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Sample records for bod

  1. Het verplicht bod op effecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Een effectenhouder die de controle verkrijgt in een beursvennootschap, brengt een openbaar bod uit op de overige effecten. Dat is de regel die in de meeste EU-lidstaten en veel andere landen bestaat. Nederland dient uiterlijk op 20 mei 2006 een dergelijk verplicht bod-regeling in te voeren. Dit is

  2. BOD determination parameters; BOD. Da cinque giorni a cinque ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarano, E.; Bottari, E.; Mantarro, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Pellegrini, G. E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Lab. di Micologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    An important parameter of those according the law, with regards waste waters and representing a required analytical determination according the national rules on the check of the good working of a depurator is the biological oxygen demand (BOD). The currently applied method is affected by several limitations. It has low accuracy and precision, is strongly depending on the sampling, is time wasting and its application and performance can present different and hard difficulties of execution. However, the result of the analysis cannot be obtained before of five days. By taking into account all these complications, an alternative method is here proposed. The proposed procedure is less manipulative, is more precise and is able to furnish the result within about 5 hours from the start of the chemical analysis. The proposed method was applied successful to sample of a cesspool water depurator and the good results will be shown in the text. [Italian] Uno dei parametri che deve essere valutato per legge nelle acque di scarico e che costituisce una irrinunciabile determinazione analitica per il controllo del buon funzionamento di un depuratore e' la richiesta biologica di ossigeno (BOD, biological oxygen demand). Il metodo generalmente adoperato risulta limitato da una scarsa accuratezza e precisione, e' fortemente dipendente dalle modalita' di prelievo dei campioni, e' laborioso e certamente e' estremamente lungo. Il risultato si puo' conoscere non prima di cinque giorni. Tenendo presente tutte queste limitazioni, viene proposto un metodo alternativo che, essendo meno manipolativo, con una precisione migliore riesce a dare una risposta nel giro di circa 5 ore dall'inizio dell'analisi. Il metodo e' stato applicato con successo alle acque di un depuratore di acque cloacali e se ne riportano i risultati.

  3. Comparative analysis of BOD rapid determination method and BOD5%BOD快速测定法与BOD5测定法的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国辉

    2015-01-01

    通过BOD快速测定法和BOD5测定法两种方法测定的数据进行比较分析,提出BOD快速测定法存在的主要问题及改进措施,提高BOD快速测定法分析结果的准确度。%Comparative analysis of the data by two methods of BOD rapid determination method and BOD5, the paper puts forward some problems existing in BOD rapid determination method, and take improvement measures to improve the BOD rapid determination of the accuracy of analysis result.

  4. A BOD monitoring disposable reactor with alginate-entrapped bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Patricio; Acevedo, Cristian A; Albornoz, Fernando; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Valdés, Erika; Galindo, Raúl; Young, Manuel E

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds in 5 days. New biosensor-based methods have been conducted for a faster determination of BOD. In this study, a mathematical model to evaluate the feasibility of using a BOD sensor, based on disposable alginate-entrapped bacteria, for monitoring BOD in situ was applied. The model considers the influences of alginate bead size and bacterial concentration. The disposable biosensor can be adapted according to specific requirements depending on the organic load contained in the wastewater. Using Klein and Washausen parameter in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the glucose diffusivity was calculated in 6.4 × 10(-10) (m2/s) for beads of 1 mm in diameter and slight diffusion restrictions were observed (n = 0.85). Experimental results showed a correlation (p BOD test. The biosensor response was representative of BOD.

  5. Appraising bacterial strains for rapid BOD sensing--an empirical test to identify bacterial strains capable of reliably predicting real effluent BODs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Judith B; Noonan, Mike; Pasco, Neil F; Hay, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    The measured response of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensors is often not identical to those measured using the conventional 5-day BOD assay. This paper highlights the efficacy of using both glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) and Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) BOD standards as a rapid screen for microorganisms most likely to reliably predict real effluent BODs when used in rapid BOD devices. Using these two synthetic BOD standards, a microorganism was identified that produced comparable BOD response profiles for two assays, the MICREDOX® assay and the conventional 5-day BOD(5) test. A factorial experimental design systematically evaluated the impact of four factors (microbial strain, growth media composition, media strength, and microbial growth phase) on the BOD response profiles using GGA and OECD synthetic standard substrates. An outlier was identified that showed an improved correlation between the MICREDOX® BOD (BOD(sens)) and BOD(5) assays for both the synthetic standards and for real wastewater samples. Microbial strain was the dominant factor influencing BOD(sens) values, with Arthrobacter globiformis single cultures clearly demonstrating superior rapid BOD(sens) response profiles for both synthetic and real waste samples. It was the only microorganism to approach the BOD(5) response for the OECD substrate (171 mg O(2)L(-1)), and also reported BOD values for real waste samples that were comparable to those produced by the BOD(5) test, including discriminating between filtered and unfiltered samples.

  6. A study on the relationship between BOD5 and COD in coastal seawater environment with a rapid BOD measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X L; Jing, M; Chen, X; Zhuang, Z X; Wang, X R; Wang, X R; Lee, Frank S C

    2009-01-01

    The dual objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the relationship between COD and BOD in seawater environment with a rapid but reliable method for the measurement of BOD in seawater, and (2) establish the relationship model between BOD(5) and COD in the firth of Dongbao River to predict the values of BOD(5). The first objective is met by the successful development of a technique utilizing bacteria-immobilized membrane flow cell for biodegradation process, coupled with fibre optic fluorescence detection for oxygen depletion quantitation. The technique has been applied to coastal seawater samples collected in the coastal area of Shenzhen, China. The BOD(5) and COD values for the samples are acquired and the results show that there is no apparent linear relationship existing between BOD(5) and COD in relatively clean seawater samples away from the shore. However, in estuary water samples containing relatively high concentration of sewage contamination, a linear correlation does exist between BOD(5) and COD. The linear relationship between the two parameters allows for the calculation of BOD(5) values based on COD data which can be measured more readily and precisely.

  7. An innovative reactor-type biosensor for BOD rapid measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Yeyao; Xu, Runhua; Sun, Zhonghua; Jie, Zhou

    2010-03-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of the most important and widely used parameters for characterizing the organic pollution of water and wastewater. In this paper, a novel reactor-type biosensor for rapid measurement of BOD was developed, based on using immobilized microbial cell (IMC) beads as recognition bio-element in a completely mixed reactor which was used as determining chamber, replacing the traditionally used membrane as recognition bio-element. The IMC beads were freely suspended in the aqueous solution, so the mass transfer resistance for dissolved oxygen and organic compounds significantly reduced, and the quantity of the microbial cells used as recognition element can be easily adjusted, in comparison with the traditional membrane-type BOD biosensor, in which exists a unadjustable contradiction between the quantity of biomass and the thickness of the bio-membrane, thus limiting the stability and the detection limit. This novel kind of BOD biosensor significantly increased the sensitivity of the response, the detecting precision and prolonged the life time of the recognition element. The experimental data showed that the most appropriate temperature for biochemical reaction in the reactor was 30 degrees C, and the IMC beads could keep the bioactivity for about 70d at the detecting frequency of 8 times every day. The standard deviation of repeatability and the reproducibility of responses were within +/-6.4% and +/-5.0%, respectively, which are within acceptable bias limits, and meet the requirement of BOD rapid measurement.

  8. TOC法对BOD5标样定值的研究%Certification for BOD5 Standard Sample Using TOC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲仁; 刘云; 邱晓国

    2013-01-01

    通过对BOD5标准样品TOC的测定,证实TOC与BOD5具有良好的相关性,并根据这种相关性,利用TOC分析仪对环保部标准样品研究所的定值样品进行TOC测定,然后对测定结果进行BOD5折算,间接对BOD5标准样品进行定值,定值结果准确可靠.%It was proved that TOC had a good correlation with BOD5 through the determination of the BOD5 standard sample. The environmental standard samples were then determined using TOC analyzer according to the correlation and the results were converted to BOD5, then the value of BOD5 standard sample was achieved indirectly. The method is accurate and reliable.

  9. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G

    2014-02-01

    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  10. Application of Microbial BOD Sensors in Marine Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 王建龙; 李花子; 施汉昌; 竺建荣

    2001-01-01

    A strain of yeast, which can endure high osmotic pressure, is employed for the sensitive material of the microbial BOD sensor. Two immobilization methods are used, I.e. Calcium alginate gel be ads and PV A gel beads. The results show that the PVA gel beads is better. The influences of osmosis and heavy metal ions on the yeast entrapped in the PVA gel beads are also studied in the experiment.

  11. 快速测定水中的BOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建军

    2006-01-01

    该文使用BOD快速测定仪分析水中的BOD的含量,并与经典的BOD5的分析结果进行比对.实验证明本方法操作简便,线性好,精密度、准确度都能符合分析工作要求.

  12. A study on the relationship between BOD(5) and COD in a coastal seawater environment with a rapid BOD measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X L; Jing, M; Chen, X; Zhuang, Z X; Wang, X R; Lee, Frank S C

    2010-01-01

    The dual objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the relationship between COD and BOD in seawater environment with a rapid but reliable method for the measurement of BOD in seawater, and (2) establish the relationship model between BOD(5) and COD in the firth of Dongbao River to predict the values of BOD(5). The first objective is met by the successful development of a technique utilizing bacteria-immobilized membrane flow cell for biodegradation process, coupled with fibre optic fluorescence detection for oxygen depletion quantitation. The technique has been applied to coastal seawater samples collected in the coastal area of Shenzhen, China. The BOD(5) and COD values for the samples are acquired and the results show that there is no apparent linear relationship existing between BOD(5) and COD in relatively clean seawater samples away from the shore. However, in estuary water samples containing relatively high concentration of sewage contamination, a linear correlation does exist between BOD(5) and COD. The linear relationship between the two parameters allows for the calculation of BOD(5) values based on COD data which can be measured more readily and precisely.

