成珍

    2013-01-01

    This paper selects the college students who have more obvious symptoms of anxiety for a 10-week sports comparative experiments. SAS test is used in each group before and after experiment. The results show that:the anxiety symptoms of experimental group with intervention through exercise prescription improves significantly and is better than control group after 10 weeks. Arranging physical exercises with planned and purposeful will help to improve students' anxiety symptoms,having a good role in promoting mental health.%选取焦虑症状比较明显的大学生进行体育运动为期10周的对比实验,实验前后各组分别用焦虑自评量表(SAS)测试。结果表明:通过运动处方干预10周后其焦虑症状显著改善,实验优于对照组。有计划、有目的安排体育锻炼活动有利于改善大学生的焦虑症状,对大学生心理健康具有良好的促进作用。

  14. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...

  15. 急性冠脉综合征患者焦虑抑郁情绪的随访%Follow-up of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢南姿; 马文林; 刘光辉; 沈玉芹; 陈罗蔓; 周璐

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察急性冠脉综合征(acute coronary syndrome,ACS)患者焦虑抑郁情绪的变化.方法 对782例ACS患者的焦虑抑郁情绪进行平均(8.0±5.8)m的随访测评,应用综合性医院情绪测量表(hospital anxiety and depression scales,HADS)、贝克焦虑量表(Beck Anxiety Inventory,BAI)和贝克抑郁量表(Beck Depression Inventory,BDI),分析ACS患者焦虑抑郁情绪的变化.结果 与基线期相比,ACS患者的抑郁评分下降具有统计学意义[(7.07±5.37) vs(6.28±5.51),P<0.05],焦虑评分下降无统计学意义(P>0.05),焦虑、抑郁的构成比例无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 ACS后抑郁程度虽然呈现自然下降趋势,但构成比例降低却无统计学意义,故仍需早发现,早治愈.关于ACS后的焦虑有待进一步深入研究.%Objective To observe changes in anxiety and depression symptoms in acute coronary syndrome patients. Methods A prospective cohort study of 782 patients with ACS were followed up anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed and collected, application of hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS)、beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and beck depression inventory (BDI). Results The follow-up Beck depression inventory (BDI) score decreased significantly compared with the baseline BDI score [(7.07±5.37) vs (6.28±5.51, P 0.05). Conclusion Among ACS population, though the depression level was decline spontaneously 7 months later, the proportions of anxiety and depression were still as high as the baseline, So as for the improvement of clinic outcome of ACS population, post-ACS depression should be assessed and treated effectively as early as possible. In the case of post-ACS anxiety, large sample and long term investigations were needed to make it clear.

  16. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...

  17. Do panic patients process unconditioned fear vs. conditioned anxiety differently than normal subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, C M; Vilela, J A; Hetem, L A; Guimarães, F S; Graeff, F G; Zuardi, A W

    2001-11-30

    Panic patients were evaluated with two models of experimental anxiety that are believed to generate distinct emotional states: (1) a stimulated public speaking test (SPS), a presumed indicator of unconditioned fear, and (2) conditioning of skin conductance responses (CSCR) to a tone associated with an aversive white noise, an index of conditioned anxiety. Subjective states were evaluated through the visual analogue mood scale (VAMS) and a bodily symptoms scale (BSS). In the SPS test, panic patients showed higher baseline levels of VAMS-measured anxiety than controls. Unlike controls, panic patients failed to show increased anxiety before and during speech. Although baseline levels of arousal were similar in both groups, VAMS mental sedation decreased in controls, but not in panic patients during the SPS. Panic patients showed more discontent than controls throughout the whole experimental session. They also scored higher than controls on several items of the BSS. In the CSCR test, panic patients showed more spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance than controls. Nevertheless, conditioning of skin conductance responses to the tone was similar in both groups. Therefore, panic patients seemed to process unconditioned fear abnormally.

  18. System of estimations and prognostications of bodily condition of skilled sportsmen in track-and-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnyk V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of estimation and prognostication of bodily condition of skilled athletes is presented. The system includes the complex of pedagogical tests, evaluation tables, estimation of the functional state vegetative, nervous, cardiovascular systems, system of the external breathing. 436 sportsmen took part in research (212 women and 224 men. The analysis of electrocardiography is conducted, variability of cardiac rhythm, determination of vegetative balance, state of myocardium, violations of rhythm of heart, spirometric researches. The estimation of efficiency of activity of sportsman in extreme terms on the basis of type and properties of temperament, level of personality anxiety and estimation of psychological reliability of sportsmen is presented. The criteria of estimation of physical preparedness are certain, functional state of the basic systems of organism, influencing in a greater degree on achievement of high sporting results, psychological state of sportsmen.

