WorldWideScience

Sample records for bod

  1. Comparison Study of Different BOD Tests in the Determination of BOD7 Evaluated in a Model Domestic Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Prokkola; Eeva Heiska; Jaakko Rämö; Katri Roppola; Toivo Kuokkanen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the suitability of a manometric respirometric test (OECD 301F) for the determination of biological oxygen demand (BOD) in domestic wastewater. This was done by comparing four different BOD tests (a manometric respirometric test, oxygen sensor determination, iodometric titration, and UV absorption measurement) and by evaluating the BOD7 value after a short-term measurement applying the manometric respirometric test. Measurements were done in three dif-fere...

  2. REMOVAL OF SOLUBLE BOD(5) IN PRIMARY CLARIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was directed to evaluating means for increasing BOD removal from primary treatment systems treating pulp and paper wastes. An improved understanding of the optimal conditions for soluble and colloidal BOD removal should permit increasing efficiency in total organic r...

  3. The possibility of using BOD on-line measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianzi

    2012-01-01

    BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is one of the important parameters in wastewater treatment technology,  it normally takes five days to get the result. Using MFC (Microbial Fuel Cell) to build up a small on-line system to measure BOD will reduce to operating time to 20 minutes. In this report, the MFC BOD on-line measurement was processed in order to test if this rapid way would work in practical usage. The experiment used secondary sedimentation sludge as the bacteria source on the MFC anode ...

  4. Bod1, a novel kinetochore protein required for chromosome biorientation

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Iain M.; McClelland, Sarah E.; Khoudoli, Guennadi A; Hunter, Christopher J; Andersen, Jens S; McAinsh, Andrew D.; Blow, J Julian; Swedlow, Jason R

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the proteomic analysis of Xenopus laevis in vitro–assembled chromosomes with RNA interference and live cell imaging in HeLa cells to identify novel factors required for proper chromosome segregation. The first of these is Bod1, a protein conserved throughout metazoans that associates with a large macromolecular complex and localizes with kinetochores and spindle poles during mitosis. Small interfering RNA depletion of Bod1 in HeLa cells produces elongated mitotic spindles wit...

  5. Comparison Study of Different BOD Tests in the Determination of BOD7 Evaluated in a Model Domestic Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Roppola

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the suitability of a manometric respirometric test (OECD 301F for the determination of biological oxygen demand (BOD in domestic wastewater. This was done by comparing four different BOD tests (a manometric respirometric test, oxygen sensor determination, iodometric titration, and UV absorption measurement and by evaluating the BOD7 value after a short-term measurement applying the manometric respirometric test. Measurements were done in three dif-ferent laboratories. The respirometric test was performed well on municipal sewage, and the precision of results was good. There were minor deviations between BOD7 values as determined by the different methods, but the deviations were not essentially big enough to have a practical impact. Evaluation of the BOD7 value after two or three days' incubation by the respirometric method was shown to work well; average deviations between measured and evaluated values after three days' incubation were 5–18%. Hence, the manometric respirometric test proved to be a rapid and suitable tool for process control purposes.

  6. Metal Ion Effect on BOD Exertion at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Sharma; Siloni Goel; SUSHEEL K. MITTAL

    2004-01-01

    The toxic effect of metal ions like chromium (Cr3+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of synthetic wastewater samples has been studied at different temperatures i.e., 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. Experiments were conducted for BOD exertion in presence (10 ppm of each metal ion) and in the absence of metal ions at different temperatures. Transition metal ions like Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ show an increase ...

  7. Measurement of sewage COD and BOD using fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the biodegradable component of wastewater is measured by a series of wet chemical methods, of which the most important is considered to be the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) TEST. The BOD test is inadequate for effective and efficient process control because of the time required to complete the test (5 days) and the difficulty in achieving consistently accurate measurements. Other chemical tests such as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), despite being more rapid the the Bod test, do not distinguish between 'biodegradable' and 'non-biodegradable' organic matter. We designed fluorescence instrument that was excited by UV-lamp. The biodegradable chromophoric constant species are considered to be the major contributors to the overall fluorescence within 300-600 nm (using 244 nm excitation). The total intensity of this band has been found to have a good linear correlation (r=0.99) with the COD and BOD parameters. CCD and PMT are used as the fluorescence detectors and the experimental results of correlation were compared.

  8. Correlation of COD and BOD of domestic wastewater with the power output of bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research article deals with the studies on the development of the correlation of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ of domestic wastewater (DWW), and fermented domestic wastewater (FDWW) with the power output of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). The fermentation of DWW was carried out with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to produce biohydrogen which was converted to the electrical energy through the development of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The values of COD, BOD, and BOD/sub 5/ for yogurt fermented domestic wastewater (Yogurt-FDWW) were found to be greater than the values of yeast fermented domestic wastewater (Yeast-FDWW). The power output of DWW and FDWW was increased with the increase in COD, BOD and BOD/sub 5/ values. The main objective of this article is to develop the renewable alternative of fossil fuels which are the major cause of global warming and global pollution. (author)

  9. BOD1 Is Required for Cognitive Function in Humans and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli-Nieh, Sahar; Fenckova, Michaela; Porter, Iain M; Motazacker, M Mahdi; Nijhof, Bonnie; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Asztalos, Zoltan; Weißmann, Robert; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Tzschach, Andreas; Felbor, Ute; Scherthan, Harry; Sayfati, Seyed Morteza; Ropers, H Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Swedlow, Jason R; Schenck, Annette; Kuss, Andreas W

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a stop-mutation in the BOD1 (Biorientation Defective 1) gene, which co-segregates with intellectual disability in a large consanguineous family, where individuals that are homozygous for the mutation have no detectable BOD1 mRNA or protein. The BOD1 protein is required for proper chromosome segregation, regulating phosphorylation of PLK1 substrates by modulating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity during mitosis. We report that fibroblast cell lines derived from homozygous BOD1 mutation carriers show aberrant localisation of the cell cycle kinase PLK1 and its phosphatase PP2A at mitotic kinetochores. However, in contrast to the mitotic arrest observed in BOD1-siRNA treated HeLa cells, patient-derived cells progressed through mitosis with no apparent segregation defects but at an accelerated rate compared to controls. The relatively normal cell cycle progression observed in cultured cells is in line with the absence of gross structural brain abnormalities in the affected individuals. Moreover, we found that in normal adult brain tissues BOD1 expression is maintained at considerable levels, in contrast to PLK1 expression, and provide evidence for synaptic localization of Bod1 in murine neurons. These observations suggest that BOD1 plays a cell cycle-independent role in the nervous system. To address this possibility, we established two Drosophila models, where neuron-specific knockdown of BOD1 caused pronounced learning deficits and significant abnormalities in synapse morphology. Together our results reveal novel postmitotic functions of BOD1 as well as pathogenic mechanisms that strongly support a causative role of BOD1 deficiency in the aetiology of intellectual disability. Moreover, by demonstrating its requirement for cognitive function in humans and Drosophila we provide evidence for a conserved role of BOD1 in the development and maintenance of cognitive features. PMID:27166630

  10. BAYESIAN PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN A MIXED-ORDER MODEL OF BOD DECAY. (U915590)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a generalized version of the BOD decay model in which the reaction is allowed to assume an order other than one. This is accomplished by making the exponent on BOD concentration a free parameter to be determined by the data. This "mixed-order" model may be ...

  11. Predicted Versus Measured Thoracic Gas Volume For The Bod Pod® Air Displacement Plethysmography System

    OpenAIRE

    Blaney, Phil A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference between measured values of thoracic gas volume (MTGV) and predicted values of thoracic gas volume (PTGV) using the Bod Pod®. One hundred and thirteen college freshmen, both males and females, were tested using the Bod Pod® by first measuring thoracic gas volume with the Bod Pod® technique, then by using pre-determined values based on height, weight, and age that predict thoracic gas volume. Results of a paire...

  12. Simulation of temperature distribution, BOD, and DO by thermal effluents of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient one, two, or three dimensional numerical model for simulation of heat load by power plants is presented. Water quality is determined by three parameters: temperature, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and disolved oxygen (DO). (orig.)

  13. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass. PMID:26402571

  14. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi Soil Layering (MSL system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL system, and then it can determine the efficiency of MSL system on reducing the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater. The method which used in this research is an experimental method. The wastewater on the MSL system is loaded on the loading rate variety: 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system to removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are determined on optimal loading rate. The research gave result that MSL method could remove BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater on the optimal loading rate 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system in removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are 96.52 and 80.87% respectively. This indicated that the method MSL serve the purpose of effective alternative method in processing of liquid waste textile industry.

  15. COD and BOD reduction from coffee processing wastewater using Avacado peel carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rani; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater from coffee processing plant using activated carbon made up of Avacado Peels. The complete study was done in batch mode to investigate the effect of operating parameters. The results of the COD and BOD concentration reduction with avocado peel carbon (APC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were compared and optimum operating conditions were determined for maximum reduction. Adsorption isotherm was also studied besides the calculation of optimum treatment parameters for maximum reduction of COD and BOD concentration from effluent of the coffee processing plant. The maximum percentage reduction of COD and BOD concentration under optimum operating conditions using APC was 98.20% and 99.18% respectively and with CAC this reduction was 99.02% and 99.35% respectively. As the adsorption capacity of APC is comparable with that of CAC for reduction of COD and BOD concentration, it could be a lucrative technique for treatment of domestic wastewater generated in decentralized sectors. PMID:17493806

  16. BoD services in layer 1 VPN with dynamic virtual concatenation group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD) services are characteristic of dynamic bandwidth provisioning based on customers' resource requirement, which will be a must for future networks. BoD services become possible with the development of make-before-break, Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS). In this paper, we introduce BoD services into L1VPN, thus the resource assigned to a L1VPN can be gracefully adjusted at various bandwidth granularities based on customers' requirement. And we propose a dynamic bandwidth adjustment scheme, which is compromise between make-before-break and VCAT&LCAS and mainly based on the latter. The scheme minimizes the number of distinct paths to support a connection between a source-destination pair, and uses make-beforebreak technology for re-optimization.

  17. A river water quality model for time varying BOD discharge concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Seth F. Oppenheimer; Donald Dean Adrian; Akram Alshawabkeh

    1999-01-01

    We consider a model for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in a semi-infinite river where the BOD is prescribed by a time varying function at the left endpoint. That is, we study the problem with a time varying boundary loading. We obtain the well-posedness for the model when the boundary loading is smooth in time. We also obtain various qualitative results such as ordering, positivity, and boundedness. Of greatest interest, we show that a periodic loading function admits a unique asymptotically...

  18. Penentuan Kadar COD Dan BOD Dalam Pengolahan Limbah Cair DIPKS PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan Kuala Tanjung

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Sherly Mayrina

    2011-01-01

    It has been done analysis of COD and BOD value of effluent in PKS PT.Multimas Nabati Asahan Kuala Tanjung on Finish Pond. From result of analysis is gitten by COD value is 239,53 mg/l and BOD value is 100,45 mg/l . As according to state’s minister citizenship and environment concerning standart of liquid quality for the palm oil industry, therefore the palm oil milling wastewater still fullfill standart to be thrown to water body.

  19. Veins filled with the Diluted Sap of Rationality: A Critical Reply to Rens Bod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fickers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues – in contradiction to the thesis developed by Rens Bod – that the hermeneutic tradition of humanities is not obsolete, especially when trying to understand the opportunities and challenges of using digital technologies for future research. The practice of digital history will have to be based on the critical analysis of the creation, enrichment, editing and retrieval of digital data as much as on the application of classical source criticism and historical contextualisation. If ‘content’ or rather ‘data’ is king in digital humanities, as imagined by Bod, context is its crown – at least for digital historians.

  20. EFFEKTIFITAS SARINGAN BIOFILTER ANAEROB DAN AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD5, COD DAN NITROGEN TOTAL LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanuddin, ishak; Hatijah; Seweng, Arifin

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to 1) compare effectiveness of aerobic and anaerob biofilters in reducing BOD5, COD, and Total Nitrogen levels, 2) examine the interaction between immersion times and biofilter medium in reducing BOD5, COD and Total Nitrogen levels. This study was an experimental study using biofilters of brick fraction and data analysis was permormed using ANOVE tes. Study result indicated that anaerobic and aerobic biofilters medium were effective in reducing BOD5, COD and Totall Nitrog...

  1. Restructuring BOD : COD Ratio of Dairy Milk Industrial Wastewaters in BOD Analysis by Formulating a Specific Microbial Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Purnima Dhall; Siddiqi, T. O.; Altaf Ahmad; Rita Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) is the pollution index of any water sample. One of the main factors influencing the estimation of BOD is the nature of microorganisms used as seeding material. In order to meet the variation in wastewater characteristics, one has to be specific in choosing the biological component that is the seeding material. The present study deals with the estimation of BOD of dairy wastewater using a specific microbial consortium and compares of the results with seeding mat...

  2. Penentuan Kadar COD dan BOD pada Limbah Cair Industri Kelapa Sawit di Balai Teknik Kesehatan Lingkungan dan Penanggulangan Penuyakit

    OpenAIRE

    Parapat, Irekha Ramot Olivia

    2015-01-01

    It has been done the determination of BOD and COD value in liquid waste at palm oil industry with titration method for determination of BOD value and spektrofotometri visible method for determination of COD. The result showed that BOD value of palm oil industry is 88,9 mg/L and COD value of palm oil industry is 140,9 mg/L. According to the standard which was established by the Minister of Living Environment number : KEP-51/MENLH/10/1995, maximum concentration BOD in oil palm industry waste wa...

  3. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem. PMID:26341334

  4. Ringtester for kjemiske vannanalyser. Ringtest 8113: Permanganattall, kjemisk oksygenforbruk (COD Cr) og biokjemisk oksygenforbruk (BOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1981-01-01

    I februar-mars 1981 deltok 111 laboratorier i en ringtest som omfattet bestemmelse av permanganattall, kjemisk oksygenforbruk (COD Cr) og biokjemisk oksygenforbruk (BOD) i syntetiske vannprøver. Ut fra absolutte nøyaktighetskrav ble 64% av analyseresultatene klassifisert som akseptable

  5. PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS OF K2-TEMPERATURE RELATION AND LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES OF BOD (BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND) PARAMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is presented for finding the least squares estimates for the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and rate coefficient for the BOD reaction without resorting to complicated computer algorithms or subjective graphical methods. This may be used in stream water quali...

  6. A river water quality model for time varying BOD discharge concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheimer Seth F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD in a semi-infinite river where the BOD is prescribed by a time varying function at the left endpoint. That is, we study the problem with a time varying boundary loading. We obtain the well-posedness for the model when the boundary loading is smooth in time. We also obtain various qualitative results such as ordering, positivity, and boundedness. Of greatest interest, we show that a periodic loading function admits a unique asymptotically attracting periodic solution. For non-smooth loading functions, we obtain weak solutions. Finally, for certain special cases, we show how to obtain explicit solutions in the form of infinite series.

  7. Veins filled with the Diluted Sap of Rationality: A Critical Reply to Rens Bod

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Fickers

    2013-01-01

    This article argues – in contradiction to the thesis developed by Rens Bod – that the hermeneutic tradition of humanities is not obsolete, especially when trying to understand the opportunities and challenges of using digital technologies for future research. The practice of digital history will have to be based on the critical analysis of the creation, enrichment, editing and retrieval of digital data as much as on the application of classical source criticism and historical contextualisatio...

  8. BOD: a customizable bioinformatics on demand system accommodating multiple steps and parallel tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Li-An; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qingyan; Zhu, Tao; Song, Chi; Lin, Wei; Wei, Guozhu; Mu, Lisen; Tao, Jiang; Zhao, Nanming; Yang, Guangwen; Liu, Xiangjun

    2004-01-01

    The integration of bioinformatics resources worldwide is one of the major concerns of the biological community. We herein established the BOD (Bioinformatics on demand) system to use Grid computing technology to set up a virtual workbench via a web-based platform, to assist researchers performing customized comprehensive bioinformatics work. Users will be able to submit entire search queries and computation requests, e.g. from DNA assembly to gene prediction and finally protein folding, from ...

  9. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-01-01

    The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2) and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and...

  10. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2 and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl and reduction in COD and BOD were observed at different chlorine, H2O2, FeSO4 doses, different pH values and contact time for determining the optimum values. COD and BOD values at optimized conditions for the two oxidants were compared and observed that maximum reduction of 64.35% and 68.57% respectively was achieved by Fenton’s reagent. The results clearly indicate that conventional system should be replaced by advanced oxidation process and Fenton’s reagent is a suitable choice.

  11. Re and 99mTc complexes of BodP3 – multi-modality imaging probes †

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Laura H; Kasten, Benjamin B.; Benny, Paul D.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Ge, Haobo; Pascu, Sofia I.; Stan W. Botchway; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W.; Higham, Lee J.

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescent tridentate phosphine, BodP3 (2), forms rhenium complexes which effectively image cancer cells. Related technetium analogues are also readily prepared and have potential as dual SPECT/fluorescent biological probes.

  12. Effects of acute and 2-hour postphysical activity on the estimation of body fat made by the bod pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Bradley J; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The Bod Pod has been found to be reliable/valid against several criterion methods, including hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and under different conditions, such as clothing, dehydrated states, and body temperature changes. However, questions remain regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on the estimations made by the Bod Pod. Participants (15 men and 22 women) were of age 18-27 years and were currently exercising. Baseline Bod Pod measures were completed followed by a 30-minute cycling trial at 75% of maximum heart rate. Bod Pod measures were taken immediately after exercise and 2 hours after exercise. Differences between men and women were found at baseline between height (p temperature (p temperature (p affect the prediction 2 hours after exercise in women. PMID:25756324

  13. Studi Korelasi Antara Bod Dengan Unsur Hara N, P Dan K Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidup Simanjuntak

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang studi korelasi antara BOD dengan unsur hara N, P dan K dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit. Sampel Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa sawit berasal dari Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah PT. Nusantara II (Persero) unit Pengolahan Sawit Seberang Kabupaten Langkat. Sampel diambil dari kolam Anaerobik primer 1, kolam Anaerobik primer 2, kolam Anaerobik sekunder 1 dan kolam Anaerobik sekunder 2. BOD dianalisa dengan metode Winkler, N dengan metode Dekstruksi Kjehldahl...

  14. A BOD-DO coupling model for water quality simulation by artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭劲松; LONG; Tengrui; 等

    2002-01-01

    A one-dimensional BOD-DO coupling model for water quality simulation is presented,which adopts Streeter-Phelps equations and the theory of back-propagation artificial neural network.The water quality data of Yangtze River in the Chongqing region in the year of 1989 are divided into 5 groups and used in the learning and testing courses of this model.The result shows that such model is feasible for water quality simulation and is more accurate than traditional models.

  15. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    OpenAIRE

    Irmanto; Suyata

    2008-01-01

    Multi Soil Layering (MSL) system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL sys...

  16. Simulation of DO and BOD for river Chenab under low flow condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The river Chenab is an urban river in the West of Pakistan. The river is polluted by numerous surface drains as it traverses through different municipalities and industrial cities in the Punjab province. The flow of the river is altered for different uses (i.e. irrigation, diversion to the Eastern Rivers) at various locations along its course. The present study is based on the results of Mike 11 modeling system for a 292 km long reach of the river Chenab. Water quality modeling was carried out to simulate DO (Dissolved Oxygen) and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand).A comprehensive data acquisition program was undertaken to fulfill the model input data requirements. The data collection activities included water quality monitoring, in situ as well as laboratory testing and pollution load estimations on monthly basis. The model was run under steady flow conditions. Calibration of the model was done with October 2007 data subsequently simulations were made using average data of low flow season (October- March) 2007-2008. The results of the model simulations indicate poor DO and BOD levels in the downstream river reach particularly from 200-270 km. Model runs under different scenarios showed that assuming no outflows from the river coupled with treatment of the effluents would be the best option for maximum water quality improvements in the river. (author)

  17. PREDICTION OF BOD AND COD OF A REFINERY WASTEWATER USING MULTILAYER ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Raj Rene

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, artificial neural networks (ANNs have shown the ability to learn and capture non-linear static or dynamic behaviour among variables based on the given set of data. Since the knowledge of internal procedure is not necessary, the modelling can take place with minimum previous knowledge about the process through proper training of the network. In the present study, 12 ANN based models were proposed to predict the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of wastewater generated from the effluent treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. By employing the standard back error propagation (BEP algorithm, the network was trained with 103 data points for water quality indices such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Phenol concentration, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AMN, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and Kjeldahl’s Nitrogen (KJN to predict BOD and COD. After appropriate training, the network was tested with a separate test data and the best model was chosen based on the sum square error (training and percentage average relative error (% ARE for testing. The results from this study reveal that ANNs can be accurate and efficacious in predicting unknown concentrations of water quality parameters through its versatile training process.

  18. OPTIMASI PENURUNAN NILAI BOD, COD DAN TSS LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAPIOKA MENGGUNAKAN ARANG AKTIF DARI AMPAS KOPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon from coffee dregs for TSS, BOD and COD removal of tapioca industrial wastewater has been developed. The research aimed to know the quality of activated carbon from dregs of coffee as adsorbent, consist of total rendemen, water content, ashes content and iodium adsorption; to know about the optimum contact time and optimum pH from activated carbon on reducing BOD, COD and TSS value from tapioca industrial wastewater and also to know about the decrease percentage of BOD, COD and TSS value using activated carbon from dregs of coffee. Activated carbon from dregs of coffee are activated using HCl 0,1 N and carbonization at 350°C in muffle furnace. Then, activated carbon was contacted with the tapioca industrial wastewater and used on decreasing BOD, COD and TSS value from tapioca industrial wastewater with contact time varieties 0, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and at pH varieties of wastewater 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The decreasing of BOD value was measured by Winkler method, decreasing of COD value measured by iodometric method and decreasing of TSS value measured by gravimetric method. The result of the research showed that the activated carbon produced characteristic consist of rendemen 14,55%; water content 3,4%; ashes content 1,88% and iodium adsorption 750,25 mg/g. It is indicated that the activated carbon that is got from dregs of coffee fulfill the criteria required by SNI No. 06-3730-1995. The result of research also showed that the activated carbon from dregs of coffee could be used for reducing the BOD, COD and TSS value in tapioca industrial wastewater at the optimum contact time of 30 minutes and pH 7. The optimum percentage of activated carbon from dregs of coffee in decreasing BOD value of tapioca industrial wastewater are 33,51%; COD value 78,96% and TSS value 61,05%.

  19. Determination of Water Sample Dilution Times in the Measurement of BOD 5 in Wastewater%测定废水BOD5时水样稀释倍数的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀兰

    2001-01-01

    根据测定BOD5所须具备条件,经过理论推导,得出水 样稀释倍数的大致范围,对多种工业废水测试验证,表明方法简便易行。%According to the indispensable conditions of measu ring BOD5,the method theorically deducted can draw the approximate range of water sample dilution times.The measurements of several kind of industrial was tewater proves that it is a convenient and feasible method.

  20. The influence of ozonated time on the degree of depreciation of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ozonated time towards degree depreciation of Bode, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste was done. This research aim study influence of lime adding and ozone using to reduce of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital waste. Added of lime mean for total increase ion OH-, while parameter of ozonization time mean to complete organic compounds oxidation in waste and flock formation. From this research it was found that optimum lime addition was 1.1% (% weight) and ozonization time was 20 minutes. In this condition it was achieved degree of BOD = 18.88 mg/l; COD = 25.68 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l and phosphate = 1.52 mg/l. This condition fulfil quality standard decided, that has to BOD = 75 mg/l; COD = 100 mg/l, TSS = 100 mg/l and phosphate = 2.0 mg/l. (author)

  1. Pengaruh waktu pengambilan sampel terhadap kadar bod, cod dan minyak/lemak dari air sungai silau kabupaten asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Manihuruk, Elperida

    2013-01-01

    It has done research on the effect of time sampling the rate of BOD, COD and oil/ fat in water content of Silau River Kabupaten Asahan. The sample was taken from the same sampling points N: 02o 58’ 15,2” E: 099o 38’ 54,2” by using time variation at 07.00 am, 10.00 am, 1 pm, 4 pm, 7 pm local time. There was done an examination about parameter of BOD, COD and oil/fat. The result of research showed that highest rate of BOD, COD and oil/ fat was at 7 am, and the lowest rate was noted at 4 pm loc...

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BOD-DO FOR LARGE RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With a large reservoir as an example, a 3-D Bi-ological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)model for large deep reservoirs was investigated by consider-ing the effects of low concentration of dissolved oxygen andstratified temperature structure. A dissolved oxygen satura-bility equation was initially developed in the model. The influ-ences of temperature on interfacial mass transfer coefficientand degradation rate coefficient and the restrained effects oflow DO concentration on the degrading process were includedin the model. The model is of great importance to accuratesimulation of the temperature influential characteristics of wa-ter quality and the degrading law of organic pollutants in alarge and deep reservoir.

  3. REDUCING COD AND BOD, AS WELL AS PRODUCING TRIACYLGLYCEROL BY LDS5 GROWN IN CTMP EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the energy shortage and pollution tend to slow down economic development and affect our daily lives. Some microorganisms not only can digest pollutants, but also can convert pollutant metabolites to triacylglycerol (TAG that can be used to produce biodiesel. Here, we present results showing that the bacterium strain LDS5, a mutant of Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 (RHA1 generated in our lab, could grow well in chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP effluent, a type of paper mill wastewater, reduce chemical oxygen demand (CODCr and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 significantly, and produce TAG. Our data suggest that this strain has the potential to be used in paper mill wastewater treatment as well as in the development of biodiesel using biomass from paper mills.

  4. Removal of turbidity, COD and BOD from secondarily treated sewage water by electrolytic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2013-03-01

    A preliminary study was conducted for the removal of turbidity (TD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from secondarily treated sewage (STS) water through the electrolytic batch mode experiments with DC power supply (12 V) up to 30 min and using a novel concept of electrode combinations of different metals. The different surface areas (40, 80, 120 and 160 cm2) of the electrodes as a function of cross-sectional area of the reactor and the effect of inter-electrode distances (2.5-10 cm) on the electrolysis of STS water were studied. This study revealed that the effluent can be effectively treated with the aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrode combinations (Al-Fe and Fe-Al). The maximum removal of TD (81.51 %), COD (74.36 %) and BOD (70.86 %) was recorded with Al-Fe electrode system, while the removal of these parameters was found to be 71.11, 64.95 and 61.87 %, respectively, with Fe-Al electrode combination. The Al-Fe electrode combination had lower electrical energy consumption (2.29 kWh/m3) as compared to Fe-Al electrode combination (2.50 kWh/m3). The economic evaluation of electrodes showed that Al-Fe electrode combination was better than Fe-Al electrode combination. This revealed the superiority of aluminum as a sacrificial electrode over that of iron which can probably be attributed to better flocculation capabilities of aluminum than that of iron.

  5. Älgarås avloppsreningsverk- studie och metodisk felsökning av en biobädds BOD-rening

    OpenAIRE

    Haglind, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater contains biodegradable materials, which are often measured as BOD7. Trickling filters are sometimes used as a purification step for BOD-reduction. A trickling filter is a tower, which is filled with a carrier material. Microorganisms grow on the carrier material in the form of a biofilm. This biofilm consists mostly of bacteria that purify water from BOD. In Älgarås’ wastewater treatment plant the water is purified by a trickling filter. However the treatment plant has difficulties...

  6. PENURUNAN TSS, BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU DI DESA CILONGOK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ZEOLIT TERAKTIVASI DAN TERIMPREGNASI TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Suyata; Irmanto

    2009-01-01

    Activated and impregnated TiO2 zeolite systems to reduce TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater in Cilongok Villages had been developed. Activated and impregnated zeolite systems were expected to be able to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD. Thus, the research was aimed to know the ability of zeolite systems to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater. The research used five difference loading rates of tofu industrial wastewater which we...

  7. Comparison Study of Manometric Respirometric Test and Common Chemical Methods in the Determination of BOD bold7 in a Pulp and Paper Mill's Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Pöykiö; Hanna Prokkola; Toivo Kuokkanen; Jaakko Rämö; Hannu Nurmesniemi; Katri Roppola

    2006-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) test is widely used in many wastewater treatment plants. The conventional BOD tests are usually time-consuming and the results are often out of date for process control purposes. The aim of this research was to compare the manometric respirometric test with common chemical methods in the determination of BOD of wastewater from a pulp and paper mills as well as to evaluate the BOD7 values of both wastewaters from the short-term respirometric measurements. Th...

  8. OPTIMASI PENURUNAN COD, BOD, DAN TSS LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI ETANOL(vinasse PSA PALIMANAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING (MSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Industri etanol merupakan salah satu industri yang menimbulkan pencemaran terhadap lingkungan khususnya sistem perairan. Banyaknya limbah cair etanol yang dibuang serta senyawa-senyawa organik dapat menyebabkan rusaknya ekosistem di perairan. Untuk mengatasi pencemaran limbah cair etanol, digunakan metode Multi Soil Layering (MSL sebagai salah satu metode alternatif. MSL adalah suatu metode pengolahan limbah cair yang meningkatkan fungsi tanah untuk pemurnian limbah cair. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode MSL untuk mengolah limbah cair industri etanol sebelum dibuang ke perairan. Metode MSL merupakan suatu sistem pengolahan limbah yang menggunakan beberapa material seperti tanah, zeolit, dan arang tempurung kelapa yang dibentuk dalam suatu susunan pola bata bertingkat. Faktor yang diteliti adalah kecepatan pengisian yang terdiri dari 5 tahap yaitu: 160, 320, 480, 640, dan 800L.m-2hari-1, kemudian ditentukan efesiensi sistem MSL dalam menurunkan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS limbah cair industri etanol (vinasse PSA Palimanan menggunakan kecepatan pengisian optimum. Penentuan kadar COD ditentukan dengan metode refluks, penentuan kadar BOD menggunakan metode Winkler dan penentuan kadar TSS ditentukan dengan menggunakan gravimetri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengolahan limbah cair industri etanol (vinasse PSA Palimanan dengan metode MSL dapat menurunkan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS pada kecepatan pengisian optimum 320 L.m-2hari-1. Efisiensi sistem MSL dalam menurunkan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS masing-masing sebesar 80,85%; 94,68%; dan 83,99%.

  9. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p TGV measured. PMID:26316087

  10. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10-4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  11. Correlation between COD and BOD5 and tracking of a sewage treatment station through statistical techniques for processes control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective to determine the correlation between COD and BOD5 and evaluate the performance of a sewage treatment station by means of techniques of statistical process control considering the parameters of COD and BOD5. For the correlation were used the values for entry and exit from a sewage treatment station (STS in the city of Cascavel-Paraná, between the months of January of 2005 to June of 2006 and for the application of statistical process control were use only the values from the point before the launch in the water course, in the period of January of 2006 to January of 2009 with monthly frequency. For the raw sewage (influent, the linear regression equation showed r equal to 0,987 which indicate that the BOD5 can be replaced by the parameter of COD. For the effluent, the linear regression equation showed r equals 0,76, which can be considered high. The treatment station showed not be able to answer always the legislation for both the parameter of COD and BOD5, because the process capacity rates were low.

  12. Transport of Saharan dust from the Bodélé Depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the Sahara desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since Saharan dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in Southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the Central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa, the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the marine boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  13. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  14. Detekce zájmových bodů na CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ryba, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Detekce rohových bodů je jednou z mnoha činností, v rámci počítačového vidění, použitelných pro určování pohybu, sledování objektů, porovnávání obrazů, atd. Většina algoritmů je však komplexních a výpočetně náročných. Zde vstupuje platforma CUDA. Funkce běžící paralelně na grafických akcelerátorech mohou výrazně snížit čas nutný pro výpočet. Takto je umožněno detekovat rohové body v real-time nebo rychleji. Práce se zabývá algoritmy Moravec a Harris a jejich efektivní implementací na CUDA. Dů...

  15. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics. PMID:12655806

  16. PENURUNAN TSS, BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU DI DESA CILONGOK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ZEOLIT TERAKTIVASI DAN TERIMPREGNASI TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated and impregnated TiO2 zeolite systems to reduce TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater in Cilongok Villages had been developed. Activated and impregnated zeolite systems were expected to be able to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD. Thus, the research was aimed to know the ability of zeolite systems to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater. The research used five difference loading rates of tofu industrial wastewater which were 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480 L m-2 day-1. The most effective loading rate was determined by analyzing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD before and after processing using zeolite systems. The reduced concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD was determined by filling the activated and impregnated zeolite with industrial wastewater for 24 hours continuously in 30 days. Sampling was done in every 5 days with loading rate of 320 L m-2 day-1. The results indicated that zeolite systems could reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater. The optimum loading rate to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD was 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of acid activated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 83.348%, 91.899%, and 90.700%, respectively. The efficiency of base activated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 84.380%, 93.711%, and 91.928%, respectively. The efficiency of impregnated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 82.410%, 90.711%, and 89.917%, respectively.