  13. BOD1 Is Required for Cognitive Function in Humans and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli-Nieh, Sahar; Fenckova, Michaela; Porter, Iain M; Motazacker, M Mahdi; Nijhof, Bonnie; Castells-Nobau, Anna; Asztalos, Zoltan; Weißmann, Robert; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Tzschach, Andreas; Felbor, Ute; Scherthan, Harry; Sayfati, Seyed Morteza; Ropers, H Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Swedlow, Jason R; Schenck, Annette; Kuss, Andreas W

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a stop-mutation in the BOD1 (Biorientation Defective 1) gene, which co-segregates with intellectual disability in a large consanguineous family, where individuals that are homozygous for the mutation have no detectable BOD1 mRNA or protein. The BOD1 protein is required for proper chromosome segregation, regulating phosphorylation of PLK1 substrates by modulating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity during mitosis. We report that fibroblast cell lines derived from homozygous BOD1 mutation carriers show aberrant localisation of the cell cycle kinase PLK1 and its phosphatase PP2A at mitotic kinetochores. However, in contrast to the mitotic arrest observed in BOD1-siRNA treated HeLa cells, patient-derived cells progressed through mitosis with no apparent segregation defects but at an accelerated rate compared to controls. The relatively normal cell cycle progression observed in cultured cells is in line with the absence of gross structural brain abnormalities in the affected individuals. Moreover, we found that in normal adult brain tissues BOD1 expression is maintained at considerable levels, in contrast to PLK1 expression, and provide evidence for synaptic localization of Bod1 in murine neurons. These observations suggest that BOD1 plays a cell cycle-independent role in the nervous system. To address this possibility, we established two Drosophila models, where neuron-specific knockdown of BOD1 caused pronounced learning deficits and significant abnormalities in synapse morphology. Together our results reveal novel postmitotic functions of BOD1 as well as pathogenic mechanisms that strongly support a causative role of BOD1 deficiency in the aetiology of intellectual disability. Moreover, by demonstrating its requirement for cognitive function in humans and Drosophila we provide evidence for a conserved role of BOD1 in the development and maintenance of cognitive features. PMID:27166630

  14. A new mediator method for BOD measurement under non-deaerated condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Shang, Li; Liu, Chang; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Bailin; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-06-15

    Monitoring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by mediator method (BOD(Med)) has been developed for recent years and deaerated condition was generally adopted to avoid the effect of oxygen, but the deaerated condition was unfavorable in practical applications. Herein, we first proposed another way to explore non-deaerated BOD(Med) (called NDA-BOD(Med)) method utilizing ferricyanide, which was reduced by Escherichia coli upon catalyzing organic substrate to produce ferrocyanide. We attempted to explain the feasibility of NDA-BOD(Med) by the two aspects. Firstly, the obtained biodegradation efficiencies of the bacteria under the deaerated and non-deaerated conditions were similar, and the concentration of O(2) (0.25mM at 8mg/L O(2)) is 1-2 order of magnitude lower than that of mediator commonly used (55mM ferricyanide), so the effect of O(2) to measurements could be neglected. Secondly, the relationship between the artificial and the natural electron acceptor was investigated, and it was found that the oxygen consumption in the NDA-BOD(Med) measurement was mainly contributed to endogenous values. Furthermore, the performance of present NDA-BOD(Med) was reported, and this method was optimized for measuring the low-concentration samples, synthetic wastewater and real polluted wastewater. The NDA-BOD(Med) provides a simple and efficient way in rapid BOD determinations, especially advantageous for in situ monitoring of water system.

  15. Non-steady response of BOD biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velling, Siiri; Mashirin, Alexey; Hellat, Karin; Tenno, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for effective and expeditious BOD(7) estimations was constructed and the non-steady phase of the output signal was extensively studied. The modelling approach introduced allows response curve reconstruction and a curve fitting procedure of good quality, resulting in parameters indicating the relationship between response and organic substrate concentration and stability properties of the BOD biosensor. Also, the immobilization matrixes of different thicknesses were characterized to determine their suitability for bio-sensing measurements in non-stationary conditions, as well as for the determination of the mechanical durability of the BOD biosensor in time. The non-steady response of the experimental output of the BOD biosensor was fitted according to the developed model that enables to determine the stability of the biosensor output and dependency on biodegradable organic substrate concentration. The calibration range of the studied BOD biosensor in OECD synthetic wastewater was 15-110 mg O(2) L(-1). Repeatability tests showed relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.8% and 5.8% for the parameter τ(d), characterizing the transient output of the amperometric oxygen sensor in time, and τ(s), describing the dependency of the transient response of the BOD biosensor on organic substrate concentration, respectively. BOD biosensor experiments for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand of easily degradable and refractory municipal wastewater showed good concurrence with traditional BOD(7) analysis.

  16. Validity and reliability of the BOD POD® S/T tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseh, W; Caputo, J L; Keefer, D J

    2010-10-01

    BOD POD(®) self-testing (S/T) body composition tracking system is a practical assessment tool designed for use in the health and fitness industries. Relative to its parent counterpart, the BOD POD(®) S/T has received little research attention. The primary purpose was to determine the validity of the BOD POD(®) S/T against hydrostatic weighing and 7-site skinfolds. Secondary aim was to determine the within-day and between-day reliability of the BOD POD(®) S/T. After a period of equipment and testing accommodation, volunteer's (N=50) body composition (%BF) via 7-site skinfolds, BOD POD(®) S/T, and hydrostatic weighing were obtained on the second and third visits. BOD POD(®) S/T significantly overestimated %BF when compared to hydrostatic weighing and 7-site skinfolds. There was no statistical difference between 7-site skinfolds and hydrostatic weighing values. BOD POD(®) S/T reliability within-day and between-days were high. While the BOD POD(®) S/T body composition tracking system is deemed reliable both within-day and between-days, it did significantly overestimate %BF in comparison to hydrostatic weighing and skinfolds. Future research should be aimed at deriving a correction factor for this body composition assessment tool.

  17. BAYESIAN PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN A MIXED-ORDER MODEL OF BOD DECAY. (U915590)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a generalized version of the BOD decay model in which the reaction is allowed to assume an order other than one. This is accomplished by making the exponent on BOD concentration a free parameter to be determined by the data. This "mixed-order" model may be ...

  18. Comparisons of Vibrio fischeri, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and recombinant luminescent using Escherichia coli as BOD measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Ru; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2010-01-01

    To shorten the time needed to measure biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in water samples and to provide a rapid feedback of the real condition of water quality, we tested and evaluated the validity and reliability of luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and recombinant Escherichia coli as potential indicators of BOD in the domestic wastewaters. The results indicate that the luminescence intensities of these strains are dependent on temperature, pH, and BOD concentration. In comparison to the standard BOD(5) method, the time needed for BOD measurement can be shortened by 90, 120, and 150 min when V. fischeri, P. phosphoreum, and recombinant E. coli, respectively, are used. Recombinant E. coli can be adapted to measure BOD in domestic wastewater containing a wide range of BOD concentrations, V. fischeri is not suitable for measuring diluted wastewater, and P. phosphoreum has only a limited application in measuring concentrated wastewater. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which V. fischeri, P. phosphoreum, and recombinant luminescent E. coli are compared in terms of their potential in BOD measurement systems.

  19. Comparison of the Bod Pod and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen D; Altena, Thomas S

    2004-06-01

    The majority of studies investigating the accuracy of the Bod Pod have compared it to hydrostatic weighing (HW), the long held, and perhaps outdated 'gold standard' method of body composition analysis. Much less research has compared the Bod Pod to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a technique that is becoming popular as an alternative reference method. The purpose of this study was to compare per cent fat estimates by the Bod Pod to those of DXA in a large number of men. Participants were 160 men (32 +/- 11 years). Per cent body fat was estimated to be 19.4 +/- 6.8 and 21.6 +/- 8.4 for DXA and the Bod Pod, respectively. Although the two methods were highly correlated (0.94), the mean difference of 2.2% was significant (p Bod Pod, DXA), differences between methods exist and the determination of body composition is at best, an estimation.

  20. Improvement of the analysis of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Mediterranean seawater by seeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F Xavier; Penru, Ywann; Guastalli, Andrea R; Llorens, Joan; Baig, Sylvie

    2011-07-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a useful parameter for assessing the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in water. At the same time, this parameter is used to evaluate the efficiency with which certain processes remove biodegradable natural organic matter (NOM). However, the values of BOD in seawater are very low (around 2 mgO(2)L(-1)) and the methods used for its analysis are poorly developed. The increasing attention given to seawater desalination in the Mediterranean environment, and related phenomena such as reverse osmosis membrane biofouling, have stimulated interest in seawater BOD close to the Spanish coast. In this study the BOD analysis protocol was refined by introduction of a new step in which a critical quantity of autochthonous microorganisms, measured as adenosine triphosphate, is added. For the samples analyzed, this improvement allowed us to obtain reliable and replicable BOD measurements, standardized with solutions of glucose-glutamic acid and acetate. After 7 days of analysis duration, more than 80% of ultimate BOD is achieved, which in the case of easily biodegradable compounds represents nearly a 60% of the theoretical oxygen demand. BOD(7) obtained from the Mediterranean Sea found to be 2.0±0.3 mgO(2)L(-1) but this value decreased with seawater storage time due to the rapid consumption of labile compounds. No significant differences were found between two samples points located on the Spanish coast, since their organic matter content was similar. Finally, the determination of seawater BOD without the use of inoculum may lead to an underestimation of BOD. PMID:21645736

  1. Improvement of the analysis of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Mediterranean seawater by seeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F Xavier; Penru, Ywann; Guastalli, Andrea R; Llorens, Joan; Baig, Sylvie

    2011-07-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a useful parameter for assessing the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in water. At the same time, this parameter is used to evaluate the efficiency with which certain processes remove biodegradable natural organic matter (NOM). However, the values of BOD in seawater are very low (around 2 mgO(2)L(-1)) and the methods used for its analysis are poorly developed. The increasing attention given to seawater desalination in the Mediterranean environment, and related phenomena such as reverse osmosis membrane biofouling, have stimulated interest in seawater BOD close to the Spanish coast. In this study the BOD analysis protocol was refined by introduction of a new step in which a critical quantity of autochthonous microorganisms, measured as adenosine triphosphate, is added. For the samples analyzed, this improvement allowed us to obtain reliable and replicable BOD measurements, standardized with solutions of glucose-glutamic acid and acetate. After 7 days of analysis duration, more than 80% of ultimate BOD is achieved, which in the case of easily biodegradable compounds represents nearly a 60% of the theoretical oxygen demand. BOD(7) obtained from the Mediterranean Sea found to be 2.0±0.3 mgO(2)L(-1) but this value decreased with seawater storage time due to the rapid consumption of labile compounds. No significant differences were found between two samples points located on the Spanish coast, since their organic matter content was similar. Finally, the determination of seawater BOD without the use of inoculum may lead to an underestimation of BOD.