  19. Jaspers, the body, and schizophrenia: the bodily self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Ferri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Karl Jaspers laid the foundations of contemporary psychopathology. Among Jaspers' contributions was his powerful vision of psychiatry as a crucial way to shed light on the human condition and existence by integrating the scientific study of psychic diseases with a theoretical approach focused on human experience. This perspective should be revitalized. In the present paper we start from the role Jaspers assigns to the body when discussing the notion of 'personalization'. We explore the relationship between a minimal notion of the self, the 'bodily self', and its potentiality for movement - the self's 'power for action'. Based on recent empirical evidence, we then propose a connection between the implicit bodily self-experience and important psychopathological aspects of schizophrenia by showing that schizophrenic patients exhibit a disruption of implicit bodily self-knowledge. We propose that the bodily nature of the implicitly experiencing self might enable the continuum of experience along which all visions of the world are located - both in healthy and psychotic individuals. The power for action might provide the possibility to give form to the bodily presence characterizing in the first place our being selves.

  20. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  1. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  2. Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Olaf

    2012-07-18

    Recent research has linked bodily self-consciousness to the processing and integration of multisensory bodily signals in temporoparietal, premotor, posterior parietal and extrastriate cortices. Studies in which subjects receive ambiguous multisensory information about the location and appearance of their own body have shown that these brain areas reflect the conscious experience of identifying with the body (self-identification (also known as body-ownership)), the experience of where 'I' am in space (self-location) and the experience of the position from where 'I' perceive the world (first-person perspective). Along with phenomena of altered states of self-consciousness in neurological patients and electrophysiological data from non-human primates, these findings may form the basis for a neurobiological model of bodily self-consciousness.

  3. Acquisition of a bodily-tactile language as first language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    towards Tactile Sign Language (TSL). The access to participation in complex TSL culture is crucial for language acquisition. We already know how to transfer the patterns of social interaction into the bodily-tactile modality. This is the fundation on which to build actual linguistic participation. TSL......Language acquisition in the bodily-tactile modality is difficult to understand, describe, and support. This chapter advocates a reinterpretation of the gestural and idiosyncratic bodily-tactile communication of people with congenital deafblindness (CDB) in terms of early language acquisition...... as a first language is presently a theoretic possibility. We need more research on how to accommodate TSL to language Development and on how to fit TSL into participation in complex cultural activities....

  4. Sleep patterns and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic pain Padrão do sono e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com dor crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M.C. Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression have been shown to be involved in the genesis and perpetuation of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sleep patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic pain. METHOD: Four hundred consecutive patients referred to a chronic pain outpatient clinic were investigated using patient charts, the numerical Visual Analogue Scale for the evaluation of pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 45.6±11.4 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was myofascial pain followed by neuropathic pain. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety was 72.8%, depression 93% and altered sleep patterns 93%. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety and alterations in sleep patterns in patients with chronic pain, justifying investigation into these disturbances in this group of patients.CONTEXTO: Distúrbios do sono e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão tem sido vistos no envolvimento da origem e perpetuação da dor crônica. OBJETIVO:Avaliação do padrão do sono e da prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com dor crônica. MÉTODO: Quatrocentos pacientes de dor crônica atendidos consecutivamente na clínica foram investigados usando os seguintes instrumentos a Escala Visual Analógica para a avalição da dor, a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão e o Mini-Sleep Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi 45,6±11,4 anos. O diagnóstico mais frequente foi de dor miofascial seguido de dor neuropática. A prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade foi 72,8%, de depressão foi 61,5% e de alteração do sono 93%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo revela uma alta prevalência de sintomas de depressão e ansiedade e alterações no padrão do sono em pacientes com dor crônica, justificando a investiga

  5. Austistic Children: Bodily Factors in the Use of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses factors other than symbolic capacity that can influence the use of language by children on the autism spectrum. Chief among the issues considered are the influence of bodily experience on the articulation of words and the influence of fantasies concerning bodily relationships on the construction of words and sentences. It is suggested that such considerations may shed light on the behavior of those children on the autism spectrum whose symbolic capacity is greater than might be assumed from their use of language, and also on that of some children with selective mutism.