  17. Perbandingan NaOH Dan Ca(OH)2 Pada Proses Penurunan Kadar Minyak, Nilai BOD Dan COD Dalam Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (LCPKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanggang, Ratna Sari

    2011-01-01

    Comparison has been done NaOH with Ca(OH)2 on the reduction of oil / grease, BOD and COD values in Palm Oil Factory Wastewater (LCPKS), Level of oil/fat was analyzed by the gravimetric, BOD values were analysed method of Winkler and COD values with were analysed method of titrimetri refluks. Initial sample analysis showed that the concentration of oil / grease, BOD and COD values respectively at the beginning of the aeration pond was 81.30 mg / L; 591.63 mg / L and 1438.53 mg / L whi...

  18. Korelasi Antara Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Terhadap pH, Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Alkaliniti Dan Minyak/ Lemak

    OpenAIRE

    Rusmey Togatorop

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang studi korelasi antara BOD dengan TSS, Minyak/lemak, alkalinity dan pH dalam Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit.Sampel Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa sawit berasal dari Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah PT. Nusantara II (Persero) unit Pengolahan Sawit Seberang kabupaten Langkat. Sampel diambil dari kolam Anaerobik primer 1, kolam Anaerobik primer 2, kolam Anaerobik sekunder 1 dan kolam Anaerobik sekunder 2. BOD ditentukan dengan metode Winkler, TSS ditentukan dengan...

  19. Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Washington

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness.

  20. Modeling the BOD of Danube River in Serbia using spatial, temporal, and input variables optimized artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić Tomić, Aleksandra N; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the application of artificial neural network models for the prediction of biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the Danube River. Eighteen regularly monitored water quality parameters at 17 stations on the river stretch passing through Serbia were used as input variables. The optimization of the model was performed in three consecutive steps: firstly, the spatial influence of a monitoring station was examined; secondly, the monitoring period necessary to reach satisfactory performance was determined; and lastly, correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship among water quality parameters. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to evaluate model performance in the first two steps, whereas in the last step, multiple statistical indicators of performance were utilized. As a result, two optimized models were developed, a general regression neural network model (labeled GRNN-1) that covers the monitoring stations from the Danube inflow to the city of Novi Sad and a GRNN model (labeled GRNN-2) that covers the stations from the city of Novi Sad to the border with Romania. Both models demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and actually observed BOD values. PMID:27094057

  1. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of the Bodélé Depression dust source and implications for transatlantic dust transport to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchami, Wafa; Näthe, Kerstin; Kumar, Ashwini; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Williams, Earle; Horbe, Adriana M. C.; Rosa, João W. C.; Balsam, William; Adams, David; Mezger, Klaus; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2013-10-01

    The Bodélé Depression (Chad) in the central Sahara/Sahel region of Northern Africa is the most important source of mineral dust to the atmosphere globally. The Bodélé Depression is purportedly the largest source of Saharan dust reaching the Amazon Basin by transatlantic transport. Here, we have undertaken a comprehensive study of surface sediments from the Bodélé Depression and dust deposits (Chad, Niger) in order to characterize geochemically and isotopically (Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes) this dust source, and evaluate its importance in present and past African dust records. We similarly analyzed sedimentary deposits from the Amazonian lowlands in order to assess postulated accumulation of African mineral dust in the Amazon Basin, as well as its possible impact in fertilizing the Amazon rainforest. Our results identify distinct sources of different ages and provenance in the Bodélé Depression versus the Amazon Basin, effectively ruling out an origin for the Amazonian deposits, such as the Belterra Clay Layer, by long-term deposition of Bodélé Depression material. Similarly, no evidence for contributions from other potential source areas is provided by existing isotope data (Sr, Nd) on Saharan dusts. Instead, the composition of these Amazonian deposits is entirely consistent with derivation from in-situ weathering and erosion of the Precambrian Amazonian craton, with little, if any, Andean contribution. In the Amazon Basin, the mass accumulation rate of eolian dust is only around one-third of the vertical erosion rate in shield areas, suggesting that Saharan dust is "consumed" by tropical weathering, contributing nutrients and stimulating plant growth, but never accumulates as such in the Amazon Basin. The chemical and isotope compositions found in the Bodélé Depression are varied at the local scale, and have contrasting signatures in the "silica-rich" dry lake-bed sediments and in the "calcium-rich" mixed diatomites and surrounding sand material. This

  2. Sensitivity of desert dust emission modelling to horizontal resolution: the example of the Bodélé Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Christel; Cautenet, Guy; Marticorena, Béatrice; Bergametti, Gilles; Minvielle, Fanny; Schmechtig, Catherine; Laurent, Benoit

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to play an important role in the Earth's climate system. However, the quantification of aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget is very complex because of the high variability in space and time of aerosol mass and particle number concentrations, and optical properties as well. In many regions, like in desert regions, dust is the largest contribution to aerosol optical thickness [Tegen et al., 1997]. Consequently, it appears fundamental to well represent mineral dust emissions to reduce uncertainties concerning aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget. Recently, several studies (e.g. Prospero et al. [2002]) underlined that the Bodélé depression, in northern Chad, is probably the most important source of mineral dust in the world. However many models fail in simulating these large dust emissions. Indeed, dust emission is a threshold phenomenon mainly driven by the intensity of surface wind velocity. Realistic estimates of dust emissions then rely on the quality and accuracy of the surface wind fields. Koren and Kaufman [2004] showed that the reanalysis data (NCEP), which can be used as input data in numerical models, underestimates surface wind velocity in the Bodélé Depression by up to 50%. Such an uncertainty on surface wind velocity cannot allow an accurate simulation of the dust emission. In mesoscale meteorological models, global reanalysis datasets are used to initialize and laterally nudge the models that compute meteorological parameters (like wind velocity) with a finer spatial and temporal resolutions. The question arises concerning the precision of the wind speeds calculated by these models. Using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, Cotton et al. [2003]) coupled online with the dust production model developed by Marticorena and Bergametti [1995] and recently improved by Laurent et al. [2008] for Africa, the influence of the horizontal resolution of the mesoscale meteorological

  3. Evaluation of Chitosan-Starch-Based Edible Coating To Improve the Shelf Life of Bod Ljong Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial edible coatings to improve the quality of Bod ljong cheese throughout 25 days of storage. Coatings were prepared using chitosan, water chestnut starch, and glycerol as a base matrix, together with several combinations of antimicrobial substances: Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COFE), pine needle essential oil (PNEO), and nisin. Application of coating on cheese decreased water loss, lipid oxidation, changes in headspace gas composition, and color. Moreover, the edible coatings with COFE or PNEO had increased antimicrobial activity and did not permit growth of microorganisms. COFE and PNEO are manufactured from food-grade materials so they can be consumed as an integral part of the cheese, which represents a competitive advantage over nonedible coatings. PMID:26197284

  4. Biogas Production and Removal COD – BOD and TSS from Wastewater Industrial Alcohol (Vinasse by Modified UASB Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Isni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production and decreased organic loading of vinasse using a modified UASB bioreactor has been done successfully. Vinasse is waste from the ethanol industry which contains COD: 9.360 mg / L , BOD : 4.013 mg/L, and TSS: 317.5 mg/L. The purpose of this research was to study the performance of bioreactors Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB to decompose the vinasse into biogas or methane. UASB operating principle is to distribute wastewater in the bioreactor to flow upward through the sludge blanket by setting the hidrolic retention time (HRT. Four UASB bioreactor columns were used in this experiment wherein each with a capacity of 50 L in volume; 23 cm inside diameter, and 120 cm. The variations of hydraulic capacity followed the variations of HRT in the range of 72-36 hours. Modifications were carried out on the top of column UASB with the aim of preventing gas losses and increasing the flowrate of gas out from the top of the column. The results showed that HRT increased from 36 h to 72 h followed by an increase in COD removal efficiency of 55.64% to 66.81%; BOD5 from 67.85% to 74.58%; and TSS from 66.69% to 84.19%. The maximum volume of biogas produced was in the range of 5.826 L / day (42.89% methane to 7.930 L / day (methane 58.06%.

  5. Penentuan Kadar COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) dan BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) pada Limbah Cair Oil Catcher (OUT) PT. PLN (Persero) Sektor Pembangkitan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Uci

    2015-01-01

    Have done analyzed of COD and BOD value of PT PLN (PERSERO) Sektor Pembangkitan Medan waste water and the result showed that COD consentration of oil cather (out) waste is 230,660 mgO2/l and the result showed that BOD consentration waste is 3,1370 mgO2/l. In accordance with the decision of the Minister of the Environment regarding the quality of raw sewage, the waste water oil catcher (out) meet quality standards for discharge into water bodies.

  6. An investigation into the effectiveness of sand media amended with biochar to remove BOD5, suspended solids and coliforms using wetland mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rozari, P; Greenway, M; El Hanandeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetland ecotechnologies (CWEs) are a promising solution to effectively treat domestic wastewater in developing countries at low cost. This paper reports the findings of the effectiveness of sand media amended with woody biochar and two plants species (Melaleuca quinquenervia and Cymbopogon citratus) in removing biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solids and coliforms. The experimental design consisted of 21 vertical flow (VF) mesocosms. There were seven media treatments using sand amended with varying proportions of biochar. During the first 8 months, the mesocosms were loaded with secondary clarified wastewater (SCW) then septage. The influent had a 4-day hydraulic retention time. Samples were monitored for BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), total coliforms and faecal coliforms. In the first 8 months, there were no significant performance differences between media treatments in the outflow concentrations of BOD5, TSS and TVS. The significant differences occurred during the last 3 months; using septage with biochar additions performed better than pure sand. For coliforms, the significant differences occurred after 6 months. In conclusion, the addition of biochar was not effective for SCW. The VF mesocosms system proved to be more effective in removing BOD5, TSS, TVS and coliforms when septage was loaded into the media. PMID:26442496

  7. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was...

  8. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  9. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  10. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms – Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques. ► One method is dewatering and biodegradation of compounds in constructed wetlands. ► The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters after treatment. ► Plants improve degradation and Phragmites australis is tolerant to xenobiotics. ► The amount of sludge could be reduced by 50–70%. - Abstract: Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50–70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  11. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  12. THE EFFECT OF INFLUENT CONCENTRATION AND HYDRAULIC LOADING RATE (HLR TO BOD AND COD REMOVAL ON ARTIFICIAL DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT (GREY WATER USING UASB REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor is one of anaerobic biological treatment was develop in late 1970’s. UASB reactor is suitable for the tropic areas because it has a high temperature about 20°-30°C. Domestic wastewater is divided into two types, namely black water and grey water. But in this case used domestic grey water. Grey water is household wastewater from showers, sinks and kitchen. Grey water has a total 75% of the domestic wastewater volume. The research was conducted in laboratory scale. This study performed a variation of Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR and the influent concentration. There were 25 reactors include 5 variations of influent concentration and 5 Hydraulic Loading Rate’s (HLR variation. The research could asses BOD5 and COD removal with treatment in UASB. Efficiency of BOD5 removal by varying the influent concentration and HLR was about 38%-75% and COD was about 40%-77%. The lower concentration could be increase efficiency BOD5 and COD removal. Influent concentration optimum occurred when middle concentration was about 840 mg/L COD and HLR optimum was 0,05 m3/m2/hour.

  13. Pemanfaatan Biji Asam Jawa (TamarindusIndica sebagai Koagulan Alternatif dalam Proses Menurunkan Kadar COD dan BOD dengan Studi Kasus pada Limbah Cair Industri Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Intan Ramadhani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biji asam jawa yang selama ini jarang dimanfaatkan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk pengolahan limbah cair yang lebih ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan.  Kandungan polisakarida dalam biji asam jawa (Tamarindus Indica merupakan koagulan alami yang terbukti cukup efektif dalam peningkatan kualitas air limbah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan pada limbah cair industri tempe sehingga diperoleh hasil yang optimum. Adapun yang dimaksud dengan hasil optimum yaitu dengan tercapainya penurunan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS pada limbah cair yang digunakan sesuai dengan baku mutu dan kondisi yang tidak membahayakan lingkungan. Variabel yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah pH, TSS, kadar COD dan BOD dengan membandingkan dari tiap-tiap variasi. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah pemberian dosis biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan dengan variasi (500, 1500, 2500, 3500 mg/l, kecepatan putaran pada proses koagulasi-flokulasi dan lama pengadukan lambat (flokulasi. Pada penelitian ini, terdapat korelasi antara dosis koagulan dan kecepatan pengadukan yang diberikan terhadap efisiensi penurunan kadar BOD, COD dan TSS. Dosis optimum yang diperoleh yaitu 1500 mg/l limbah. Sedangkan hasil optimum diperoleh pada kecepatan koagulasi 180 rpm selama 1 menit dan flokulasi 80 rpm dengan lama waktu pengadukan 45 menit.

  14. 生物传感器BOD快速测定仪电气控制系统%Electrical control system of BOD rapid determination instrument using biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋萍; 白金平

    2011-01-01

    生物需氧量(BOD)是一种表征水体有机污染程度的综合指标,广泛用于水体检测和污水处理厂的运行控制.概述了生物传感器BOD快速测定仪电气控制系统的工作原理,详细介绍了该仪器的硬件配置和软件设计,其用户界面设计为人机友好的视窗模式,从而实现自动检测实时显示等功能,能够满足水体有机污染快速准确检测的要求,对于我国水质评价、合理利用水资源及水处理效率的提高具有重要意义.%Characterization of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a comprehensive index which shows the degree of organic pollution of water. The index is widely used in operation control of water test and wastewater treatment plant. The operating principle of electrical control system of BOD rapid determination instrument using biosensor is outlined. The purpose and significance of the system is introduced briefly. Hardware configuration and software design of the instrument are detailed. User-friendly man-machine interface is designed for the window mode in order to achieve the function of automatic detection of real-time display to meet the requirements of quick and accurate test of organic pollution. It' s important for the evaluation of water quality, rational use of water resources and water efficiency.

  15. Pemanfaatan Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak/Lemak BOD Dan COD Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Riris Duma

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash to reduce the content of oil/grease, BOD and COD from oil mill effluent. Samples of palm oil mill effluent from wastewater treatment plant of PT Nusantara IV (Persero) oil processing unit sopsa of Padang Lawas district. Samples taken from the last pond will be discharged into the environment. Empty Fruit of Oil Palm Ash taken from the kitchen burning empty fruit bunches PT Nusantara IVB (Persero) units Sosa of Padang Law...

  16. One-pot synthesis of 3-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-based hydrogel as support for microbe immobilization and BOD biosensor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Gao, Ying; Wang, Yue; Han, Yanchao; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-01-15

    We report a hydrothermal method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based hydrogel (Gel(rGONR)), using neutral red (NR) to mediate the assembly of rGO sheets and tune the pore size of Gel(rGONR). A series of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and BET were employed to characterize the physico-chemical properties of Gel(rGONR). A large pore size of up to 20 µm and interconnected porous structure of Gel(rGONR) were obtained. Gel(rGONR) was used as a support for immobilizing microbe (denoted as Gel(rGONR-M)), which showed ~3.3 times more load mass of microbe than commonly used supports (i.e., activated carbon and carbon fiber felt) and 2.5 times higher biodegradation efficiency (BE) than carbon fiber felt. Further use of Gel(rGONR-M) as a biocatalyst for establishing a BOD biosensor exhibits a linear range of 2-64 mg O L(-1) and a detection limit 0.4 mg O L(-1) for glucose-glutamic acid (GGA). Moreover, our proposed BOD detection strategy shows a long-term viability over one year and stability up to 2 months with a relative standard deviation of 2.1%. Our results demonstrated the great potential of employing Gel(rGONR) as a microbe-immobilization support for biosensor development. PMID:25129511

  17. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pereira tratadas com AIB e mantidas em ambiente de estufa tipo B.O.D. e de telado Rooting of hardwood cuttings of pear tree with IBA under B.O.D. chamber and greenhouse environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o enraizamento da pereira em ambiente controlado de estufa tipo B.O.D. e em telado simples. Utilizou-se a cultivar híbrida 'Limeira', destinada exclusivamente para fins culinários e para porta-enxerto. Estacas lenhosas sem folhas, medindo 25 cm de comprimento, foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 2.000; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por 10 segundos. Como substrato, utilizou-se da mistura de vermiculita e areia grossa (2:1 v/v, sendo a mesma umedecida com meio contendo solução salina MS e sacarose 1%. As estacas permaneceram por 42 dias dentro de estufas tipo B.O.D. (temperatura de 25ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 90% e fotoperíodo de 8 horas e de telado com irrigação por microaspersão, sem controle ambiental. Em ambiente controlado de estufa, as estacas não-tratadas com AIB iniciaram intensa brotação das gemas e formação de calo após sete dias do plantio. Já em ambiente de telado, essas estacas demoraram 21 dias para o início de brotação das gemas, mostrando menor desenvolvimento de calo. Nas estacas tratadas com AIB, os calos surgiram nas regiões dos cortes após o terceiro dia de incubação na estufa B.O.D. As raízes desenvolveram-se a partir dos tecidos da base e dos calos, tornando-se mais nítidas a partir de 14 e 28 dias, respectivamente, para os ambientes de estufa e de telado. Após 42 dias, o melhor percentual de enraizamento (83% foi verificado no tratamento com AIB a 2.000 mg.L-1, em ambiente de estufa B.O.D. O emprego dessa estufa, com temperatura, luz e umidade relativa controladas, mostrou-se viável em relação ao telado, no processo de enraizamento das estacas lenhosas da pereira 'Limeira', podendo favorecer o sistema de propagação vegetativa da pereira e encurtar o período da formação de mudas.The rooting of cuttings pear under controlled environment of chamber (B.O.D. type and greenhouse was searched. Hardwood cuttings of 'Limeira' pear, without leaves, measuring

  18. Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD) in Wastewater with Ferrocene (Fc) Grafted Mediator Microbial Sensor%接枝二茂铁介体微生物传感器对污水BOD的快速测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶

    2012-01-01

    采用接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量污水的BOD.将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面用作微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥提取的微生物混合,并用聚乙烯醇(PVA)进行固定化,以此制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量污水水样的BOD.结果表明,传感器的线性范围为2~300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.并讨论了pH,温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.通过对实际水样的测试表明,测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关性.%A novel biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) detecting method employing a ferrocene(Fc) grafted SBA-1S mediator immobilized in PVA matrix was developed. Fc was combined with SBA-15 via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, which was employed for a modified glassy carbon electrode. In a three-electrode system, a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate(GGA) concentration was 2~300 mg/L. Single sensor (measuring 20 samples) reproducibility were less than 4.2 %, and the sensor can works for 35 days continuously. The effects of pH, temperature and heavy metal on the BOD responses were studied. Comparaiion of detecting the BOD and BOD; of real samples showed a good correlation

  19. Mdo smad yul gyi bod dbyin slob gso'i gnas bab gleng ba [A Brief Discussion of a Tibetan-English Education in A mdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bun khrang rgyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bun khrang rgyal. 2015. Mdo smad yul gyi bod dbyin slob gso'i gnas bab gleng ba [A Brief Discussion of a Tibetan-English Education in A mdo] in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday, 299-319. This study mainly describes the situation of students majoring in Tibetan and English languages in A mdo areas originating in the late 1990s. The unique teaching methods used in this major, the educational planning of the teachers, students' learning situation, and group activities of both teachers and students outside the classrooms, and experiences obtained from these activities have now become the main resources of this major course. Those who are majoring in this course are also now the fundamental preservers of the local culture and tradition - they have also become a bridge between foreign and local cultures.

  20. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Shifts of Trigonometric Points in the area affected by Mining Activities / Posuny Trigonometrických Bodů Na Území Ovlivněném Hornickou Činností

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoláš Marek; Mikoláš Milan; Zápalková Petra

    2011-01-01

    Při hlubinném dobývání ložisek nastává nejen sedání vrstev, nýbrž i vodorovný posun. Tento posun trigonometrických bodů je zjištěn měřickou obnovou sítě. Dříve byla prováděna nová triangulace celého zájmového území a od roku 1991 s nástupem moderní observační techniky se využívá v plném rozsahu technologie GNSS, která není tak časově a ekonomicky náročná jako triangulační práce.

  2. Efeito da concentração inicial de oxigênio no coeficiente de aeração para experimentos de DBO de longo prazo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1976 Effect of initial concentration of dissolved oxygen in aeration coefficient for long-term BOD experiments- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Incubações de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO de longo prazo foram realizadas para determinar o coeficiente de aeração proveniente de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio. Os frascos de DBO foram preparados com água destilada e incubados no escuro e sob temperatura controlada (19,4ºC. Os frascos foram submetidos a dois tratamentos que foram baseados na concentração inicial de oxigênio dissolvido (OD: Tratamento 1 = 1,43mg L-1 e Tratamento 2 = 7,67mg L-1. As concentrações de OD foram determinadas com oxímetro durante 52 dias. Os resultados foram ajustados a um modelo cinético de primeira ordem. Os frascos de DBO apresentaram um incremento nas concentrações de OD para ambos os tratamentos e o coeficiente de aeração (ka foi de 0,065 dia-1. Os ajustes apontam dispersão nos valores de ka e a concentração inicial de OD nos frascos de DBO não interferiu no processo de aeração sendo um processo aleatórioLong-term incubations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD were performed to determine the aeration coefficient derived from oxygen uptake experiments. The BOD bottles were prepared with distilled water and the incubation occurred in the dark, under controlled temperature (19.4ºC. The bottles were submitted to two different treatments based on the initial dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations (Treatment 1: 1.43mg L-1 and Treatment 2: 7.67mg L-1. The DO concentrations were measured with an OD meter during 52 days. The results were fitted to a first-order kinetics model. The BOD bottles showed an increase in DO concentration for both treatments and the mean aeration coefficient (ka was 0.065 a day-1. The fittings pointed to some dispersion in the ka values, and the initial concentration of DO in the BOD bottles does not interfere in the aeration process, being a random process

  3. Interpolace obrazových bodů

    OpenAIRE

    Mintěl, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA® CUDA™. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation metho...

  4. The South African water management framework : Lethabo power station as a case study / Sadie de Bod

    OpenAIRE

    De Bod, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    South Africa is considered to be a water scarce country and it is estimated that by 2030 the water demand would have surpassed the water supply. There are therefore serious implications if all sectors of South Africa do not utilise natural water resources efficiently. The power generation sector is one of the more dominant water users, utilising more than 2 % of the available water resources. Since Eskom is guaranteed a 99.5 % water supply from the Department of Water Affairs, ...

  5. Hydrodynamic and heat transfer mathematical model for the pebble-bod high temperature reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model for the pebble-bed reactor core in a two-dimensional approximation under the coolant natural circulation conditions is considered. The calculation region represents a reactor core with a lateral reflector and unloading channel through which counercurrent gas flow enters. As basic physical model is the porous body model. Thermal hydraulic reactor core calculation for the normal operation mode on the base of the suggested mathematical model is in perfect agreement with the results of the experiment and calculations obtained by other methods. The results of calculation under the coolant natural circulation regime are in qualitative agreement with the analytical estimations obtained by the perturbation method

  6. Pengaruh Kayambang Untuk Menurunkan Kadar Biological Oxygen Demand (Bod) Air Limbah Di Pengolahan Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    V.A Irmayanti Harahap

    2009-01-01

    Dengan semakin pesatnya perkembangan dan pertumbuhan teknologi, sehingga menyebabkan tingginya tingkat pencemaran, salah satunya yang berasal dari kegiatan industri, akan tetapi pertumbuhan industri tersebut tidak diiringi oleh pengendalian-pengendalian terhadap dampak negatif yang ditimbulkan oleh industri tersebut yaitu berupa limbah. Dimana limbah yang dikeluarkan oleh kegiatan industri tersebut mempunyai parameter yang berdampak terhadap lingkungan, salah satunya adalah Biological Oxygen ...

  7. [Development of a low-cost single chamber microbial fuel cell type BOD sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi; Zhou, Ben; Zhou, Shun-gui; Rao, Li-qun; Wang, Yue-qiang

    2010-07-01

    The principle of the detector is based on the effect of microbial toxicity of water sample on the electricity generation in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The performance of the MFC-type biotoxicity detector was evaluated with the synthetic water containing heavy metals of Cd2+ and Cu2+. The experimental results demonstrated that: (1) relative to the conventional methods, the MFC-type detector is easy to operate, and suitable for on-line measurements with high sensitivity; (2) it only requires 4 h to complete measurements, and can get ready for next measurement within 4 h; (3) there is a significant linear correlation between the concentration of toxic metal(s) and inhibition ratios in Coulombic yields of MFC. As the IC20 (concentration causing 20% inhibition) of Cd2+, Cu2+ and mixed metals (Cd2+ and Cu2+) were 0.6, 0.8 and 0.25 mg/L, the regression coefficients were shown to be 0.9960, 0.9744 and 0.9907. PMID:20825031

  8. Die integrering van onderwysmedia in die vak ekonomie / Steyn de Bod

    OpenAIRE

    De Bod, Steyn

    1996-01-01

    A multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic instructional media are available to both teachers and learners. This multitude of available instructional media confront the teacher with the problem of media selection. Choosing the appropriate available instructional media for the teaching situation is no easy task. This study attempts to (i) identify factors that are disclosed in media selection models and that need to be considered when instructional media are selected for the teachin...

  9. KEMAMPUAN SISTEM SARINGAN PASIR-TANAMAN MENURUNKAN NILAI BOD DAN COD AIR TERCEMAR LIMBAH PENCELUPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. Budiarsa Suyasa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colored of clothes has developed as concentrated in Denpasar area. The process has a negativeeffect because of waste, the resulting organic toxicants and heavy metal into aquatic system. The effect ofthe pollution including the river, well water and organism that live there. The research of bioremedialeffectiveness of herb-sand treatment system on laboratory simulation were studied in Denpasar, from June2004 to September 2004.For laboratory simulation, the plants were cultured in 25 cm sand bed, in between 5 cm palmfiber ofwhich were in between 10 cm pumicestone for the top and 5 cm gravel for the bottom with surface area of 25x 50 cm2.The result of treatment system showed that effective for decrease biological oxygen demandcompared to those of chemical oxygen demand parameters. The treatment system reduced significantly BODlevel respectively to 13,15 for 3 days, 11,19 for 10 days and 5,79 for 20 days with 85,55 – 93,63 effectively.While COD level respectively to 76,68 for 3 days, 61,38 for 10 days and 58,57 for 20 days with 42,78 – 56,50effectively. Time of treatment for 3, 10 and 20 days showed a little increase of pH from 6,87 to 7,00.

  10. Komiksový bod obratu: K textu Bradforda W. Wrighta Rudoši, romance a renegáti

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2010), s. 626-630. ISSN 0009-0468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/10/2306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : comics * Wright, Bradford W. Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  11. BOD-DO modeling and water quality analysis of a waste water outfall off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Das, V.K.; Vethamony, P.

    on currents measured in March 1999 by mooring Aanderaa (RCM-7) current meters at two locations (10 and 15 m depths; denoted by D1 and D2 in Fig. 1) off Kochi have been used for model validation. 2.1. The model MIKE21 hydrodynamic (HD) and water quality (WQ...

  12. To the question of construction of sporting training during year of sportsmen, specialized in bodуbuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedljar J.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate data are resulted about going near the construction of the sporting training during a year. Systematization of information is presented the special to scientifically-methodical literatures on the construction of training process of sportsmen in bodybuilding. The open questions of construction of training process of highly skilled bodybuilders are marked in a circannual macrocycle. The methodical receptions of construction of training process of sportsmen are rotined. Preparation of sportsmen of highly skilled sportsmen is characterized the expressly expressed recurrence.

  13. To the question of construction of sporting training during year of sportsmen, specialized in bodуbuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Sedljar J.V.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate data are resulted about going near the construction of the sporting training during a year. Systematization of information is presented the special to scientifically-methodical literatures on the construction of training process of sportsmen in bodybuilding. The open questions of construction of training process of highly skilled bodybuilders are marked in a circannual macrocycle. The methodical receptions of construction of training process of sportsmen are rotined. Preparation of ...

  14. Bod obratu? Americká a britská reflexe voleb a československé politiky v roce 1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, Vít

    Praha : Euroslavica, 2014, s. 157-201. ISBN 978-80-87825-09-9. - (Prostopravdy. 4) Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : elections 1946 * Czechoslovak politics * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. Efektifitas Zeolit Dalam Menurunkan Biological Oxygen Demand (Bod) Pada Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Di Kotamadya Binjai Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Perangin-angin, Indra Masri

    2012-01-01

    Zeolit merupakan kristal aluminium silikat yang mempunyai beberapa sifat yang menguntungkan diantaranya dapat digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah pencemaran air, zeolit dapat digunakan sebagai penukar ion, absorbent dan dapal diregenerasikan dengan mudah sehingga dapat digunakan lagi. Meningkatnya industri tahu, khususnya didaerah Kotamadya Binjai menyebabkan meningkatnya limbah cair yang dihasilkan sehingga menimbulkan permasalahan lingkungan. Limbah tahu termasuk limbah organik sehingga pe...

  16. To Analyze The Relationship between BOD, Nitrogen And Phosphorus Contents at Constant Dissolved Oxygen Concentration In Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Syed Faraz Ali; Sudthanom, Juthatip

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the application of Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS)  regression analyzing methods used to understand the relationship of interdependent loads in municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two different wastewater treatment plants were chosen for analysis of  the relationship between interdependent loads. Firstly, the collected data of incoming wastewater and outgoing water from both Västerås and Eskilstuna wastewater treatment plants were analyzed t...

  17. Měření vzdálenosti referenčních bodů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jedlička, Petr; Čížek, Martin; Staš, Lubomír; Malík, Josef

    Brno: Ústav přístrojové techniky AV ČR, 2015, s. 25-26. ISBN 978-80-87441-16-9. [LASER 55. Třešť (CZ), 21.10.2015-23.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : laser distance measurement * lidar * geomechanics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Radiative forcing associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lemaître

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long-lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 and space-borne CALIOP lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary space-borne observations (from MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account a realistic infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative forcing of dust during the nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties are quite large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. Obviously, during nighttime much smaller values of heating/cooling are retrieved (less than ±1 K day−1 but large enough to modify the low tropospheric equilibrium. Furthermore, cooling is observed as the result of the longwave forcing in the dust layer, while warming is observed below the dust layer, in the monsoon layer.

  19. Radiative forcing associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaître, C; C. Flamant; Cuesta, J.; J.-C. Raut; Chazette, P.; P. Formenti; Pelon, J

    2010-01-01

    The radiative forcing due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long-lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne oper...

  20. A S TUD Y ON THE ANAER OBIC PO WER AND BOD Y C OMPOSITION OF A THLETIC TRAINED VE GET ARIANS AND NON-VE GET ARIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr .Rajesh K umar

    2011-01-01

    Thepurposeofthepresentstudywastofindtheanaerobicpower,percentageBodyfatandBodysurfaceareaoftrainedvegetarianandnon-vegetariancollegegirls.Thesubjectsselectedforthestudywere30vegetarian(n=30)and30non-vegetarian(n=30)athletictrainedgirlswhoseagerangedbetween16and20years.Theywererandomlypickedupfromdifferentgirl'sdegreecollegesofOsmaniaUniversity.

  1. Analisis Kandungan Aluminium (Al), Sulfida, Bod, Cod, Total Padatan Tersuspensi (TSS) Dan pH Dari Air Sungai Kapal Keruk Di Desa Karang Anyer Kec. Secanggang Kab. Langkat

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliza, Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Kapal Keruk,a river situated in Secanggang Distret, Langkat Regency, has been since long used as water source for the dayly consumption of the people living in surrounding areas. Recently, the people complained concerning the decrease of the river water quality due to its yellow or black colour and its unplecesant odor. They think that the decrease of the water quality is presumably caused by the sewage wasted out of a sugar mill there into the river, near the upstream area. This research ...

  2. Bod obratu. Politicko-historické reflexe roku 1968 v Československu a středovýchodní Evropě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopeček, Michal

    Praha : Ústav pro soudobé dějiny AV ČR, 2011 - (Tůma, O.; Devátá, M.), s. 35-44 ISBN 978-80-7285-119-5. - (České křižovatky evropských dějin. 4) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : Prague Spring 1968 * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. Identification and functional characterization of a genetic defect in the kinetochore protein BOD1 associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation and oligomenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeeli-Nieh, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    Im Zuge unserer klinischen und molekularen Studien zur Identifizierung der genetischen Ursachen autosomal-rezessiver geistiger Behinderung, untersuchten wir eine iranische Familie mit vier Patientinnen, welche einen milden bis mittelschweren Grad geistiger Behinderung sowie Oligomenorrhoe aufweisen. Mittels Autozygosity Mapping wurde ein 4,3 Mbp Intervall auf Chromosom 5 identifiziert, welches 28 Gene beinhaltet. Die kodierenden Bereiche dieser Gene wurden sequenziert und als einzige Nukleoti...

  4. Systém kritických bodů při výrobě vína

    OpenAIRE

    Šlancar, Radek

    2011-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the description of wine making to the identification of critical points and their implementation, according to the regulations and standards of the Czech Republic and the European Union. Explanation of terms, history of the HACCP system and experience with an established system of critical points in the operating company. Distribution of quality grape wines in the Czech Republic in the past and present.