  2. Ubiquity of activated sludge ferricyanide-mediated BOD methods: a comparison of sludge seeds across wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have described alternatives to the BOD5 standard method, with substantial decreases in incubation time observed. However, most of these have not maintained the features that make the BOD5 assay so relevant - a high level of substrate bio-oxidation and use of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge as the biocatalyst. Two recently described ferricyanide-mediated (FM)-BOD assays, one for trade wastes and one for WWTP influents and treated effluents, satisfy these criteria and were investigated further here for their suitability for use with diverse biocatalysts. Both FM-BOD assays responded proportionately to increasing substrate concentration with sludges from 11 different WWTPs and temporally (months to years) using sludges from a single WWTP, confirming the broad applicability of both assays. Sludges from four WWTPs were selected as biocatalysts for each FM-BOD assay to compare FM-BOD equivalent values with BOD5 (three different sludge seeds) measurements for 12 real wastewater samples (six per assay). Strong and significant relationships were established for both FM-BOD assays. This study has demonstrated that sludge sourced from many WWTPs may be used as the biocatalyst in either FM-BOD assay, as it is in the BOD5 assay. The industry potential of these findings is substantial given the widespread use of the BOD5 assay, the dramatically decreased incubation period (3-6h) and the superior analytical range of both assays compared to the standard BOD5 assay.

  3. Test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod: the effect of multiple assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Lecheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2014-04-01

    The Bod Pod uses air-displacement plethysmography to estimate body fat percentage (BF%). This study was designed to assess the test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod. The study included 283 women (M age = 41.0 yr., SD = 3.0). Each participant was tested at least twice in the Bod Pod. Results showed no significant mean difference between the test and the retest. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .991. However, the absolute value of the initial trial differences (absolute mean difference) was .96 (SD = .90). A third assessment of BF% was taken when the initial trial difference was greater than 1 percentage point, and the two closest values were compared. This strategy resulted in a significant decrease in the absolute mean difference, from .96 to .55 percentage point, and ICC increased to .998. The Bod Pod appears to measure body fat percentage reliably; however, findings suggest that multiple trials may be necessary to detect small treatment effects.

  4. 水体TOC与CODCr、BOD5、CODMn相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明

    2010-01-01

    通过对TOC、CODCr。BOD5及CODMn测定原理的研究,得出其理论相关性,并通过对国家标准样品、自配模拟样品及实际样品的测定,对TOC与CODCr、BOD5、CODMn的相关性进行了分析。结果表明,TOC与CODCr、BOD5、CODMn间具有明显的相关性,内插TOC系数法折算结果与标准法测定结果无显著性差异,该研究为以TOC值推算CODCr、BOD5、CODMn及TOC标准的制定提供了依据。

  5. Reliability and validity of the lung volume measurement made by the BOD POD body composition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James A; Dorado, Silvia; Keays, Kathleen A; Reigel, Kimberly A; Valencia, Kristoffer S; Pham, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The BOD POD Body Composition System uses air-displacement plethysmography to measure body volume. To correct the body volume measurement for the subject's lung volume, the BOD POD utilizes pulmonary plethysmography to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) at mid-exhalation as that is the subject's lung volume during the body volume measurement. Normally, FRC is measured at end-exhalation. The BOD POD FRC measurement can be corrected to an end-exhalation volume by subtracting approximately one-half of the measured tidal volume. Our purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of the BOD POD FRC measurement at end-exhalation. Ninety-two healthy adults (half female) underwent duplicate FRC measurements by the BOD POD and one FRC measurement by a traditional gas dilution technique. The latter method was used as the reference method for the validity component of the study. The order of the FRC measurements by the two methods was randomized. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the duplicate BOD POD FRC measurements for the male and female subjects were 0.966 and 0.948, respectively. The mean differences between the BOD POD FRC trial #1 measurement and gas dilution FRC measurement for the male and female subjects were -32 and -23 ml, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant. The correlation coefficients for these two measurements in the male and female subjects were 0.925 and 0.917, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the BOD POD FRC measurement in healthy males and females is both reliable and valid.

  6. A novel bioelectrochemical BOD sensor operating with voltage input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2012-11-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of biodegradable compounds in water and is, for example, a common parameter to design and assess the performance of wastewater treatment plants. The conventional method to measure BOD is time consuming (5 or 7 days) and requires trained personnel. Bioelectrochemical BOD sensors designed as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which are systems where bacteria convert organic matter into an electrical current, have emerged as an alternative to the conventional technique. In this study, a new type of bioelectrochemical BOD sensor with features that overcome some of the limitations of current MFC-type designs was developed: (1) An external voltage was applied to overcome internal resistances and allow bacteria to generate current at their full capacity, and (2) the ion exchange membrane was omitted to avoid pH shifts that would otherwise limit the applicability of the sensor for wastewaters with low alkalinity. The sensor was calibrated with an aerated nutrient medium containing acetate as the BOD source. Linear correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with charge was obtained for BOD concentrations ranging from 32 to 1280 mg/L in a reaction time of 20 h. Lowering the reaction time to 5 h resulted in lowering the measurable BOD concentration range to 320 mg/L (R(2) = 0.99). Propionate, glucose, and ethanol could also be analyzed by the sensor that was acclimated to acetate. The study demonstrates a way to design more robust and simple bioelectrochemical BOD sensors that do not suffer from the usual limitations of MFCs (high internal resistance and pH shifts).

  7. BOD POD体成分测量仪的可靠性和有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳平; 马冠生

    2003-01-01

    BOD POD是一种新型的可以在大范围、各种类型试验对象中快速、安全地进行体成分测试的一种方法。可靠性验证试验表明,同一测量员在同一天、不同日及不同测量员之间用BOD POD测量体成分的重复性都非常好;利用水下称重法、双能X线法及多组分模型的测定结果作为标准,对BOD POD进行的有效性验娃试验都表明,BOD POD测量人体体成分的准确性非常好。本文利用以往BOD POD验证试验的结果拟就BOD POD测量人体体成分的可靠性和有效性进行综述。

  8. Development of mediated BOD biosensor system of flow injection mode for shochu distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oota, Shinichi; Hatae, Yuta; Amada, Kei; Koya, Hidekazu; Kawakami, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-15

    Although microbial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensors utilizing redox mediators have attracted much attention as a rapid BOD measurement method, little attempts have been made to apply the mediated BOD biosensors to the flow injection analysis system. In this work, a mediated BOD sensor system of flow injection mode, constructed by combining an immobilized microbial reactor with an electrochemical flow cell of three electrodes configuration, has been developed to estimate BOD of shochu distillery wastewater (SDW). It was demonstrated consequently that the mediated sensing was realized by employing phosphate buffer containing potassium hexacyanoferrate as the carrier. The output current was found to yield a peak with a sample injection, and to result from reoxidation of reduced mediator at the electrode. By employing the peak area as the sensor response, the effects of flow rate and pH of the carrier on the sensitivity were investigated. The sensor system using a microorganism of high SDW-assimilation capacity showed good performance and proved to be available for estimation of BOD of SDW.

  9. BOD快速测定仪在水中BOD测定中的应用%Application of BOD Quick Tester in Determination of BOD in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皓

    2014-01-01

    BOD快速测定仪利用微生物传感器快速测定水体中的BOD,该方法具有较高的准确度和精密度,分析速度快,可以实现样品分析自动化,适用于多种水体BOD的检测.