  6. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2013-01-01

    actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could......A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...

  7. Factors associated with signiifcant anxiety and depressive symptoms in pregnant women with a history of complicaitons%高危孕妇焦虑抑郁症状发生率及相关危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 蔡亦蕴; 刘乐; 钱洁艳; 凌青; 张玮; 罗剑锋; 陈焱; 施慎逊

    2016-01-01

    Background:The occurrence of complicaitons during the gestaiton period is higher among pregnant women with a history of complications than among pregnant women without previous complications. High-risk pregnancy can cause negative emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression in pregnant women. Current research on anxiety and depression symptoms in pregnant women is sparse. Aims: To examine the incidence of anxiety and depression symptoms in pregnant women with a history of previous complicaitons or high risk pregnancy and related risk factors. Methods:Women with a history of previous complications in pregnancy or current ‘high risk’ pregnancy (e.g. test tube feritlizaiton, etc.) were classiifed as ‘high risk’. 197 of these ‘high risk’ women who were in their second trimester (16 to 20 weeks) underwent a monthly comprehensive assessment using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) in the last 4 months of the gestaiton period. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for assessment and risk factor invesitgaiton 3 to 7 days, 42 days, and 3 months atfer childbirth. Results:The mean (sd) HAD anxiety score among ‘high-risk’women at the itme of enrollment was 3.69 (2.76) and depression score was 3.42 (2.53). Signiifcant anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms were found in 14 cases (7.18 %) and 10 cases (5.13%), respecitvely. Mulitvariate analysis showed a correlaiton between anxiety symptoms and history of miscarriage (OR: 8.162, 95%CI: 1.213 to 54.914)and testing positive for hepaitits (OR: 8.912, 95%CI: 1.052 to 75.498). Depressive symptoms were correlated with glucose posiitve urine (OR: 30.529, 95%CI: 1.312 to 710.610) and history of hemorrhaging (OR: 7.122, 95%CI: 1.015 to 49.984). General factors associated with anxiety and depression symptoms include paitents’ health status in the recent 3 months, concerns about fetal health, quality of marital relaitonship, and relaitonship with in-laws. Conclusions:Anxiety and

  8. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  9. A Cross-lagged Analysis of the Relationship between Parent-Child Attachment and Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood%儿童中期亲子依恋与焦虑症状的交叉滞后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金霞

    2012-01-01

    以Kerns依恋安全性量表、Spence儿童焦虑量表为研究工具,对2所普通小学的472名三年级学生进行为期1年的追踪,考察儿童中期亲子依恋和焦虑症状的发展变化,以及亲子依恋与焦虑症状之间的关系。结果发现:(1)儿童中期的亲子依恋和焦虑症状在1年内较为稳定,分离焦虑、社交恐惧、恐慌障碍和强迫冲动障碍表现出一定的发展变化。(2)亲子依恋与焦虑症状呈显著负相关,依恋越安全,儿童的焦虑水平越低。(3)交叉滞后分析显示,亲子依恋在更大程度上影响儿童焦虑;母子依恋只具有同时性的影响,父子依恋既有同时性也有继时性的影响。(4)安全型父子依恋能够有效缓解不安全母子依恋的消极影响,安全型母子依恋对不安全父子依恋的补偿作用较小。%This longitudinal study investigated 472 children of 3rd grade from two ordinary primary schools twice (one year in between) to explore the development of parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms in middle childhood, as well as the relationships between parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms by Kerns Attachment Security Scale and Spence Children Anxiety Scale. The results indicated as follows: (1) Both parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms in mid-childhood existed stability to some extent, and separation anxiety, social phobia, panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder manifested developmental changes. (2) Parent-child attachment correlated negatively and significantly with children's anxiety, which meant that the higher attachment security was, the lower anxiety levels were. (3) Cross-lagged analyses indicated that parent-child attachment influenced children's anxiety, and maternal attachment has short-term effects, but paternal attachment has short- term and long-term effects on children' s anxiety. (4) Secure paternal attachment buffered

  10. 家庭支持对功能性躯体化症状患儿焦虑的影响研究%Study on the effect of family support on anxiety of children with functional somatic symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎春; 张杰; 曾昌英; 刘丽