  5. Porovnání výškové přesnosti bodů polohového bodového pole

    OpenAIRE

    Hotárková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The main concern of this thesis is to determine whether the influence of mining activities can lead to declines in soil and thus the treble control points positioning. The theoretical part deals with the introduction to the history of trigonometry, as well as apparatus for measurement - total station, GPS station and leveling device. The practical part will describe their own control height measurements of selected control points positioning using trigonometric leveling method GPS and technic...

  6. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the heating rate retrievals in the optically thickest part of the dust plume was estimated to be between 0.5 and 1.4 K day−1. During nighttime much smaller values of heating/cooling are retrieved (less than ±1 K day−1. Furthermore, cooling is observed as the result of the longwave forcing in the dust layer, while warming is observed below the dust layer, in the monsoon layer.

  7. "Miř přesněji". Korejská válka jako černý bod socialistického realismu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmarc, Vít

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, 1-2 (2014), s. 44-78. ISSN 1210-7050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32325P Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : socialist realism * Korean War * ideology Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  8. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lema^itre; C. Flamant; Cuesta, J.; J.-C. Raut; Chazette, P.; P. Formenti; Pelon, J

    2010-01-01

    The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne...

  9. 基于过程神经网络的BOD在线检测仪研究%Research on the Online Monitor of BOD Based on Process Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继平; 刘载文; 王小艺

    2010-01-01

    为了实现污水处理过程中BOD的在线检测,提出了具有权函数动量项和自适应学习速率权值的新的过程神经网络改进算法,并利用该算法建立了BOD软测量模型,设计了基于ATMEGA1280单片机的系统主控制器,采用模块化软件设计理念,利用AVR Studio开发环境,编程实现数据采集、软测量、液晶显示、数据存储、打印驱动等功能.此仪表已在工业现场得到应用,平均相对预测误差小于4.1%.

  10. V ropě vidím kritický neuralgický bod západní civilizace : rozhovor s Václavem Cílkem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojar, T.; Cílek, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 302 (2008), s. 18-20. ISSN 1213-1911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : oil * petroleum * energy * civilization Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.novyprostor.cz/casopis/pdf/302.pdf

  11. Návrh a vybudování sítě bodů podrobného polohového bodového pole metodou geodetickou a GPS.

    OpenAIRE

    VÁLKA, Michal

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was elaborated on the topic: Project and realisation of the network for planimetry control points using the methods geodetic and GPS. The aim was carry out the reconnaissance of the terrain, valorize of the current state of the point field in the selected locality, as necessary complete him in the density for the detailed mapping of big ratio scale and locate. All calculations, evaluation of the accuracy and processing of the graphic supplements were a part of this thesis. The poi...

  12. Návrh a vybudování sítě bodů podrobného polohového bodového pole metodou geodetickou a GPS.

    OpenAIRE

    ŽAHOUREK, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with "Design and Development of the Network of Points of the Detailed Minor Horizontal Control using Geodetic and GPS Methods" in the cadastral territory Jenín and Horní Kaliště. Using the map basis I conducted the reconnaissance and analysis of the current level of the minor control points in the target territory. Next I stabilized 14 new points of the DMHC, however, this thesis uses only 7 of these 14 points. The work aims to analyze the current level of the minor control ...

  13. Why Do Building Owners Invest in Bicycle-Oriented Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Trapenberg Frick , Karen; Ragland, David R

    2011-01-01

    We found that broader government policies such as infill zoning exemptions and energy-saving directives made BOD more feasible. A comprehensive survey of existing BOD requirements, guidelines, and best practices of BOD design elements would be useful to policymakers, local officials, and developers as they confront decisions on how or if to encourage BOD. More broadly, additional research on the potential relationship between BOD and mode choice of building tenants could lead to a greater und...

  14. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Chi Hsieh; Chiu-Yu Cheng; Man-Hai Liu; Ying-Chien Chung

    2015-01-01

    The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and out...

  15. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The...

  16. The Projection of Burden of Disease in Islamic Republic of Iran to 2025

    OpenAIRE

    Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Fallah, Mohammad-Sadegh; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad-Hossien; Dehnavieh, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Iran as a developing country is in the transition phase, which might have a big impact on the Burden of Disease and Injury (BOD). This study aims to estimate Burden of Disease and Injury (BOD) in Iran up to 2025 due to four broad cause groups using Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). Methods The impacts of demographic and epidemiological changes on BOD (DemBOD and EpiBOD) were assessed separately. We estimated DemBOD in nine scenarios, using different projections for life expectan...

  17. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). Methods %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 ± 11, weight (kg) 64 ± 14, height (cm) 167 ± 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture define...

  18. C2-3、T10-11和L3-4椎间盘段弯曲力学特性%The Bending (Extension Bit) Mechanical Properties of C2 - 3, T10 - 11, L3 - 4 Intervertebral Disc and Adjacent Vertebral Bod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 王溪原; 赵宝林; 马洪顺

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to realize the mechanical properties of the C2 -3 、T10 - 11、 L3 -4 in order to prevent and treat the herniated disk. So we test the bent experiment of the C2 -3、T10 -11、L3 -4 taken from the fresh dead bodies and provide biological mechanical data for clinic. The experimental specimens are taken from male fresh corpses of normal people, 20 -30 years old respectively. The C1 - S1 spine specimens are taken from the bodies within one hour after death, and the C2 -3 、T10 - 11 、L3 -4 intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies are cut by line cutting, each thirteen samples. Do the test on the Japanese shimadzu electronic universal testing aircraft, the experimental speed is 5mm/min, obtain the bending mechanics performance index of maximum load、 maximum bending moment、 maximum stress of the C2 - 3、 T10 - 11、 L3 - 4 groups. The maximum load and maximum bending moment of C2- 3group is less than the T10 - 11 group and the L3 -4 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of C2 - 3 group is less than T10 - 11 group, with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of L3 -4 group is greater than the T10- 11 group and the C2- 3 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ).%预防和治疗椎间盘脱出等退行性改变需要了解C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体的弯曲力学特性,本文对人体C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体进行弯曲试验,为临床提供生物力学参数.实验标本取自正常人新鲜尸体脊柱标本,男性,年龄20~30岁,人死后1h内解剖尸体取出C1-S1脊柱标本,以线锯切取C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体各13个标本,在日本岛津电子万能测试机上以5 mm/min的实验速度进行弯曲实验,得出C2-3、T10-11、L3-4组标本的最大载荷、最大弯矩、最大应力等力学参数.实验结果得出,C2-3组标本最大载荷、最大弯矩小于T10-11组和L3-4组,有显著性差异(p<0.05);C2-3组标本最大应力小于T10-11组,有显著性差异(p<0.05);L3-4组最大应力大于T10-11组和C2-3组,有显著性差异(p<0.05).此结果说明C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体具有不同的抗弯曲力学特性,可对了解腰椎间盘的损伤机理提供生物力学参.

  19. Bod a škvrna. Od symbolistického kódu k hľadaniu nového jazyka spirituálnej poézie (1. časť (The Point and the Blur. From the Symbolistic Code to the Search for the New Language of Spiritual Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Juhásová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual themes in the 20th century Slovak poetry were influenced first of all by the aesthetic code of symbolism with a small exception in the 1930s when it was influenced by H. Bremond’s conception of pure poetry. Only in contemporary spiritual poetry the power of the symbolist code is weakening, and aesthetic impulses of avant-gardes and poststructuralist tendencies become a more distinctive source of inspiration. Against the background of the interpretation of two poetic texts—Milan Rúfus: Vlastnoručný podpis, zb. Vážka, 1998 [The Handwritten Signature, coll. The Dragonfly], and Erik Jakub Groch: Sa, zb. Druhá naivita, 2005 [Self, coll. The Second Naïveté], the study focuses on important developmental impulses in literary thought, observing how in a certain period the power of one aesthetic code begins to weaken and leaves a space for a new one to succeed.

  20. Dobudování geodetické sítě měřických bodů ve cvičné lokalitě číslo 1.1 v Kostelci nad Černými Lesy

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrba, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the completion point of the current field in the village reconstructions, with forests. Surveying network densification was carried out by inserting Traverse. Eight newly created items detailed positional fields, which were aimed topographic height and were therefore fo und in the plane coordinate system S-JTSK (Uniform trigonometric cadastral network) and altitude of the points have been identified in the settlement of Baltic. The work deals with the...

  1. Dobudování geodetické sítě měřických bodů ve cvičné lokalitě číslo 5.5 v Kostelci nad Černými Lesy

    OpenAIRE

    Kodetová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to supplement existing minor control of the forthcoming field surveying work in the training area. Distances between existing points are detailed measurement often onerous and given that this is a densely forested area, so we're trying to streamline the subsequent measurements. Newly selected points must be detailed in the appropriate field and identify stabilise for easy identification later. Therefore, the completed form with basic data on detailed issues. Using sur...

  2. Realizace a zaměření sítě polohových a výškových bodů podrobného polohového bodového pole v dané lokalitě

    OpenAIRE

    UHLÍK, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Project and surveying of the network for planimetry and height points of the detailed minor horizontal control in a chosen area" aims to build a detailed minor horizontal control in a target area, located in the cadastral area Jenín and Horní Kaliště, that would serve as a basis for future detailed measurements. Prior to the field measurements I assembled existing materials and carried out a reconnaissance. After finding the density of current minor control, the de...

  3. Návrh vybudování sítě bodů podrobného polohového bodového pole jako podklad pro řešení komplexní pozemkové úpravy metodou geodetickou a GPS.

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This work was elaborated on the theme: Design of building a network of detailed positional point field as a basis for solving complex land treatment method of surveying and GPS. The aim was to assess the current status of position of the point field in the locality, spot field complemented by a focused method of surveying and GPS. Building a network of PPBP served for the implementation of comprehensive land consolidation in the cadastral Chudenín in Klatovy. Reconnaissance of the existing po...

  4. Návrh, vybudování a zaměření sítě podrobných polohových bodů jako podklad pro podrobné zaměření polohopisu a výškopisu dané lokality

    OpenAIRE

    ČTVRTNÍK, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    The project proceed in the context of future projects in the examined locality. The main aim of this work is to design, build and do a geodetic survey of network of triangulation, and also secure geodetic base for the future topographic and altimery measurements. The project is comprised of the theoretical and practical technical process of obtaining results by terestrial and GNSS methods. The project is also focused on the comparison of these methods. All needed materials for the following m...

  5. Vybudování a zaměření geodetické sítě bodů pro potřeby sledování dlouhodobých změn krajiny.

    OpenAIRE

    Ševčík, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The work is intent on the aplication of useful geodetic method for height off-road treads. The aim of the work is to survey and establish fixed point network for this monitoring. The teoretic part is intent on geodetic network and point fields and on aplication of geodetic method for geodetic monitoring throughout the country. In the practical part, there are described accessible methods for height profiles, description of choice method workmaship and grafic results processing.

  6. Realizace a zaměření sítě polohových a výškových bodů v povodí Ostřice různými metodami.

    OpenAIRE

    FINK, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis was elaborated the topic: Project and surveying of the network for planimetry and hight points in the area of the river Ostřice using several methods. It's purpose was a reconnaissance of the part of a basin of Ostřice, assessment of existing point field, propose and complete the point network for planimetry in sufficient density for further surveying work in the area and survey of location and level by using geodetic methods and GPS. The reconnaissance of the area was conducte...

  7. Realizace a zaměření sítě polohových a výškových bodů v povodí Jenín různými metodami.

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Dissertation was worked on the theme " Project and surveying of the network for planimetry and hight points in the area of the river Jenín using several methods". Target of this dissertation was building of point field, their planimetry and altitude destination like basis for another telemetry in range. On the basis of geodetic and map data was effected reconnaissance of the area, estimation of current point field, their completion to required density and locating new points by geodetic and G...

  8. 75 FR 5588 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... previously implemented in AB1 (which will allow for symmetrical flow/ Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loading... basin to provide the required aeration capacity for the design BOD loading). The April 28, 2009 EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 133.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consecutive days. (c) Act. The Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., as amended). (d) BOD. The five day measure of the pollutant parameter biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). (e) CBOD 5. The five day measure...

  10. Corporate Governance, Takeovers, and Top-Management Compensation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Cyert; Sok-Hyon Kang; Praveen Kumar

    2002-01-01

    We examine, both theoretically and empirically, top-management compensation in the presence of agency conflicts when shareholders have delegated governance responsibilities to a self-interested Board of Directors (BOD). We develop a theoretical framework that explicitly incorporates the BOD as a strategic player, models the negotiation process between the CEO and the BOD in designing CEO compensation, and considers the impact of potential takeovers by large shareholders monitoring the CEO-BOD...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Federal Guidelines-User Charges for Operation and Maintenance of Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are set forth in subpart E (40 CFR part 35). (b) Authority. The authority for establishment of the... all users per unit of time. Bc = O&M cost for treatment of a unit of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Bu = Total BOD contribution from a user per unit of time. BT = Total BOD contribution from all...

  12. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    distribution between particulate and unsedimented (suspended and dissolved) organic waste. Quantifying aquaculture waste, including organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), into different waste fractions (particulate and unsedimented) is essential for optimising the design of different treatment setups...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...

  13. Women in the boardroom: how do female directors of corporate boards perceive boardroom dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how female directors of corporate boards of directors (BoD) experience boardroom dynamics. The study represents an initial research trend that moves from a unilateral focus on financial outcomes of female representation in BoDs toward stronger attention on the social dynamics in the boardroom. Drawing on social identity theory, the study proposed that female directors often constitute an out-group within the BoD, preventing them from experiencing positive b...

  14. Advies betreffende de variabele 'Biochemisch zuurstofverbruik' voor toetsing van de habitatkwaliteit

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeersch, Sophie; Buysse, David; Pauwels, Ine

    2014-01-01

    Om een gunstige staat van instandhouding te kunnen bereiken voor verschillende Europees beschermde habitattypen en soorten werden milieukwaliteitsnormen opgesteld. Op basis hiervan werd een milieudoelstelling voor het biochemisch zuurstofverbruik (BOD) en voor opgeloste zuurstof vastgelegd voor trajecten met beekprik en rivierdonderpad. De Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij neemt BOD echter niet meer op in de standaardmetingen. Dit advies beantwoordt de vraag in hoeverre BOD strikt nodig is als toets...

  15. Analisa Kebutuhan Oksigen Biologi (KOB) Dan Oksigen Terlarut (OT) Pada Air Sungai Denai Buangan Limbah Pabrik Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Masniari

    2010-01-01

    Various kinds of industrial activities and technologies that exits today if not accompanied by good waste water should be characterized before the design process begins.Waste water discharged into the standart BOD level and does not pollutethe enviromet. To analyze the organic content of waste is the most commnly used is aboud BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). Examination of BOD in waste water handlers provide an early indication of the existence of toxic materials.

  16. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h-1. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment

  17. Systematic review of foodborne burden of disease studies: Quality assessment of data and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Haagsma, Juanita; Polinder, Suzanne; Stein, Claudia; Havelaar, Arie

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBurden of disease (BoD) studies aim to identify the public health impact of different health problems and risk factors. To assess BoD, detailed knowledge is needed on epidemiology, disability and mortality in the population under study. This is particularly challenging for foodborne disease, because of the multitude of causative agents and their health effects. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the methodology of foodborne BoD studies. Three key questions were ...

  18. Evaluation of organic load measurement techniques in a sewage and waste stabilisation pond

    OpenAIRE

    Fadini Pedro Sérgio; Jardim Wilson F.; Guimarães José Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are the major parameters used as routine surrogate tests for measuring the load of organic carbon into the environment. In this context, an evaluation of possible replacement of BOD and COD for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) measurements are presented for different wastewaters. For anaerobic pond effluent, the following correlations were obtained: COD = 1.08 DOC + 79 and BOD = 0.82 DOC + 12. For facultative pond effluent, COD = ...

  19. Effects of Operating Parameters on Measurements of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using a Mediatorless Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chi Hsieh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD method takes five days to analyze samples. A microbial fuel cell (MFC may be an alternate tool for rapid BOD determination in water. However, a MFC biosensor for continuous BOD measurements of water samples is still unavailable. In this study, a MFC biosensor inoculated with known mixed cultures was used to determine the BOD concentration. Effects of important parameters on establishing a calibration curve between the BOD concentration and output signal from the MFC were evaluated. The results indicate monosaccharides were good fuel, and methionine, phenylalanine, and ethanol were poor fuels for electricity generation by the MFC. Ions in the influent did not significantly affect the MFC performance. CN− in the influent could alleviate the effect of antagonistic electron acceptors on the MFC performance. The regression equation for BOD concentration and current density of the biosensor was y = 0.0145x + 0.3317. It was adopted to measure accurately and continuously the BOD concentration in actual water samples at an acceptable error margin. These results clearly show the developed MFC biosensor has great potential as an alternative BOD sensing device for online measurements of wastewater BOD.

  20. Measurement of Atrial Septal Defect Size: A Comparative Study between Transesophageal Echocardiography and Balloon Occlusive Diameter Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Eslami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect secundum (ASD-II has become an alternative method for surgery. We sought to compare the two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE method for measuring atrial septal defect with balloon occlusive diameter (BOD in transcatheter ASD-II closure.Methods: A total of 39 patients (71.1% female, mean age: 35.31 ± 15.37 years who underwent successful transcatheter closure of ASD-II between November 2005 and July 2008 were enrolled in this study. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and TEE were performed to select suitable cases for device closure and measure the defect size before the procedure, and BOD measurement was performed during catheterization via TEE. The final size of the selected device was usually either equal to or 1 – 2 mm larger than the BOD of the defect.Results: The mean defect size obtained by TEE and BOD was 18.50 ± 5.08 mm and 22.86 ± 4.76 mm, respectively. The mean difference between the values of ASD size obtained by TEE and BOD was 4.36 ± 2.93 mm. In comparison with BOD, TEE underestimated the defect size in 94.9%, but TEE value being equal to BOD was observed in 5.1%. There was a good linear correlation between the two measurements: BOD = 0.773 × ASD size by TEE+8.562; r2 = 67.9.1%. A negative correlation was found between TEE sizing and the difference between BOD and TEE values (r = -0.394, p value = 0.013.Conclusion: In this study, BOD was larger than ASD size obtained by two-dimensional TEE. However, TEE maximal defect sizing correlates with BOD and may provide credible information in device size selection for transcatheter ASD closure.

  1. A Novel Biosensor for the Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-SONG CHEN; LI-SHENG ZHANG; JIAN-LONG WANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the function of a novel biosensor used for the rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is developed by our research group based on suspended immobilized microbial cell system in a completely mixed determining chamber as a substitute of the traditional membrane system. Methods Activated sludge was immobilized by PVA gel and used as a bio-sensing element. The novel biosensor was used to measure the short time BOD value and the conventional cultivation method was used for BOD5 measurement. Results A linear relationship was observed for the difference between the current and the concentration of glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution below 200mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The optimal response of the sensor was obtained at pH 7.0 and 30℃. The sensor response was within 15 min and was reproducible within ±5% of the mean in a series of eight samples containing 75 mg/L BOD using standard GGA solution. The novel sensor response was found to be fairly constant over a period of 0days, with ±5% fluctuations. Conclusion A relatively good agreement is found between BOD estimated by the novel BOD biosensor and that determined by the conventional 5-day BOD method. This novel BOD biosensor has good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.

  2. Development and characterization of microbial biosensors for evaluating low biochemical oxygen demand in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Gab-Joo

    2013-12-15

    Five microorganisms were used to construct a biosensor for the evaluation of low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in rivers. Characterization and comparison of BOD biosensors were performed using two standard solutions: glucose and glutamic acid (GGA) and artificial wastewater (AWW). Pseudomonas putida SG10 demonstrated the best response when using AWW. Trichosporon cutaneum IFO10466, however, had an extremely poor response. When evaluating the biosensor response to each component of AWW, all of the microorganisms except T. cutaneum displayed the highest response to tannic acid. In a comparison of the two standard solutions for all the microorganisms, the biosensor responses of GGA were approximately three times higher than those of AWW were. In the BOD determination of environmental samples, the biosensor BOD values evaluated using AWW were slightly lower or equivalent to BOD5 values, whereas the biosensor BOD values evaluated using GGA were considerably lower. These results suggest that GGA is suitable for the detection of high BOD in industrial wastewaters and factory effluents, while AWW is suitable for the detection of low BOD in rivers. PMID:24209354

  3. 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) Chemical Oxygen Demand Total Organic Carbon Total Suspended Solids Ammonia...) Total Residual Chlorine (if chlorine is used). (E) Oil and Grease. (F) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (if..., except for flow, pH, and temperature. (A) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5). (B) Total Suspended...

  4. Bioremediasi Limbah Cair Industri Udang Menggunakan EM4 dan PROMI

    OpenAIRE

    SABARA, ASRIDA AMIR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Limbah cair udang mengandung berbagai jenis pencemar lingkungan, misalnya Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) dan Derajat Keasaman (PH). Pembuangan limbah cair udang ke badan air tanpa proses pengolahan akan berdampak pada penurunan kualitas lingkungan, sehingga tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu mengupayakan cara sederhana dengan memanfaatkan aktivator promoting microbed dan efektif microorganisme dalam menurunkan kadar Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemic...

  5. Sammenligning og tilpasning av metoder: TOC ved utslippskontroll av organisk stoff fra kommunale renseanlegg

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.; Paulsrud, B.

    1983-01-01

    Ved utslippskontroll bør indirekte bestemmelse av organisk stoff i form av biokjemisk og kjemisk oksygenforbruk (BOD, CODcr) erstattes med direkte bestemmelse av totalt organisk karbon (TOC). Basert på sammenlignende analyser av ulike typer kommunalt avløpsvann er det foreslått TOC-verdier som samsvarer med nåværende utslippskrav for BOD

  6. 40 CFR 125.60 - Primary or equivalent treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will be based on the definition of excessive I&I in 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(16) plus the additional criterion... paragraph (b) of this section to provide 30 percent removal of BOD be allowed on an averaging basis.... Circumstances beyond the applicant's control may include seasonally dilute influent BOD concentrations due...

  7. Granting Teachers the "Benefit of the Doubt" in Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Nicky

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper proposes a benefit of the doubt (BoD) approach to construct and analyse teacher effectiveness scores (i.e. SET scores). Design/methodology/approach: The BoD approach is related to data envelopment analysis (DEA), a linear programming tool for evaluating the relative efficiency performance of a set of similar units (e.g. firms,…

  8. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bod. 102, Medellin, Colombia; Carrera 49 No. 61Sur-540 Bod. 137, Medellin, Colombia; NIT #811038291-3...; NIT #815002808-1 (Colombia) AGROESPINAL S.A., Calle 16 No. 41-210 of. 801, Medellin, Colombia; NIT... SANTOS S.A., Calle 16 No. 41-210 of. 801, Medellin, Colombia; NIT #800215934-1 (Colombia)...

  9. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform ( 2 ) ( 3... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3)...

  10. Electrochemistry of bilirubin oxidase and its use in preparation of a low cost enzymatic biofuel cell based on a renewable composite binder chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Spherical carbon nanoparticles KetjenBlack (KB) with a high sorption capacity together with conductivity increasing single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were “glued” together by chitosan for the preparation of a composite. A biocathode with bilirubin oxidase (BOD) adsorbed within the composite was characterised and its composition optimised. A renewable biopolymer chitosan present in the composite offered (1) pre-concentration of BOD within the matrix via electrostatic interactions, (2) favourable orientation of BOD for a direct electron transfer (DET) between BOD and the composite, (3) electrochemical visibility of 3 redox sites present in BOD, (4) low charge transfer resistance, (5) high proton conductivity and (6) low overpotential for oxygen reduction. Electrochemical investigation of BOD revealed interesting internal redox communication within the enzyme with some novel insights provided. At least one of tyrosines present in BOD seems to be involved in electron transfer route, as well. The composite used for the biocathode was directly applied for the preparation of a bioanode with fructose dehydrogenase immobilised, working in a DET mode of operation. Finally, integration of the biocathode and the bioanode into a biofuel cell operated in a reagentless and membraneless mode offered a power density of 50 μW cm−2 at 300 mV.

  11. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  12. Performance of anaerobic fixed film down-flow reactor for spent wash treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a bench scale 'anaerobic fixed-film down-flow bioreactor' with glass bead as a packing material for treatment of high strength wastewater (spent wash) in terms of percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal at various temperatures has been studied. The reactor is operated at temperatures ranging from 35 deg. C to 51 deg. for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days. For this hydraulic retention time, experimental results show that COD removal is 60-64.8 % and BOD removal is 65.3 - 70%. The maximum percent COD and BOD removal is observed at 41 deg. C. (author)

  13. Schurft en aardappelen : introductie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    In deze introductie wordt ingegaan op enkele resultaten van het onderzoek naar de beheersing van schurft in aardappelen door teeltmaatregelen, chemische bestrijding en rassenverschillen; drie soorten schurft komen aan bod: poerderschurft, gewone schurft en netschurft.

  14. THE USE OF WETLANDS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands such as marshes, swamps and artificial wetlands, have been shown to remove selected pollutants from urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal wastewaters. Wetlands have produced reduction in BOD, pathogens, and some hydrocarbons, and excel in nitrogen removal. They h...

  15. A submersible magnetic stirrer for use in measuring photosynthesis in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring photosynthesis or primary productivity in biofloc technology production systems is challenging because the biofloc must be maintained in suspension constantly. Photosynthesis can be measured in external incubators designed to keep the biofloc suspended in the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  16. Marketingmanagement : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze v

  17. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze v

  18. Hydrochemical studies along the coastal waters off Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, BOD pH, nutrients suspended load and chlorophyll 'a' were estimated in the coastal waters of Mangalore. Four transects, each consisting of four stations extending from old...

  19. From Fire Rain to Rebellion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A publiciation of a selection of the late Rev. Bodding's collection of Santal myth and history. The manuscripts are presently in the Oslo University. The texts are edited in Santali and translated into English with an introduction....

  20. Duurzaamheidsaspecten van de teelt en verwerking van energiegewassen in Zuidoost Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corré, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Resultaten van berekeningen van de effecten van teelt en verwerking van energiegewassen van vier verschillende ketens. De duurzaamheidsaspecten die aan bod komen zijn: vermindering fossiel energiegebruik en broeikasgas (BKG) emissie, behoud organische stof in de bodem, nitraatuitspoeling uit de bode

  1. Theoretical update on two non-resonant three-body channels in charmed meson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, D X

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of two channels in the three-bod decays of the charmed mesons are made within the heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. There still exists the problem that the theoretical expectation is too small compared to the experimental data.

  2. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Performance Standards Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26... standards: Effluent Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N)...

  3. Some aspects of pollution of coastal marine environment of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.

    of the Bay. Studies undertaken in recent years to delineate effects of anthropogenic impacts on water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics have revealed marked increase in nutrient concentrations, depletion in DO and enhancement of BOD...

  4. CO-TREATABILITY OF A DOMESTIC AND AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING DYESTUFF BY THE ACTIVATED - SLUDGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    MURATHAN, Ayşe

    1999-01-01

    Co-treatment of an industrial wastewater containing dyestuff was studied with a domestic wastewater by the activated-sludge method was investigated. Treatment efficiency was obtained by determining. BOD, COD and total suspended solids values.

  5. Removal and Utilization of Wastewater Nutrients for Algae Biomass and Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Erick W.

    2009-01-01

    The Logan City Environmental Department operates a facility that consists of 460 acres of fairly shallow lagoons (~ 5'deep) for biological wastewater treatment that meets targets for primary and secondary treatments (solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogen removal). Significant natural algal growth occurs in these lagoons, which improves BOD removal through oxygenation and also facilitates N removal through volatilization as ammonia under high pH conditions created by algal grow...

  6. The effects of different institutional investors and board of director characteristics on corporate social responsibility of public listed companies: the case of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osemeke, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of institutional investors and board of director (BOD) characteristics on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of Public Listed Companies (PLCs) in Nigeria. This study is motivated by the lack of empirical studies in Nigeria concerning the role of different institutional investors and BOD on CSR. More specifically, this study uses multi-method approaches: firstly, the case study method involving in-depth interviews, documentary data followed by postal...

  7. Boardroom diversity and company's financial performance: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the thesis is to study board of directors (BOD) diversity and its relation with firm financial performance of Chinese listed companies. Following previous studies on western countries' BODs, diversity is measured by director's personal background such gender, age and ethnicity and board independence. In addition, this study adds new aspect of board diversity: the director's political background. Company's financial performance is measured by its profitability fi...

  8. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zaher Abdallah; Gina Hammam

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are the most commonly used parameters for the characterization of wastewaters. Both of these parameters have advantages and disadvantages, and the choice usually depends on many factors such as the time period required to determine each one of them. It is essential to obtain a correlation between BOD5 and COD for various wastewater treatment plants, to help in the design and operation of these plants. In this paper, the biodegr...

  9. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND SENSOR USING LOCAL YEAST: Candida fukuyamaensis, UICC Y-247

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Saepudin; Fenny Triana Zulfia; Ivandini Tribidasari Anggraningrum

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the measurement time of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), a BOD sensor based on yeastmetabolism was developed. Local yeast, Indonesian Origin, Candida fukuyamaensis UICC Y-247, was used as atransducer. The yeast was immobilized as a thin film in agarose matrix with the auxiliary of Nafion® acting as themembrane for ion exchange process. The film was then attached to gold-modified glassy carbons and used as transduceron the working electrodes. The measurements were conducted...

  11. X-ray analysis of bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria at 2.3 Å resolution using a twinned crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from M. verrucaria has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution using a merohedrally twinned crystal. BOD has four copper-coordination sites that are almost identical to those of other multicopper oxidases and is also very similar to them in overall structure. Bilirubin oxidase (BOD), a multicopper oxidase found in Myrothecium verrucaria, catalyzes the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin. Oxygen is the electron acceptor and is reduced to water. BOD is used for diagnostic analysis of bilirubin in serum and has attracted considerable attention as an enzymatic catalyst for the cathode of biofuel cells that work under neutral conditions. Here, the crystal structure of BOD is reported for the first time. Blue bipyramid-shaped crystals of BOD obtained in 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) and ammonium sulfate solution were merohedrally twinned in space group P63. Structure determination was achieved by the single anomalous diffraction (SAD) method using the anomalous diffraction of Cu atoms and synchrotron radiation and twin refinement was performed in the resolution range 33–2.3 Å. The overall organization of BOD is almost the same as that of other multicopper oxidases: the protein is folded into three domains and a total of four copper-binding sites are found in domains 1 and 3. Although the four copper-binding sites were almost identical to those of other multicopper oxidases, the hydrophilic Asn residue (at the same position as a hydrophobic residue such as Leu in other multicopper oxidases) very close to the type I copper might contribute to the characteristically high redox potential of BOD

  12. Nordlyset og skæbnen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på.......Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på....

  13. Asymmetric Conjugate Alkynylation of Cyclic α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with a Chiral Diene Rhodium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaowei; Huang, Yinhua; Hayashi, Tamio

    2016-01-18

    Asymmetric conjugate alkynylation of cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (ketones, esters, and amides) was realized by use of diphenyl[(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl]methanol as an alkynylating reagent in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a new chiral diene ligand (Fc-bod; bod=bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-diene, Fc=ferrocenyl) to give high yields of the corresponding β-alkynyl-substituted carbonyl compounds with 95-98% ee. PMID:26636764

  14. Specialization of Biochemical Oxygen Demand for Surface Water and Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Nurul; Z.Z. Abdul Rahman; A.N. Norizan

    2011-01-01

    Pollution of rivers is attributed to point and non-point sources and marine pollution originates mainly from land-based sources. Therefore in order to control the quality of the water a few parameters have been chosen as the index for determining the water pollution. Amongst the parameters, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, (BOD) is one of the most important and frequently used parameters for estimating the level of water pollution. BOD measures the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganism to util...

  15. Modeling Water Quality in Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Liren Yu; N. N.B. Salvador

    2005-01-01

    This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, dist...

  16. Bilirubin Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: A promising enzyme for the elaboration of efficient cathodes in Biofuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Fabien; Kjaergaard, Christian Hauge; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Gounel, Sébastien; Hadt, Ryan G.; Solomon, Edward I.; Mano, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    A CotA Multicopper Oxidase (MCO) from Bacillus pumilus, previously identified as a laccase, has been studied and characterized as a new bacterial Bilirubin Oxidase (BOD). The 59kDa protein containing four coppers, was successfully over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in one step. This 509 amino-acid enzyme, having 67% and 26% sequence identity with CotA from Bacillus subtilis and BOD from Myrothecium verrucaria, respectively, shows higher turnover activity towards bi...