  10. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  11. COD and BOD reduction from coffee processing wastewater using Avacado peel carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rani; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater from coffee processing plant using activated carbon made up of Avacado Peels. The complete study was done in batch mode to investigate the effect of operating parameters. The results of the COD and BOD concentration reduction with avocado peel carbon (APC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) were compared and optimum operating conditions were determined for maximum reduction. Adsorption isotherm was also studied besides the calculation of optimum treatment parameters for maximum reduction of COD and BOD concentration from effluent of the coffee processing plant. The maximum percentage reduction of COD and BOD concentration under optimum operating conditions using APC was 98.20% and 99.18% respectively and with CAC this reduction was 99.02% and 99.35% respectively. As the adsorption capacity of APC is comparable with that of CAC for reduction of COD and BOD concentration, it could be a lucrative technique for treatment of domestic wastewater generated in decentralized sectors. PMID:17493806

  12. Assessing the effect of oxygen and microbial inhibitors to optimize ferricyanide-mediated BOD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, M Celina; Sacco, Natalia J; Ohlsson, Astrid Hilding; Cortón, Eduardo

    2011-07-15

    Methods for short-term BOD analysis (BOD(st)) based on ferricyanide mediator reduction have succeeded in overcoming some problems associated with the standard BOD test analysis (BOD(5)) such as long-term incubations (5 days), the need to dilute samples and low reproducibility. Here we present a bioassay where a Klebsiella pneumoniae environmental strain successfully reduces ferricyanide without de-aeration of the samples with linear BOD(5) ranges between 30 and 500 mg L(-1) or 30 and 200 mg L(-1), using glucose-glutamic acid solution (GGA) or OECD standards respectively. We further propose a new assay termination solution that allows higher reproducibility and standardization of the cell-based assay, employing formaldehyde (22.7 g L(-1)) or other compounds in order to stop ferricyanide reduction without affecting the amperometric detection and therefore replace the centrifugation step normally used to stop microbial-driven reactions in ferricyanide-mediated bioassays. These improvements led to an accurate determination of real municipal wastewater samples.

  13. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi Soil Layering (MSL system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL system, and then it can determine the efficiency of MSL system on reducing the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater. The method which used in this research is an experimental method. The wastewater on the MSL system is loaded on the loading rate variety: 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system to removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are determined on optimal loading rate. The research gave result that MSL method could remove BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater on the optimal loading rate 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of MSL system in removing BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater are 96.52 and 80.87% respectively. This indicated that the method MSL serve the purpose of effective alternative method in processing of liquid waste textile industry.

  14. Bioelectronic tongue and multivariate analysis: a next step in BOD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Merlin; Kikas, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Seven biosensors based on different semi-specific and universal microorganisms were constructed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements in various synthetic industrial wastewaters. All biosensors were calibrated using OECD synthetic wastewater and the resulting calibration curves were used in the calculations of the sensor-BOD values for all biosensors. In addition, the output signals of all biosensors were analyzed as a bioelectronic tongue and comprehensive multivariate data analysis was applied to extract qualitative and quantitative information from the samples. In the case of individual biosensor measurements, most accurate result was gained when semi-specific biosensor was applied to analyze sample specific to that biosensor. Universal biosensors or biosensors semi-specific to other samples underestimated the BOD7 of the sample 10-25%. PLS regression method was used for the multivariate calibration of the biosensor array. The calculated sensor-BOD values differed from BOD7 less than 5.6% in all types of samples. By applying PCA and using three first principal components, giving 99.66% of variation, it was possible to differentiate samples by their compositions.

  15. BoD services in layer 1 VPN with dynamic virtual concatenation group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD) services are characteristic of dynamic bandwidth provisioning based on customers' resource requirement, which will be a must for future networks. BoD services become possible with the development of make-before-break, Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS). In this paper, we introduce BoD services into L1VPN, thus the resource assigned to a L1VPN can be gracefully adjusted at various bandwidth granularities based on customers' requirement. And we propose a dynamic bandwidth adjustment scheme, which is compromise between make-before-break and VCAT&LCAS and mainly based on the latter. The scheme minimizes the number of distinct paths to support a connection between a source-destination pair, and uses make-beforebreak technology for re-optimization.

  16. EFFEKTIFITAS SARINGAN BIOFILTER ANAEROB DAN AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD5, COD DAN NITROGEN TOTAL LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI KARET

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanuddin, ishak; Hatijah; Seweng, Arifin

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to 1) compare effectiveness of aerobic and anaerob biofilters in reducing BOD5, COD, and Total Nitrogen levels, 2) examine the interaction between immersion times and biofilter medium in reducing BOD5, COD and Total Nitrogen levels. This study was an experimental study using biofilters of brick fraction and data analysis was permormed using ANOVE tes. Study result indicated that anaerobic and aerobic biofilters medium were effective in reducing BOD5, COD and Totall Nitrog...

  17. The Correlation Between TOC and CODCr、BOD5 in Industrial Wastewater%工业废水中有机污染物指标TOC、CODCr、BOD5相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海军; 李娜; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    研究了工业废水中有机污染物指标TOC、CODCr、BOD5三者之间的相关性。用耶拿Muhiwin N/C 3100型总有机碳测定仪测定TOC,用经典方法测定CODCr、BOD5。通过TOC线性回归计算发现TOC与CODCr、BOD5有很好的相关性。因此对于生产稳定的企业可通过测定TOC推算出CODCr、BOD5值。从而可将TOC作为有机污染物排放控制指标。%The correlation between TOC and CODCr、BOD5 in industrial wastewater was studied. TOC was determined with Multiwin N/ C 3100 Total Organic Carbon instrument. CODCr and BOD5 were determined with classical method. TOC regression equations indicated that it have a good correlation with CODcr and BOD5. Thus CODCr and BOD5 can be calculated from TOC. Therefore TOC can be used as pollution controlling target of organic waste water.

  18. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem.

  19. Native biofilm cultured under controllable condition and used in mediated method for BOD measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Deng, Liu; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-05-15

    In this article, we developed a native biofilm (NBF) bioreactor used for biochemical oxygen demand mediated method (BOD(Med)). There were two innovations differed from previous BOD(Med) assay. Firstly, the immobilization of microorganisms was adopted in BOD(Med). Secondly, the NBF was introduced for BOD measurement. The NBF bioreactor has been characterized by optical microscopy. A culture condition of NBF with 24h, 35°C and pH 7 was optimized. Furthermore, a measuring condition with 35°C, pH 7 and 55 mM ferricyanide in 1h incubation were optimized. Based on the optimized condition, the real wastewater samples from local sewage treatment plant had been measured. Performances of the NBFs proposed at different culture conditions were recorded for 110 d, and the results indicated that long-term storage stability was obtained. With the proposed method, an uncontaminated native microbial source solution can be obtained from a wastewater treatment plant. In this way, we can ensure that the microbial species of all in the NBF are same as that in the target to be measured.

  20. Effects of acute and 2-hour postphysical activity on the estimation of body fat made by the bod pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Bradley J; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The Bod Pod has been found to be reliable/valid against several criterion methods, including hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and under different conditions, such as clothing, dehydrated states, and body temperature changes. However, questions remain regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on the estimations made by the Bod Pod. Participants (15 men and 22 women) were of age 18-27 years and were currently exercising. Baseline Bod Pod measures were completed followed by a 30-minute cycling trial at 75% of maximum heart rate. Bod Pod measures were taken immediately after exercise and 2 hours after exercise. Differences between men and women were found at baseline between height (p Bod Pod testing seems to alter the estimate of %BF, and continues to affect the prediction 2 hours after exercise in women.

  1. 微生物传感器快速测定法测定水中BOD%Determining BOD in Water Quickly with Microbial Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊; 孟庆庆

    2008-01-01

    本文探讨了用微生物传感器法测定水中的BOD.进行了BOD标准样品的分析和五日生化需氧量法、微生物传感器法的对比实验.实验表明该方法能满足环境监测的要求.为BOD的测定提供了简便、可行的方法.

  2. A river water quality model for time varying BOD discharge concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheimer Seth F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD in a semi-infinite river where the BOD is prescribed by a time varying function at the left endpoint. That is, we study the problem with a time varying boundary loading. We obtain the well-posedness for the model when the boundary loading is smooth in time. We also obtain various qualitative results such as ordering, positivity, and boundedness. Of greatest interest, we show that a periodic loading function admits a unique asymptotically attracting periodic solution. For non-smooth loading functions, we obtain weak solutions. Finally, for certain special cases, we show how to obtain explicit solutions in the form of infinite series.

  3. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  4. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-01-01

    The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2) and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and...

  5. Reduction Of Cod And Bod By Oxidation: A Cetp Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Lalwani, Malu D. Devadasan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP located at Umaraya, District Baroda. Waste water from about thirty five small and medium scale industries majorly comprising of chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries are treated in this CETP. The incoming wastewater was collected and segregated into three groups as per their BOD/COD ratio. They were then oxidized independently by two oxidants Fenton’s reagent (Fe2+/H2O2 and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl and reduction in COD and BOD were observed at different chlorine, H2O2, FeSO4 doses, different pH values and contact time for determining the optimum values. COD and BOD values at optimized conditions for the two oxidants were compared and observed that maximum reduction of 64.35% and 68.57% respectively was achieved by Fenton’s reagent. The results clearly indicate that conventional system should be replaced by advanced oxidation process and Fenton’s reagent is a suitable choice.

  6. Field application of a biofilm reactor based BOD prototype in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyu; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-05-15

    A tubular biofilm reactor (BFR) based online biochemical oxygen demand prototype was applied in Taihu Lake, China. Municipal tap water was used instead of conventional phosphate buffer as blank solution to avoid phosphate pollution. The background organic compounds in municipal tap water were taken into account and they were validated to result in negative deviation to accuracy. The microbial endogenous respiration was experimentally validated to be sensitive to salt ionic strength, and municipal tap water as blank was thought to generate positive deviation to accuracy. The system was continuously operated over 2 months without man intervention, and the automated monitoring data agreed well with that of the conventional BOD5 methods. The BFR resisted the frequent measurements with samples of high turbidity, and the BOD monitoring data indicated the index of biodegradable organic compounds of Taihu Lake was accorded with the second class described in the environmental quality standard of surface water. Analyzed together with permanganate index on site, Taihu Lake was revealed to be of good capacity of self cleaning. Importantly, field application study of new BOD method made it more objective in evaluating its applicability, and could provide practical information and useful improvements in the process of commercializing.