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查功能性躯体化症状(FSS)患儿家庭支持感与焦虑现状,探讨家庭支持对FSS患儿焦虑的影响,为FSS患儿及其家庭成员进行有效的健康教育提供依据.方法 采取整群便利抽样方法,采用家庭关怀度指数问卷(APGAR)和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)对2012年1月-2014年4月在该院儿科门诊就医及住院的180例FSS患儿进行问卷调查.结果家庭支持度对FSS患儿焦虑症状有显著的预测作用(P<0.05).结论 对FSS患儿进行良好的家庭支持可减轻其焦虑症状.%Objective To survey the current situation of family support and anxiety among the children with functional somatic symptoms (FSS),explore the impact on anxiety children with FSS,provide a basis for conducting effective health education among children with FSS and the family members.Methods APGAR and HAMA were used to survey 180 children with FSS from Department of Pediatrics in the hospital from January 2012 to April 2014 by cluster convenience sampling method.Results Familv support significantly forecasted anxiety symptom among the children with FSS (P<0.05).Conclusion Good family support can relieve anxiety of the children with FSS.

  11. Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol and acetaldehyde-metabolising genes with alcohol dependence (with or without comorbid anxiety symptoms) in a Cape Mixed Ancestry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew; Dalvie, Shareefa; Lewis, Sarah; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel; Fein, George; Koenen, Karestan; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a χ2 test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p = 0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35% (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08, 1.68, p = 0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.05, p = 0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification.

  12. 天王补心丹加味治疗失眠为主焦虑症%Treatment for 41 Cases of Anxiety Disorders with Insomnia for the Main Symptoms by Tianwang Buxin Bolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小容; 周绍华; 司维; 洪霞

    2012-01-01

    Objectives:To observe the effect of Tianwang Buxin Bolus on anxiety disorders with insomnia for the main symptoms, and to compare with the effect of Western medicine. Methods: A total of 80 patients were randomly divided into treatment group ( n =41 ) and control group( n =39 ). The treatment group were treated with Tianwang Buxin Bolus, while the control group were given lorazepam. The effect and the side effect of the two groups were compared. Results: Both of the two methods can improve insomnia. The improvement of other anxiety symptoms in treatment group is obvious, and side effects is less than that of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Tianwang Buxin Bolus has obvious effect on improving anxiety disorders with insomnia for the main symptoms.%目的:观察天王补心丹加味治疗以失眠为主症焦虑症的疗效,与西药抗焦虑药对比.方法:将80例门诊患者分为2组,治疗组41例,采用中药天王补心丹加味治疗,对照组39例,采用劳拉西泮口服治疗,对2组疗效及副作用进行比较.结果:2种方法均可改善失眠,治疗组其他焦虑症状改善较对照组明显,且副作用小于对照组(P<0.05).结论:天王补心丹加味对于改善以失眠为主的焦虑症有明确疗效.

  13. Bodily remembering: memory, place, and understanding Latino folk illnesses among the Amuzgos Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    This paper takes the theoretical construct of popular nosology of Latino folk illnesses and combines it with Edward Casey's concept of bodily remembering in order to more fully describe the role of memory and place in the illness experiences of the Amuzgos Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. I ethnographically describe, across time, the interrelated links among social events, physical symptoms, and illness narratives of Latino folk illness popular nosologies as they are contextualized in their unique, social topographies. This enlarged theoretical perspective implies a smallest unit of meaning that is ethnographically defined, but that will often encompass more than the individual sufferer and more than one illness. The research objective of this study was to understand Amuzgan illness experiences through the narratives of detailed case histories and ethnographic observations that were gathered during 18 months of qualitative research. The data show that Amuzgos experience Latino folk illnesses as bodily rememberings of illness events combined with negative interpersonal interactions. Healing these Latino folk illnesses implies curing bodies, households, social relationships, and living environments.

  14. Examining self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Two feasibility open trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake F. Dear