  17. Disease diagnosis in primary care in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, Martin Kayitale; Burnett, Sarah M.; Colebunders, Robert; Naikoba, Sarah; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Weaver, Marcia R.; Ronald, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall burden of disease (BOD) especially for infectious diseases is higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than other regions of the world. Existing data collected through the Health Management Information System (HMIS) may not be optimal to measure BOD. The Infectious Diseases Capacity Building Evaluation (IDCAP) cooperated with the Ugandan Ministry of Health to improve the quality of HMIS data. We describe diagnoses with associated clinical assessments and laboratory investigations o...

  18. Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

    2014-01-01

    The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration....

  19. UASB/DHS廃水処理システムによる食品加工排水の処理特性

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 憲哉; 大槻, 洸太; 小野, 心也; 谷川, 大輔; 山口,隆司

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of food processing wastewater treatment was investigated in laboratoryscale continuous UASB/DHS system for 560 days. The UASB reactor was operated at HRT of 9 hours , while DHS reactor was operated at HRT of 4.5 hoursBOD removal of 88 ± 13 % was obtained at influent BOD concentration of 477 ± 193 mg/L. Similarly, SS removal of 91 ± 6 % was obtained at influent SS concentration of 278 ± 78 mg/L.

  20. Survey of ENT services in Africa: need for a comprehensive intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Johan J.; Jacobs, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Burden of disease (BOD) is greatest in resource-starved regions such as Africa. Even though hearing disability ranks third on the list of non-fatal disabling conditions in low- and middle-income countries, ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders are not specifically coded for within the framework governing global BOD estimates, and in discussions about health challenges, non-communicable diseases receive scant attention. Implementing cost-effective interventions to address condition...

  1. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Verma; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response t...

  2. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus dos Santos Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto;

    2011-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of biodegra......The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of...... biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m2 was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD5 of 317±15mg O2/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD5 concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O2/L to...

  3. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  4. Biosensing for the protection of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Weyerhaeuser's Rothschild sulfite pulp and paper facility produces approximately 150 a.d. tons/day of pulp and 350 tons/day of fine paper. The wastewater receives secondary treatment in an activated sludge system for removing solids and reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). The BOD5 is reduced nearly 98% across the secondary system. The final effluent is discharged into the Wisconsin River. After extensive field work, the Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (DNR) developed the Qual III model to represent the assimilative capacity of the Wisconsin River. Using both the Qual III model and guidelines set forth in Section 208 of the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (PL 92-500), the agency developed allocations restricting the discharge of BOD5 wasteload. This paper reports that as a result of the DNR modeling, the Rothschild facility has been under a variable restriction on BOD5 since 1983. The restrictive period is May through October, with daily BOD5 discharge limits of between 1360 and 7711 kg/day. Discharge limits change daily based on the receiving water flow, the water temperature, and the allocation period. Industrial companies that discharge effluent to the Wisconsin River system have a serious problem when the river flow is moderated to low and their final effluent BOD5 loadings begin to approach the wasteload limits

  5. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion®. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion®. • Nafion® shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion®. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion®, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria

  6. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  7. Performance Evaluation of Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment for the Wastewater of Potato Processing Industry: A Case Study of a Local Chips Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of anaerobic-aerobic treatment system of a local potato processing industry. The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consisted of primary treatment, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), activated sludge process (ASP) and secondary clarifier. The study analyzed the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of the influent (raw sewage) as well as the effluent from each component of the plant. Grab wastewater samples were collected on weekly basis and analyzed for the pH, settleable solids (SS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Study revealed that mean influent wastewater concentrations of TSS, TDS, SS, BOD and COD were 840 mg/L, 2,396 mg/L and 18.7 mL/L, 2,186 mg/L and 3,679 mg/L, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency in UASB for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 56%, 61 % and 51%, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency in activated sludge system for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 70%, 57% and 48%, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency of combined anaerobic-aerobic system for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 93%, 90% and 80%, respectively. The mean effluent concentrations of TSS, BOD and COD were 52 mg/L, 197 mg/L and 784 mg/L, respectively. The effluent from WWTP satisfied NEQS for TSS (200 mg/L) while NEQS for BOD (80 mg/L) and COD (150 mg/L) were not satisfied. Some operational problems, responsible for inadequate efficiencies of the plant components, were identified and solutions were suggested for these problems. (author)

  8. Influence of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of stabilization ponds in the treatment of swine waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lúcio da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance the system of stabilization ponds in full scale, operated in series, treating swine manure. The system was constituted of: one anaerobic pond, two facultative ponds and one maturation pond. The research was carried out for 350 days, in swine production manure treatment Plant, in Sao Jose of Lapa/MG. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and volatile total solids (VTS according to the methods established by the Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater (1998. The facultative ponds operating with low hydraulic retention times (7 e 7,7 days and with high superficial organic loading rate the BOD (1288 kgBOD ha-1 d-1 e 640 kgBOD ha-1 d-1, affecting its performance. The system stabilization ponds showed, in terms of BOD, COD, TS and VTS mean removal efficiency of 86, 86, 85 and 88%, respectively.Keys-words: swine manure, ponds stabilization, treatment system.

  9. Normalized Dysfunctional Voiding Through Timed Voiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Buh; Chang, Shang-Jen; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2012-05-01

    We report a 3-year-old girl with dysfunctional voiding, febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder over distention (BOD). After controlling UTI, repeat uroflowmetry depicted staccato flow pattern and postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume was >20 mL. Frequency/volume chart showed voided volume was frequently larger than >100% expected bladder capacity. BOD resulted in dysfunctional voiding and elevated PVR was impressed. Urotherapy with adequate fluids intake, and timed voiding to avoid BOD were taught. Subsequent frequency/volume chart disclosed that voided volume was not greater than 100% expected bladder capacity. Uroflowmetry curves were normalized and PVR decreased. Without prophylactic antibiotics, she was free of UTI for 12 months. Unfortunately, she held urine after attending kindergarten and got febrile UTI again. BOD was impressed and timed voiding was re-initiated after resolution of UTI. She was free of UTI and antibiotics for another 15 months. Bladder over distension may be the cause of dysfunctional voiding, vesicoureteral reflux and UTI. Through timed voiding, BOD may be reversed and UTI may be prevented. PMID:26676534

  10. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF and humic-like fluorescence (HLF, respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  11. Wet oxidation lumped kinetic model for wastewater organic burden biodegradability prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich, Svetlana; Kallas, Juha

    2002-08-01

    In many cases, treatment of wastewaters requires a combination of processes that very often includes biological treatment. Wet oxidation (WO) in combination with biotreatment has been successfully used for the treatment of refractory wastes. Therefore, information about the biodegradability of wastewater solutes and particulates after wet oxidation is very important. The present work proposes a model that can describe the oxidation process via organic concentration characteristics such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and immediately available BOD (IA BOD) and so can allow the prediction of biodegradability (i.e., BOD/COD ratio). The reaction mechanism includes the destruction of nonbiodegradable substances bytwo pathways: oxidation to carbon dioxide and water and oxidation to larger biodegradable compounds with their further degradation to smaller ones measured via IA BOD. The destruction of small biodegradable compounds to end products is also included in the model. The experiments were performed at different temperatures (170-200 degrees C) and partial oxygen pressures (0.5-1.5 MPa) in a batch stainless steel high-pressure autoclave. The model of concentrated thermomechanical pulp circulation water was selected for the experiments. The proposed model correlates with the experimental data well and it is compared with other WO models in the literature. PMID:12188362

  12. Biofilm photobioreactors for the treatment of industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flat plate and a tubular packed-bed photobioreactor with an algal-bacterial biofilm attached onto Poraver beads carriers, a flat plate and a tubular photobioreactor with the biofilm attached onto the reactor walls, and an algal-turf reactor were compared in terms of BOD removal efficiencies, elimination capacities, and stability. A control column photobioreactor with suspended algal-bacterial biomass was also tested to compare the performance of biofilm photobioreactors with conventional algal-based processes. When the algal-bacterial biomass was immobilized onto Poraver the process never reached a steady state due to a poor homogenization in the bioreactor. When the biofilm was formed onto the reactor wall (or reactor base) the process was stable. A maximum degradation rate of 295 mg BOD l-1 h-1 was achieved in the algal-turf reactor although control experiments performed in the dark showed atmospheric O2 diffusion represented 55% of the oxygenation capacity in this system. BOD removal rates of 108, and 92 mg BOD l-1 h-1 were achieved in the tubular and flat plate biofilm reactors, respectively, compared to 77 mg BOD l-1 h-1 in the control suspended bioreactor. In addition, all biofilm photobioreactors produced an easily settleable biomass. Evidence was found that biomass attachment to the reactor's wall improved stability

  13. Physical-chemical and operational performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR treating swine wastewater - 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i4.7203

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since hog raising concentrates a huge amount of swine manure in small areas, it is considered by the environmental government organizations to be one of the most potentially pollutant activities. Therefore the main objective of this research was to evaluate by operational criteria and removal efficiency, the performance of a Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR, working as a biological pre-treatment of swine culture effluents. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: total COD, BOD5, total solids (TS, fix (TFS and volatiles (TVS, temperature, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus, total acidity and alkalinity. The ABR unit worked with an average efficiency of 65.2 and 76.2%, respectively, concerning total COD and BOD5, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT about 15 hours. The results for volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR, organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic loading rate (HLR were: 4.46 kg BOD m-3 day-1; 1.81 kg BOD5 kg TVS-1 day-1 and 1.57 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. The average efficiency of the whole treatment system for total COD and BOD5 removal were 66.5 and 77.8%, showing an adequate performance in removing the organic matter from swine wastewater.

  14. Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Based on Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Absorption, and Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 is the most commonly practiced test to assess the water quality of surface waters and the waste loading. However, BOD5 is not a good parameter for the control of water or wastewater treatment processes because of its long test period. It is very difficult to produce consistent and reliable BOD5 results without using careful laboratory quality control practices. This study was performed to develop software sensors to predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration, UV light absorbance at 254 nm, and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluate the feasibility of the software sensors. In short, the software sensors developed in this study could well predict the BOD5 of river water (r=0.78 and for the WWTP effluent (r=0.90.

  15. Combined UV/ Fenton and SBR Treatment of a Semi-aerobic Landfill Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the combined UV/ Fenton and sequencing batch biological reactor (SBR) treatment of a semi-aerobic landfill leachate. Fenton pretreatment of the leachate was optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). UV/ Fenton pretreatment of the leachate was performed under the optimum operating conditions of the Fenton pretreatment (H2O2/ COD molar ratio 2.25, H2O2/ Fe2+ molar ratio 10.0 and reaction/ irradiation time 1.5 h). The characteristics of the UV/ Fenton pretreated leachate were: COD 390 mg/ L, sCOD 330 mg/L, BOD5 136 mg/L, BOD5/ COD ratio 0.35, NH3-N 112 mg/ L, TKN 157 mg/ L, NO3--N 6.8 mg/ L and colour 99 Pt-Co Unit. SBR treatment of the UV/ Fenton pretreated leachate resulted in sCOD, BOD5 and NH3-N removal of 78 %, 81 % and 88 %, respectively. The final effluent characteristics were: COD 92 mg/ L, sCOD 71 mg/L, BOD5 26 mg/ L, NH3-N 7 mg/ L, NO3--N 27 mg/ L, TKN 13 mg/ L and TSS 38 mg/ L. The effluent met the Malaysian discharge standard (B) - COD 100 mg/ L, BOD5 50 mg/ L and TSS 100 mg/ L. Combined UV/ Fenton and SBR is an effective treatment for mature leachate from semi-aerobic landfill. (author)

  16. Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the Tropical Northern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schepanski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three exemplary months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.

  17. Combined γ-ray irradiation-activated sludge treatment of humic acid solution from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acid, which is a typical microbially refractory organic substance, was extracted from a landfill leachate. The humic acid solution (COD=367 mg 1-1; TOC=293 mg 1-1; BOD=27 mg 1-1) was applied to a batch scale activated sludge treatment after the modification of its biodegradability by γ-ray irradiation. The BOD increased to 64 mg 1-1 by irradiation of 15 kGy (1.5 Mrad), while the COD and TOC decreased to 231 and 230 mg 1-1, respectively. When the irradiated sample was treated with an activated sludge, the BOD decreased rapidly to a similar value as the unirradiated sample. The elimination efficiency of TOC by the sludge treatment was approximately equal to that obtained by irradiation of 15 kGy. These facts suggest a utility of applying microbial processes after radiation treatment of microbially refractory wastewaters. (author)

  18. Influence of Strong Diurnal Variations in Sewage Quality on the Performance of Biological Denitrification in Small Community Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Urbini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The great diurnal variation in the quality of wastewater of small communities is an obstacle to the efficient removal of high nitrogen with traditional activated sludge processes provided by pre-denitrification. To verify this problem, the authors developed a pilot plant, in which the domestic wastewater of community of 15,000 inhabitants was treated. The results demonstrate that average and peak nitrogen removal efficiencies of over 60% and 70%, respectively, are difficult to obtain because of the strong variations in the BOD5/NO3-N ratios and the unexpected abnormal accumulation of dissolved oxygen during denitrification when the BOD5 load is low. These phenomena cause inhibitory effects and BOD5 deficiency in the denitrification process. The results demonstrate the need for a more complex approach to designing and managing small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs provided with denitrification than those usually adopted for medium- and large-size plants.

  19. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  20. Integrating the Anaerobic Process with Ultrafiltration in Meat Industry Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study meat industry wastewater treatment efficiency during fermentation process in ASBR reactor and post-treatment in UF process. The anaerobic process obtained a considerable degree of the removal of organic pollutants from raw wastewater designated as COD (73.3%, BOD (71.4% and TOC (83.2%. The concentrations of COD and BOD were 435 and 443 mg/dm3, respectively. The value of TOC reached a level of 136 mg/dm3. Generated biogas in the methane fermentation process of wastewater from meat industry plants was characterized by high methane content (80.9% vol.. In the final part of the experiment, the UF process was used in order to post-treating effluent from ASBR reactor. During the UF process, COD, BOD and TOC parameters were removed at 67.2%, 68% and 70.4%, respectively.

  1. A yeast co-culture-based biosensor for determination of waste water contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, N Yu; Arlyapov, V A; Chepurnova, M A; Alferov, S V; Reshetilov, A N

    2015-10-01

    Artificial microbial co-cultures were formed to develop the receptor element of a biosensor for assessment of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The co-cultures possessed broad substrate specificities and enabled assays of water and fermentation products within a broad BOD range (2.4-80 mg/dm(3)) with a high correlation to the standard method (R = 0.9988). The use of the co-cultures of the yeasts Pichia angusta, Arxula adeninivorans and Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in N-vinylpyrrolidone-modified poly(vinyl alcohol) enabled developing a BOD biosensor possessing the characteristics not inferior to those in the known biosensors. The results are indicative of a potential of using these co-cultures as the receptor element base in prototype models of instruments for broad application. PMID:26215344

  2. Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, J

    1996-01-01

    Excellent results have been reported for Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) of natural language texts (Bod, 1993). Unfortunately, existing algorithms are both computationally intensive and difficult to implement. Previous algorithms are expensive due to two factors: the exponential number of rules that must be generated and the use of a Monte Carlo parsing algorithm. In this paper we solve the first problem by a novel reduction of the DOP model to a small, equivalent probabilistic context-free grammar. We solve the second problem by a novel deterministic parsing strategy that maximizes the expected number of correct constituents, rather than the probability of a correct parse tree. Using the optimizations, experiments yield a 97% crossing brackets rate and 88% zero crossing brackets rate. This differs significantly from the results reported by Bod, and is comparable to results from a duplication of Pereira and Schabes's (1992) experiment on the same data. We show that Bod's results are at least partially due to an e...

  3. 曝气生物滤池处理石油采出水的动力学特性研究%Kinetic Performance of Oil-field Produced Water Treatment by Biological Aerated Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德林; 王建龙; 刘凯文; 周定

    2007-01-01

    The biological aerated filter (BAF) was used to treat the oil-field produced water. The removal efficiency for oil, COD, BOD and suspended solids (SS) was 76.3%-80.3%, 31.6%-57.9%, 86.3%-96.3% and 76.4%-82.7%, respectively when the hydraulic loading rates varied from 0.6m·h-1 to 1.4m·h-1. The greatest part of removal, for example more than 80% of COD removal, occurred on the top 100cm of the media in BAF. The kinetic performance of BAF indicated that the relationship of BOD removal efficiency with the hydraulic loading rates in biological aerated filters could be described by cr/ci=1-exp(-2.44/L0.59). This equation could be used to predict the BOD removal efficiency at different hydraulic loading rates.

  4. Marine pollution in Cameroon (Gulf of Guinea): State and remedies for successful control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the various research results obtained over several years in Cameroon on coastal and marine pollution, especially pollution by solid wastes, industrial and domestic effluents, hydrocarbons (tar balls), heavy metals and pesticides. Values in the order of 175,531 and 194,685 tons have been estimated for annual pollution loads in terms of BOD and suspended matter respectively. With respect to BOD, the most polluting industries are petroleum refineries, food processing and chemical industries which respectively represent 38, 36 and 10% of the total annual BOD. Measurement of tar balls on various Cameroonian beaches shows values as high as 42.40 g/m2 of beach, while the concentration of heavy metals encountered in shrimps and fish consumed in Cameroon shows a very wide range of values. Most of these values are similar to those obtained within the region, and some are alarming in their magnitude

  5. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  6. Performance of a modified multi-stage bubble column reactor for lead(II) and biological oxygen demand removal from wastewater using activated rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excessive release of wastewater into the environment is a major concern worldwide. Adsorption is the one of the most effective technique for treatment of wastewater. In this work activated carbon prepared from rice husk has been used as an adsorbent. In the present investigation a three phase modified multi-stage bubble column reactor (MMBCR) has been designed to remove lead and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from wastewater by means of its adsorption onto the surface of activated rice husk. The multi-staging has been achieved by hydrodynamically induced continuous bubble generation, breakup and regeneration. Under optimum conditions, maximum lead and BOD reduction achieved using activated rice husk was 77.15% and 19.05%, respectively. Results showed MMBCR offered appreciated potential benefits for lead removal from wastewater and BOD removal, even this extent of removal is encouraging and the MMBCR can be used a pretreatment unit before subjecting the wastewater to biological treatment

  7. Removal of contaminants in a paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sivakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on removal of various parameters in paper mill effluent using a method called bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana.  The experimental investigations have been carried out using Azolla caroliniana for conducting the sorption study with various dilution ratios (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 and biomass (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g. The maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was obtained at the optimum dilution ratio of 6, pH of 8 and biomass of 800 g. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was 82.3 %, 88.6 % and 79.1 % respectively.  Also, the study focused on uptake of TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana through bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor. The results of bioaccumulation factor revealed that TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent were adsorbed by Azolla caroliniana.  The results of translocation factor revealed that the roots of Azolla caroliniana translocate the TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent to the shoots of Azolla caroliniana. From the results, this study concluded that bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana could be effectively used for removing TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent. This study also suggested that Azolla caroliniana may be used for removing various contaminants, not only from paper mill effluent, but also from any other industrial effluents.

  8. Statistical Evaluation of Wastewater Characteristics at the Inlet – Outlet of an Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali A. J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluent to Influent concentration ratios for BOD, COD, TSS and Food-to-Microorganisms (F/M ratio are measure of treatment plant efficiency. Daily observed inlet and outlet concentrations at ASP in a plant are plotted as time series for Pre-monsoon (January – May and Post-monsoon (July – December, 2013 period. BOD vs TSS and BOD vs COD indicated that inlet concentrations are ~ 80 % reduced in treatment process. Correlation matrix indicated strong correlationbetween COD and TSS of post-monsoon raw sewage, while weak correlation among the rest. Principle Component Analysis (PCA and Factor Analysis (FA are used to characterize wastewater at the inlet and outlet of ASP. PCA & FA clustered wastewater quality parameters into strongly correlated groups - pH, COD and BOD as PC1 in pre-monsoon raw sewage while, DO and F/Maverageas PC1 in post-monsoon raw sewage. All parameters (pH, TSS, COD, BOD, O&G of treated effluent in premonsoon period are grouped into PC1. In post-monsoon period, for treated effluent, pH, DO, TSS and F/Maverageare clustered as PC1. Effluent BOD, COD and TSS are dependent variables with F/Maverage as independent variable for regression analysis. Regression fits developed with 2013 data for these effluent concentrations fit well with field samples (December 2013 – March 2014 and with routine monitored data (January – March, 2014, thus, validating the model. Effluent concentrations indicated 80 – 95% of removal efficiency. Thus, F/Maverage ratios obtained from regression fit can further be considered as design parameters for efficient functioning of ASP and can be used to design the inflow and outflow characteristics for any treatment plant with similar process conditions

  9. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation. PMID:26818608

  10. PW膜-生物反应器法处理制药发酵废水%Treatment of Fermentation Wastewater from Pharmaceutical Production by PW Membrane-Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄其明

    2001-01-01

    采用PW膜生物反应器法处理制药发酵废水, 工程运行结果表明在进水 CODcr为 7 130~2 480 mg/L, BOD 5为 617~668 mg/L, NH 3-N为 141~149 mg/L的条件下, 排出水的 CODcr、 BOD 5、 NH 3-N的平均去除率分别达到了 98% 、 96% 、 98% 以上, 符合国家排放标准的要求.

  11. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Patel; R. T. Vashi

    2010-01-01

    The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0%) of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was trea...

  12. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo Andrea; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A ...

  13. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O3/H2O2 and O3/γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  14. 利用微生物电解池构建新型BOD快速测定生物传感器%A NovelBiosensor Based on Microbial Electrolysis Cells for Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海明; 司万童; 潘建刚

    2015-01-01

    基于微生物电解池构建了新型生化需氧量(BOD)快速测定生物传感器,以葡萄糖-谷氨酸溶液为模拟废水对传感器的性能进行了评估。结果表明:(1)当外加电压保持为0.7 V,传感器的最大电流与BOD浓度在10~400 mgL1内符合Monod方程,且传感器的最大电流和BOD浓度在10~100 mgL1呈线性关系;(2)传感器的测量时间短,BOD浓度在10~400 mgL1测量时间约为10 min;(3)传感器的重复性(±SD<±12.2%,n=6)和稳定性(±SD<±6%,12 d)好。结论:基于微生物电解池开发新型 BOD 生物传感器是可行的,且传感器具有灵敏度高、线性范围宽、检测时间短、重复性及稳定性好等优点,并能快速测定BOD。%A novel microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) based biosensor for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was developed, and its performance was evaluated with glucose-glutamic acid containing artificial wastewater. The results show that when the applied voltage is kept at 0.7 V, the maximum current of the biosensor follows Monod equation under BOD concentration of 10~400 mgL1, and the maximum current has linear relationship with BOD when the BOD concentration is in the range of 10~100 mgL1. The results also indicate that the measurement time is about 10 min when the BOD concentration is in the range of 10~400 mgL1. The relative standard deviation of repeatability was less than ±12.2%, while the relative standard deviation of stability was less than ±6% over a period of 12 days. These results demonstrate that the development of novel biosensors based on MEC for rapid determination of BOD is feasible, and the biosensor has advantages of high sensitivity, wide linear range, short detection time, good repeatability and good stability.

  15. Balloon Occlusive Diameter of Non-Circular Atrial Septal Defects in Transcatheter Closure with Amplatzer Septal Occluder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Chang, Sung-A; Huh, June; Park, Seung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) of non-circular defects in the transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). Subjects and Methods A total of 67 patients who had undergone transcatheter closure of an ASD were reviewed retrospectively. A non-circular defect was defined as the ratio of the short diameter to the long diameter of the defect on the en-face image less than 0.75. The BOD was compared with the long diameter...

  16. Kapitalismens ud- eller afvikling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Ingen af David Harveys mange værker er hidtil blevet udgivet på dansk. Det har forlaget Solidaritet nu rådet bod på med udgivelsen af "17 modsætninger og enden på kapitalisme"......Ingen af David Harveys mange værker er hidtil blevet udgivet på dansk. Det har forlaget Solidaritet nu rådet bod på med udgivelsen af "17 modsætninger og enden på kapitalisme"...

  17. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  18. Robust benevolent evaluations of teaching performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Although benevolent (BoD) weighting has some appealing features for the construction of evaluation scores of teacher performance (i.e., SET-scores), it still suffers from an important drawback in its basic form: the sensitivity of its outcomes to the influence of potential outliers, extreme values, and potential measurement error in the data. The robust order-m BoD approach provides a solution for this problem as it no longer puts central the traditional assumption that all observations (thus...

  19. Bicycle Infrastructure that Extends beyond the Door: examining investments in bicycle-oriented design through a qualitative survey of commercial building owners and tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Orrick, Phyllis; Frick, Karen; Ragland, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling “bicycle-oriented design” (BOD). The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities. The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what we...

  20. TINGKAT EFEKTIVITAS INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR HOTEL-HOTEL DI YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Martono; Nanang Besmanto; Athena Anwar; Sukar Sukar

    2012-01-01

    In the period of 2002 - 2003, a study was performed to assess the effectiveness of hotels' wastewater treatment plants in reducing  wastewater pollutant contents in Yogyakarta. There were 11 hotels surveyed, with 44 wastewater samples analysed in the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent. The effectiveness degrees of the wastewater treatment plant in reducing pollutants in 2002 for the above parameters were 72.72% (BOD), 45.45% (COD), 90.90% (TDS), and 90.90% (detergent). While those for...

  1. BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MOHAMMAD DARA GHASIMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from transfer station requires treatment before being discharged into the environment to avoid surface and underground water contamination. Various factors such as waste composition, availability of oxygen and moisture, designing and controlling of transfer station operations have been shown to affect the composition of the leachate. The high COD, BOD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and heavy metals contents of fresh leachate are the main problems faced by leachate treatment operators. The result of the present study indicated that this process reduced the COD content by 43%.The average removal efficiencies of BOD5, TS, TSS, and VSS were 80, 49, 37 and 39 %, respectively.

  2. Stavba a funkce kořenových čistíren odpadních vod na příkladě dvou staveb v biosférické rezervaci Třeboňsko.

    OpenAIRE

    MUNDOKOVÁ, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The Bacherlor´s thesis monitors the concentrations of certain chemicals in waste water. The locations of this testing operation were Příbraz, a constructed wetland that has been operating for nine years and Rosec also a constructed wetland in testing operation. This project shows the physical construction and the function of constructed wetlands. It also reports on the levels of the BOD 5, COD and TSS. From our monitoring records the efficiency for BOD 5, COD and TSS has been steady over the ...

  3. Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Angelis Dejanira F. de; Corso Carlos R.; Bidoia Ederio D.; Moraes Peterson B.; Domingos Roberto N.; Rocha-Filho Romeu C.

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD) and chemical (COD) oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD) showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was s...

  4. Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dejanira F. de Angelis; Carlos R. Corso; Ederio D. Bidoia; Peterson B. Moraes; Roberto N. Domingos; Romeu C. Rocha-Filho

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD) and chemical (COD) oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD) showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was s...

  5. Oxidized starch solutions for environmentally friendly aircraft deicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahuta, Joseph M; Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Beutel, Mark W; Rentz, Jeremy A; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    Deicers currently used for aircraft deicing, including ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, pose significant threats to surface waters, as a result of high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Oxidized starch may provide a less toxic deicer with lower BOD. The freezing point depression of starch formulations oxidized using hydrogen peroxide and catalysts (i.e., catalyzed hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] propagations-CHP) was 28 degrees C, and viscosities similar to those of commercial deicers were achieved after post-treatment with granular activated carbon. The most effective oxidized starch formulation exerted a 5-day BOD up to 6 times lower than glycol deicers (103 versus 400 to 800 g O2/L). Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia for this formulation (48-hour lethal concentration, 50% [LC50] of 2.73 g/L) was greater than pure propylene glycol (13.1 g/ L), but lower than propylene glycol deicer formulations (1.02 g/L). Organic acids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as the primary constituents in the oxidized starch solution. The proposed deicing system would provide effective deicing while exerting minimal environmental effects (e.g., lower toxicity to aquatic organisms and lower BOD). Furthermore, these deicers could be made from waste starch, promoting sustainability. PMID:22073730

  6. Contribution of domestic wastewater to the total pollutant loading influent to a municipal wastewater treatment plant; Contribuciond e las aguas residuales domesticas a la carga total que accede a una EDAr municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Perez de Siles, L. A.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.; Gonzalez Jimenez, M. M.

    2004-07-01

    A study on the purely domestic wastewater from Cordoba city (Abril to july 2003) has found a pollutant loading very high on these domestic wastewaters, by showing mean values of suspended solid, BOD{sub 5} and COD equal to respectively 452 mg/l, 505 mg/1 and 793 mg/l. This pollutants power probably emanates from the products for domestic cleaning used in our homes and must be associated to chemicals as citrates, oxalates, surfactants, polialcohols, organics complexing, ammonium compounds..., which show high value of pollutant loading up to 200 mg/l of BOD{sub 5} per ml of product have been measured on a commercial domestic dishwasher, and 9.000 mg/l of DQO for a domestic smoothing. Furthermore, the increasing use of pre-cooked foods can add to domestic wastewater fats, oils, and flours which can also increase the BOD:5 and COD values of these effluents. On the other hand, the measured pollutant loading or domestic wastewater from monofamily homes has been lower than those from multifamily buildings. Finally, due to the fact that the Golondrina's WWTP (Cordoba, 1991) was designed for treat values of suspended solids, BOD, and COD lower than those actually detected, its treatment processes should be probably modified in a near future. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. 40 CFR 405.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... more than 100,000 lb/day of milk equivalent (more than 10,390 lb/day of BOD5 input). Effluent... Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For plants condensing 100,000 lb/day or less of milk equivalent...

  8. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Biological treatment of textile mill wastewater in the. presence of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this study was to find out effectiveness of biological treatment for the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the textile processing industrial wastewater in the absence and presence of granular activated carbon (GAC) in shake flask experiment. To check the pollution level, physio-chemical analysis of effluent from Amtex industry (Faisalabad) was carried out. The outlet effluent contained high value of COD (1100 mg/l), BOD (309 mg/l) with pH 9.2, electrical conductivity (Ec) 3.7 mS/m, total dissolved solids (TDS) (2640 mg/l), total solids (TS) (3060 mg/l), total suspended solids (TSS) (420 19/l) and phenol (.34 mg/l). After initial period of activated sludge adaptation to wastewater, shake flask batch cultures (with and without activated carbon) were operated on lab scale. The COD and BOD were noted after very 12 hours for 3 days. The maximum reduction in COD (82%) and BOD (90%) was observed biological treatment in presence of activated carbon at retention time of 72 hours. (author)

  10. New data on electron-beam treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on electron-beam treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are presented. The effects of electron irradiation on various parameters (color, COD, BOD5, total number of microbes, odor, content of pollutants and so on) of municipal wastewater are considered. The special attention is paid to the radiation-induced decomposition of synthetic surfactants

  11. Stream macroinvertebrate occurrence along gradients in organic pollution and eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Buffagni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the...

  12. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  13. Effect of Carbon Sources on the Biomass Build-Up and Degradation of Rubber Processing Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    K. Girish

    2014-01-01

    Rubber processing industry effluent represents a serious environmental pollution problem especially for underground and surface water. Wastewater collected from rubber processing industry was characterized for their pollution characteristics. Analysis showed that the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), ammonia and phosphate were high when compared to effluent discharge standard for industr...

  14. ECOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION LAVELS OF WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF NIVKA RIVER NEAR THE AIRPORT «KYIV»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Konovets

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of hydrochemical analyses and biotesting of surface water and sediments of Nivka river near the airport «Kiev» are presented. Exceeding of maximum permissible values for a number of indexes (COD, BOD5, ammonia and nitrates and considerable contamination of surface water and sediments by oil products and some of heavy metals is demonstrated.

  15. Production of ethanol and biomass starting to present lactose in the milk whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk whey is a by-product of the milk industry, a highly polluting waste due to the quantity of COD and BOD that it contains. The contamination caused by milk whey is mostly due to its lactose content. The fermentation of milk whey to ethanol is a possible road to reduce the polluting effect. (Author)

  16. Enhancing the biological degradability of sulfamethoxazole by ionizing radiation treatment in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sági, Gyuri; Kovács, Krisztina; Bezsenyi, Anikó; Csay, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Changes of biodegradability and toxicity were followed up on aqueous solutions of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), during ionizing radiation treatment. The biodegradability of SMX (0.1 mmol dm-3) was specified by five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), using municipal activated sludge, and the results showed an improvement with applying only 0.4 kGy dose. BOD5 further increased with prolonged irradiation, indicating a conversion of SMX, a non-biodegradable compound, to biologically treatable substances. At 2.5 kGy dose, the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0 to 0.16. The total organic carbon (TOC) content showed a decrease of only 15% at this point, thus high degree of mineralization is not necessary to make SMX digestible for the low concentrations of microorganisms used during BOD5 measurements. Increment in respiration inhibition of municipal activated sludge was observed with increasing the dose. The EC50 values showed a decrease of one order of magnitude when changing the dose from 0.4 kGy to 2.5 kGy. The increase of inhibition and formation of H2O2 showed a strong correlation.