  7. Reaction kinetics and validity of BOD test for domestic wastewater released in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Shivani S; Dalvi, Amita A; Prabhu, Damodar V

    2012-09-01

    With urbanization of coastal cities, marine pollution is becoming a severe problem. The rates of biodegradation, decomposition, and ratification of pollutants get slowed down due to salinity. The higher temperatures prevalent in tropical regions significantly affect reaction rates. Multiple factors influence the rate of biodegradation, making the process complex. Hence, prediction and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the marine environment due to wastewater discharges is becoming a difficult task. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a wet oxidation process, which follows first-order kinetics. The values of kinetic rate constants are expected to differ with varying salinities and temperatures. Research is carried out using glucose-glutamic acid and domestic wastewater to evaluate the impact of salinity on biodegradation of carbonaceous waste at 20°C and 27°C. The findings confirm the hypothesis of slow biodegradation of carbonaceous organic matter in marine waters. An inverse relationship between rate of biodegradation and salinity was observed. BOD exertion at 20°C (5 days) and 27°C (3 days) for the marine environment is comparable at selected salinities thereby confirming the validity of BOD test of shorter duration at elevated temperature.

  8. BOD-220型快速测定仪在水质分析中的对比研究%Comparative research on water quality analysis of BOD-220 rapid tester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋红

    2012-01-01

    By taking the experimental research, the study undertakes the comparative analysis of the water quality inspection with BOD-220 rapid tester in different water quality and various pre-treatment temperatures, analyzes the experimental results, and concludes the eonditions of inspecting complicated water samples with BOD-220 rapid tester.%通过实验研究,进行了不同水质、不同预处理温度下BOD-220型快速测定仪监测水质的对比分析,并对实验结果作了剖析.得到了用BOD-220型快速测定仪监测复杂水样的条件。

  9. Studi Korelasi Antara Bod Dengan Unsur Hara N, P Dan K Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidup Simanjuntak

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang studi korelasi antara BOD dengan unsur hara N, P dan K dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit. Sampel Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa sawit berasal dari Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah PT. Nusantara II (Persero) unit Pengolahan Sawit Seberang Kabupaten Langkat. Sampel diambil dari kolam Anaerobik primer 1, kolam Anaerobik primer 2, kolam Anaerobik sekunder 1 dan kolam Anaerobik sekunder 2. BOD dianalisa dengan metode Winkler, N dengan metode Dekstruksi Kjehldahl...

  10. Comparative study of semi-specific Aeromonas hydrophila and universal Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensors for BOD measurements in meat industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Merlin; Tenno, Toomas; Jõgi, Eerik; Kikas, Timo

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila P69.1 (A. hydrophila) was used to construct a semi-specific biosensor to estimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in high fat and grease content wastewaters. A. hydrophila cells were grown in fat containing medium to induce necessary enzymes for transport and degradation of fatty substances. Universal biosensor based on non-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens P75 (P. fluorescens) was used to conduct comparison experiments. Biosensors were calibrated using OECD synthetic wastewater and steady-state method, subsequently several experiments with synthetic and industrial wastewaters were conducted. A linear range up to 45 mg l(-1) BOD(7) was gained using A. hydrophila biosensor, in comparison to 40 mg l(-1) BOD(7) obtained using P. fluorescens biosensors. The lower limit of detection was 5 mg l(-1) BOD(7). Service life of A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens biosensors were 110 and 115 days, respectively. The response time of the biosensors depended on the BOD(7) of measuring solution and was up to 20 min when analyzing different wastewaters. Both biosensors underestimated BOD in meat industry wastewater from 43% up to 71%, but more accurate results could be obtained with A. hydrophila biosensor. Semi-specific A. hydrophila biosensor was able to measure proportion of fat found in wastewater sample, while other refractory compounds remained undetectable to both biosensors.

  11. Restructuring BOD : COD ratio of dairy milk industrial wastewaters in BOD analysis by formulating a specific microbial seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Purnima; Siddiqi, T O; Ahmad, Altaf; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) is the pollution index of any water sample. One of the main factors influencing the estimation of BOD is the nature of microorganisms used as seeding material. In order to meet the variation in wastewater characteristics, one has to be specific in choosing the biological component that is the seeding material. The present study deals with the estimation of BOD of dairy wastewater using a specific microbial consortium and compares of the results with seeding material (BODSEED). Bacterial strains were isolated from 5 different sources and were screened by the conventional BOD method. The selected microbial seed comprises of Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp. BOD : COD (Chemical oxygen demand) ratio using the formulated seed comes in the range of 0.7-0.8 whereas that using BODSEED comes in the ratio of 0.5-0.6. The ultimate BOD (UBOD) was also performed by exceeding the 3-day dilution BOD test. After 90 days, it has been observed that the ratio of BOD : COD increased in case of selected consortium 7 up to 0.91 in comparison to 0.74 by BODSEED. The results were analyzed statistically by t-test and it was observed that selected consortium was more significant than the BODSEED.

  12. A BOD-DO coupling model for water quality simulation by artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭劲松; LONG; Tengrui; 等

    2002-01-01

    A one-dimensional BOD-DO coupling model for water quality simulation is presented,which adopts Streeter-Phelps equations and the theory of back-propagation artificial neural network.The water quality data of Yangtze River in the Chongqing region in the year of 1989 are divided into 5 groups and used in the learning and testing courses of this model.The result shows that such model is feasible for water quality simulation and is more accurate than traditional models.

  13. PENURUNAN BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TEKSTIL DI KABUPATEN PEKALONGAN DENGAN METODE MULTI SOIL LAYERING

    OpenAIRE

    Irmanto; Suyata

    2008-01-01

    Multi Soil Layering (MSL) system is a method of wastewater treatment that increase the soils function to purify wastewater. In the construction of MSL, soils mixed with the charcoal and then filled into the box of size 50x14x50 cm in layers structured like brick pattern. The aims of this research are to determine the concentration of BOD and COD on textile industrial wastewater before and after the process by MSL method. It also determines the optimal loading rate of wastewater on the MSL sys...

  14. OPTIMASI PENURUNAN NILAI BOD, COD DAN TSS LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAPIOKA MENGGUNAKAN ARANG AKTIF DARI AMPAS KOPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon from coffee dregs for TSS, BOD and COD removal of tapioca industrial wastewater has been developed. The research aimed to know the quality of activated carbon from dregs of coffee as adsorbent, consist of total rendemen, water content, ashes content and iodium adsorption; to know about the optimum contact time and optimum pH from activated carbon on reducing BOD, COD and TSS value from tapioca industrial wastewater and also to know about the decrease percentage of BOD, COD and TSS value using activated carbon from dregs of coffee. Activated carbon from dregs of coffee are activated using HCl 0,1 N and carbonization at 350°C in muffle furnace. Then, activated carbon was contacted with the tapioca industrial wastewater and used on decreasing BOD, COD and TSS value from tapioca industrial wastewater with contact time varieties 0, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and at pH varieties of wastewater 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The decreasing of BOD value was measured by Winkler method, decreasing of COD value measured by iodometric method and decreasing of TSS value measured by gravimetric method. The result of the research showed that the activated carbon produced characteristic consist of rendemen 14,55%; water content 3,4%; ashes content 1,88% and iodium adsorption 750,25 mg/g. It is indicated that the activated carbon that is got from dregs of coffee fulfill the criteria required by SNI No. 06-3730-1995. The result of research also showed that the activated carbon from dregs of coffee could be used for reducing the BOD, COD and TSS value in tapioca industrial wastewater at the optimum contact time of 30 minutes and pH 7. The optimum percentage of activated carbon from dregs of coffee in decreasing BOD value of tapioca industrial wastewater are 33,51%; COD value 78,96% and TSS value 61,05%.

  15. The relationship between BOD:N ratio and wastewater treatability in a nitrogen-fixing wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, A H; Thorn, G J S; Dennis, M A

    2011-01-01

    A BOD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 is often used as a benchmark for nutrient addition in nutrient limited wastewaters. The impact of varying nitrogen levels, whilst maintaining phosphorus constant, was studied in a simulated aerated lagoon (BOD:N of 100:0; 100:1.3; 100:1.8; 100:2.7 and 100:4.9). A synthetic wastewater was prepared using methanol, glucose and acetate as the combined carbon source, ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source. Nitrogen levels did not impact organic carbon removal, but did strongly influence floc structure. With no supplemental nitrogen, growth was dispersed. Increasing the nitrogen level increased filamentous growth, with a marked change in filamentous species occurring between a BOD:N ratio of 100:1.8 and 100:2.7. Nitrogen fixation occurred at a BOD:N ratio of 100:0; 100:1.3 and 100:1.8, with nitrogen loss at BOD:N ratios of 100:2.7 and 100:4.9. At a BOD:N ratio of 100:4.9, ammonium discharge was significantly greater (1.8 mg/L) than at the lower nitrogen levels (0.04 - 0.18 mg/L). Phosphorus behaviour was more variable, however significantly more phosphorus was discharged at the lowest nitrogen level than at the highest (pBOD:N ratio at which nitrogen fixation no longer occurred was around 100:1.9.

  16. PREDICTION OF BOD AND COD OF A REFINERY WASTEWATER USING MULTILAYER ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Raj Rene

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, artificial neural networks (ANNs have shown the ability to learn and capture non-linear static or dynamic behaviour among variables based on the given set of data. Since the knowledge of internal procedure is not necessary, the modelling can take place with minimum previous knowledge about the process through proper training of the network. In the present study, 12 ANN based models were proposed to predict the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of wastewater generated from the effluent treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. By employing the standard back error propagation (BEP algorithm, the network was trained with 103 data points for water quality indices such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Phenol concentration, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AMN, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and Kjeldahl’s Nitrogen (KJN to predict BOD and COD. After appropriate training, the network was tested with a separate test data and the best model was chosen based on the sum square error (training and percentage average relative error (% ARE for testing. The results from this study reveal that ANNs can be accurate and efficacious in predicting unknown concentrations of water quality parameters through its versatile training process.