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT has considerable public health potential for treating anxiety and depression. However, no research has examined the use of self-guided iCBT, that is, treatment without contact with a clinician, specifically for older adults. The aim of the present study was to undertake a preliminary examination of the acceptability, efficacy and health economic impact of two entirely self-guided iCBT programs for adults over 60 years of age with anxiety and depression. Two separate single-group feasibility open trials of self-guided iCBT were conducted, the Anxiety Trial (n = 27 and the Depression Trial (n = 20, using the control groups of two randomized controlled trials. The online treatment packages consisted of five online educational lessons, which were delivered over 8 weeks without clinical contact. Participants rated the interventions as acceptable with more than 90% reporting the course was worth their time and more than 70% of participants completing at least 3 of the 5 lessons within the eight weeks. Significant reductions on measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item; GAD-7 and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item; PHQ-9 were observed from pre-treatment to post-treatment in both the Anxiety Trial (GAD-7 Cohen's d = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.75 and the Depression Trial (PHQ-9 Cohen's d = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.33 to 1.73. The economic analyses indicated that there was statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life compared to baseline and marginally higher costs associated with treatment for both the Anxiety Trial ($69.84; 95% CI: $4.24 to $135.45 and the Depression Trial ($54.98; 95% CI: $3.84 to $106.12. The results provide preliminary support for the potential of entirely self-guided iCBT for older adults with anxiety and depression and indicate larger scale and controlled research trials are warranted.

  15. NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohale Deepak S.; Tripathi Alok S.; Wadhwani Paresh J.; Shrirao Abhijit V.; Chandewar Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P, the ...

  16. Children’s and parents’ evaluations of ‘FRIENDS for Life’, an indicated school-based prevention program for children with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Kösters, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that the school-based program FRIENDS for Life is effective in preventing childhood anxiety and depression. Effectiveness is, however, not the only prerequisite for successful implementation. Participants’ evaluation of a prevention program may provide suggestions about how to fine

  17. The Relationship between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…

  18. Beta-blocker therapy is not associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Hoogwegt (Madelein); N. Kupper (Nina); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBeta-blockers are frequently prescribed to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. Beta-blocker therapy has been proposed to induce emotional distress such as depression and anxiety, but a paucity of studies has examined the relationship between beta-blockers and distress.

  19. Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety : A longitudinal study in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Lonneke A.; de Jong, Peter J.; Sportel, B. Esther; de Hullu, Eva; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations.

  20. Assessment of changes in nicotine dependence, motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among smokers in the initial process of smoking reduction or cessation: a short-term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first days of a quit attempt represent an important challenge to long-term abstinence, especially because of the changes that take place over this period. Objective: To examine whether smokers who have recently changed their smoking behavior show changes in the intensity of nicotine dependence, motivational stage, or symptoms of anxiety and depression relative to smokers without recent changes in smoking behavior. Methods: Smokers attending a support group for smoking cessation in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were invited to participate. The program consisted of four weekly sessions. Smokers answered questionnaires covering intensity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression at baseline and in the fourth week. Urine was collected at both time points, tested for cotinine concentration, and used to determine the final status of smokers. Results: Of the 54 smokers included in the study, 20 (37% stopped smoking or decreased tobacco use. Both smokers who stopped or reduced tobacco use and those who did not change their behavior presented a decrease in nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.001. Conversely, only the smokers who changed behavior presented an increase in scores in the maintenance stage (p < 0.001. Conclusion: When modifying tobacco use, smokers face a difficult process, marked by several changes. A better understanding of these changes and their implications for treatment are discussed.

  1. New procedure for declaring accidents resulting in bodily injuries

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of personnel that, according to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Rev. 3), entitled “Protection of members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and incapacity for work”, accidents resulting in bodily injuries and presumed to be of an occupational nature should, under normal circumstances, be declared within 10 working days of the accident having occurred, accompanied by a medical certificate. In an effort to streamline procedures, occupational accident declarations should be made via EDH using the “declaration of occupational accident” electronic form. For the declaration of non-occupational accidents resulting in bodily injuries of members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), a new paper form has been elaborated that can be downloaded from the CHIS website and is also available from the UNIQA Helpdesk in the Main Building. If you encounter technical difficulties with these new ...

  2. 脑梗死后出现抑郁焦虑症状的影响因素分析%Analysis of factors affecting the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 张垚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of anxiety and depression after cerebral infarction.Methods using the self rating Depression Scale (SDS), self ratingAnxiety Scale (SAS) were performed in 200 patients by grading the risk factors ofdepression and anxiety after cerebral infarction analysis.Results multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors after cerebral infarction, including different lesion location,duration, marital status, there is no concomitant diseases, times of cerebral infarction,family history, the degree of neural function defect.Conclusion the common symptoms of depression and anxiety after stroke, and is affected by many factors, seriously affect therecovery of neural function and daily ability recovery, should be paid attention to.%目的:探讨脑梗死后抑郁焦虑症状的影响因素。方法采用自评抑郁量表(SDS)、自评焦虑量表(SAS)对200例患者进行评分测定,对脑梗死后抑郁焦虑状态的危险因素进行分析。结果多因素分析提示脑梗死后的危险因素包括不同病变部位、病程、婚姻状况、有无伴发疾病、脑梗死次数、家族史、神经功能缺损程度。结论脑卒中后的抑郁焦虑症状常见,且受多种因素影响,严重影响神经功能康复和日常能力的恢复,应予以重视。