  17. 厌氧/生物脱氮/MBR/NF/RO工艺处理渗滤液%Application of anaerobic-biological denitrification-MBR-NF-RO process to the treatment of landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立勇; 贾赞利; 刘俊良; 梁丽华

    2015-01-01

    The combined process,anaerobic-biological denitrification-MBR-nanofiltration-reverse osmosis has been used for the treatment of highly-concentrated landfill leachate with refractory organic compounds. The operation results show that,the removing rates of CODCr,BOD5,NH4+-N and TN are over 99%. The effluent CODCr, BOD5,NH4+-N and TN are equal to or less than 60,20,8,20 mg/L respectively,meeting the requirements specified in the Standard of Pollutant Control in the Domestic Rubbish Landfill Yard(GB 16889—2008).%采用厌氧/生物脱氮/MBR/NF/RO工艺处理含高浓度难降解有机物的垃圾渗滤液。运行结果表明,该工艺对渗滤液的CODCr、BOD5、NH4+-N、TN的去除率均超过99%,出水CODCr≤60 mg/L,BOD5≤20 mg/L,NH4+-N≤8 mg/L, TN≤20 mg/L,达到《生活垃圾填埋场污染物控制标准》(GB 16889—2008)。

  18. Biodegradability enhancement of municipal landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Kewu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of enhancing the biodegradability of landfill leachate via air stripping followed by coagulation/ultrafiltration (UF processes is introduced. In this study, the air stripping process obtained a removal efficiency of 88.6% for ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, at an air-to-liquid ratio (A/L of 3 300 (pH = 11 and after 18 h of stripping. The single coagulation process increased the BOD (biological oxygen demand/COD (chemical oxygen demand ratio by 0.089 with a FeCl3 dosage of 570 mg/L, at pH 7.0, and the single UF process increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.311. However, the combination of coagulation and UF increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.423, and the final BOD, COD, NH3-N, and colour of the leachate were 1 023 mg/L, 2 845 mg/L, 145 mg/L, and 2 056, respectively, when a 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO membrane was used at an operating pressure of 0.7 MPa. In the ultrafiltration process, the average solution flux (JV, concentration multiple (MC, and retention rate (R for the COD were 107.3 L/(m2·h, 6.3, and 84.2%, respectively.

  19. Application of iron nanaoparticles in landfill leachate treatment - case study: Hamadan landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashitarash Zahra Esfahani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total solids (TS and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reaction time and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. Maximum removal efficiencies were 47.94%, 35%, 55.62% and 76.66% for COD, BOD5, TS and color, respectively (for 2.5 g/L iron nanoparticles dosage, pH = 6.5 and 10 min reaction time. The results showed that the removal of COD, BOD5 and color had reverse relationship with contact time and TS removal followed a direct relationship (P 5, TS and color in a short contact time (10 min increasing pH up to 6.5, increased the removal efficiency for COD, BOD5, TS and color and then removal efficiency decreased with increasing pH to 8.5. Increasing the dosage of nanoparticles to 2.5 g/L increased the efficiency of process. High compatibility and efficiency of this process was proven by landfill leachate pre-treatment or post-treatment, so this removal method may be recommended for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants.

  20. Lp-centroid Bo dies and Its Characterizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tong-yi; Zhang De-yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the characteristic properties for Lp-centroid bod-ies, and an improved version of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is obtained. In addition, using the definitions of Lp-pole curvature image and Lp-affine surface area, a new proof of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is given.

  1. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  2. Ärikeskus meelelahutajatele / Andres Haabu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haabu, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Balti riikides suurim salvestusega CD- ja DVD-plaate tootev kontsern Baltic Optical Disc (BOD) Group tähistas muusika, filmi ja multimeedia valdkonnale pühendatud ärikeskuse laiendusosa ehitustööde alustamist nurgakivi panekuga Tallinnas Laagris 25. septembril

  3. 42 CFR 9.3 - Sanctuary policies and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor. (2) Direct the BOD to: (i) Ensure that chimpanzees accepted into the sanctuary are not discharged... science and with knowledge in behavioral primatology; (C) Individual(s) with experience in the animal... PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.3...

  4. 40 CFR 442.2 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the general definitions and abbreviations at 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions shall... grain, soybeans, soy meal, soda ash, lime, fertilizer, plastic pellets, flour, sugar, and similar... in Table IB at 40 CFR 136.3, are defined as follows: (1) BOD 5 means 5-day biochemical oxygen...

  5. Guidelines For Health-Based Ventilation In Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, Paolo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Hänninen, Otto O.; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease (BoD) associated with major air exposures indoors in 26 European countries was recently accounted for loss of two million healthy life years annually expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) (Jantunen et al., 2011). The development of health-based ventilation...

  6. 77 FR 29167 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Airport Deicing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... pollutants: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, and pH. If the average... reductions in dissolved oxygen, fish kills, reduced organism abundance and species diversity, contamination... regulations, called the ``Phase I'' stormwater regulations (55 FR 47990, November 16, 1990), EPA...

  7. Kolektivizace ve střední Evropě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychlík, Jan

    Praha : Česká zemědělská univerzita - Dokořán, 2008 - (Blažek, P.; Kubálek, M.), s. 13-29 ISBN 978-80-7363-226-7. - ( Bod ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70900502 Keywords : collectivisation * Central Europe * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History

  8. Dynamics of Flow in Wake behind Ahmed Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uruba, Václav

    Berlin : Technische Universität Berlin, 2009, s. 236-247 ISBN N. [EUROMECH COLLOQUIUM 509. Berlin (DE), 24.03.2009-25.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : wake * dynamics * TR-PIV * BOD , POPs Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Unges friluftsliv set med integrationsbriller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    Det er almindelig kendt, at indvandrere ikke deltager i foreningsliv i samme omfang som etniske danskere. Det er der forsøgt rådet bod på ved at invitere unge med anden etnisk baggrund end dansk til at dyrke spejdersport i henholdsvis Varde og København NV. Tilgangen til at integrere de unge var...

  10. Støj fra installationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.; Ovesen, K.

    søger at råde bod på den manglende erfaring hos fabrikanter, projekterende og udførende. Den omhandler Bygningsreglementets bestemmelser, Strømning i vandfyldte rørsystemer, Brugsvandsanlæg, Afløbsinstallationer, Vandvarmeanlæg, Ventilationsanlæg, Isolering mod vibrationer og rystelser frembragt af...

  11. Regulære og Singulære Sturm-Liouvilleproblemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig

    1996-01-01

    for Chemical Engineers. Notesamlingen forsøger at råde bod på disse mangler.Noterne indeholder en kort oversigt over de kendte teoretiske resultater for regulære SL-problemer som baggrund for en mere omfattende oversigt over teorien for singulære Sturm-Liouvilleproblemer. Hovedformålet med noterne er...

  12. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore; Undeland, Ingrid; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Baron, Caroline P.

    2015-01-01

    recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS and...

  13. Oxygen reduction reactions of the thermostable bilirubin oxidase from Bacillus pumilus on mesoporous carbon-cryogel electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the bioelectrocatalytic reactions of a new bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from Bacillus pumilus on a mesoporous carbon cryogel (CCG) electrode, in the presence and absence of a mediator. BOD, physically adsorbed on the mesoporous matrix of a CCG electrode, allowed a direct electron transfer (DET) from the carbon electrode to the type I copper site of the enzyme. The current from the dioxygen reduction reaction (ORR), catalyzed by BOD, depended on the temperature and pH of the electrolyte. The mediated ORR catalyzed by BOD on CCG electrode was also investigated using osmium based redox polymers. The catalytic current on the CCG electrode modified with 0.2 mg cm−2 of hydrogel consisting of an enzyme, a redox polymer and a cross linker, was 1.8 mA cm−2, which was almost five times higher than that on a flat glassy carbon electrode for the same hydrogel composition and loading. The catalytic current linearly increased with the total amount of hydrogel on the porous carbon electrode while the catalytic current on the flat electrode was indifferent to the loading

  14. Kolektivizace zemědělství v Československu v letech 1955-1956

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, Vladimír

    Praha : Česká zemědělská univerzita - Dokořán, 2008 - (Blažek, P.; Kubálek, M.), s. 128-135 ISBN 978-80-7363-226-7. - ( Bod ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * 1950s * collectivization Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. Opgørelse af regularitet på jernbaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    stedet for togregularitet betyder, at passagererne ikke stilles ringere ved ”overdrevent” fokus på regularitet. Brug af passagerregularitet i bod-bonus-kontrakter betyder endvi-dere, at der vil være fokus på at sikre så gode forhold for passagererne som muligt. Passagerernes forhold kan endvidere...

  16. Innovation og ledelse i et SMV perspektiv - del 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Ulhøi, John Parm

    begrebsforvirring i litteraturen om innovation og ledelse ligesom meget af den er baseret på erfaringer fra store virksomheder. Det forsøger dette kapitel at råde bod på. Kapitlet indledes med kort at definere centrale begreber og temaer, der er vigtige for at forstå det sammensurium af perspektiver, der tilsammen...

  17. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making. PMID:26845613

  18. An examination of trace surface on diamond-like carbon film after ball-on disk measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by the radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method on silicon substrates using methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) gas. The wear track on DLC films was examined after the ball-on disk (BOD) measurement with a Raman mapping method. The BOD measurement of DLC films was performed for 1 to 3 h with a 1-hour step time. The sliding traces on the hydrogenated DLC film after the BOD measurement were also observed using an optical microscope. The films synthesized in this work had a very low friction coefficient (about 0.06) and were adhered very well without peeling off during the BOD measurement even with very thin thickness. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra show the decrease of C atomic % and the increase of O atomic % according to the sliding time. The novel Raman mapping method effectively showed the graphitization of DLC films according to the sliding time

  19. Ugens pressefotos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    Nyhedsuge-undersøgelsen fra 1999 blev - med nogen ret - kritiseret for at gøre for lidt ud af nyhedsmediernes billedside. Det råder vi bod på her ved at analysere pressefotografier i dagblade, ugeaviser og fagblade. Det sker på grundlag af 10 vurderingskriterier, som udmøntes i 20 konkrete...

  20. Skattereglerne for erhvervsdrivende fonde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    bod herpå. Artiklen skal især belyse de udfordringer, fondene har for at undgå dobbeltbeskatning. Det kan konkluderes, at motiverne for at indføre den såkaldte prioriteringsregel hviler på et tvivlsomt grundlag og fører til en helt forskellig skattemæssig stilling for de enkelte erhvervsdrivende fonde...

  1. Seltskond / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Balti riikides suurim salvestusega CD- ja DVD-plaate tootev kontsern BOD Group tähistas muusika, filmi ja multimeedia valdkonnale pühendatud ärikeskuse laiendusosa ehitustööde alustamist nurgakivi panekuga Tallinnas Laagris 25. septembril

  2. Evaluation of Methods for Nitrogen and Phosporus Control in Sewage Effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, O.; Hansen, J. L.

    The design parameters for the City of Copenhagen sewage-treatment works were established on an experimental basis, and parallel studies of six pilot plants were made over a two-year period. The key parameters are (a) the rate of nitrification and denitrification, (b) temperature, and (c) BOD...

  3. Treatment of paper and board mill wastewater by biological- filtration-coagulation pilot scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined biological-filtration-coagulation pilot scale reactor was designed and used for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill that had Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the range of 2,054-3,021 mg/L, and 668-1195 mg/L, respectively. Biological treatment by Fed Batch Reactor (FBR) and Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) processes resulted in reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) about 49-60% and 74-78% respectively. Biological treatment by FBR operation, sand filtration (SF) and Alum (AL) treatment resulted total of 93-95% and 96-97% COD and BOD reduction, respectively. In case of SBR processes, followed by SF and AL treatment, 91 and 92% COD and BOD reduction was observed, respectively. Both of the untreated effluents were found toxic while, treated were not toxic when exposed to the fish even for 72 hours. The resultant effluent from FBR-SF-AL treatment met National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and could be discharged into the environment without any risk. (author)

  4. 77 FR 17073 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of the charter...

  5. 77 FR 70785 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  6. 77 FR 2983 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of the charter...

  7. 78 FR 12327 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale- Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  8. 76 FR 61365 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natal-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  9. 76 FR 37120 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...; Ana Natale- Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey... Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice President, National Association... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  10. De petten van de agent : Opkomst en ontwikkeling van de nieuwsagent in de Republiek der Nederlanden, 1600–1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, J

    2015-01-01

    Dit artikel beschrijft de opkomst van de ‘agent’ in de zeventiende eeuw. Meer specifiek komen de agenten aan bod die vanuit de Republiek hun opdrachtgevers bedienden, die zich voornamelijk buiten de Republiek bevonden. Aan de hand van de agency theory betoogt Feringa dat het ontstaan van het fenomee

  11. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  12. Biofilm reactor based real-time analysis of biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Jia, Jianbo; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-15

    We reported a biofilm reactor (BFR) based analytical system for real-time biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) monitoring. It does not need a blank solution and other chemical reagents to operate. The initial dissolved oxygen (DO) in sample solution was measured as blank, while DO in the BFR effluent was measured as response. The DO difference obtained before and after the sample solution flowed through the BFR was regarded as an indicator of real-time BOD. The analytical performance of this reagent-free BFR system was equal to the previous BFR system operated using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and high purity deionized water in reproducibility, accuracy and long-term stability. Besides, this method embraces many notable advantages, such as no secondary pollution. Additionally, the sample solutions are free from temperature controlling and air-saturation before injection. Significantly, this is a real-time BOD analysis method. This method was successfully carried out in a simulated emergency, and the obtained results agreed well with conventional BOD₅. These advantages, coupled with simplicity in device, convenience in operation and minimal maintenance, make such a reagent-free BFR analytical system promising for practical BOD real-time warning. PMID:23228491

  13. Updating a model of pulp and paper wastewater treatment in a partial-mix aerated stabilization basin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Curtis W

    2010-01-01

    A relatively simple set of calculations was presented in 1994 to evaluate the effectiveness of each ASB cell as reactor, clarifier, and digester. The steady-state model, which incorporated estimates of solids settling and benthal feedback of BOD5 and nutrients, has been a reasonable diagnostic tool for municipal and industrial applications. Results have aided in understanding normal system function, the nature of chronic inefficiencies of individual systems, and appropriate modifications to meet changes in discharge requirements. For applications in the pulp and paper industry, several changes have been incorporated recently. Nitrogen limitation is not needed in modeling pulp and paper ASB reactions. Slowly biodegradable material is modeled as a contributor to soluble BOD5, and this contribution becomes a significant factor in the latter segments of an ASB. Phosphorus availability is modeled as a stoichiometric control of soluble BOD5 uptake. Anoxic microorganisms are assumed to be responsible for a portion of the soluble BOD5 consumption in the first ASB aeration zone. Finally, the long-term nutrient capture in ASBs is modeled as 3% for nitrogen and 28% for phosphorus. PMID:20861537

  14. Altered body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The styd objectives were to identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without type 2 diabetes, and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Participants were overweight and obese (bod...

  15. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  16. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  17. Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish po

  18. 77 FR 44717 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., Meta, Colombia; NIT 822007334-9 (Colombia) 4. DISCO S.A., Km. 3.5 Autop. Medellin Via Siberia Costado.... JESBEL Y CIA. S. EN C., Km. 3.5 Autop. Medellin Via Siberia Costado Sur Terminal Terrestre de Carga....5 Autop. Medellin Via Siberia Costado Sur Terminal, Terrestre de Carga Bloque 4 Bod. 32,...

  19. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  20. Organic matter removal and assessment of kinetic parameters in laboratory-scale constructed wetland systems - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.12184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Resende Luiz Fia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of constructed wetland systems (SACs for treatment of swine wastewater (ARS under different organic loads (TCOA, and obtain kinetic parameters for sizing of the SACs. The SACs consisted of two tanks measuring 0.40 x 0.10 x 0.15 m, constructed of glass and filled with a 0.13 m layer of pea gravel; these were installed within a BOD incubator to maintain a 20°C temperature. The SACs were not cultivated and were submitted to average TCOA concentrations of 246 (SAC1 and 328 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD (SAC2 for 51 days. With regard to the removal of organic matter, in the form of TSS, BOD and COD, no statistical difference was verified (p > 0.05 between the SACs, being that the average removal efficiencies for the referred variables in SAC1 and SAC2 were 68 and 76%, 66 and 73%, and 55 and 58%, respectively. The models proposed by Brasil et al. (2007 and Kadlec and Wallace (2008 presented good fit and adequately described the kinetics of organic matter removal (BOD and COD from the evaluated systems, generally presenting R2 greater than 99%.

  1. Orthogonal experiment on reclaimed water treatment and economic optimization model in green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 张成; 柴宏祥; 樊明玉

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of superior drainage in green building treated by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland was launched. The results show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (Nv),temperature (t) and addition dosage (ρ) is BOD5=2.05Nv-0.41t-0.82ρ+38.9. The orthogonal experiment results of constructed wetland post-treatment show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (NA),and temperature (t) is BOD5=1 190NA-0.32t+12.2. Based on the two orthogonal regression equations,combined of green building municipal gray reclaimed water quantity requirements in different seasons,a technology investment on economic optimization model of combinational technique was established. The results offer technological support for reclaimed water treatment,which regards superior drainage as the source and is purified by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland. According to the model,the reasonable scale of reclaimed water treatment systems can be determined,the treatment efficacy can be well predicted,and both the design and operating can be effectively guided.

  2. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Nurul Izzaty Mohd.; Rahman, Haliza Abd. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [UTM-Centre of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  3. Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model? A Reply to Joshua Goodman

    OpenAIRE

    Bod, Rens

    1996-01-01

    This note is a reply to Joshua Goodman's paper "Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model" (Goodman, 1996; cmp-lg/9604008). In his paper, Goodman makes a number of claims about (my work on) the Data-Oriented Parsing model (Bod, 1992-1996). This note shows that some of these claims must be mistaken.

  4. 40 CFR 133.102 - Secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary treatment. 133.102 Section... TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.102 Secondary treatment. The following paragraphs describe the minimum level of effluent quality attainable by secondary treatment in terms of the parameters—BOD5, SS and pH....

  5. Biodegradability enhancement of municipal landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pi Kewu; Gong Wenqi

    2008-01-01

    The method of enhancing the biodegradability of landfill leachate via air stripping followed by coagulation/ultrafiltration (UF) processes is introduced. In this study, the air stripping process obtained a removal efficiency of 88.6% for ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), at an air-to-liquid ratio (A/L) of 3 300 (pH=11) and after 18 h of stripping. The single coagulation process increased the BOD (biological oxygen demand)/COD (chemical oxygen demand) ratio by 0.089 with a FeCl3 dosage of 570 mg/L, at pH 7.0, and the single UF process increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.311. However, the combination of coagulation and UF increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.423, and the final BOD, COD, NH3-N, and colour of the leachate were 1 023 mg/L, 2 845 mg/L, 145 mg/L, and 2 056, respectively, when a 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membrane was used at an operating pressure of 0.7 MPa. In the ultrafiltration process, the average solution flux (JⅤ), concentration multiple (MC), and retention rate (R) for the COD were 107.3 L/(m2.h), 6.3, and 84.2%, respectively.

  6. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, and total dissolved solids (TDS before being subjected to two modes of aeration system, that is diffused air and oxygen enriched air. These water quality concentrations were tested for every 20 minutes for two-hour period during the aeration process. Results of BOD, TSS, pH, conductivity, DO, SS and TDS concentrations against time of samples from the two modes of aeration were then compared. It was found that DO concentration achieved in oxygen enriched air aeration was better than aeration using diffused air system. Aeration using OES improve the DO concentration in the wastewater and thus improve the BOD reduction and also influence other physical characteristics of wastewater. This phenomenon indicates the advantage of using air with higher oxygen concentration for wastewater aeration instead of diffused air system.

  7. (On)duidelijkheid bij Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ducheine; F. Osinga

    2014-01-01

    Het Kamerdebat in april over bewapende onbemande vliegtuigen was uitermate verward en verwarrend. Het ging niet alleen over deze ‘drones’, maar ook de rol van inlichtingendiensten, Amerikaanse contra-terrorisme-operaties en robotisering kwamen in de discussie veelvuldig aan bod. Hoog tijd om een aan

  8. Smart with Natural Gas in the built environment; Slim met Gas in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, H.; Oude Elberink, L.; Holwerda, B. [et al.] (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    This magazine addresses the future of the energy system, the role of natural gas in the energy transition process and innovative (gas) technology for the built environment [Dutch] In dit magazine komen de toekomst van de energievoorziening, de rol van aardgas in het energietransitieproces en innovatieve (gas)technologie voor de gebouwde omgeving aan bod.

  9. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  10. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD5/m3 d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD5/m3 d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Water Purification Characteristic of the Actual Constructed Wetland with Carex dispalata in a Cold Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Morio; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsukada, Hiroko

    Carex dispalata, a native plant species applied in cold districts for water purification in constructed wetlands, has useful characteristics for landscape creation and maintenance. In this study, seasonal differences in purification ability were verified, along with comparison of frozen and non-frozen periods' performance. A wetland area was constructed using a “hydroponics method” and a “coir fiber based method”. Results show that the removal rates of BOD, SS, and Chl-a were high. On this constructed wetland reduces organic pollution, mainly phytoplankton, but the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was insufficient. The respective mean values of influent and treated water during three years were 26.6 mg/L and 12.2 mg/L for BOD, and 27.9 mg/L and 7.5 mg/L for SS. The mean value of the BOD removal rate for the non-frozen period was 2.99 g/m2/d that for the frozen period was 1.86 g/m2/d. The removal rate followed the rise of the BOD load rate. The removal rate limits were about 4 g/m2/d during the frozen period and 15 g/m2/d during the non-frozen period. For operations, energy was unnecessary. The required working hours were about 20 h annually for all maintenance and management during operations.

  12. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  13. Macrobenthos in the nearshore coastal system of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mathew, A.; Govindan, K.

    . Selected water quality parameters like S ppt, DO, BOD, nutrients etc. were monitored. Macrobenthos and water quality of the Harbour-Thana creek-System (HTS) and the Bassein creek-coastal system (BCS) were studied and compared. HTS sustained relatively...

  14. Biogas production from synthetic sago wastewater by anaerobic digestion: Optimization and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago processing industries generate a voluminous amount of wastewater with extremely high concentration of organic pollutants, resulting in water pollution. Anaerobic digestion has employed for reduction of COD and maximization of biogas production using synthetic sago wastewater by batch process. Mixed culture obtained from sago industry sludge was used as a source for microorganism. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the variables, such as pH, initial BOD, temperature and retention time. Statistical results were assessed with various descriptive, such as p value, lack of fit (F-test, coefficient of R2 determination, and adequate precision values. Pareto Analysis of Variance revealed that the coefficients of determination value (R2 of % COD removal, % BOD removal and biogas production were 0.994, 0.993 and 0.988. The optimum condition in which maximum COD removal (81.85%, BOD removal (91.61% and biogas production of 99.4 ml/day was achieved at pH 7 with an initial BOD of 1374 mg/l, and with the retention time of 10 days at 32oC.

  15. Modeling the performance of 'up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket' reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes linear and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor effluents using four input variables measured weekly in the influent wastewater during the peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours over a period of 48 weeks. The performance of the models was assessed through the root mean squared error (RMSE), relative error of prediction in percentage (REP), the bias, the standard error of prediction (SEP), the coefficient of determination (R2), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (Ef), and the accuracy factor (Af), computed from the measured and model predicted values of the dependent variables (BOD, COD) in the WWTP effluents. Goodness of the model fit to the data was also evaluated through the relationship between the residuals and the model predicted values of BOD and COD. Although, the model predicted values of BOD and COD by all the three modeling approaches (PLSR, MPR, ANN) were in good agreement with their respective measured values in the WWTP effluents, the nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the linear ones. These models can be used as a tool for the performance evaluation of the WWTPs.

  16. Archiving challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ringersma, J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching slides on: What is a digital archive? Parties involved in digital archiving Archiving challenges organization of data coherence and persistency access and safety Language archiving software Different users, different needs For: Saami Language Documentation and Revitalization. Winter school, Bodø, Norway

  17. TINGKAT EFEKTIVITAS INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR HOTEL-HOTEL DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period of 2002 - 2003, a study was performed to assess the effectiveness of hotels' wastewater treatment plants in reducing  wastewater pollutant contents in Yogyakarta. There were 11 hotels surveyed, with 44 wastewater samples analysed in the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent. The effectiveness degrees of the wastewater treatment plant in reducing pollutants in 2002 for the above parameters were 72.72% (BOD, 45.45% (COD, 90.90% (TDS, and 90.90% (detergent. While those for 2003 the degrees of pollutant removal were 45.45%, 27.27%, 81.81%, and 90.90% for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent respectively. It was meant that for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent, the effectiveness degree of the plants in 2003 for reducing the pollutants was decreasing as many as 27.27%, 17.73%, 9.09% and 0.0% respectively compared to those in 2002. Then, average level of the plant capability in reducing pollutant content in 2002 for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent were 72.28%, 66.5%, 74.7%, and 56.3% respectively, and those in 2003 were 56.7%, 59.5%, 74.5%, and 37.5% respectively, so the decreasing level of the plant capability for each parameters were 15.8%, 7.0%, 0.2%, and 18.8%. The average contents of BOD, COD, and TDS in outlet of the plants were 38.45 mg/l, 108.27 mg/l, and 20,7 mg/l respectively (2002, and 38.90 mg/l, 97.5 mg/l, and 34.09 mg/l respectively (2003. Improvement of the wastewater treatment plant performance especially was needed to reduce the parameters of BOD and COD.

  18. Microbial sensor for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand based on ferrocene-grafted mediator%基于接枝二茂铁介体的BOD微生物传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶

    2012-01-01

    开发出以接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量BOD,将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面,作为微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥微生物 混合固定化于聚乙烯醇(PVA)里,制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量水样的BOD质量浓度.结果表明,传感器测量的质量浓度线性范围为2~ 300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.讨论pH、温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.实际水样的测试结果表明,由微生物传感器测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关度.%A novel microbial sensor using a ferrocene (Fc)-grafted SBA-15 mediator immobilized in a PVA matrix was developed for measurement of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Fc was grafted onto the SBA-15 surface via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, and applied to a modified glassy carbon electrode for measuring BOD rapidly in the three-electrode system. The results showed a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate (GGA) concentration ranging from 2 mg/L to 300 mg/L. The reproducibility of a single sensor measuring 20 samples was less than 4.2%, and the sensor could continuously work for 35 days. The effects of pH, temperature, and heavy metal on the BOD response were studied. The detection results of real samples show that the BOD measured by the microbial sensor was in good correlation with that obtained with the BOD5 method.

  19. Linear and nonlinear relationships between biodegradation potential and molecular descriptors/fragments for organic pollutants and a theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jia; Qin, Weichao; Zhang, Xujia; Wen, Yang; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuanhui, E-mail: zhaoyh@nenu.edu.cn

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of the biodegradability of organic pollutants is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. In this paper, linear and nonlinear relationships between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and molecular descriptors/fragments have been investigated for 1130 organic chemicals. Significant relationships have been observed between the simple molecular descriptors and %BOD for some homologous compounds, but not for the whole set of compounds. Electronic parameters, such as E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO}, are the dominant factors affecting the biodegradability for some homologous chemicals. However, other descriptors, such as molecular weight, acid dissociation constant and polarity still have a significant impact on the biodegradation. The best global model for %BOD prediction is that developed from a chain-based fragmentation scheme. At the same time, the theoretical relationship between %BOD and molecular descriptors/fragments has been investigated, based on a first-order kinetic process. The %BOD is nonlinearly, rather than linearly, related to the descriptors. The coefficients of determination can be significantly improved by using nonlinear models for the homologous compounds and the whole data set. After analysing 1130 ready and not ready biodegradable compounds using 23 simple descriptors and various fragmentation schemes, it was revealed that biodegradation could be well predicted from a chain-based fragmentation scheme, a decision tree and a %BOD model. The models were capable of separating NRB and RB with an overall accuracy of 87.2%, 83.0% and 82.5%, respectively. The best classification model developed was a chain-based model but it used 155 fragments. The simplest model was a decision tree which only used 10 structural fragments. The effect of structures on the biodegradation has been analysed and the biodegradation pathway and mechanisms have been discussed based on activating and

  20. Linear and nonlinear relationships between biodegradation potential and molecular descriptors/fragments for organic pollutants and a theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of the biodegradability of organic pollutants is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. In this paper, linear and nonlinear relationships between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and molecular descriptors/fragments have been investigated for 1130 organic chemicals. Significant relationships have been observed between the simple molecular descriptors and %BOD for some homologous compounds, but not for the whole set of compounds. Electronic parameters, such as EHOMO and ELUMO, are the dominant factors affecting the biodegradability for some homologous chemicals. However, other descriptors, such as molecular weight, acid dissociation constant and polarity still have a significant impact on the biodegradation. The best global model for %BOD prediction is that developed from a chain-based fragmentation scheme. At the same time, the theoretical relationship between %BOD and molecular descriptors/fragments has been investigated, based on a first-order kinetic process. The %BOD is nonlinearly, rather than linearly, related to the descriptors. The coefficients of determination can be significantly improved by using nonlinear models for the homologous compounds and the whole data set. After analysing 1130 ready and not ready biodegradable compounds using 23 simple descriptors and various fragmentation schemes, it was revealed that biodegradation could be well predicted from a chain-based fragmentation scheme, a decision tree and a %BOD model. The models were capable of separating NRB and RB with an overall accuracy of 87.2%, 83.0% and 82.5%, respectively. The best classification model developed was a chain-based model but it used 155 fragments. The simplest model was a decision tree which only used 10 structural fragments. The effect of structures on the biodegradation has been analysed and the biodegradation pathway and mechanisms have been discussed based on activating and inactivating fragments

  1. The Simulation of Emission Limits for Beer Industries Based on OPMSE and BAT%基于 OPMSE 与 BAT 的啤酒行业排放限值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秋俚; 胡筱敏; 王鹏飞; 韩天放; 苑芷茜

    2016-01-01

    以OPMSE仿真计算啤酒行业排放污水中COD ,BOD ,NH3-N质量浓度为研究对象,查询及调研清河流域典型啤酒行业产生污水中COD ,BOD ,NH3-N质量浓度范围,经BAT处理后通过OPMSE的仿真计算,得出排放污水中污染物质量浓度正态分布置信区间、最佳出水及最差出水质量浓度。结果表明:置信水平为99%时,COD ,BOD ,NH3-N的置信区间分别为(75.83,95.95),(19.30,25.88),(5.68,6.85);最佳出水质量浓度分别为4.14 mg/L ,5.36 mg/L ,2.71 mg/L;最差出水质量浓度分别为20.64 mg/L ,20.70 mg/L ,10.86 mg/L。将仿真结果与现有排放标准对比,拟定啤酒行业的污染物直接排放限值为COD=100 mg/L ,BOD=30 mg/L , NH3-N=8 mg/L;间接排放限值为COD=400 mg/L ,BOD=80 mg/L ,NH3-N=25 mg/L。%Regarding emission concentration of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N for beer industry wastewater by OPMSE simulation calculation as the object of study ,concentrations of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N in typical beer industry wastewater along Qinghe River Basin are investigated and after treatment of BAT ,through the OPMSE simulation calculation ,it is found out the concentrations of each indexes in the discharged wastewater in conditions of pollutants concentration normal distribution confidence interval ,the optimum effluent and the worst effluent .The results show that :when the confidence level is 99%and the confidence interval of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N is(75 .83 ,95 .95) ,(19 .30 ,25 .88)and(5 .68 ,6 .85)respectively , the concentrations of the optimum effluent are COD=4 .14 mg/L ,BOD=5 .36 mg/L and NH3 -N=2 .71 mg/L respective-ly and the concentrations of the worst effluent are COD=20 .64 mg/L ,BOD=20 .70 mg/L ,NH3 -N=10 .86 mg/L .A comparison conducted between the emission standards and simulation results indicates that the direct emission limits of beer industry are

  2. Temporal and spatial characteristics of the water pollutant concentration in Huaihe River Basin from 2003 to 2012, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guiqiu

    2016-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of 78 monitoring stations from 2003 to 2012, five key water quality indexes (biochemical oxygen demand: BOD5, permanganate index: CODMn, dissolved oxygen: DO, ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, and total phosphorus: TP) were selected to analyze their temporal and spatial characteristics in the highly disturbed Huaihe River Basin via Mann-Kendall trend analysis and boxplot analysis. The temporal and spatial variations of water pollutant concentrations in the Huaihe River Basin were investigated and analyzed to provide a scientific basis for water pollution control, water environment protection, and ecological restoration. The results indicated that the Yinghe River, Quanhe River, Honghe River, Guohe River, and Baohe River were the most seriously polluted rivers, followed by Hongze Lake, Luoma Lake, Yishuhe River, and Nansi Lake. BOD5, CODMn, and NH3-N were the major pollution indexes, for which the monitoring stations reported that more than 40 % of the water quality concentrations exceeded the class IV level. There were 21, 50, 36, and 21 monitoring stations that recorded significantly decreasing trends for BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP, respectively, and 39 monitoring stations showed a significantly increasing trend for DO. Moreover, the water quality concentrations had a certain concentricity and volatility according to boxplot analysis for the 20 monitoring stations. The majority of monitoring stations recorded a large fluctuation for the monitoring indexes in 2003 and 2004, which indicated that the water quality concentrations were unstable. According to the seasonal variations of the water quality concentrations in the mainstream of Huaihe River, the monthly variation trends of the BOD5, CODMn, DO, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were basically consistent among the seven monitoring stations. The BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were affected by the change of the stream discharge; changes in DO and NH3-N concentrations were influenced by

  3. EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY BY USING SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Anggraeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland is one of the alternatives to increase water quality before it flowed into waterways. Sub Surface Flow Wetland System is one type of the constructed wetland for waste water treatment which is using symbiotic relation between water plants and microorganism around rooting system (rhizosphere in media. Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as gravel and sand media are plants and medias that can be used in constructed wetland. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of plant species between Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as the effectiveness of gravel and sand media to decrease nitrite, ammoniak, BOD, and COD concentrations. Four reactors SSF-Wetlands with dimension of 120 cm x 30 cm x 50 cm were used in this research. The study was conducted over 12 days following the  acclimatization of plants for 7 days. Data analysis were performed by comparing the degradation coefficient (k of BOD, COD, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations with retention time of the effluent. The results showed that  the degradation rate for the reactor with with gravel media and Cyperus alternifolius for nitrite variable was 0.60,  ammonia 0.49, BOD 0.45, and COD 0.36. Cyperus alternifolius have a higher effectiveness in reducing the concentration of nitrite, ammonia , BOD and COD than Canna indica , L. Reactors with gravel media have higher effectiveness in reducing BOD , COD , ammonia and nitrite concentration than sand media. Keywords : Canna indica. L. , Cyperus alternifolius, SSF - Wetland, , WWTP effluent of pharmaceutical industry

  4. Model development for prediction and mitigation of dissolved oxygen sags in the Athabasca River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern rivers exposed to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loads are prone to dissolved oxygen (DO) sags in winter due to re-aeration occurring within limited open water leads. Additionally, photosynthesis is reduced by decreased daylight hours, inability of solar radiation to pass through ice, and slower algal growth in winter. The low volumetric flow decreases point-source dilution while their travel time increases. The Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada, has experienced these sags which may affect the aquatic ecosystem. A water quality model for an 800 km reach of this river was customized, calibrated, and validated specifically for DO and the factors that determine its concentration. After validation, the model was used to assess the assimilative capacity of the river and mitigation measures that could be deployed. The model reproduced the surface elevation and water temperature for the seven years simulated with mean absolute errors of 3/s at average BOD load. Climate change scenarios could increase the frequency of this low flow. A three-level warning-system is proposed to manage the BOD load proactively at different river discharges. Other mitigation options were explored such as upgrading the wastewater treatment of the major BOD point source and oxygen injection in the effluents. The model can be used as a management tool with updated SOD values to forecast the DO in low flow years and evaluate mitigation measures. As well, the methodology presented here can be applied to manage other ice-covered rivers. Highlights: ► A water quality model was developed for the Athabasca River in Canada. ► The model was calibrated/validated for hydrodynamics, temperature and DO. ► The SOD was found as the main dissolved oxygen sink in winter. ► The model was applied to estimate the assimilative capacity and mitigation options. ► A variable flow threshold approach for BOD loading was recommended

  5. Application of Iron Nanaoparticles in Landfill Leachate Treatment - Case study: Hamadan Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfahani Kashitarash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total solids (TS and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reactiontime and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. Maximum removal efficiencies were 47.94%, 35%, 55.62% and 76.66%for COD, BOD5, TS and color, respectively (for 2.5 g/L iron nanoparticles dosage, pH = 6.5 and 10 min reaction time.The results showed that the removal of COD, BOD5 and color had reverse relationship with contact time and TS removal followed a direct relationship (P < 0.05. Iron nanoparticles could remove averagely 53% of leachate COD,BOD5, TS and color in a short contact time (10 min increasing pH up to 6.5, increased the removal efficiency for COD, BOD5, TS and color and then removal efficiency decreased with increasing pH to 8.5. Increasing the dosage ofnanoparticles to 2.5 g/L increased the efficiency of process. High compatibility and efficiency of this process was proven by landfill leachate pre-treatment or post-treatment, so this removal method may be recommended for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants.