  17. 038 BOD POD体成分测量仪的可靠性和有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳平; 马冠生

    2003-01-01

    BOD POD是一种新型的可以在大范围、各种类型试验对象中快速、安全地进行体成分测试的一种方法.可靠性验证试验表明,同一测量员在同一天、不同日及不同测量员之间用BOD POD测量体成分的重复性都非常好;利用水下称重法、双能X线法及多组分模型的测定结果作为标准,对BOD POD进行的有效性验证试验都表明,BOD POD测量人体体成分的准确性非常好.本文利用以往BOD POD验证试验的结果拟就BODPOD测量人体体成分的可靠性和有效性进行综述.

  18. Determination of Water Sample Dilution Times in the Measurement of BOD 5 in Wastewater%测定废水BOD5时水样稀释倍数的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀兰

    2001-01-01

    根据测定BOD5所须具备条件,经过理论推导,得出水 样稀释倍数的大致范围,对多种工业废水测试验证,表明方法简便易行。%According to the indispensable conditions of measu ring BOD5,the method theorically deducted can draw the approximate range of water sample dilution times.The measurements of several kind of industrial was tewater proves that it is a convenient and feasible method.

  19. 湖泊水体中CODCr、CODMn、BOD5、DO之间相互关系的研究%The Study of the Relationship between CODCr, CODMn,BOD5 and DO in the Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 黄绍祥; 彭小明

    2013-01-01

    对湖泊水体中CODCr、CODMn、BOD5、D04个水质指标进行了测定,通过测量数据分析研究湖泊水体CODCr、CODMn、BOD5、DO之间的相互关系.通过数据的测量和四者关系的研究,为湖泊水质监测的质量控制、数据分析和综合评价等提供技术支持.

  20. The influence of ozonated time on the degree of depreciation of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ozonated time towards degree depreciation of Bode, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste was done. This research aim study influence of lime adding and ozone using to reduce of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital waste. Added of lime mean for total increase ion OH-, while parameter of ozonization time mean to complete organic compounds oxidation in waste and flock formation. From this research it was found that optimum lime addition was 1.1% (% weight) and ozonization time was 20 minutes. In this condition it was achieved degree of BOD = 18.88 mg/l; COD = 25.68 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l and phosphate = 1.52 mg/l. This condition fulfil quality standard decided, that has to BOD = 75 mg/l; COD = 100 mg/l, TSS = 100 mg/l and phosphate = 2.0 mg/l. (author)

  1. BOD biosensor based on the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) modified by N-vinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlyapov, V A; Yudina, N Yu; Asulyan, L D; Alferov, S V; Alferov, V A; Reshetilov, A N

    2013-09-10

    An amperometric biosensor for assessing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was formed by immobilizing Debaryomyces hansenii VKM Y-2482 yeast cells in poly(vinyl alcohol) modified by N-vinylpyrrolidone. Modification provided for a high sensitivity and stability of the bioreceptor. A high oxidative activity of the receptor element and the absence of any toxic effect of assayed compounds were shown for 34 substrates (alcohols, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, nitrophenols and surfactants) that may occur in wastewaters. Estimates of the measurement range and region of the linear dependence of signals on the BOD level, pH and temperature sensitivities, dependences of signals on concentrations of salts, stability, Michaelis kinetic constants and assay rates were obtained. The BOD values determined by the biosensor in assayed wastewater samples were shown to have a high correlation with those obtained by the standard dilution method.

  2. REDUCING COD AND BOD, AS WELL AS PRODUCING TRIACYLGLYCEROL BY LDS5 GROWN IN CTMP EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the energy shortage and pollution tend to slow down economic development and affect our daily lives. Some microorganisms not only can digest pollutants, but also can convert pollutant metabolites to triacylglycerol (TAG that can be used to produce biodiesel. Here, we present results showing that the bacterium strain LDS5, a mutant of Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 (RHA1 generated in our lab, could grow well in chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP effluent, a type of paper mill wastewater, reduce chemical oxygen demand (CODCr and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 significantly, and produce TAG. Our data suggest that this strain has the potential to be used in paper mill wastewater treatment as well as in the development of biodiesel using biomass from paper mills.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BOD-DO FOR LARGE RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With a large reservoir as an example, a 3-D Bi-ological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)model for large deep reservoirs was investigated by consider-ing the effects of low concentration of dissolved oxygen andstratified temperature structure. A dissolved oxygen satura-bility equation was initially developed in the model. The influ-ences of temperature on interfacial mass transfer coefficientand degradation rate coefficient and the restrained effects oflow DO concentration on the degrading process were includedin the model. The model is of great importance to accuratesimulation of the temperature influential characteristics of wa-ter quality and the degrading law of organic pollutants in alarge and deep reservoir.

  4. Removal of turbidity, COD and BOD from secondarily treated sewage water by electrolytic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2013-03-01

    A preliminary study was conducted for the removal of turbidity (TD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from secondarily treated sewage (STS) water through the electrolytic batch mode experiments with DC power supply (12 V) up to 30 min and using a novel concept of electrode combinations of different metals. The different surface areas (40, 80, 120 and 160 cm2) of the electrodes as a function of cross-sectional area of the reactor and the effect of inter-electrode distances (2.5-10 cm) on the electrolysis of STS water were studied. This study revealed that the effluent can be effectively treated with the aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrode combinations (Al-Fe and Fe-Al). The maximum removal of TD (81.51 %), COD (74.36 %) and BOD (70.86 %) was recorded with Al-Fe electrode system, while the removal of these parameters was found to be 71.11, 64.95 and 61.87 %, respectively, with Fe-Al electrode combination. The Al-Fe electrode combination had lower electrical energy consumption (2.29 kWh/m3) as compared to Fe-Al electrode combination (2.50 kWh/m3). The economic evaluation of electrodes showed that Al-Fe electrode combination was better than Fe-Al electrode combination. This revealed the superiority of aluminum as a sacrificial electrode over that of iron which can probably be attributed to better flocculation capabilities of aluminum than that of iron.

  5. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10-4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent body fat in collegiate track and field female athletes: a comparison of four methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzur, Keren M; Kravitz, Len; Lockner, Donna W

    2008-11-01

    This investigation examined the accuracy of the BOD POD on a group of Division I collegiate track and field female athletes (N = 30). Hydrostatic weighing (HW) was used as the gold standard method. Body density (Db) values obtained from the BOD POD (Db BP) were compared with those determined by HW (Db HW). Both Db values were converted to percent body fat (%BF) using the Siri equation for comparison. Percent body fat values obtained from the BOD POD (BF BP) were also compared with those obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, BF DXA) and skinfold (SF, BF SF). The validity of the BOD POD was assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the relationship between the methods was examined through Pearson correlation. Average Db BP was 0.00890 g x cm(-3) lower (p BOD POD. Values for BFDXA and BFBP also differed significantly (p BOD POD has the potential to be used as a body composition analysis tool for female athletes. The advantages of the BOD POD over HW encourage further investigation of this instrument. However, the fact that the BOD POD and SF results did not differ significantly might suggest that the SF could be used in its place until a better rate of accuracy for this instrument is established.

  7. Transport of North African dust from the Bodélé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Through long-range transport of dust, the North-African desert supplies essential minerals to the Amazon rain forest. Since North African dust reaches South America mostly during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the dust sources active during winter are the main contributors to the forest. Given that the Bodélé depression area in southwestern Chad is the main winter dust source, a close link is expected between the Bodélé emission patterns and volumes and the mineral supply flux to the Amazon.

    Until now, the particular link between the Bodélé and the Amazon forest was based on sparse satellite measurements and modeling studies. In this study, we combine a detailed analysis of space-borne and ground data with reanalysis model data and surface measurements taken in the central Amazon during the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08 in order to explore the validity and the nature of the proposed link between the Bodélé depression and the Amazon forest.

    This case study follows the dust events of 11–16 and 18–27 February 2008, from the emission in the Bodélé over West Africa (most likely with contribution from other dust sources in the region the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, to the observed effects above the Amazon canopy about 10 days after the emission. The dust was lifted by surface winds stronger than 14 m s−1, usually starting early in the morning. The lofted dust, mixed with biomass burning aerosols over Nigeria, was transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and arrived over the South American continent. The top of the aerosol layer reached above 3 km, and the bottom merged with the boundary layer. The arrival of the dusty air parcel over the Amazon forest increased the average concentration of aerosol crustal elements by an order of magnitude.

  8. PENURUNAN TSS, BOD DAN COD LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI TAHU DI DESA CILONGOK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM ZEOLIT TERAKTIVASI DAN TERIMPREGNASI TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated and impregnated TiO2 zeolite systems to reduce TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater in Cilongok Villages had been developed. Activated and impregnated zeolite systems were expected to be able to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD. Thus, the research was aimed to know the ability of zeolite systems to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater. The research used five difference loading rates of tofu industrial wastewater which were 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480 L m-2 day-1. The most effective loading rate was determined by analyzing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD before and after processing using zeolite systems. The reduced concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD was determined by filling the activated and impregnated zeolite with industrial wastewater for 24 hours continuously in 30 days. Sampling was done in every 5 days with loading rate of 320 L m-2 day-1. The results indicated that zeolite systems could reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD of tofu industrial wastewater. The optimum loading rate to reduce the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD was 320 L m-2 day-1. The efficiency of acid activated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 83.348%, 91.899%, and 90.700%, respectively. The efficiency of base activated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 84.380%, 93.711%, and 91.928%, respectively. The efficiency of impregnated zeolite system in reducing the concentration of TSS, BOD, and COD were 82.410%, 90.711%, and 89.917%, respectively.