  3. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  4. 酒依赖患者社交焦虑的检出率:以医院为基础的调查%The rate of social anxiety symptoms among alcoholics: A hospital-based survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宇甲; 李冰; 林仲

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解酒依赖患者中合并社交焦虑症状的情况、两者共病的特点及起病的时间顺序.方法:选取符合国际疾病和相关健康问题分类第十版(ICD-10)诊断标准的酒依赖住院患者及嗜酒者匿名互助会的酒依赖患者56例,与之年龄、性别相匹配的健康人群56例作为对照组;用Liebowitz社交焦虑量表(LSAS)评估两组社交焦虑严重程度,抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估抑郁程度,自编一般状况调查表调查其人口学及饮酒特点等.将酒依赖组根据是否伴有社交焦虑再分为共病组(n=17)及单病组(n=39).结果:根据LSAS评分,酒依赖组的社交焦虑筛查检出率高于对照组(30.4% vs.12.7%,P<0.05);酒依赖组的LSAS总分[(29.6±20.4) vs.(17.5±14.6),P<0.05]及各因子分均高于对照组;酒依赖与社交焦虑共病组的SDS抑郁严重度指数[(0.52±0.10) vs.(0.45±0.09),P<0.05]高于酒依赖单病组;15例(88.2%)共病患者的社交焦虑症状出现在最初饮酒前;13例(76.5%)共病者饮酒社交焦虑症状减轻;9例(52.9%)报告停酒后社交焦虑症状加重.结论:酒依赖患者中社交焦虑者较非酒依赖组更常见,酒依赖伴社交焦虑者较不伴社交焦虑者的抑郁程度更重.%Objective: To investigate the social anxiety symptoms in alcoholics, the features of the comorbidity and the chronological order relationship between the first social anxiety symptoms and first drinking. Methods: Totally 56 inpatients or Alcoholics Anonymous members were recruited in the alcoholics group. The control group included 56 healthy people matched with the alcoholics group in both age and gender. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to assess the severity of social anxiety and depression symptoms. The participants were required to complete the self-made questionnaire about demographic and drinking features. The alcoholics'group was divided into

  5. Heart-related anxieties in relation to general anxiety and severity of illness in cardiology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness.

  6. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  7. DEVELOPING OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE ANXIETY SCALE: VALIDITY - RELIABILITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2014-07-01

    /herself incapable in an environment which is threatening or challenging. Individual focuses on undesirable consequences of his/her personal incapabilities in the course of an occasion s/he faces. Anxiety is not developed by events, far from it, the irrational beliefs of people give rise to anxiety. That’s to say, what is important is the meaning attributed to that occasion (Wilde, 1995.In addition, anxiety is also defined as the mental condition showing itself with the bodily symptoms of the tension arising from strong negative feelings, danger to come and expecting a disaster. Even though it is good from time to time, too extreme and uncontrollable anxiety weakens the individual and can make him/her incapable of doing things which normally s/he can do (Masch and Wolfe, 2002. While the common bodily reactions of a person who reports that s/he is anxious may have rapid heartbeat, shivering, hoarse voice, extreme wetting, outer appearance of an anxious person represents a person who want to lend a hand to everything but cannot choose what to do. His/Her face reflects that s/he is in panic and who needs urgent help (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000.Performance anxiety which is defined as  anxiety  state  related to fail  control one’s acts in the presence of other people or for fear of making a mistake (Cox and Kenardy, 1993, Salmon (1999  named the performance anxiety, which was called in several names in previous literature, as the anxiety for musical performance and defined it as an individual experiences anxiety with the thought that his/her performance before the audience will not be good regardless of his/her education, musical talent and making any preparations (Fehm and Schmidt, 2006.The primary occasions in which anxiety for musical performance are likely to be experienced are activities where students exhibit their performance by individual instruments. These activities can sometimes include various individual stage performances, while exams for individual instruments can

  8. Cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-06-01

    A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.