  6. Leachate Treatment UsingWet Air Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is One of the advanced oxidation process which reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substances and, solid waste leachate,etc. In this study the efficiency of wet air oxidation method in leachate treatment generating from Esfahan Composting factory was Evaluated."nMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit of pretreated leachate sample the steel reactor with the volume of 3L. The reactor then underwent10 bar pressure at different temperature (100, 200 and 300 °C and various retention time (30, 60 and 90 min. Leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 Lit was taken and the WAO method, was used for pre-treatments. Removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH4-N, NO3 and TSS were examined."nResults: The results showed that the removal efficiency was more than 35% for COD, 38% for BOD, and 85% for TSS within one hour of reaction. The Maximum removal efficiency obtained in this study were 53.3% for NH4-N and 73.9 % forNO3-N."nConclusion: the results indicate that the reaction temperatures are the most important factors affecting degradation of organic matter. COD and BOD5 removal efficiency by WAO process increased as the time of reaction went up. In addition, BOD5/COD ratios of the effluents, which are generally regarded as an important index of biodegradability of leachate sample, were determined and improved grately as it reached to 84%. TheWAO process presented in this paper is considered an efficient process for pretreatment of leachate, as the COD, BOD5 and NO3 reduction observed in leachate samples.

  7. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern

  8. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Robert D., E-mail: rdg@uchicago.edu [Center for Health Statistics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Prucha, Christopher P., E-mail: cprucha@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 1550 Balmer Road, Box 200, Model City, NY 14107 (United States); Caldwell, Michael D., E-mail: mcaldwell@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 3623 Wilson Road, Humble, TX 77396 (United States); Staley, Bryan F., E-mail: BStaley@erefdn.org [Environmental Research and Education Foundation, 3301 Benson Drive, Suite 301, Raleigh, NC 27609 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern.

  9. UV—Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid—Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TahirImranQURESHI; Hong-TaeKIM; 等

    2002-01-01

    Theperformance of UV/H2O2,UV/O3,and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon(TOC),non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color.In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment, with the increase of H2O2 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation,under the optimum condition H2O2(0.2time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366.In UV/O3 oxidation,with the increase of O3 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a beter performance was obtained than the system O3 alone.Under the optimum condition UV/O3(50mg·min-1),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%,respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system,color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  10. Comparisons of Three Advanced Oxidation Processes in Organic Matter Removal from Esfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karimi B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the advanced oxidation process which is mostly used to reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substance and solid waste leachate.The objective of this paper is comparisons of three advance oxidation in organic matter removal in different conditions from Esfahan composing factory leachateMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3Lit autoclave reactor and adding 10 bar pressure at temperature of 100, 200 and 300 °C and pressure (10 bars with retention time of 30, 60 and 90 min. leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 lit was taken and the three methodsWAO, WPO, and a combination of WAO/GAC were used for pre-treatments. Pure oxygen and 30% hydrogen peroxide was used as oxidation agent.Results: The result shows significant improvement on the removal rate of COD (7.8-33.3%, BOD5 (14.7-50.6%by WAO process.The removal efficiency of 4.6-34% COD, 24-50% BOD, was observed in the reactor.Adding theGACto the reactor improved removal efficiency of all parameters.Combination Process (WAO/GAC removed 48% of COD, 31-43.6% of BOD.Combination process demonstrated higher efficiency than two other previous methods as BOD5/COD ratio of 90% achieved.Conclusion: The WAO process presented in this paper is efficient for pretreatment of leachate, And the modified WPO process remove organic materials and ammonia moreover WAO/GAC can be considered as an excellent alternative treatment for removing reluctant organic matter (COD, BOD5 and organic nitrogen compounds, which found in leachate.

  11. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total, BOD, and COD. This research was done to evaluate the characteristics of the liquid waste quality with or without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL, and compare them with the Regulation of DIY Governor number 7/2010. It also studied the effect of pH and Concentration of chitosan coating on active charcoal as adsorbent on the decrease of Cr (total, BOD, and COD concentration in the liquid waste of leather tanning. The results indicate that the liquid waste of the leather tanning industry with and without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL have exceeded the quality standard for the liquid waste of leather tanning industry. An ANOVA statistical test indicated that Cr (total, BOD, and COD are significant at 0.05 (p < 0.05, with various pH influencing the decrease in Cr (total, BOD, and COD. The highest removal percentage resulting from the effect of chitosan concentration coating on active charcoal is obtained in adsorbent C (K3A1, with Cr (total (91.9%; BOD (99.5%; and COD (98.47%.;

  12. Landfill leachate treatment by MBR: Performance and molecular weight distribution of organic contaminant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shaohua; LIU Junxin

    2006-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) with an air-lift bioreactor and gravity flow is applied to'treating landfill leachate. More than 99% of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand for five days) removal efficiency is achieved with less than 35 mg/L of BOD5 in the effluent at less than 1.71 kg BOD5/m3.d of BOD5 loading rate. When DO (dissolved oxygen) is maintained at the range of 2.3-2.8 mg/L and the loading rate of NH4+-N (ammonium nitrogen) is kept at 0.16-0.24 kg NH4+-N/m3.d, the NH4+-N in the effluent is less than 15 mg/L. However, compared with high removal rates of BOD5 and NH4+-N, the removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)varies between 70% and 96%. The investigation of molecular weight (MW) distribution has been carried out by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) so as to understand the fate of organic matters in the MBR treating of landfill leachate. Results indicate that organic matters of the landfill leachate are composed of a high MW fraction (MW of the peak, MWp =11480-13182 Da) and a low MW fraction (MWp =158-275 Da). The high MW fraction is not biodegradable, but can be decreased with microfiltration membrane. The most of the low MW fraction is biodegradable, but the residue of the low MW fraction is able to permeate through the membrane, thus resulting in high SCOD in the effluent of the MBR.

  13. 用UV/H2O2,UV/O3,UV/H2O2/O3催化处理城市固体垃圾填埋渗出物%UV-Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid-Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The performance of UV/H2O2, UV/O3, and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon (TOC), non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color. In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment,with the increase of H2O2 dosage, removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation, under the optimum condition H2O2 (0.2 time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366. In UV/O3 oxidation, with the increase of O3 dosage, removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system O3 alone. Under the optimum condition UV/O3 (50 mg.min-1), removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%, respectively, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system, color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  14. 基于 OPMSE 的畜禽养殖行业排放限值仿真%Simulation on Emission Limit Values for Livestock Industry Based on the OPMSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秋俚; 王鹏飞; 韩天放; 胡筱敏

    2016-01-01

    The concentration range of different pollutants from the discharged sewage is obtained by analyzing the concentra-tion index of the discharged sewage from livestock industry in the Qinghe river basin .The confidence intervals at the 90% , 95% and 99% confidence levels of normal distribution means of pollution concentration are also acquired after being treated by BAT according to the simulating calculation of OPMSE .In the livestock industry ,the 99% confidence intervals of COD , BOD5 and NH3 - N are (42 .00 ,48 .19) ,(7 .47 ,8 .74) and (6 .78 ,7 .88) respectively .Meanwhile ,the maximum and minimum values of the treated pollutant concentrations are also obtained by simulating calculation .The optimum concentra-tions of COD ,BOD5 and NH3 - N of effluents from livestock industry are 22 .0 mg/L ,2 .1 mg/L and 3 .09 mg/L ,while the worst concentrations of COD ,BOD5 and NH3 -N of effluents from livestock industries are 84 .4 mg/L ,14 .2 mg/L and 13 .29 mg/L .Then making a comparison between the existing emission standards and simulating results ,new emission limits are determined preliminarily ,and the direct and interim emission limits of livestock industries are COD = 50 mg/L ,BOD5 = 9 mg/L ,NH3 - N = 8 mg/L respectively .%通过对清河流域畜禽养殖行业产生污水的各指标(BOD5,COD ,NH3-N )浓度进行统计,得出了排放污水中各污染物指标的浓度值范围。通过 OPMSE 的仿真计算,得出了排放污水经过 BAT 处理后,污染物浓度正态分布均值在90%,95%,99%置信水平下的置信区间。在置信水平为99%时,畜禽养殖行业的 COD 置信区间为(42.00,48.19),BOD5置信区间为(7.47,8.74),NH3-N 置信区间为(6.78,7.88)。同时,依据仿真计算结果还得出了处理后污染物浓度的极小值和极大值,畜禽养殖行业的最佳出水 COD ,BOD5,NH3-N 指标质量浓度分别为22.0,2.1,3.09 mg/L ,最差出水 COD ,BOD

  15. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m(3)/m(2)/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling. PMID:27329062

  16. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  17. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...... due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological...

  18. Biomass production from fermented starch wastewater in photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachanurak, Pradthana; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamotob, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    A photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation was applied to treat real fermented starch wastewater and convert it to photosynthetic biomass for further utilization. The photo-bioreactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 10days by circulating mixed liquor through overflow pipes and penetrating light through infrared transmitting filter. During the operation of 154days, the average BOD and COD removals were 95% and 88%, respectively. Majority of photosynthetic bacteria was found attached on pipes as biofilm contributed to 82% of total biomass production. Photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.51g dried solid/g BOD removed and crude protein content of 0.58g/g dried solid. Rhodopseudomonas palustris was found in the photosynthetic system as the predominant bacterial group by denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing method. PMID:24745900

  19. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  20. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  1. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  2. Origin of Harmattan dust settled in Northern Ghana – Long transported or local dust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry; Awadzi, Theodore W; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    The Harmattan is a dry, dust-laden continental wind which has its origin in the Bodélé Depression in the Chad basin. In Ghana the Harmattan can be experienced from November to March, when the Harmattan replaces the dominant south westerly maritime Monsoon wind. The hypothesis of this study is that...... the majority of dust deposited in northern Ghana may not be from the original Harmattan source in the Bodélé Depression. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the origin of deposited dust in Tamale, Ghana. This is examined by comparing wind data, grain size distribution, mineralogical and...... geochemical data from dust samples deposited during the Harmattan and Monsoon seasons, and topsoil. This study shows that despite a clear difference between the wind directions in the Harmattan and Monsoon seasons in Tamale, northern Ghana, no distinct differences are observed between the mineral or elemental...

  3. Screening for new surface washing agents and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface washing agents (SWAs) for oil spills were screened using the inclined through method developed by Environment Canada. There are two categories of SWAs, i.e. non-surfactant based solvents, and surface active agents (surfactants). Results showed that among the SWAs tested, the systems based on a normal alkane solvent, including POD20, BOD123, and BOD124, had the best performance and the lowest toxicity. The optimum hydrophilic/lipophilic (HLB) value of hydrocarbon-based SWAs was found to fall in the range of 11 and 13, which is the HLB range between dispersants and detergents. The importance of reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water, and of making solid substrate surface water-wettable was also identified. The use of low-concentration aqueous surfactant solutions as rinsing water was found to improve effectiveness under field conditions. 10 refs., 21 figs

  4. Classification of contaminants and treatability evaluation of domestic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaochang; JIN Pengkang; ZHAO Hongmei; MENG Lingba

    2007-01-01

    Long-term sampling and analysis were conducted in a domestic wastewater treatment plant for the investigation on the characteristics of the representative contaminants in raw sewage such as SS,COD,BOD5,TP,and TN.All these constituents were classified into dissolved and suspended groups by using a 0.45-μm membrane filter,and the concen tration of each constituent in each group was analyzed.As a result.almost 100% of the SS was found to be suspended matter,as well as about 65% of COD,60% Of BOD5,50% of P,and 20% of N.All these could be easily removed by sedimentation or coagulation/sedimentation.A treatability evaluation diagram was proposed for a rational selection of wastewater treatment process in accordance with raw water quality.

  5. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  6. 医院污水处理工程设计及运行%Design and application of wastewater treatment project of hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞守业; 贾秀芹

    2005-01-01

    某人民医院的污水处理原来采用化粪池+臭氧氧化方法,出水不达标.对该污水处理站进行改造,采用水解+接触氧化+二氧化氯消毒工艺,在进水CODCr,BOD5,NH3-N的质量浓度分别为304,56.6,11.0 mg/L的条件下,出水中的CODCr,BOD5,NH3-N的质量浓度分别为6,1.24,3.0mg/.达到污水综合排放标准中的一级标准.

  7. TREND OF TEMPORAL VARIATION OF CAUVERY RIVER WATER QUALITY AT K R NAGAR IN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDEVI BASU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The data sets of 4 water quality monitoring stations in River Cauvery at K R Nagara which comprised of 10 water quality parameters monitored monthly over 12 years (2000-2011 are used for this study. Temporal variation of the parameters in each station is represented by Box plots. Almost all the plots indicate high positive skewness for all stations, showing rampant pollution in the river due to anthropogenic sources. This is a grave concern as no prominent drains enter the river directly in this stretch, yet high values of BOD, COD,total coliform, faecal coliform along the river indicates human waste enters the river and pollutes the same. Also Pearson’s correlation matrix for all stations indicate positive correlation between BOD and COD, TDS and Conductivity, TDS and Chlorides and TC and FC.

  8. Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanira F. de Angelis

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD and chemical (COD oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was significantly increased; furthermore, Fe2+ ions liberated by the electrodes cause microorganisms to die and, when oxidised to Fe3+, contribute for the flocculation and sedimentation of solid residues.

  9. Investigation of potential genotoxic activity using the SOS Chromotest for real paracetamol wastewater and the wastewater treated by the Fenton process

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, Emel

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential genotoxic activity associated with high strength real paracetamol (PCT) wastewater (COD = 40,000 mg/L, TOC = 12,000 mg/L, BOD5 = 19,320 mg/L) from a large-scale drug-producing plant in the Marmara Region, was investigated in pre- and post- treated wastewater by the Fenton process (COD = 2,920 mg/L, TOC = 880 mg/L; BOD5 = 870 mg/L). Methods The SOS Chromotest, which is based on Escherichia coli PQ37 activities, was used for the assessment of genotoxicity. The corrected...

  10. Oxidant reduction and biodegradability improvement of paper mill effluent by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper mill bleach processing wastewaters represent a large input of hazardous compounds to the environment and these compounds are usually non-biodegradable. A preliminary study using a 5000 Ci 60Co gamma radiation source as a surrogate for electron beam irradiation, potentially an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, to treat a paper mill bleach effluent showed that for an absorbed dose of 800 krads, chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced by 13.5% and 5 day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was increased 58.6%. These changes altered the value of COD/BOD5 from 14 to 5. For the same dose, the absorbable organic halogen (AOX) was reduced 76.2%. These results suggested the possibility of using the electron beam process to detoxify paper mill effluent thereby generating a more biodegradable wastewater. (author)

  11. Performance Assessment of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Based on Seasonal Variability of Microbial Communities via High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang; Liu, Shufeng; Zheng, Maosheng; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of activated sludge (AS) play a key role in the performance of wastewater treatment processes. However, seasonal variability of microbial population in varying AS-based processes has been poorly correlated with operation of full-scale wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs). In this paper, significant seasonal variability of AS microbial communities in eight WWTSs located in the city of Guangzhou were revealed in terms of 16S rRNA-based Miseq sequencing. Furthermore, variation redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that the microbial community compositions closely correlated with WWTS operation parameters such as temperature, BOD, NH4+-N and TN. Consequently, support vector regression models which reasonably predicted effluent BOD, SS and TN in WWTSs were established based on microbial community compositions. This work provided an alternative tool for rapid assessment on performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27049964

  12. Reform af reformen - den nye ellov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess

    Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på.......Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på....

  13. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I - from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II - from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3. PMID:26208182

  14. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  15. E-beam Irradiation and Activated Sludge System for Treatment of Textiles and Food Base Industrial Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textiles wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles wastewater increased from 29.4 % after radiation only to 62.4 % after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation the BOD5 of textiles wastewater reduced by 22.1 %, but reverts to the original value of 36 mg/l after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment. (author)

  16. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  17. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  18. Management of biodiesel wastewater by the combined processes of chemical recovery and electrochemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two stage management of raw biodiesel wastewater was carried out at a laboratory scale and ambient temperature. In the first step, biodiesel was chemically recovered from the wastewater using sulphuric acid as a proton donor with subsequent natural phase separation. Biodiesel was recovered from the raw biodiesel wastewater, in this case at 6-7% (w/w). In the second stage, the aqueous phase discharged from the first stage was supplemented with sodium chloride to 0.061 M and subject to electro-oxidation using a Ti/RuO2 electrode. The combined treatment completely removed COD and oil and grease, and reduced BOD levels by more than 95%. The rate of removal of all three pollutants fitted a pseudo-first-order rate kinetics with oil and grease removal being approximately 8-16- and 2-7-fold faster than BOD and COD removal, respectively.

  19. Determination of changes in wastewater quality through a treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Carstea, Elfrida

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize municipal wastewater at various stages of treatment in order to understand how its fluorescence signature changes with treatment and how the signal relates to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The impact of size fractionation on the fluorescence signal was also investigated. Fluorescence measurements were taken for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 microm) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge and trickling filter), and final effluent. Good correlations were observed for unfiltered, diluted wastewater samples between BOD and fluorescence intensity at excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm (Peak T1) (r = 0.92) and between COD and Peak T1 intensity (r = 0.85). The majority of the T1 and T2 signal was found to be derived from the wastewater quality assessment and process control of wastewater treatment works. PMID:24617065

  20. Treatment of hydroponic wastewater by denitrification filters using plant prunings as the organic carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using pre-treated plant liquors as organic carbon sources for the treatment of hydroponic wastewater containing high nitrate-N (>300 mg N/L). The waste plant material was pre-treated to extract organic carbon-rich liquors. When this plant liquor was used as an organic carbon source in denitrification filters at the organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate of 3C:N, nitrate removal efficiencies were >95% and final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently 140 mg/L) of organic carbon (fBOD5) remained in the final effluents. Therefore, a 'compromise' organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate (2C:N) was trialled, at which nitrate removal efficiencies were maintained at >85%, final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently below 45 mg N/L, and effluent fBOD5 concentrations were hydroponic wastewater in a denitrification filter. PMID:17714940

  1. Performance comparison of experimental constructed wetlands with different filter media and macrophytes treating industrial wastewater contaminated with lead and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Miklas; Xu, Jing

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment efficiency of passive vertical-flow wetland filters containing different macrophytes (Phragmites and/or Typha) and granular media with different adsorption capacities. Gravel, sand, granular activated carbon, charcoal and Filtralite (light expanded clay) were used as filter media. Different concentrations of lead and copper sulfate were added to polluted urban stream inflow water to simulate pretreated mine wastewater. The relationships between growth media, microbial and plant communities as well as the reduction of predominantly lead, copper and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) were investigated. An analysis of variance showed that concentration reductions (mg l(-1)) of lead, copper and BOD5 were significantly similar for the six experimental wetlands. Microbial diversity was low due to metal pollution and similar for all filters. There appears to be no additional benefit in using adsorption media and macrophytes to enhance biomass performance during the first 10 months of operation. PMID:12056494

  2. Preliminary screening of small-scale domestic wastewater treatment systems for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matamoros, Victor; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as well as BOD5, TSS and NH4þ were evaluated for the first time in thirteen onsite household secondary wastewater treatment systems, including two compact biofilters followed by Filtralite-P filter units......, two biological sand filters, five horizontal subsurface flow and four vertical flow constructed wetlands. As expected, all systems removed TSS and BOD5 efficiently (>95% removal). The PPCP removal efficiencies exceeded 80% with the exception of carbamazepine, diclofenac and ketoprofen because of their...... more recalcitrant characteristics. Despite no statistical differences in the PPCP removal were observed between the different systems evaluated, the vegetated vertical flow constructed wetlands which had unsaturated flow and hence better oxygenation, appeared consistently to perform better in terms of...

  3. A pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) for woolen mill dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale(10 m3/d) anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor(A/O MBR) was tested for dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen millwithout wasting sludge in 125 days operation. Results showed that the effluent quality was excellent, i.e. effluent COD less than 25 mg/L,BOD5 under 5 mg/L, turbidity lower than 0.65 NTU, and colour less than 30 DT, and met with the reuse water standard of Cb. ina. The removalrates of COD, BOD5, colour, and turbidity were 92.4%, 98.4%, 74% and 98.9%, respectively. Constant-flux operation mode was carriedout in this study, and backwash was effective for reducing membrane fouling and maintaining constant flux. Membrane fouling had heavy impacton energy consumption. More attention should be paid on pipe selection and design for the sidestream MBR system, too.

  4. Study optimizes gas lift in Gulf of Suez field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Waly, A.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Darwish, T.A.; Osman Salama, A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt); El-Naggar, M. [Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-06-24

    A study using PVT data combined with fluid and multiphase flow correlations optimized gas lift in the Ramadan field, Nubia C, oil wells, in the Gulf of Suez. Selection of appropriate correlations followed by multiphase flow calculations at various points of injection (POI) were the first steps in the study. After determining the POI for each well from actual pressure and temperature surveys, the study constructed lift gas performance curves for each well. Actual and optimum operating conditions were compared to determine the optimal gas lift. The study indicated a net 2,115 bo/d could be gained from implementing its recommendations. The actual net oil gained as a result of this optimization and injected gas reallocation was 2,024 bo/d. The paper discusses the Ramadan field, fluid properties, multiphase flow, production optimization, and results.

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE WATER BY RHODOBACTER SP. GSKRLMBKU-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadari Rajyalaxmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of waste waters is a sustainable alternative for waste treatment to existing treatment methods. Microbial metabolism effects pH, BOD, COD, DO and concentration of suspended solids present in slaughter house waste water. Rhodobacter sp. GSKRLMBKU-02 from paper mill waste water was used in the present study to remediate slaughter house waste water. Treatment with this bacterium caused a significant decrease in some of the parameters tested for waste water. Remediation of slaughter house waste water of Warangal by Rhodobacter sp. GSKRLMBKU-02 showed a 28% decrease in DO, 52% decrease in BOD, 76% decrease in COD and organic matter decreased to the extent of 55%. Further a reduction in the levels of Chloride (68%, sulphates (69% and bicarbonates (34% were also noticed due to the growth of this bacterium.

  6. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  7. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  8. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Dhall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids, and TSS (total suspended solids was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  9. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  10. Performance of Wuxi WWTP in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; WANG Li; JIANG Yifeng

    2003-01-01

    In Wuxi Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Anaerobic, anoxic and oxic (A2/O) process was employed to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus, which exhibited the positive results of the high removal efficiency for phosphorus with a range of 67.7% to 89.9% and an average value of 78.0. The effluent of phosphorus met the national discharge standard. The removal of TN was effected by both BOD variation of influent and wastewater temperature. TN removal was in the range of 28.5% to 55.8% with an average value of 39.4%. The energy cost was 0.15 kWh(m3d)-1 or 1.35 kWh(kgBOD@d)-1. The annual average sludge production was 46.3 m3d-1, the annual average dosage for the dewatering was 40 kg d-1 .

  11. Radiation processing of the olive-press waste waters for detoxifying the water from organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the degradation of phenol and polyphenols exist in olive-press wastewater was investigated. The radiation effect was evaluated for the main parameters COD and BOD5 of samples. Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), chromatography (HPLC) and GC mass were used to monitor the changes in the radiation solutions. The results indicated that the value of COD and BOD parameters are changed. The GC-mass spectrum of irradiated samples showed that there is not any fort effect of radiation on the polyphenols at low dose, while at high dose the polyphenols is degraded. Some organic acids and aliphatic compounds found by the analysis of the irradiated samples using HPLC technique. (author)

  12. Spatial impact of organic matters from point sources on stream water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-bao; CHEN Dong-mei

    2009-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the spatial impact of organic discharges on stream water quality, a "scenario-testing" approach was proposed to examine how a change in plant treatment efficiency would affect dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration along a stream. An "upper-lower" boundary technique was applied to conduct sensitivity analysis to observe the responses of DO concentration to different DO-related parameters. The results show a non-linear discrepancy of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and DO concentration among different treatment scenarios, which indicates the higher the efficiency of the plant treatment, the shorter the time the stream needs to recover. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the larger the amount of the waste discharge, the more sensitive the BOD to the biological removal parameter. In addition, the DO is more sensitive to the biological removal pa-rameter than to the reaeration parameter.

  13. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  14. Model development for prediction and mitigation of dissolved oxygen sags in the Athabasca River, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nancy, E-mail: nancy@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); McEachern, Preston [Tervita Corporation, AB (Canada); Yu, Tong; Zhu, David Z. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Northern rivers exposed to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loads are prone to dissolved oxygen (DO) sags in winter due to re-aeration occurring within limited open water leads. Additionally, photosynthesis is reduced by decreased daylight hours, inability of solar radiation to pass through ice, and slower algal growth in winter. The low volumetric flow decreases point-source dilution while their travel time increases. The Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada, has experienced these sags which may affect the aquatic ecosystem. A water quality model for an 800 km reach of this river was customized, calibrated, and validated specifically for DO and the factors that determine its concentration. After validation, the model was used to assess the assimilative capacity of the river and mitigation measures that could be deployed. The model reproduced the surface elevation and water temperature for the seven years simulated with mean absolute errors of < 15 cm and < 0.9 °C respectively. The ice cover was adequately predicted for all seven winters, and the simulation of nutrients and phytoplankton primary productivity were satisfactory. The DO concentration was very sensitive to the sediment oxygen demand (SOD), which represented about 50% of the DO sink in winter. The DO calibration was improved by implementing an annual SOD based on the BOD load. The model was used to estimate the capacity of the river to assimilate BOD loads in order to maintain a DO concentration of 7 mg/L, which represents the chronic provincial guideline plus a buffer of 0.5 mg/L. The results revealed the maximum assimilative BOD load of 8.9 ton/day at average flow conditions, which is lower than the maximum permitted load. In addition, the model predicted a minimum assimilative flow of about 52 m{sup 3}/s at average BOD load. Climate change scenarios could increase the frequency of this low flow. A three-level warning-system is proposed to manage the BOD load proactively at different river

  15. Characterisation of biomass and wastewater with a respirometric method; Caratterizzazione di biomasse e reflui attraverso l'utilizzo di tecniche respirometriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagni, A.; Bortone, G.; Luccarini, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Sezione depurazione e ciclo dell' acqua; Ratini, P. [SPES S.r.l., Fabriano, AN (Italy)

    2000-04-01

    A respirometric method for biomass and wastewater characterisation is described. The method, based on a modelling approach, allows to get more information on activated sludge and wastewater characteristics compared to other biological method as BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand). The method, applied on industrial wastewaters, confirms the heterogeneous wastewater composition and the consequent different degradability to biological processes. [Italian] Viene presentato un metodo respirometrico per la caratterizzazione di biomasse e reflui. Il metodo basato su di un approccio modellistico permette di ottenere maggiori informazioni a proposito delle caratteristiche di biodegradabilita' rispetto ad un comune metodo biologico quale il BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). L'applicazione del metodo a reflui di origine industriale conferma l'elevata eterogeneita' del refluo e la conseguente diversa risposta ai trattamenti biologici di depurazione. Generalmente una frazione piuttosto piccola del refluo si presenta velocemente biodegradabile, mentre una frazione piu' consistente si presenta piu' refrattaria ai trattamenti biologici.

  16. E-beam irradiation and activated sludge system for treatment of mixed textiles and food base industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry waste water. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry waste water and the second a mix of irradiated textiles waste water and food industry waste water were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles waste water increased from 29.4 % after radiation to 62.4 % after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation, the BOD5 of textiles waste water was reduced by 22.1 % but reverted to the original value of 36 mg/ L after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment. (author)

  17. A pilot plant study on reclamation of sewage effluent by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot plant was developed for the reclamation and reuse of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The plant system consists of sand filtration, gamma-irradiation, ozonation and ion-exchange. Gamma-irradiation showed effective organic contaminant decomposition and this resulted in the reduction of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), color, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total organic carbon (TOC). Ion-exchange significantly removed inorganic ions, and thus reduced total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The average reduction in color, CODCr, BOD5, TOC, TN and TP, which was obtained after 12 operations, was 64, 52, 67, 61, 95 and 92%, respectively. Irrespective of applied radiation dose, the treated water fully satisfied the quality requirements of household water that can be used for all home uses except for drinking and human contact uses. (author)

  18. Use of a sonocatalytic process to improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roodbari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is one of the most important sources of toxic organic compounds for ground and surface waters. Advanced oxidation processes can offer an effective and environmentally friendly method for pretreatment of landfill leachates. In this study, an ultrasonic process was used for the pre-treatment of landfill leachate with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability, evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, up to a value compatible with biological treatment. Under optimized experimental conditions (pH of 10, power of 110 watts, frequency of 60 kHz, TiO2 concentration of 5 mg/L and exposure time of 120 min, this method showed suitability for partial removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD. The biodegradability was significantly improved (BOD5/COD increased from 0.210 to 0.786 which allowed an almost total removal of COD by a sequential activated sludge process.