  9. Detekce zájmových bodů na CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ryba, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Detekce rohových bodů je jednou z mnoha činností, v rámci počítačového vidění, použitelných pro určování pohybu, sledování objektů, porovnávání obrazů, atd. Většina algoritmů je však komplexních a výpočetně náročných. Zde vstupuje platforma CUDA. Funkce běžící paralelně na grafických akcelerátorech mohou výrazně snížit čas nutný pro výpočet. Takto je umožněno detekovat rohové body v real-time nebo rychleji. Práce se zabývá algoritmy Moravec a Harris a jejich efektivní implementací na CUDA. Dů...

  10. Validity of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in athletic high school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Costa, Pablo B; Smalls, Marcus; Mieding, William K; O'Kroy, Joseph A; Zoeller, Robert F; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the percentage of body fat (%BF) values estimated from the BOD POD (BP) with those obtained from hydrostatic weighing (HW) in athletic American high school boys. Additionally, the %BF values measured via near-infrared interactance (NIR), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and skinfold (SF) were compared to HW to determine the validity of these measures. Thirty white boys (mean age +/- SD = 15.8 +/- 1.0 years) who where currently participating in organized sports volunteered to have their %BF estimated. Measurements were obtained from NIR, BP, BIA, and SF in random order and concluded with HW. The findings from the present study indicated that the NIR and BIA instruments produced significant (P 4.0%BF). The BP produced a significantly (P 0.008) and had the lowest TE values compared to HW. These data suggest that the BP can produce acceptable body fat measures for athletic white boys but is not superior to estimates made by the SF equations used in this study.

  11. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics. PMID:12655806

  12. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured.

  13. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent fat in female college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; Hildebrandt, Leslie; Miller, Wayne; Hammer, Roger; Spiller, Amanda

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) estimates obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) using the BOD POD Body Composition System compared with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group of female college athletes (n = 80). In addition, %BF estimates by skinfold measures (SF) were also obtained for comparison. A lean subset (n = 39) of the sample was also examined. Mean %BF estimated for the entire sample by ADP (21.2 +/- 5.9%) was significantly greater than that determined by HW (19.4 +/- 6.4%) and SF (18.8 +/- 5.5%). Results from the lean subset also revealed that %BF determined by ADP (17.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly higher than %BF estimates by HW (14.3 +/- 2.8%) and SF (15.2 +/- 3.2%). The regression equation for the entire sample (%BF HW = 0.937%BF ADP - 0.452, r(2) = 0.73, standard error of estimates (SEE) = 3.34) did not differ from the line of identity. In contrast, the line of identity differed significantly from the regression equation for the lean subset of female athletes (%BF HW = 0.48%BF ADP + 6.115, r(2) = 0.41, SEE = 2.18). The results of this investigation indicate that ADP significantly overestimated %BF by 8% in female athletes and by 16% for a leaner subset of the sample compared with HW. It appears that %BF estimates by SF may be more accurate than those obtained by ADP for female college athletes, regardless of body composition. Coaches and trainers evaluating body composition should consider the use of SF before ADP when measuring %BF in female college athletes. Sports scientists should continue to examine the possible gender and body composition bias for ADP.

  14. Biosensor analyzer for BOD index express control on the basis of the yeast microorganisms Candida maltosa, Candida blankii, and Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlyapov, Viacheslav; Kamanin, Stanislav; Ponamoreva, Olga; Reshetilov, Anatoly

    2012-04-01

    The parameters of biosensors based on the yeast strains Candida maltosa VKM Y-2359, Candida blankii VKM Y-2675, and Debaryomyces hansenii VKM Y-2482 for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection are compared. The catalytic activity of the strains was analyzed in relation to the growth phase. The possibility of using D. hansenii as a basis for receptor element of a biosensor for BOD detection in municipal and biotechnological wastewaters was shown.

  15. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-10-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was required for application of the sensor for microbial activity measurement, while biofilm-colonized anode was needed for utilizing the sensor for BOD content measurement. The current density of SUMFC sensor equipped with a biofilm-colonized anode showed linear relationship with BOD content, to up to 250 mg/L (∼233 ± 1 mA/m(2)), with a response time of BOD was observed. It was found that temperature, pH, conductivity, and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. Lastly, the sensor was tested with real contaminated groundwater, where the microbial activity and BOD content could be detected in BOD concentration measured by SUMFC sensor fitted well with the one measured by the standard methods, with deviations ranging from 15% to 22% and 6% to 16%, respectively. The SUMFC sensor provides a new way for in situ and quantitative monitoring contaminants content and biological activity during bioremediation process in variety of anoxic aquifers.

  16. Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Washington

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness.

  17. 牛顿法在求解BOD-DO模型中河流起始点BOD的VB实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑嘉昆

    2008-01-01

    BOD-DO模型中,牛顿法通过VB编程实现,在求解河流起始点BOD值将起到核心作用;文章指出了牛顿法在运用过程中可能存在的局限性,并提出进一步利用数控技术实现计算机与环境监测仪器之间通信的设想.

  18. Modeling the BOD of Danube River in Serbia using spatial, temporal, and input variables optimized artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljić Tomić, Aleksandra N; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the application of artificial neural network models for the prediction of biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the Danube River. Eighteen regularly monitored water quality parameters at 17 stations on the river stretch passing through Serbia were used as input variables. The optimization of the model was performed in three consecutive steps: firstly, the spatial influence of a monitoring station was examined; secondly, the monitoring period necessary to reach satisfactory performance was determined; and lastly, correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship among water quality parameters. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to evaluate model performance in the first two steps, whereas in the last step, multiple statistical indicators of performance were utilized. As a result, two optimized models were developed, a general regression neural network model (labeled GRNN-1) that covers the monitoring stations from the Danube inflow to the city of Novi Sad and a GRNN model (labeled GRNN-2) that covers the stations from the city of Novi Sad to the border with Romania. Both models demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and actually observed BOD values.

  19. Research on Determination of BOD in Water with Manometry%测压法测定水中BOD的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小芸

    2012-01-01

    A new method of determination of BOD in water by manometry (continuous oxygen consumption-respiration measuring method) was developed. Manometry and traditional method were used to measure BOD values of the standard solution and real sample, respectively. The results show that measuring BOD by using manometry had advantages of high biochemical efficiency, simple operation, easy test, continuous measurements of BOD values and saving of measuring data. Measuring BOD values using manometry could better characterize biological degradability of water and had relatively well comparability with results of the traditional method.%对测压法(连续耗氧量-呼吸计量法)测定水中BOD的方法进行了研究.分别用测压法和传统方法测定了标准溶液和实际样品的BOD值,结果表明,测压法测定BOD具有生化效率高、操作简单、测试方便的优点,可连续测定BOD值并储存测量数据.测压法测定的BOD值更能表征水体可生化降解性,与传统法的测定结果有较好的可比性.

  20. Sensitivity of desert dust emission modelling to horizontal resolution: the example of the Bodélé Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Christel; Cautenet, Guy; Marticorena, Béatrice; Bergametti, Gilles; Minvielle, Fanny; Schmechtig, Catherine; Laurent, Benoit

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to play an important role in the Earth's climate system. However, the quantification of aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget is very complex because of the high variability in space and time of aerosol mass and particle number concentrations, and optical properties as well. In many regions, like in desert regions, dust is the largest contribution to aerosol optical thickness [Tegen et al., 1997]. Consequently, it appears fundamental to well represent mineral dust emissions to reduce uncertainties concerning aerosol radiative impact on the Earth's radiative budget. Recently, several studies (e.g. Prospero et al. [2002]) underlined that the Bodélé depression, in northern Chad, is probably the most important source of mineral dust in the world. However many models fail in simulating these large dust emissions. Indeed, dust emission is a threshold phenomenon mainly driven by the intensity of surface wind velocity. Realistic estimates of dust emissions then rely on the quality and accuracy of the surface wind fields. Koren and Kaufman [2004] showed that the reanalysis data (NCEP), which can be used as input data in numerical models, underestimates surface wind velocity in the Bodélé Depression by up to 50%. Such an uncertainty on surface wind velocity cannot allow an accurate simulation of the dust emission. In mesoscale meteorological models, global reanalysis datasets are used to initialize and laterally nudge the models that compute meteorological parameters (like wind velocity) with a finer spatial and temporal resolutions. The question arises concerning the precision of the wind speeds calculated by these models. Using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, Cotton et al. [2003]) coupled online with the dust production model developed by Marticorena and Bergametti [1995] and recently improved by Laurent et al. [2008] for Africa, the influence of the horizontal resolution of the mesoscale meteorological

  1. 五日生化需氧量(BOD5)测定中稀释倍数的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红

    2003-01-01

    本文讨论了各种水体中生化需氧量(BOD)和化学耗氧量(COD)的相互关系,及各种水体中两者之间的相关性,并且总结了利用各种水体的r值(r=BOD/COD)估算预期的BOD值,然后再根据估算的预期BOD值确定稀释倍数,减少了工作量.

  2. Evaluation of Chitosan-Starch-Based Edible Coating To Improve the Shelf Life of Bod Ljong Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial edible coatings to improve the quality of Bod ljong cheese throughout 25 days of storage. Coatings were prepared using chitosan, water chestnut starch, and glycerol as a base matrix, together with several combinations of antimicrobial substances: Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COFE), pine needle essential oil (PNEO), and nisin. Application of coating on cheese decreased water loss, lipid oxidation, changes in headspace gas composition, and color. Moreover, the edible coatings with COFE or PNEO had increased antimicrobial activity and did not permit growth of microorganisms. COFE and PNEO are manufactured from food-grade materials so they can be consumed as an integral part of the cheese, which represents a competitive advantage over nonedible coatings.

  3. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  4. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  5. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  6. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was req...