  9. Successful application of adaptive emotion regulation skills predicts the subsequent reduction of depressive symptom severity but neither the reduction of anxiety nor the reduction of general distress during the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin M Wirtz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD. However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS, anxiety symptom severity (ASS, and general distress severity (GDS over the course of treatment for MDD. METHODS: Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. RESULTS: Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. CONCLUSIONS: Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms.

  10. Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Carol-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing.

  11. Cardio-respiratory symptoms in panic disorder: a contribution from cognitive-behaviour therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Spear King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT associated with the medication with patients treated only with medication and verify the behaviour of the cardio-respiratory symptoms of both groups. Methods: Randomized sample in the Psychiatry Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, divided in two groups of 25 participants each. Group 1 undertook 10 weekly sessions of CBT with one hour of duration each together with medication. Group 2, Control, were administered medication that only consisted of tricyclic anti-depressants and selective inhibitors of the re-uptake of serotonin. Evaluation instruments were applied at the beginning and to the end of the interventions. Results: According to the applied scales, group 1 showed statistically more significant results than group 2, with: reduction of panic attacks, cardio-respiratory symptoms, anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia avoidance and fear of bodily sensations. Conclusion: Exposures (in vivo and interoceptive, especially for induction symptom exercises and relaxation, were considered essential to prepare patients with panic disorder to handle future cardio-respiratory symptoms and panic attacks with agoraphobia.

  12. Longitudinal Genetic Analysis of Anxiety Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M. S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors' aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the…

  13. Mathematics Anxiety and the Underprepared Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Cathy

    This article discusses the symptoms and causes of math anxiety, and preventative measures that teachers can use to alleviate the stress some students experience in mathematics problem solving. Mathematics anxiety is defined as "feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems…

  14. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  15. 广泛性焦虑症中医症状及证候要素的临床调研%Clinical investigation on TCM symptoms and syndrome factors of generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿东; 郭蓉娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the distribution characteristics of TCM symptoms and syndrome factors of generalized anxiety disorder.Methods The patients with diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (n =200) were asked to fill in the questionnaire for collecting four examination information.The distribution characteristics of TCM symptoms and syndrome factors were analyzed by applying Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) 、Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD),dexcriptive analysis and cluster analysis.The syndrome factors and HAMA scores were given Spearman correlation analysis.Results The first ten symptoms were impatient,irritability,depressed mood,oppression in the chest,sighing,fatigue,palpitation,dreaminess,short breath,heaviness of head and body,lassitude of spirit,laziness to speak,dry mouth and throat and bitter taste in mouth.The syndrome factors included qi stagnation,qi deficiency,fireheat,blood deficiency,yin deficiency,phlegm syndrome and blood stasis.According to the clustering results,blood deficiency,fire-heat,phlegm syndrome,qi deficiency,qi stagnation and yin deficiency were clustered into one class,and blood stasis was clustered into another class.Qi deficiency and qi stagnation were positively correlated to HAMA scores (P < 0.05).Conclusion TCM syndrome factors are mainly qi deficiency and qi stagnation in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder,and the more serious the anxiety is,the higher the scores of these syndrome factors are.%目的 探讨广泛性焦虑症中医症状及证候要素分布特征.方法 由确诊的200例广泛性焦虑症患者填写四诊信息采集表,应用汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、抑郁量表(HAMD)评分,采用描述性分析和聚类分析对症状、证候要素等的分布特点进行分析,并对证候要素与HAMA分值进行Spearman相关分析.结果 前十位症状依次为急躁易怒、心情郁闷、胸闷喜太息、乏力疲倦、心慌多梦、短气、头身困重、神疲懒言、口干咽燥、口苦,证

  16. Effect of Psychological Intervention on Anxiety and Depression Symptoms of Patients with Lung Cancer:A Meta-analysis%心理干预对肺癌患者焦虑抑郁症状影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 刘威