  19. Revisiting the influence of loading on organic material removal in primary facultative ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of organic loading on BOD and COD removal in primary facultative ponds. The study was based on six full-scale pond plants in which average removals of unfiltered biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD were 72 and 50%, respectively. For filtered samples, the removals were 89 and 83%, respectively. First-order removal rates assuming ideal hydraulic patterns (completely mixed and plug-flow decreased with increments in the mean hydraulic retention time (HRT. Reduction in organic loading also caused a decrease in removal rates. The results emphasized that HRT and surface organic loading are more reliable to estimate first-order removal rates than traditional Arrhenius-style equations. Thus, HRT and surface organic loading can be used to compute more realistic first-order removal rates and surface removal rates. An alternative design procedure based on HRT and surface organic loading was proposed and demonstrated.

  20. An Investigation on Indigenous Material as a Filter Medium for Decontamination of Greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenat M. Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory scale greywater treatment unit was designed. The aim was to determine the effect of filter mediums on pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS, electric conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and turbidity of greywater. The indigenous materials such as burnt bricks (BB, sawdust (SD and gravel of particle size 5mm were set at 1L/h flow rate. The results concluded that SD was effective to normalize the pH 10.2 to7.2 and eliminated the TSS up to 52.01%. It was effective in removal of TDS and decreasing EC. While gravel performed better for decreasing BOD, COD and increasing DO levels.

  1. Impact of Iron and Steel Slag on Crop Cultivation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Syeda Yuhannatul Humaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper addresses the issuesto analyze the impacts of Iron and Steel slag on crop cultivation. The use of steel slag in agriculture produces not only economic but also ecological advantages. The value of silicon (Si application for rice (Oryzasativa has been demonstrated when soil soluble Si is low.Impact of solid waste on crop cultivation depends on the availability and quantity of different constituents like PH, Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates, Permanganate Value (PV, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 or BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS etcpresent in the solid waste.This has also been discussed in this review paper.

  2. Efecto de la temperatura y el período de oxidación sobre la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno de aguas residuales pesqueras

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Álvarez, G.; Valdés Herrera, R.; Romero López, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report intend to know, if BOD5 of fishing industry waste waters,follows a similar and proportional behavior to different temperatures and from incubation times, where the oxidative processes of organic matter are experimentally developed and to obtain a mathematical equation that allows us to know the job stream necessary, when diminishing the experimental time, if we accelerated the processes by means of thermal increases; besides to determine which of the propose methodologies in the b...

  3. Efficiency and kinetic modeling of removal of nutrients and organic matter from a full-scale constructed wetland in Qasre-Shirin, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolmajid Gholizadeh; Mitra Gholami; Reza Davoudi; Ayoob Rastegar; Mohammad Miri

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the removal of organic material and nutrients from full-scale subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) followed by anaerobic stabilization ponds under environmental conditions. Methods: The effluents were distributed evenly in 12 reed beds. Samples were taken twice monthly for a total of 6 months from several points in the wetland. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and nutrient removal from t...

  4. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of the zooplankton community in the Tigris River at Baghdad region, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Shayma Abdulwahab; Adel M. Rabee

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of zooplankton in the Tigris River running in Baghdad City, central Iraq, was investigated. Fourteen physical and chemical parameters, were analyzed, these parameters include water and air temperature, pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, BOD5, total hardness, Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, nitrate and reactive phosphate. Most of these values were within of the Iraqi and international standard limits. In all, 106 taxonomy units of zooplankton were identified, including 65 taxa belonging to rotifer...

  5. Hypoxia and Nutrient Reduction in the Coastal Zone: Advice for Prevention, Remediation and Research.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meryl Williams, M.; Harper, N.; Chaitovitz, C.; Dansie, A.; Diaz, R.; Harper, N.; Heidemeier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Kemp, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Neretin, L.; Ross, A.; Susan, C.; Schuster-Wallace, C.; Zavadksy, I.

    be built sequentially. The GEF-IW approach offers essential elements for integration. For example, the LMEs and freshwater transboundary surface water projects support collab- orative platforms for joint cross-country and cross- sector identification... Marine Ecosystem Programme BD Biodiversity BMPs Best Management Practices BOD Biological Oxygen Demand C Carbon CH 4 Methane CO 2 Carbon Dioxide CAFOs Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CBD Convention on Biological Diversity CC Climate Change CEE...

  6. Evaluation and characterization of selected pollutants in condition of surface water sources

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Bendíková

    2005-01-01

    High quantities of organic matter can reduce the chemical and biological quality of river water. The key indicator of the oxygenation status of water bodies is the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium. These are main indicators for the water quality classification. Although countries have different river classification schemes they give a general indication of river quality, respective of whether there has been an improvement or not. The paper illustrates the current situation regardin...

  7. Effects of weight-reduction on obesity-associated diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LIEBERMEISTER, H.

    2003-01-01

    Even moderate, but persistent weight-loss ameliorates most of the related diseases in obesity. Besides the consequences of the metabolic syndrome, this includes less well-known obesity-associated changes, such as impaired fertility, menstrual disorders, psychic changes, total leucocyte-count as a parameter of immunity and the impaired pulmonary function in asthma and sleep-apnoea.Life-expectancy is prolonged by diminution of visceral fat depots, whilst weight-loss by shrinking of fat-free bod...

  8. The effect of obesity on adverse outcomes and metabolism in pediatric burn patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Williams, Felicia N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Obesity influences metabolism and increases the incidence of clinical complications and worsens outcomes in pediatric burn patients. Design Retrospective, single-center study. Subjects Five hundred ninety-two severely burned pediatric patients who had burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area and who were treated between 2001 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into ≥ 85th percentile (n = 277) and normal (n = 315) weight groups based on bod...

  9. EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Dąbrowski; Radosław Żyłka; Mariusz Rynkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption during waste water treatment is a very important factor affecting food industry plants. Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy and meat sewage, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, N-total, P-total). Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as total consumption were measured. Indicators of energy consumption per m3 and removed load ...

  10. Kinetics of adrenal medullary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstad, A A

    1993-01-01

    The adrenal medulla of mammals has a heterogeneous population of cells. In adults most are epithelial cells containing a particular type of cytoplasmic granule. Based on a variety of cytochemical and ultrastructural studies it is now accepted that 2 different adrenal medullary chromaffin cell types can be distinguished, i.e. noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) synthesising and storing cells. Other cell types present in the adrenal medulla include neuronal elements comprising either cell bod...

  11. Obesity and Mammography: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Bolen, Shari; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obese women experience higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality and may be less likely to undergo mammography. OBJECTIVES To quantify the relationship between body weight and mammography in white and black women. DATA SOURCES AND REVIEW METHODS We identified original articles evaluating the relationship between weight and mammography in the United States through electronic and manual searching using terms for breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and bod...

  12. Biologie en bestrijding van tomatenmineermot: Tuta absoluta tast bladeren, stengels en vruchten aan

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, van der, E.H.; Staaij, van der, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sinds de tomatenmineermot Tuta absoluta voor het eerst optrad in Spanje heeft de plaag zich in enkele jaren tijd over het hele Middellandse Zeegebied verspreid. In Nederland wordt het motje of de rups soms aangetroffen op tomaten uit Zuid-Europa die hier worden verpakt. Tot op heden is geen sprake van permanente vestiging op teeltbedrijven in Nederland. In dit artikel komt de biologie en bestrijding aan bod.

  13. Gender Differences in Body Image Perception among Northern Malaysian Tertiary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Lee-Min; Say, Yee-How

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study examined the association of socio-cultural and psychological factors with body shape concern, perception and body weight perception among tertiary students of Northern Malaysia. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR and KTAR), Perak campuses, between August 2011 and January 2012. Methodology: A total of 1003 students were recruited (M = 431, F = 572; mean age 19.96 ± 1.51) and their bod...

  14. Biological removal of cyanide compounds from electroplating wastewater (EPWW) by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological treatment system especially, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system could not be applied to treat the raw electroplating wastewater (EPWW) due to the low organic matter concentration of 10 ± 3 mg-BOD5/L and toxic of high cyanide concentration of 23.0 ± 2.2 mg-CN/L. However, EPWW could be used as the nitrogen source for the bio-sludge of SBR system. And 10% of EPWW (the final cyanide concentration of 2.3 ± 0.2 mg/L) was most suitable to supplement into the wastewater as the nitrogen source. SBR system showed the highest COD, BOD5, TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 79 ± 2%, 85 ± 3%, 49.0 ± 2.1% and 97.7 ± 0.7%, respectively with 4-times diluted Thai-rice noodle wastewater (TRNWW) containing 10% EPWW and 138 mg/L NH4Cl (BOD5: TN of 100:10) at SRT of 72 ± 13 days (under organic and cyanide loadings of 0.40 kg-BOD5/m3 d and 0.0023 kg-CN/m3 d, respectively). However, the effluent ammonia was still high of 22.6 ± 0.4 mg-N/L while the effluent nitrate and nitrite was only 9.9 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.9 mg-N/L, respectively. And SVI and effluent SS of the system were higher than 95 and 75 mg/L, respectively

  15. The Effect of Diazepam on the Function of Hypertrophied Rats’ Hearts in Ischemia-Reperfusion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dareuosh Shackebaei; Farid Feizollahi; Mahvash Hesari; Gholamreza Bahrami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophied hearts are susceptible to ischemic injury. Besides, cardiac vulnerability could be changed in the presence of diazepam. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of diazepam on hypertrophied rats’ hearts in ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (body weight 210 - 270 gr) were administered with isoproterenol (4 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally for 7 days) alone or along with diazepam (1 and 5 mg/kg bod...

  16. Die implikasies van die mensbeskouing in die Pauliniese briewe vir die morele status van die menslike embrio ten opsigte van stamselnavorsing : 'n teologies-etiese perspektief / J.G. van der Walt.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Johann George

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell research offers hope to many people suffering from incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, heart disease and spinal back injuries. However this poses a moral dilemma because embryos are destroyed during embryonic stem cell research. To determine whether embryonic stem cell research is morally justifiable, two views in respect of a human being were considered: i. a human has a dualistic nature in which his body and soul are two separate entities or ii. his bod...

  17. Treatment of turtle-breeding wastewater and domestic fecal sewage with soil cultivating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Turtle-breeding wastewater and domestic fecal sewage were treated by means of soil cultivating system. Results indicated that more than 50% CODcr and BOD5 of wastewaters were removed, removal rates of NH4+ -N could reach about 70%-80%, but PO34- could not be removed. The thesis analyzed functional mechanisms for pollutants and put forward main elements affecting treatment efficiencies, thus provided conditions for further research.

  18. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, Maarten p. m.; Antoine Pariselle; Maarten Van Steenberge; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I; Céline Gillardin; Bart Hellemans; Floris C Breman; Stephan Koblmüller; Christian Sturmbauer; Jos Snoeks; Filip A M Volckaert; Tine Huyse

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the bod...

  19. Tracking body and hands for gesture recognition: NATOPS aircraft handling signals database

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yale; Demirdjian, David; Davis, Randall

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified framework for body and hand tracking, the output of which can be used for understanding simultaneously performed body-and-hand gestures. The framework uses a stereo camera to collect 3D images, and tracks body and hand together, combining various existing techniques to make tracking tasks efficient. In addition, we introduce a multi-signal gesture database: the NATOPS aircraft handling signals. Unlike previous gesture databases, this data requires knowledge about both bod...

  20. The application of membrane Bio-Reactor for East Java Domestic waste water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah E. Palupi; Ali Altway; Arief Widjaja

    2008-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment research have been carried out. In this system, membrane replaces the function of the sedimentation tank. Until recent time, fouling was still the main problem for membrane processes. This research has investigated the effect of MLSS concentration and back flushing on external membrane bioreactor performances such as COD and BOD reduction, and the back flushing effect for domestic wastewater treatment. Polyacrylonitril hollow fiber membrane with p...

  1. BIOREMEDIATION OF SEWAGE WASTE WATERS BY THE PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM ISOLATED FROM SEWAGE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchander Merugu; V.Namratha; Nagaraju Devanuri

    2015-01-01

    Microbial based treatments are more economical, ecofriendly and sustainable alternative for waste treatment to existing chemical or physical treatment methods. The metabolic rate of microorganisms effect pH, BOD, COD, DO, concentration of suspended solids present in waste waters. Phototrophic consortium from sewage water was used in the present study to remediate sewage water. Treatment with bacteria caused a significant decrease in some of the parameters tested for waste water. Remediation o...

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    K. SUNDARA KUMAR; P. SUNDARA KUMAR,; Dr.M.J.Ratnakanth Babu

    2010-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of a waste water treatment plant. A sewage treatment plant operating on biological treatment method (Activated Sludge Process) with an average wastewater inflow of 23MLD bas been considered for case study. Waste water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid...

  3. Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A worldwide review

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Sayadi; R. Kargar; M.R. Doosti, et al.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of environmentally friendly and eco-safe wastewater treatment plan is nowadays widespread. This study aimed to assess the potentiality of hybrid constructed wetlands for treating of landfill leachate, river polluted water, domestic, industrial, hospital, runoff and agricultural wastewaters in lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale with various configurations. The results revealed that the hybrid constructed wetlands are effective to remove organic matter (BOD5, COD) and suspend...

  4. 相交线与平行线综合题型展示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    点拨∠AOE=∠AOD+∠DOE.因为直线AB.CD相交于点O.故∠AOC=∠BOD=2∠DOE(对顶角性质及角平分线定义)。∠AOC+∠AOD=1800;又∠AOC=∠AOD-80°,可求∠AOD.从而求出∠AOC及∠DOE,问题得到解决.

  5. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  6. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  7. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Kurniawan; Yuhelsa Putra; Dewi Murni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889...

  8. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponenti...

  9. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)). PMID:26114273

  10. Water quality assessment of river Beas, India, using multivariate and remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Chawla, Amit; Bhardwaj, Renu; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-03-01

    River Beas originates in the Himalayas and merges into river Sutlej at Harike, a Ramsar wetland. This river is a habitat of the endangered freshwater dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor R. Twenty-five water quality parameters, including eight heavy metals, were studied at four sampling sites over a stretch of 63 km between Beas and Harike towns for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Principal component analysis of the data proved to be an effective tool for data reduction as the first three principal components of all the water quality parameters explained 100% variance. Factor analysis delineated three factors underlying the water quality. Factor 1 comprised pollution-related parameters like BOD, COD, DO, PO4(-3) and hardness. Factor 2 was a natural water quality determinant and explained maximum variance in turbidity, alkalinity and TDS. Factor 3 comprised NO3(-1), a fertilizer-related parameter. Reflectance values from bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) of Landsat (TM) digital data were regressed on PO4(-3), turbidity and TDS using multiple linear regression analysis. PO4(-3) contributed positively to the spectral radiance, whereas TDS contributed negatively. Beta regression analysis revealed that PO4(-3) had a positive relation with BOD, whereas turbidity and TDS were negatively regressed with BOD. Artificial neural network models were fitted to the data. Correlations between the target values from ANN for turbidity, BOD and bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) were highly significant. PMID:26842241

  11. Integrated treatment of tapioca processing industrial wastewater based on environmental bio-technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Ngoc Phuong Mai,

    2006-01-01

    Tapioca processing wastewater containing high COD (9,630-13,760 mg/L), BOD (7,280-11,510 mg/L), SS (450-1,850 mg/L), total nitrogen (291-355 mg/L) total phosphorus (39-73 mg/L) and low pH (3.4-4.6) are one of the major causes of severe pollution to receiving source in South Vietnam. Based on the cha

  12. Evaluation of methods to overcome dormancy in the germination of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms

    OpenAIRE

    Walquíria Fernanda Teixeira; Evandro Binotto Fagan; Derblai Casaroli; Sabrina de Carvalho Canedo; Kamilla Alves Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the effect of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination of Ormosia arborea. The following treatments were used: 72h of water immersion; chemical scarification with 100% sulfuric acid; mechanical scarification + 24h of imbibing and group control, each treatment being carried out with 12h and 0h photoperiods. The seeds undertook luminosity treatments within the period of germination testing in two germination chambers, BOD model. A completely randomize...

  13. Avaliação físico-química de efluente gerado em biodigestor anaeróbio para fins de avaliação de eficiência e aplicação como fertilizante agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Tadeu Lopes da Silva; Antonio Pereira de Novaes; Vivian Kuroki; Lilian Fernanda de Almeida Martelli; Lourenço Magnoni Júnior

    2012-01-01

    The use of biodigester for basic and environmental sanitation has large demand in Brazil. A biodigester was built to treat conjunctly the human and pig feces and urine, regarding to its future application in rural small towns. The results show that the biodigester can reduce 90% of COD and BOD and, up to 99.99% of thermotolerant coliforms. The treated effluent has variable quantities of macro- and micro-nutrients; and organic matter. However, the concentration variability of the nutrients mak...

  14. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Reader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the potential influence of terrestrially derived DOM on the Baltic Sea, a year-long study of dissolved organic matter (DOM was performed in three river catchments in Sweden. One catchment drains into the Bothnian Sea, while two southern catchments drain into the Baltic Proper. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were positively correlated with discharge from forested catchments over the year and while the overall concentrations of DOC were several times higher in the southern two catchments, annual loading of DOC was on the same order for all three catchments, due to differences in discharge. Biological oxygen demand (BOD was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction in Ume älv was four times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help to explain the higher concentrations of labile carbon in the northern catchment. Lower lability of DOM as well as higher colour in the southern catchments suggest that wetlands (i.e. peat bogs may be the dominant source of DOM in these catchments, particularly in periods of low flow. With climate change expected to increase precipitation events and temperatures across the region, the supply and quality of DOM delivered to the Baltic Sea can also be expected to change. Our results indicate that DOM supply will be more stable throughout the year, and potentially have a lower bioavailability.

  15. Pengaruh Dosis, Lama Pengendapan Dan Ukuran Partikel Koagulan Serbuk Biji Kelor Sebagai Alternatif Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Rudi Anas

    2015-01-01

    Soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of many complex organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils. Based on the results of Balai Perindustrian Medan research on soyabean industrial wastewater characteristics in Medan, it found that soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of BOD (4583 mg/l), COD (7050 mg/l), TSS (4743 mg/l ) and oil or fat (26 mg/l ) at pH 6.1. Therefore wastewater treatment is needed to reduce the contaminants contained in ...

  16. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  17. 合併浄化槽と植物浄化を組み合わせた排水処理システムの性能検証と省電力化に関する研究(学内特別研究)

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 佳樹; Yoshiki, Higuchi

    2016-01-01

    Purification performance of kitchen wastewater in a restaurants and a domestic by Slanted-Soil-Chamber Method was verified. Verification periods are in two years up to 2015. As a result of first a year, BOD (Biochemical Oxigen Demand) was lower than 20ppm by the activity of microorganisms and soil adsorption. But, purification performance was declined in winter because the activity of microorganisms wasn't much activated.

  18. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Serine Keratinase from Brevibacillus brevis US575 with Promising Keratin-Biodegradation and Hide-Dehairing Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi; Hatem Rekik; Abdelmalek Badis; Sahar Trabelsi; Mouna Belhoul; Amina Benkiar Yahiaoui; Houda Ben Aicha; Abdessatar Toumi; Samir Bejar; Bassem Jaouadi

    2013-01-01

    Dehairing is one of the highly polluting operations in the leather industry. The conventional lime-sulfide process used for dehairing produces large amounts of sulfide, which poses serious toxicity and disposal problems. This operation also involves hair destruction, a process that leads to increased chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the effluent. With these concerns in mind, enzyme-assisted dehairing has often been proposed...

  19. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  20. Advanced Oxidation Processes for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluents : A Technical, Economical and Environmental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Karat, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the dominating source for emissions of degradable organic substances to water is the pulp and paper industry. The organic substances increase oxygen consumption in the recipient which subsequently threatens aquatic species. Improved process engineering, process closures and use of external treatments have in recent years drastically lowered the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has not been reduced to the same extent, as some organic substanc...

  1. 焼酎蒸留廃液処理としてのアセトン・ブタノール発酵

    OpenAIRE

    小宮山, 晶子; 小林, 元太; 園元, 謙二; 石崎, 文彬; 吉野, 貞蔵; Komiyama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki; Yoshino, Sadazo

    2001-01-01

    Shochu distillery waste contains high suspended solid (SS) material, so that high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration indicates above 40,000ppm. Shochu distillery waste is easy to be spoiled at ambient temperature within a few days. A study for the feasibility of utilizing shochu distillery waste as a substratc for acetone, butanol and ethanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC13564) was carried out. Shochu distillery waste used a s the solevants subs...

  2. Study the Efficiency of the Combined System of Coagulation and Flocculation/Ozonation in Treatment of Fresh Landfill Leachates in Tabriz City

    OpenAIRE

    R Dehghanzade; R Nabizade; A.H Mahvi; A Taghipour

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Fresh leachate has a low pH and high amounts of BOD and COD which are mainly constituents with low weight molecular such as volatile fatty acids ( acetic and propionic acids) .Management and treatment of leachate is an important subject in sanitary landfill operation and performance.Th objective of this study is determining the efficiency of the integrated coagulation -flocculation and ozonation processes in fresh leachate treatment of Tabriz city."nMaterials and ...

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS FOR WATER REMEDIATION AND POTENTIAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Addorisio, Veria

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are dark-colored wastes characterized by high values of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand). OMW contains high amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. The first category includes mostly sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, proteins, fatty substances, mixed phenol-polysaccharide polymers, polyalcohols, cellulose and hemicellulose, pectins and tannins. The inorganic substance, present in lower amount, includes mainly potassium and,...

  4. Application of Iron Nanaoparticles in Landfill Leachate Treatment - Case study: Hamadan Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esfahani Kashitarash; Samadi Mohammad Taghi; Naddafi Kazem; Afkhami Abbass; Rahmani Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total solids (TS) and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reaction time and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. ...

  5. Treatment of Leachate of Savar Solid Waste Landfill Site

    OpenAIRE

    Arifuzzaman; Md. Mostafizur Rahman; Farhana Akhter,

    2013-01-01

    Landfill leachate is complex waste water with considerable variation in both quality and quantity. The composition and concentration of pollutants are influenced by the types of waste deposited, hydro geological factors and more significant by the age of the landfill site. In general, leachate is highly contaminated with organic contaminants measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and also with high ammonium nitrogen concentration. Aerobic biological processe...

  6. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kačinskaja; Kristina Bazienė; Saulius Vasarevičius

    2013-01-01

    Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an in...

  7. Use of a sonocatalytic process to improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate

    OpenAIRE

    A. Roodbari; R Nabizadeh Nodehi; a.h Mahvi; S Nasseri; Dehghani, M. H.; Alimohammadi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate is one of the most important sources of toxic organic compounds for ground and surface waters. Advanced oxidation processes can offer an effective and environmentally friendly method for pretreatment of landfill leachates. In this study, an ultrasonic process was used for the pre-treatment of landfill leachate with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability, evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, up to a value compatible with biological treatment. Under optim...

  8. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Huttenhower; Dirk Gevers; Rob Knight; Sahar Abubucker; Badger, Jonathan H.; Chinwalla, Asif T; Heather H. Creasy; Earl, Ashlee M.; FitzGerald, Michael G.; Fulton, Robert S.; Michelle G. Giglio; Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Ramana Madupu; Vincent Magrini

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin, and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics, and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analyzed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant bod...

  9. Potential and limitation when utilizing slim hole drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsen, Trond Eggen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this master thesis was to evaluate and identify the potential and limitations when slim well technologies are implemented in the basis of design (BOD). The obvious potential from reducing the conventional well construction used at present will have a positive effect on the economical and environmental impact.Several technologies are evaluated separately and combined in order to present an optimal well construction and layout for a successful drilling operation. Both productio...

  10. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Austin G Davis-Richardson; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that t...

  11. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  12. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLATE SYNTHESIS PRODUCT ON BLOOD GSH VALUES IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ; LETIŢIA STANA; MIRABELA PĂDURE; F. MUSELIN

    2013-01-01

    GSH (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) is a sulfhydril (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin and enzyme cofactor which is an important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Being water soluble it is found mainly in the cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system and thus constitute one of the most important intracellular antioxidants (10,7,9). GSH plays a role in removing various toxic chemicals and drugs from the body. As a result glutathione levels in the bod...

  13. Wastewater Treatment Using Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Kurniadie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A constructed wetland to treat wastewater from farm house has been built in Padjadjaran University farming research station in Jatinangor, Indonesia, in July 2009. Approach: Water samples from both influent and effluent were taken every two weeks and analysed for COD, BOD5, NO3-N, NO2-N, NH4-N, total-N, PO4-P, total coliform bacteria, pH, O2 and settleable solids. Results: The objective of this study was to install one constructed wetland with a vertical flow system to treat sewage from farm house by using an aquatic macrophyte (Phragmites karka. The average treatment efficiencies during the period from August 2009 to January 2010 for BOD5, COD, NH4-N, total- N, PO4-P and total coliform bacteria were 76,03, 78,89, 88,18, 71,70, 91,06 and 99,45% respectively. The average concentration in effluent from period of August to January for BOD5 was 21.87 mg L-1, COD (57.66 mg L-1, NH4-N (0.82 mg L-1, NO3-N (1,36 mg L-1, total-N (2.68 mg L-1, PO4-P (0.07 mg L-1 and total coliform bacteria (4880 MPN/100 ml. Conclusion/Recommendations: The overall results show that all effluent concentration from constructed wetlands except BOD5 were still low and fall considerably short of Indonesian effluent standards for irrigation water. These results were very promising to be used in treating wastewater from agricultural industry and produce clean water which then can still be used for other purposes such as irrigation water, fisheries and other necessities.

  14. Penggunaan Sistem Multi Lapisan Tanah Untuk Menurunkan Tingkat Pencemaran Limbah Cair Industri Karet Remah

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhaida Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Limbah cair industri karet remah diperlakukan dengan sistem Multi Lapisan Tanah (Multi Soil Layering / MSL ) yang telah terbukti banyak memberikan keuntungan. Di antaranya dapat menurunkan BOD, COD, Nitrogen secara serempak dengan menggunakan material yang mudah didapat dan tersedia dengan jumlah yang berlimpah. Pada konstruksi MSL, tanah dicampur dengan arang yang diisikan pada box ukuran 50 x 15 x 50 cm sebagai box yang diselang-seling dengan lapisan perlitdalam bentuk susunan batu bata. Da...

  15. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  16. PENGEMBANGAN FITOREMEDIASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS AIR LIMBAH HASIL PENGOLAHAN INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH SUWUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Mahendra Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing population and tourism activity in Bali Island increases quantity of waste water and resulting in degradation of sanitation quality, especially in the growth centre such as Kuta, Denpasar and Sanur areas. Suwung Waste Water Treatment Plant is one of facility available for domestic waste water in Bali. It needs improved treatment to process domestic waste water before it releases to the environment. Phytoremediation is one of treatment that use plant to coorporate with microorganisms in medium to transform contaminants becoming harmless. This research was conducted from June – August 2012 in Suwung Wastewater Treatment Plant using Taro plant and media form of pebbles and small natural stone. Acclimatized plant was prepared to make sure it can be ascertained and able to grow in tubs processing. Samples were taken 7 times in 24 hours, aiming to know effectiveness of phytoremediation system and to determine the most optimal detention time to reduce concentration of BOD, COD and Amonia. The result showed that treatment with phytoremediation system was effective for the reduction of BOD value with the highest effectiveness value of 84.29%, COD obtained the highest effectiveness value of 78.19% and ammonia got highest effectiveness value of 83.12%. Calculation of most optimal detention time for waste water was 6 hours for BOD, while for COD was obtained after 8 hours and 10 minutes and ammonia was obtained after 8 hours and 9 minutes. Comparison of result of waste water quality with waste water quality standard according to Bali Governor Act Number 8, year 2007, BOD and COD concentration complied the quality standard but for ammonia parameter was above waste water quality standard.

  17. Diergezondheid en vruchtbaarheid op bedrijven met aangescherpt mineralenmanagement

    OpenAIRE

    Poelarends, J.J.; Smolders, E.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek naar de relatie tussen scherp met mineralen managen en de diergezondheid op 17 Koeien & Kansen bedrijven en 17 referentiebedrijven. Aan bod komen bedrijfsresultaten, vruchtbaarheid, uiergezondheid, stofwisseling, klauwgezondheid, dierenartskosten en mineralen in voer en dier.This report describes the study into the relationship between effcient nutrient (N and P) management en animal health on 17 demonstration farms and 17 control farms. Results will b...

  18. Photocatalysis as a tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    F. V. Santos; E. B. Azevedo; G. L. Sant'Anna Jr; M. Dezotti

    2006-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been used as tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters to comply with the regulatory discharge limits and to oxidize persistent compounds that had not been oxidized in the biological treatment. The wastewater is generated by the refinery and directly discharged into the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro). Although BOD removal is high, a residual and persistent COD, besides a somewhat high phenol content remains. Three photocatalysts were tested - TiO2 (Aldrich), ZnO...

  19. Film and Tourism: an Information System for Disclosing the Cinematographic Attractiveness of Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Lavarone; Sandro Savino; Stefan Marchioro

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Cultural Heritage of the University of Padova investigated the topic of film-induced tourism in a year-long project, concluded in April 2015, titled Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism (Novel Tools to Promote Tourism: Film-induced Tourism). The project was financed by the Veneto Region through ESF funds. It brought together the expertise of film scholars, computer scientists and destination management experts, in partnership with public bod...

  20. The body self-awareness among women practicing fitness: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera Anna; Kozieł Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to explore the relationship between body awareness and negative body attitude, interoceptive body awareness and physical self in women practicing fitness as well as to analyze the determinants of body awareness. The Body Awareness Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and the Body Attitude Test were applied to 43 women practicing fitness and 32 non-fitness practitioners. Bod...

  1. Assessment of physico-chemical properties and metal contents of water and sediments of Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent-Akpu, Ijeoma Favour; Tyler, Andrew N.; Wilson, Clare; MacKinnon, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Some physico-chemical properties and the concentrations of the metals Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn in water and sediments were examined from September 2011 to January 2012 in Bodo Creek, where oil spills have been recurrent. Temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total hardness, sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate were determined in surface water. Particle size, total organic matter ...

  2. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN TRICKLING FILTERS USING LUFFA CYLLINDRICA AS BIOFILM SUPPORTING MEDIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rocha Vianna; Gilberto C. B. de Melo; Márcio R. Viana Neto

    2012-01-01

    Domestic sewage treatment experiments were conducted in trickling filters in laboratory pilot plants in which the peeled dehydrated fruits of Luffa cyllindrica were used as a support medium for microbiological growth, in order to verify its capacity to remove organic matter, measured in terms of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5,20) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Other parameters such as suspended and settleable solids were also measured. The results obtained, when compared to results from s...

  3. ???BIOREMEDIASI LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI MIE INSTAN MENGGUNAKAN EM4 dan GREEN POSHKOO???

    OpenAIRE

    BULO, SRI HARTUTI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Sri Hartuti Bulo. ???Bioremediasi Limbah Cair Industri Mie Instan Menggunakan EM4 dan Green Poshkoo???. (Di bawah bimbingan Prof. Dr. Ir. Mary Selintung, MSc dan Ir. Achmad Zubair, MSc. Limbah cair mie instan mengandung berbagai jenis pencemar lingkungan, misalnya Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) dan Derajat Keasaman (PH). Pembuangan limbah cair mie instan ke badan air tanpa proses pengolahan akan berdampak pada penurunan kualitas lingkungan, sehingg...

  4. Trouble Shooting and Performance Enhancement in Activated Sludge Process for Treatment of Textile Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Mehali J. Mehta; Bansari M. Ribadiya

    2014-01-01

    The untreated textile wastewater can cause rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen if it is directly discharged into the surface water sources due to its high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) value. This paper focuses on various troubles in performance of activated sludge process and performance enhancement by suggesting remedial measures to ensure the proper operation of activated sludge process(ASP).Also, it is noted that modification and alternativ...

  5. Vinasse treatment by coupling of electro-dissolution, heterocoagulation and anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Pino, Olga Lucía; Barba-Ho, Luz Edith; MARRIAGA CABRALES, NILSON

    2014-01-01

    The distillery vinasse is the most important liquid effluent of the ethanol production process and it is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); besides its acid pH and dark brown color. Phenol content in vinasse causes inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion processes and has an adverse environmental impact. An alternative for treating vinasse from distilleries by using the electro-dissolution of iron and a heterocoagulation stage with...

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, P. V.; Claramma Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) total suspended solids (TSS) total dissolved substances (TDS), total solids (TS), turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate...

  7. Characterisation of sewage wastewater and assessment of downstream pollution along Huluka River of Ambo, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Padanilly Chidambaram Prabu

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the downstream pollution profiles of Huluka River due to sewage water contamination, and to provide the data on the physico-chemical properties and nutrient content of Huluka River in Ethiopia. The water quality indices, viz. temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, carbon dioxide content, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulpha...

  8. Sistem Lapisan Multimedia Untuk Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Maryati Panggabean

    2008-01-01

    Perlakuan air limbah industri kelapa sawit telah dipelajari dengan menggunakan Sistim Lapisan Multi Media (LMM) dengan komponen utama terdiri dari Zeolit, Serbuk Gergaji, Arang Tempurung Kelapa dan Lumpur Aktif dengan perbandingan volume 1:1:1:1, telah terbukti dapat menurunkan kandungan Suspended Solid (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), dan Amonium-Nitrogen (Nf4-N). Pada konstruksi Lapisan Multi Media, komponen utama diisikan pada boks akrilik yang berukuran...

  9. Inter-relationships between Bacteriological and Chemical Variations in Lake Pamvotis—Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kagalou, I.; Tsimarakis, G.; Bezirtzoglou, E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between indicator bacteria and the organic load were conducted over a year in Lake Pamvotis, in northwest Greece. Total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC) were found in water samples from five different sampling stations. Organic load was estimated using biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) parameters. Increased TC and FC levels were found close to heavily polluted areas. Near-bottom samples had higher levels of bacteria and the numbers of TC ...

  10. Ground Water Quality of Gandhinagar Taluka, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mayur C.; Shilpkar, Prateek G.; Pradip B. Acharya

    2008-01-01

    Present communication deals with study of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), calcium hardness (CaH), magnesium hardness (MgH), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate (SO42-) of water samples of bore wells of forty villages of Gandhinagar taluka of Gujarat state,India....

  11. A comparative study of youth attitudes to teenage suicide in Norway and South Africa : suicide, a permanent solution to a temporary problem!

    OpenAIRE

    Rugunandan, L.

    2006-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of the youths' views towards teenage suicide in Bodø, Norway and Durban, South Africa. The increase in self-destructive behaviour among teenagers was of concern in both countries. This study provides an insight into youths' understanding of the causes of suicide and their prevention strategies. A variety of data gathering techniques was used within the focus group to elicit perception and attitudes from participants in a less threatening way...

  12. Dairy wastewater treatment plant in removal of organic pollution: a case study in Sanandaj, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nammam Ali Azadi; Reza Ali Falahzadeh; Shahram Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wastewater produced by a dairy in Sanandaj is a major source of environmental pollution threatening the city. The dairy uses activated sludge treatment to remove organic pollution from the wastewater. The present study evaluated the performance of this process and its compliance with national requirements for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) remaining in the plant effluent. Methods: A total of 48 samples were obtain...

  13. Håndbog i Nudansk i leksikografisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2007-01-01

    leksikografiske opslagsværker, og hvilke konsekvenser dette har for deres indhold, opbygning og præsentation. Det følgende bidrag vil søge at råde bod på denne mangel, idet det på grundlag af nogle generelle overvejelser om leksikografi og håndbøger vil tage hul på spørgsmålet gennem en undersøgelse og diskussion...

  14. Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters of the Three Rural Ponds of Sasaram of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Choudhary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico chemical and biological parameters of the three rural pond of Sasaram,Bihar has been studied to see the present condition for its better utilization. The study revealed that parameters are within permissible limit for fish culture and the stocking should be done as per the productivity of the water. As per the BOD estimation the ponds falls under moderately polluted category.

  15. RevFisk - et projekt som kvantificerer stenrevs (et lavtliggende stenrev i den fotiske zone og et dybereliggende stenrev i den afotiske zone) betydning for fisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Christoffersen, Mads; Aastrup, Kim; van Deurs, Mikael; Støttrup, Josianne; Nielsen, Anders; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Mariani, Patrizio; Baktoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Dahl, Karsten; Lundsteen, Steffen; Stæhr, Peter A.; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Mohn, Christian; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Hansen, Flemming Thorbjørn; Uhrenholt, Thomas; Middelboe, Anne Lise; Mandviwalla, Xerxes Rohinton

    . Det er derfor i dag ikke muligt kvantitativt at redegøre for stenrevs betydning for fiskeressourcerne eller udarbejde målrettede natur-genopretningsplaner for stenrev med det formål at genskabe gyde- og opvækstområder for fisk. Det vil Projektet RevFisk forsøge at råde bod på. Centrale spørgsmål i...

  16. Opskrift på en sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    falde regn, skriver Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen fra DTU Space. Ved et forsøg på DTU Space for nogle år siden skabte man forhold, der ligner atmosfæren i den højde, hvor skyer dannes. Men der blev ikke brugt kosmiske partikler i forsøget, og det er der nu rådet bod på med den nye partikelaccelerator på...

  17. RevFisk – et projekt som kvantificerer stenrevs (et lavtliggende stenrev i den fotiske zone og et dybere liggende stenrev i den afotiske zone) betydning for fisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Christoffersen, Mads; Aarestrup, Kim; Deurs, Mikael van; Støttrup, Josianne; Nielsen, Anders; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Mariani, Patrizio; Baktoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Dahl, Karsten; Lundsteen, Steffen; Stæhr, Peter; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Mohn, Christian; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Hansen, Flemming Thorbjørn; Uhrenholt, Thomas; Middelboe, Anne Lise; Mandviwalla, Xerxes Rohinton

    . Det er derfor i dag ikke muligt kvantitativt at redegøre for stenrevs betydning for fiskeressourcerne eller udarbejde målrettede natur-genopretningsplaner for stenrev med det formål at genskabe gyde- og opvækstområder for fisk. Det vil Projektet RevFisk forsøge at råde bod på. Centrale spørgsmål i...

  18. Air Displacement Plethysmography versus Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Underweight, Normal-Weight, and Overweight/Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lowry, DW; Tomiyama, AJ

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurately estimating fat percentage is important for assessing health and determining treatment course. Methods of estimating body composition such as hydrostatic weighing or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), however, can be expensive, require extensive operator training, and, in the case of hydrostatic weighing, be highly burdensome for patients. Our objective was to evaluate air displacement plethysmography via the Bod Pod, a less burdensome method of estimating body fat ...

  19. Udspil om læring i arbejdslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . Der mangler dog et generelt overblik over feltet arbejdspladslæring. Det råder antologien UDSPIL OM LÆRING I ARBEJDSLIVET nu bod på. Bogen er den første udgivelse fra Learning Lab Denmark. Bag bogen står en række forskere tilknyttet konsortiet Workplace Learning. I bogen gennemgår forfatterne...

  20. Om de såkaldte fejlslutninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    I artiklen, der er et bidrag til logik og argumentationsteori, tages de såkaldte fejlslutninger op til behandling. Det hævdes, at den nylige litteratur om emnet i Danmark ikke er opdateret om de sidste 30 års internationale debat. I et forsøg på at rode bod på denne tingenes tilstand gives et rids...

  1. Danske lægebøger til menigmand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    helt frem til 1900-talet. Bøgerne indfører i en forestillingsverden, hvor arvesynden såvel som den daglige synd er den ultimative årsag til sygdom, der konkret udløses af ubalance i kroppens væsker. Vejen til helbredelse kræver bod, anger og omvendelse til et gudvelbehageligt levned, og i anden omgang...

  2. Oplevelsesøkonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om nye vinkler på forbrug. Oplevelsesøkonomien udfordrer nemlig gængse forestillinger om forbrug ved at gøre nydelse, oplevelse, emotionalitet og engagement til et centralt salgsargument. Der mangler imidlertid teorier der kan forstå og forklare disse aspekter ved forbrug. Det vil b...... bogen råde bod på ved at fokusere på forbrugerens egen rolle i frembringelsen af relevante og interessante oplevelser....

  3. Measurement of Atrial Septal Defect Size: A Comparative Study between Transesophageal Echocardiography and Balloon Occlusive Diameter Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Eslami; Masoumeh Lotfi-Tokaldany; Mohammad Alidoosti; Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian; Arezou Zoroufian; Elham Hakki; Mohammad Sahebjam; Mahmood Sheikhfathollahi; Alimohammad Hajizeinali; Hakimeh Sadeghian

    2010-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect secundum (ASD-II) has become an alternative method for surgery. We sought to compare the two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) method for measuring atrial septal defect with balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) in transcatheter ASD-II closure. Methods: A total of 39 patients (71.1% female, mean age: 35.31 ± 15.37 years) who underwent successful transcatheter closure of ASD-II between November 2005 and July 2008 were enroll...

  4. Air Displacement Plethysmography versus Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Underweight, Normal-Weight, and Overweight/Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lowry, David W.; Tomiyama, A. Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately estimating fat percentage is important for assessing health and determining treatment course. Methods of estimating body composition such as hydrostatic weighing or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), however, can be expensive, require extensive operator training, and, in the case of hydrostatic weighing, be highly burdensome for patients. Our objective was to evaluate air displacement plethysmography via the Bod Pod, a less burdensome method of estimating body fat p...

  5. Radio in Proportion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    Dansk radiohistorie er på mange måder et uskrevet kapitel. Selvom der findes flere udgivelser fra Statsradiofonien selv og en dansk mediehistorie i fire bind, henligger mange centrale problemstillinger endnu i historiens mørke. Det vil nærværende afhandling søge at råde bod på med et fokus på...

  6. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Cain, Dustin L; Clark, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes. PMID:27073854

  7. Effects of Inorganic Nutrients and Dissolved Organic Carbon on Oxygen Demand in Select Rivers in Northern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Joseph L

    2013-01-01

    Sewage, agricultural runoff, and atmospheric deposition have greatly increased the amount of nutrients (largely nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) in surface water nationwide. Excess nutrients are associated with algal blooms and dissolved oxygen depletion in many water bodies, but linkages between nutrients and dissolved oxygen have been largely correlative. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a regulated water quality parameter that is aimed at describing the amount of oxygen consumed during t...

  8. Evaluation of multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks in prediction of water quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Abyaneh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the efficiency of multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in prediction of two major water quality parameters in a wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as indirect indicators of organic matters are representative parameters for sewer water quality. Performance of the ANN models was evaluated using coefficient of correlation (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias val...

  9. An analysis of TCP startup over an experimental DVB-RCS platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gotta, Alberto; Potort?, Francesco; Secchi, Raffaello

    2006-01-01

    Satellite systems are evolving towards higher avail- able bandwidths and dynamic allocation based on instantaneous traffic rates offered at the stations, so called BoD (bandwidth on demand) channel sharing. This trend is coupled with more and more powerful error correcting schemes, like those adopted in the recent DVB-S2 standard, which promise to make the channel virtually immune from packet errors. These factors combine so that most TCP connections would send all of their data during the Sl...

  10. THE ROLE OF DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR L.) IN SECONDARY CLARIFIER TANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Engin Gürtekin; Nusret Şekerdağ

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) presence on the effluent water quality and settling characteristics in the secondary clarifier tank of a conventional biological treatment plant were investigated. For this purpose, the performances of the secondary clarifier with and without duckweed were compared. In the secondary clarifier tank with duckweed, COD, BOD5, ammonium and phosphate removal efficiencies were higher by 15, 25, 35 and 45%, respectively. SS concentration of eff...

  11. A/O-MBR工艺处理垃圾填埋场洗车废水及其回用技术%Treatment of Vehicle Wash Wastewater in Solid Wastes Landfill Site with A/O-MBR Processes and Its Reuse Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤

    2012-01-01

    Anoxic/Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A/O-MBR jprocess was adopted to treat the garbage vehicle wash wastewater in solid wastes landfill site in Fuzhou city. One year's operation shows that under the conditions of reactor influent with CODCr ≤ 1 000 mg/L,BOD5≤500 mg/L, the effluent water quality can reach C0Do<30 mg/L,BOD5<6 mg/L, turbidity<0.1 NTU,NH3-N <0.1 mg/L,anionics <0.1mg/L. The reclaimed water can stably meets the vehicle washing standard set in Reuse of Recycling Water for Urban-Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920—2002).%针对福州市某垃圾填埋场洗车台废水特点,设计采用缺氧/好氧平板膜-生物反应器(A/O-MBR)中水回用处理工艺.工程运行结果表明:在反应器进水COD≤1 000 mg/L,BOD5≤500 mg/L条件下,处理后出水的COD<30 mg/L,BOD5<6 mg/L,浊度<0.1NTU,NH3-N<0.1 mg/L,阴离子表面活性剂<0.1 mg/L,出水水质稳定达到《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》(GB/T18920-2002)中车辆冲洗标准.

  12. INFLUENCE OF BIO-PREPARATION ON WASTEWATER PURIFICATION PROCESS IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Puchlik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological system of analyzed wastewater treatment plant is in part a biological bed of soil-reed in parallel arrangement. Unusual application is the application of two independent purification lines where in the second line, a bio-preparation is additionally dosed. The constructed wetland provides high removal of organic compounds expressed as BOD5 and COD, as well as reducing the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and phosphates. This indicates a high performance of such a sewage treatment plant.

  13. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mohd Razman Salim

    2002-01-01

    A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES) developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand ...

  14. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, N.; Potgieter, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bod...

  15. Concerning bodies [stream convenors and panel chairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The 'Concerning Bodies' stream is a collaboration with Eric Daffron (USA) and Becky McLaughlin (USA) that is part of the London Conference of Critical Thought, Royal Holloway University of London, 6-7 June 2013. The stream has two parallel strands detailed below: Stream Title: Concerning Bodies This stream has two points of focus: firstly, the representation, and ethical implications, of bodies (both human and animal) in visual cultures and, secondly, the account of the body (and bod...

  16. Assessing CSR and Applying Social Life Cycle Assessment: A case study on Biochemical Oxygen Demand Online Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, He

    2012-01-01

    Wuhan China and Borlänge Sweden collaborate to promote sustainable business growths. This thesis, being part of sustainable business project, aims to understand how business can contribute to sustainable development and explore mechanisms of social life cycle assessment. In an effort to answer research questions and further to achieve the general purpose, a BOD online monitor case study is described and analyzed by applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data collection is base...

  17. How Effective Are Spiritual Care and Body Manipulation Therapies in Pediatric Oncology? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas G. Poder; Lemieux, Renald

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on bod...

  18. An ill-posed parabolic evolution system for dispersive deoxygenation–reaeration in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an inverse problem that arises in the management of water resources and pertains to the analysis of surface water pollution by organic matter. Most physically relevant models used by engineers derive from various additions and corrections to enhance the earlier deoxygenation–reaeration model proposed by Streeter and Phelps in 1925, the unknowns being the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The one we deal with includes Taylor’s dispersion to account for the heterogeneity of the contamination in all space directions. The system we obtain is then composed of two reaction-dispersion equations. The particularity is that both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available on the DO tracer while the BOD density is free of any conditions. In fact, for real-life concerns, measurements on the DO are easy to obtain and to save. On the contrary, collecting data on the BOD is a sensitive task and turns out to be a lengthy process. The global model pursues the reconstruction of the BOD density, and especially of its flux along the boundary. Not only is this problem plainly worth studying for its own interest but it could also be a mandatory step in other applications such as the identification of the location of pollution sources. The non-standard boundary conditions generate two difficulties in mathematical and computational grounds. They set up a severe coupling between both equations and they are the cause of the ill-posed data reconstruction problem. Existence and stability fail. Identifiability is therefore the only positive result one can search for; it is the central purpose of the paper. Finally, we have performed some computational experiments to assess the capability of the mixed finite element in missing data recovery. (paper)

  19. An Artificial Neural Network Model for Wastewater Treatment Plant of Konya

    OpenAIRE

    Tumer, Abdullah Erdal; Edebali, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, modelling of Konya wastewater treatment plant was studied by using artificial neural network with different architectures in Matlab software. All data were obtained from wastewater treatment plant of Konya during daily records over four month. Treatment efficiency of the plant was determined by taking into account of input values of pH, temperature, COD, TSS and BOD with output values TSS. Performance of the model was compared via the parameters of Mean Squared Error (MSE), and...

  20. Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Šostar-Turk, Sonja; Petrinić, Irena; Simonič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anio...

  1. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  2. SELF-DESIGNED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER : Wastewater treatment in areas outside sewer networks in Kokkola

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yao

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is related to the Finnish government decree on treating domestic wastewater in areas outside sewer networks (542/2003). The aim of this thesis was to design a simple, cheap and effective domestic wastewater treatment system and build its model. The thesis includes not only the theoretical explanations of methods for removing nitrogen, phosphorus and BOD7, engineering designed and building processes of model, but also the experimental processes of running the model and results...

  3. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation-reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huifang, E-mail: whfkhl@sina.com [College of Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Industrial Water-Conservation and Emission Reduction, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Shihe [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A real printing and dyeing wastewater was pretreated by Fenton process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated impacts of operating parameters on ORP and pretreatment efficacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship among ORP, operating parameters and treatment efficacy was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment efficacy was in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated kinetics of color and COD removal and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio in solution. - Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 g L{sup -1}, respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD{sub 5}/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10 h.

  4. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Purnima Dhall; Rita Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated t...

  5. Performance Evaluation of Wastewater Treated Plant for Ninava Drug Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Hamad

    2013-01-01

    In this study the characteristics of raw and treated wastewater from Ninava drug factory were evaluated. The results revealed that the strength of raw wastewater can be classified as medium concentrated wastewater with respect to its BOD5 since the average value is 231.7 mg/l. In addition a strong correlations were found between many characteristics of raw waste. The characteristics of produced effluent from waste water treatment plant of the factory were within the Iraqi specification for th...

  6. Combined Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Anaerobic Bioreactor Posttreated in Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Saima Zeb; Qaisar Mahmood; Saima Jadoon; Arshid Pervez; Muhammad Irshad; Muhammad Bilal; Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater tre...

  7. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Hossein Moein; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Shima Nakhaie

    2013-01-01

    Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal effici...

  8. Electroflotocoagulation wastewater treatment of LLC «Kolomyia meat-processing plant»

    OpenAIRE

    Угляр, Юлія Михайлівна; Борщишин, Ірина Дмитрівна; Хром’як, Уляна Володимирівна

    2014-01-01

    The experimental studies of using bentonite clay of the Sokyrnytsia field in Khust district (Transcarpathian region) for wastewater treatment (WW) were conducted. They actively absorb such pollutants as sulfates, chlorides, heavy metals and others. Also, the use of bentonite in wastewater treatment makes it possible to reduce the load on the microorganisms in aerotanks, reduce the content of ammonia nitrogen, suspended substances and BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) in WW.The possibility of w...

  9. Potential Bacterial Consortium to Increase the Effectiveness of Beer Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Nia Anggraeni; Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam; Retno Kawuri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of microbial consortia in beer wastewater treatment. The research was initiated with the isolation of soil microbial consortium that has been contaminated by beer waste water, followed by the selection of the best potential microbial beer wastewater treatment. At the end, the selection of the best microbial consortium was tested in beer wastewater treatment based on pollutant parameters namely biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  10. Možné úspory energie na stávajících ČOV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoník, A.; Škvoran, O.; Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Horák, P.; Počínková, M.

    Bratislava : Asociácia čistiarenských expertov Slovenskej republiky, 2012 - (Bodík, I.; Hutňan, M.; Kubaská, M.), s. 32-36 ISBN 978-80-970896-0-3. [Kaly a odpady 2012. Banská Bystrica (SK), 15.03.2012-16.03.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : energy savings * wastewater * treatment plant Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. Ecobiotechnological Strategy to Enhance Efficiency of Bioconversion of Wastes into Hydrogen and Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Prasun; Pant, Dinesh Chander; Mehariya, Sanjeet; Sharma, Rishi; Kansal, Arun; Kalia, Vipin C.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable wastes (VW) and food wastes (FW) are generated in large quantities by municipal markets, restaurants and hotels. Waste slurries (250 ml) in 300 ml BOD bottles, containing 3, 5 and 7 % total solids (TS) were hydrolyzed with bacterial mixtures composed of: Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Sphingobacterium species. Each of these bacteria had high activities for the hydrolytic enzymes: amylase, protease and lipase. Hydrolysate of biowaste slurr...

  12. Swelling Properties of Water-Swelling Materials Exposed to Organic Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Inazumi, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakatsuki, T; Shishido, K.

    2011-01-01

    A water-swelling material is one of the rubbery impermeable materials which mixed synthetic resin elastomers as a base material, high absorbency polymers, filler and solvents. In this study, swelling characteristics of the water-swelling material on the water polluted with COD and BOD, as an impermeable material at coastal landfill sites, are examined by laboratory swelling ratio test. Furthermore, the factor in which it influences the swelling pressure of water-swelling material is clarified...

  13. 40 CFR 410.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). 410.15 Section 410.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wool Scouring Subcategory § 410.15 New source... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (or pounds per 1,000 lb) of wool BOD5 3.6 1.9 COD 52.4 33.7 TSS...

  14. Erratum to: “Pancreatic cancer and SBRT: A new potential option?” [Rep. Pract. Oncol. Radiother. 20 (2015) 377–384

    OpenAIRE

    Hajj, Carla; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Local control remains a major issue for patients with unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The role of radiation therapy in the management of LAPC represents an area of some controversy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is an emerging treatment option for LAPC as it can provide a therapeutic benefit with significant advantages for patients’ quality of life over standard conventional chemoradiation. The objective of this review is to present the rationale for stereotactic bod...

  15. 77 FR 63419 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... the Kingpin Act: Individuals 1. ROMERO BARRERA, Benedicto, c/o AGROFUTURO R.H. Y CIA. S.C.S., Medellin...) (individual) . Entities 1. AGROFUTURO R.H. Y CIA. S.C.S., Calle 80 Sur No. 47D-65 Bod. 114, Medellin, Colombia..., Carlos Arturo, c/o AGROFUTURO R.H. Y CIA. S.C.S., Medellin, Colombia; c/o COMERCIALIZADORA...

  16. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... where the ratio of avg. wt. of processed meat products/avg. LWK is 0.55. Adjustments can be made...

  17. Physical Activity Resource Attributes and Obesity in Low-Income African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McAlexander, Kristen M; Banda, Jorge A.; McAlexander, Joshua W.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2009-01-01

    More than two thirds of Americans are overweight or obese, and African Americans are particularly vulnerable to obesity when compared to Caucasians. Ecological models of health suggest that lower individual and environmental socioeconomic status and the built environment may be related to health attitudes and behaviors that contribute to obesity. This cross-sectional study measured the direct associations of neighborhood physical activity resource attributes with body mass index (BMI) and bod...

  18. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BIODEGRADING BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM DAIRY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates from dairy effluent sample of two different seasons from Verka Milk Plant, Mohali. Twenty bacteria were isolated by spread plating and streaking method. Variable amount of reduction in BOD and COD was observed in dairy effluentafter the treatment with free and immobilized seven bacterial strains i.e. A3, A8, A11, A13, A19, A21 and A23. Bacterial isolates with degrading efficiency were identified on...

  19. Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Shama Sehar; Rabia Aamir; Iffat Naz; Naeem Ali; Safia Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, tha...

  20. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction rates are reported for the first time. Design parameters and guidelines for the set-up and maintenance of a full-scale wetland are recommended. The study concludes that integrating a full-scale wetl...

  1. The Role of Quality Board of Directors in Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Practices: Evidence from Binary Logistic Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Norhayate Wan Daud; Hasnah Haron; Daing Nasir Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the factors associated with the level of adoption of Enterprise RiskManagement (ERM) among public listed companies in Malaysia. The aim of this particular study is to examinethe relationship between the quality of Board of Directors (BOD) with regard to the level of ERM adoptionwithin the companies involved. Binary Logistic Regression was conducted to test the hypothesis on surveyedfirms selected from the seven industries listed on the main board of ...

  2. Morphological differences between wild and farmed Mediterranean fish

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Sfakianakis, Dimitris G.; Somarakis, Stylianos

    2012-01-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are important commercial marine fish species both for aquaculture and fisheries in the Mediterranean. It is known that farmed individuals escape from farm facilities, but the extent of escape events is not easy to report and estimate because of the difficulty to distinguish between wild and farmed individuals. In this study, significant differences provided through morphometry evidence that the cranial and bod...

  3. Znovuvyužítí surovin považovaných za odpady

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Došek, M.; Endo Cerquera, Valentina

    Bratislava: Vydavate'lstvo NOI Bratislava, 2014 - (Bodík, I.; Fáberová, M.; Hutňan, M.), s. 143-148 ISBN 978-80-970896-7-2. [Odpadové vody 2014. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 22.10.2014-24.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1320234 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : yellow water * concentration * hygienization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Verification, Validation and Evaluation of the Virtual Human Markup Language (VHML)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Camilla; Strindlund, Linda; Wiknertz, Emma

    2002-01-01

    Human communication is inherently multimodal. The information conveyed through body language, facial expression, gaze, intonation, speaking style etc. are all important components of everyday communication. An issue within computer science concerns how to provide multimodal agent based systems. Those are systems that interact with users through several channels. These systems can include Virtual Humans. A Virtual Human might for example be a complete creature, i.e. a creature with a whole bod...

  5. PENGOLAHAN PRIMER LIMBAH TEKSTIL DENGAN ELEKTROKOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Lieke Riadi; Whenny Ferydhiwati; Liok Dimas Sanjaya Loeman

    2014-01-01

    Limbah industri tekstil di area pinggir kota Surabaya mempunyai karakteristik perbandingan COD dan BOD = 5.57. Limbah jenis ini sulit untuk dibiodegradasi. Studi ini mempelajari tekonologi elektrokoagulasi untuk mengolah limbah tekstil dengan menurunkan intensitas warna, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Percobaan batch pada suhu kamar dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pH, jarak elektroda terhadap penurunan warna,TSS dan COD dan membandingkan biaya operasinya ji...

  6. PENGOLAHAN LINDI DENGAN OZON DAN PROSES OKSIDASI LANJUT BERBASIS OZON

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Rangga Sururi; Siti Ainun Saleh; Amalia Krisna

    2014-01-01

    Limbah industri tekstil di area pinggir kota Surabaya mempunyai karakteristik perbandingan COD dan BOD = 5.57. Limbah jenis ini sulit untuk dibiodegradasi. Studi ini mempelajari tekonologi elektrokoagulasi untuk mengolah limbah tekstil dengan menurunkan intensitas warna, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Percobaan batch pada suhu kamar dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pH, jarak elektroda terhadap penurunan warna,TSS dan COD dan membandingkan biaya operasinya ji...

  7. A contribution to the Alysiinae of southeastern Iran, with description of the male of Chorebus longiarticulis

    OpenAIRE

    RAVANDI, SHIMA GHOTBI; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; FELIPO, FRANCISCO JAVIER PERIS; HESNI, MAJID ASKARI; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in order to study the Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species of the southeastern part of Iran. A total of 11 species belonging to 5 genera have been listed, of which 4 species, Dinotrema contracticorne (Fischer 1974), Synaldis ultima Fischer 1970, Chorebus parvungula (Thomson 1895), and Dacnusa abdita (Haliday 1839), are reported for the first time from Iran. In addition, the male of Chorebus longiarticulis Fischer, Lashkari Bod, Rakhshani and Tal...

  8. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  9. De determinanten van cash holdings bij Belgische KMO's

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbaelen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Deze eindverhandeling handelt over de determinanten die een invloed kunnen hebben op het niveau van cash holdings van Belgische KMO's. Dit werkstuk beslaat zeven hoofdstukken. Eerst en vooral wordt de probleemstelling uitgewerkt in hoofdstuk één gevolgd door een definiëring van het begrip KMO in hoofdstuk twee. Vervolgens komt in hoofdstuk drie een uitgebreide literatuurstudie aan bod. In hoofdstuk vier worden de determinanten van de cash holdings besproken, welke uit de literatuurstudie voor...

  10. 基于改进JIT算法的软测量建模及其在污水处理中的应用%Enhanced JIT-Based Soft-Sensing Modeling and Its Application to Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乙奇; 黄道平; 李艳

    2011-01-01

    为解决污水生化处理过程中的水质参数BOD5(5天生化需氧量)难以在线监测的难题,在充分考虑污水处理过程非线性和多变量耦合的基础上,结合Jolliffe参数和数据选择算法提出了鲁棒最近相关性算法,并将其与RPLS(迭代偏最小二乘)和线性偏差补偿等算法相结合,对JIT(Just-in-Time)在线学习算法进行了改进,最后将改进的JIT算法用于建立BOD5软测量模型.对现场数据的仿真结果表明,与传统JIT算法和RPLS法相比,文中方法提高了软测量的在线预测精度、自适应性和鲁棒性.%In order to overcome the difficulty in on-line measurement of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) during the wastewater treatment, by taking into consideration the nonlinearity and multivariant coupling characteristics of wastewater treatment process, a robust nearest correlation algorithm based on Jolliffe parameters and correlation data selection algorithm is proposed, which is then combined with the recursive partial least square algorithm and the linear bias compensation algorithm to improve the conventional JIT (Just-in-Time) algorithm.Finally, the enhanced JIT algorithm is used to build an on-line soft-sensing model of BOD5.The results of simulation show that the enhanced JIT algorithm outperforms the conventional JIT and RPLS algorithms in terms of on-line prediction accuracy, adaptability and robustness of soft sensing.

  11. Kaderrichtlijn Water - Achtergronddocument Zoute Macrofauna 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ysebaert, T.; Mesel, de, I.G.; Herman, P

    2008-01-01

    Dit achtergronddocument geeft een toelichting op de referenties en maatlatten voor het kwaliteitselement macrofauna voor de Nederlandse kust- en overgangswateren. In een 1e deel wordt de opzet en werking van de maatlat uitgewerkt. In een 2e deel komt de uitwerking voor de verschillende Nederlandse kust- en overgangswateren aan bod, waarbij de toepassing van de maatlat in het 'Referenties en maatlatten voor natuurlijke watertypen voor de kaderrichtlijn water' van Van der Molen en Pot (2007) wo...

  12. Intensive nutritional support improves the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea A. García-Contreras; Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay; Enrique Romero-Velarde; Ana Isabel Ibarra-Gutiérrez; Rogelio Troyo-Sanromán; Imelda E. Sandoval-Montes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated bod...

  13. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    International audience Competition for food resources can result inspatial and dietary segregation among individuals fromthe same species. Few studies have looked at such segregationswith the combined effect of sex and age in specieswith short foraging ranges. In this study we examined the3D spatial use of the environment in a species with a limitedforaging area. We equipped 26 little penguins (Eudyptulaminor) of known age, sex, and breeding output withGPS (location) and accelerometer (bod...

  14. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters by Using the Multidimensional Scaling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suheyla Yerel; Huseyin Ankara

    2010-01-01

    The surface water quality parameters of the western region of Black Sea in Turkey were assessed by using multidimensional scaling analysis. This technique was applied to the surface water quality parameters obtained from the five monitoring stations. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that Cl-, SO42-, Na+ and BOD5 are the most important parameters causing difference in the monitoring stations. These analysis results present from the domestic waste and organic pollution affected of surfa...

  15. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  16. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30 C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from off shores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  17. Obtaining disability weights in rural Burkina Faso using a culturally adapted visual analogue scale

    OpenAIRE

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Sanon, M.; Sommerfeld, J; R. Würthwein

    2002-01-01

    Burden of disease (BOD) estimates used to foster local health policy require disability weights which represent local preferences for different health states. The global burden of disease (GBD) study presumes that disability weights are universal and equal across countries and cultures, but this is questionable. This indicates the need to measure local disability weights across nations and|or cultures. We developed a culturally adapted version of the visual analogue scale (VAS) for a setting ...

  18. Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs

    OpenAIRE

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    De laatste jaren is de positie van ouders in het onderwijs aan het veranderen: zij moeten van de overheid een grotere invloed krijgen op school. Ouders en scholen moeten op het gebied van opvoeding en onderwijs meer gaan samenwerken. De overheid is ook voor versterking van de vrije schoolkeuze. Onbekend is wat de opvattingen van ouders zijn. In deze publicatie komt de visie van ouders op opvoeding en onderwijs aan bod. Welke opvoedingsdoelen hebben zij en wat vinden zij van de taakverdeling t...

  19. The recycling effect in the nitrification-denitrification process in vertical flow constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Zapater, Estanislao

    2003-01-01

    Uncontrolled discharge of nutrient rich wastewater to the environment is a common source of pollution and it is partly responsible for the eutrophication of surface water, as well as degradation of the quality of groundwater. Constructed wetlands have proven to be an effective and affordable alternative to reduce BOD, suspended solids and even to reduce the concentration of nutrients from domestic wastewater, if the design, operation and establishment of the system meet certain co...

  20. "Algorithms for some Graph-Theoretical Optimization Problems"

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Samenvatting Deze thesis situeert zich in het onderzoeksgebied van operationeel onder zoek. We richten ons op methoden om een aantal graaf-theoretische optima lisatie problemen op te lossen. Allereerst geven we een korte introducti e in lineair en integer programmeren en bespreken we enkele oplossingsme thoden die in deze thesis worden gebruikt. Het vervolg van deze thesis k an grofweg in twee delen worden opgesplitst. In het eerste deel komt het opdelen van een partial order aan bod. In h...