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression symptoms of patients with lung cancer using meta - analysis. Methods Wan Fang, CNKI, VIP and CBM databases were searched for clinical controlled trials on effect of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression symptoms of patients with lung cancer. Data were analyzed with RevMan 5. 1. 6 and Stata 12. 0 softwares. Results were described as standardized mean difference or odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 8 clinical controlled trials involving 608 lung cancer patients ( 349 in intervention group and 259 in control group ) were included in this systematic review. Meta - analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in pre - intervention self - rating depression scale scores and self - rating anxiety scale scores. However, post - intervention self-rating depression scale scores and self - rating anxiety scale scores of the intervention group were significantly lower than that of the control group ( P≤0. 05 ). Conclusion The present data suggest that psychological intervention may considerably improve anxiety and depression symptoms and quality of life of patients with lung cancer. Further well - designed randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm current conclusions.%目的 采用Meta分析的方法探讨心理干预对肺癌患者焦虑抑郁症状的影响.方法 计算机检索万方、维普、CNKI及中国生物医学等中文数据库,全面收集有关心理干预对肺癌患者焦虑抑郁症状影响的临床对照试验,汇总数据采用RevMan 5.1.6和Stata 12.0进行分析,两组之间差异采用标准均数差(SMD)或OR及其95%CI描述.结果 根据纳入和排除标准最终纳入8个临床对照试验,包括608例肺癌患者,其中观察组349例,对照组259例.Meta分析结果表明:治疗前,心理干预组与对照组患者抑郁自评量表(SDS)评分[ SMD=0.61,95%CI(-0

  17. Effect of Duloxetine on painful physical symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder%度洛西汀治疗广泛性焦虑障碍疼痛症状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奉玉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨度洛西汀治疗广泛性焦虑障碍疼痛症状的有效性。方法将55例伴有疼痛症状的广泛性焦虑障碍患者分为两组,分别给予度洛西汀(研究组)28例和帕罗西汀(对照组)27例治疗。于治疗前及治疗后第8周末采用汉密尔顿焦虑量表( HAMA)和疼痛视觉模拟量表( VAS)进行评估,使用治疗中需处理的不良反应症状量表( TESS)评定药物安全性。结果研究组治疗后第8周末6项疼痛VAS评分均较治疗前下降(P<0.01),对照组治疗后第8周末VAS总体疼痛、头痛、背痛及醒时疼痛时间均较治疗前下降( P<0.05)。治疗后第8周末研究组的6项疼痛VAS评分均低于对照组(P<0.01),研究组总有效率及疼痛症状显著缓解率均高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论度洛西汀可显著改善广泛性焦虑障碍患者的焦虑症状及疼痛症状。%Objective To investigate the effect of duloxetine on painful symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Methods A total of 55 GAD patients with painful physical symptoms were randomized into study group (28 cases) treated with duloxetine and control group ( 27 cases ) treated with paroxetine for 8 weeks.All patients were assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS) at baseline and at the endpoint of the treatment. Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) was used to evaluate the safety.Results Compared with baseline, all factor scores of 6 items in VAS in study group decreased significantly at the endpoint (P<0.01).However, patients in control group showed significant decrease only in factor scores of overall pain, encephalalgia, dorsalgia and awake pain duration (P<0.05).Factor scores of all 6 items in VAS in study group were significantly lower than those in control group at the end of 8th week ( P<0.01).Total response rate of GAD and remission rate of painful physical symptoms in

  18. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, P; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Pase, C S; Muller, L G; Teixeira, A M; Zanella, R; Prado, A C P; Fett, R; Block, J M; Burger, M E

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the role of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shells aqueous extract (AE) against oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and behavioral parameters of smoking withdrawal. Mice were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 weeks (6, 10, and 14 cigarettes/day) and orally treated with AE (25 g/L). CSE induced lipid peroxidation in brain and red blood cells (RBC), increased catalase (CAT) activity in RBC, and decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. AE prevented oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In addition, AE reduced the locomotor activity and anxiety symptoms induced by smoking withdrawal, and these behavioral parameters showed a positive correlation with RBC lipid peroxidation. Our results showed the beneficial effects of this by-product of the pecan industry, indicating its usefulness in smoking cessation.

  19. Anxiety and Resistance in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazime Tuncay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate students' anxiety and resistance towards learning through distance education.Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: -What are the reasons of students not choosing distancelearning courses? -Which symptoms of anxiety, if any, do distance learner’s exhibit towards distance learning? Does genderhave any significant relationships with distance learners' perception of factors that affect their anxiety and resistance? A totalof 120 distance education students in Near East University were observed and 96 of them were interviewed. Computer anxiety,language anxiety, social anxiety were observed to be among the reasons of students’ resistance to distance learning.

  20. Game Mechanics and Bodily Interactions: Designing Interactive Technologies for Sports Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller

    Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training......, the technological advancements have led to the development of multiple devices and systems, allowing athletes and coaches to measure bodily performances and monitor progress. In parallel, the same technological advancements have been used to create bodily games, i.e. engaging computer games that utilize physical...