  7. [Study on scavenging activity to DPPH free radical of different polarity components in Guizhou Miao medicine "bod zangd dak"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hong-zhi; Nong, Heng; Dong, Li-sha; Li, Jia-li; Liu, Ming; He, Xi-cheng; Zhang, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The paper is aimed to search more natural plant antioxidants and further research and develop new medicinal plant resources in Guizhou. The Guizhou special miao medicine "bod zangd dak" was extracted with 60% ethanol. The antioxidant activity of the different polarity components separated from the extract was tested by DPPH method with ascorbic acid as positive control. The results showed that the IC50 of the different polarity components was as following: ascorbic acid (0.033 4 g x L(-1)) < ethyl acetate components (0.052 3 g x L(-1)) < total tannins components (0.054 9 g x L(-1)) < 60% ethanol extraction components (0.076 7 g x L(-1)) < butanol extraction components (0.110 g x L(-1)) < water-soluble polysaccharides components (0.168 g x L(-1)) < water extraction components (0.174 g x L(-1)) < water components after extraction (0.226 g x L(-1)) < total polysaccharides components (0.645 g x L(-1)). It is concluded that the different polarity components have different free radical scavenging activity and that provides a scientific basis for further search of the active ingredients and the activive mechanism.

  8. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms - Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, L; Engwall, M

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  9. Experimental demonstration of bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Li, Yajie; Wang, Xinbo; Chen, Bowen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    A hierarchical software-defined networking (SDN) control architecture is designed for multi-domain optical networks with the Open Daylight (ODL) controller. The OpenFlow-based Control Virtual Network Interface (CVNI) protocol is deployed between the network orchestrator and the domain controllers. Then, a dynamic bandwidth on demand (BoD) provisioning solution is proposed based on time scheduling in software-defined multi-domain optical networks (SD-MDON). Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLG)-disjoint routing schemes are adopted to separate each tenant for reliability. The SD-MDON testbed is built based on the proposed hierarchical control architecture. Then the proposed time scheduling-based BoD (Ts-BoD) solution is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed. The performance of the Ts-BoD solution is evaluated with respect to blocking probability, resource utilization, and lightpath setup latency.

  10. 220A型流通式BOD快速测定仪实验研究%The Experimental Research of 220A Type Circulating BOD Speedy Testing Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 张玉惠

    2001-01-01

    本实验研究采用了国际上先进的流通式快速测定BOD(水中生化需氧量)的仪器,对标准样品、地表水、生活污水、工业废水进行了精密度、准确度的实验,与标准BOD 5天法实验进行了对照分析.并且将流通式220A型BOD快速测定仪与原研制的220型加入法式的BOD快速测定仪进行了比较,对实验中的一些问题进行了分析研究.为该仪器在环保等领域的广泛应用提供了技术依据.

  11. 五日生化需氧量的两种快速测定方法%Two Rapid Ana1ysis Methods of BOD5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚斌; 伍后英; 龙蜀

    2000-01-01

    五日生化需氧量(BOD5)是水质监测的一个重要参数,但其经典测定方法繁琐、耗时、技术要求高,不能及时反映水体受污染的程度,对工业废水处理的意义不大。本文主要介绍和验证了两种快速测定BOD 5的方法,即增温法和相关估算法。通过实验证实了这两种方法具有周期短,操作简单等特点,对工业废水处理,污染预报等实际应用有一定的指导意义。%Biochemical oxygen demand of 5 days (BOD 5) was a very important parameter of monitoring ofwater quality. The classical method presented some shortcomings,such as complexity, long period, requirementof high technology and not promptly reflecting the pollution levels of water body, so it was of no significance fortreatment of industrial waste water. In this paper, two rapid methods for determination of BODs, raising incubation temperature and correlative estimation method, were introduced and their advantages, such as short period and simplicity of operation were verified by experiments. Modification of classical method was of certain instructive significance for the practical application to treatment of industrial waste water and forecast of pollutionlevels of water body.

  12. THE EFFECT OF INFLUENT CONCENTRATION AND HYDRAULIC LOADING RATE (HLR TO BOD AND COD REMOVAL ON ARTIFICIAL DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT (GREY WATER USING UASB REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor is one of anaerobic biological treatment was develop in late 1970’s. UASB reactor is suitable for the tropic areas because it has a high temperature about 20°-30°C. Domestic wastewater is divided into two types, namely black water and grey water. But in this case used domestic grey water. Grey water is household wastewater from showers, sinks and kitchen. Grey water has a total 75% of the domestic wastewater volume. The research was conducted in laboratory scale. This study performed a variation of Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR and the influent concentration. There were 25 reactors include 5 variations of influent concentration and 5 Hydraulic Loading Rate’s (HLR variation. The research could asses BOD5 and COD removal with treatment in UASB. Efficiency of BOD5 removal by varying the influent concentration and HLR was about 38%-75% and COD was about 40%-77%. The lower concentration could be increase efficiency BOD5 and COD removal. Influent concentration optimum occurred when middle concentration was about 840 mg/L COD and HLR optimum was 0,05 m3/m2/hour.

  13. Pemanfaatan Biji Asam Jawa (TamarindusIndica sebagai Koagulan Alternatif dalam Proses Menurunkan Kadar COD dan BOD dengan Studi Kasus pada Limbah Cair Industri Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Intan Ramadhani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biji asam jawa yang selama ini jarang dimanfaatkan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk pengolahan limbah cair yang lebih ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan.  Kandungan polisakarida dalam biji asam jawa (Tamarindus Indica merupakan koagulan alami yang terbukti cukup efektif dalam peningkatan kualitas air limbah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan pada limbah cair industri tempe sehingga diperoleh hasil yang optimum. Adapun yang dimaksud dengan hasil optimum yaitu dengan tercapainya penurunan kadar COD, BOD, dan TSS pada limbah cair yang digunakan sesuai dengan baku mutu dan kondisi yang tidak membahayakan lingkungan. Variabel yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah pH, TSS, kadar COD dan BOD dengan membandingkan dari tiap-tiap variasi. Variabel penelitian yang digunakan adalah pemberian dosis biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan dengan variasi (500, 1500, 2500, 3500 mg/l, kecepatan putaran pada proses koagulasi-flokulasi dan lama pengadukan lambat (flokulasi. Pada penelitian ini, terdapat korelasi antara dosis koagulan dan kecepatan pengadukan yang diberikan terhadap efisiensi penurunan kadar BOD, COD dan TSS. Dosis optimum yang diperoleh yaitu 1500 mg/l limbah. Sedangkan hasil optimum diperoleh pada kecepatan koagulasi 180 rpm selama 1 menit dan flokulasi 80 rpm dengan lama waktu pengadukan 45 menit.

  14. A novel thermotolerant Pediococcus acidilactici B-25 strain for color, COD, and BOD reduction of distillery effluent for end use applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Soni; Rai, Priyanka; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Rajeeva

    2013-06-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize physico-chemical and microbial population of distillery effluent and isolate a novel thermotolerant bacterium for color, COD, and BOD reduction of spentwash. The level of alkalinity, TSS, DO, COD, BOD, TN, ammonical nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, chloride, and calcium of spentwash (SW), bioreactor effluent (BE), and secondary treated effluent (STE) were well above the permissible limits. The level of color, TS, and TDS were under the permissible limits for STE but not for SW and BE. The microbial population was higher in BE. The results revealed that effluent was highly polluted and require suitable treatment before discharge. A novel thermotolerant bacterium, identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, was isolated which exhibited maximum 79 % decolorization, 85 % COD, and 94 % BOD reduction at 45 °C using 0.1 %, glucose; 0.1 %, peptone; 0.05 %, MgSO4; 0.05 %, K2HPO4; pH 6.0 within 24 h under static condition. The ability of this strain to decolorize melanoidin at minimum carbon and nitrogen supplementation warrants its possible application for effluent treatment at industrial level. In addition, it is first instance when melanoidin decolorization was reported by P. acidilactici. This study could be an approach towards control of environmental pollution and health hazards of people in and around the effluent distillery unit.

  15. 生物传感器BOD快速测定仪电气控制系统%Electrical control system of BOD rapid determination instrument using biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋萍; 白金平

    2011-01-01

    生物需氧量(BOD)是一种表征水体有机污染程度的综合指标,广泛用于水体检测和污水处理厂的运行控制.概述了生物传感器BOD快速测定仪电气控制系统的工作原理,详细介绍了该仪器的硬件配置和软件设计,其用户界面设计为人机友好的视窗模式,从而实现自动检测实时显示等功能,能够满足水体有机污染快速准确检测的要求,对于我国水质评价、合理利用水资源及水处理效率的提高具有重要意义.%Characterization of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a comprehensive index which shows the degree of organic pollution of water. The index is widely used in operation control of water test and wastewater treatment plant. The operating principle of electrical control system of BOD rapid determination instrument using biosensor is outlined. The purpose and significance of the system is introduced briefly. Hardware configuration and software design of the instrument are detailed. User-friendly man-machine interface is designed for the window mode in order to achieve the function of automatic detection of real-time display to meet the requirements of quick and accurate test of organic pollution. It' s important for the evaluation of water quality, rational use of water resources and water efficiency.

  16. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE.

  17. Pemanfaatan Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak/Lemak BOD Dan COD Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Riris Duma

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash to reduce the content of oil/grease, BOD and COD from oil mill effluent. Samples of palm oil mill effluent from wastewater treatment plant of PT Nusantara IV (Persero) oil processing unit sopsa of Padang Lawas district. Samples taken from the last pond will be discharged into the environment. Empty Fruit of Oil Palm Ash taken from the kitchen burning empty fruit bunches PT Nusantara IVB (Persero) units Sosa of Padang Law...

  18. Study on the behavior of COD vs BOD5 and biodegradability in treatment of anaerobic process for emulsified viscous oil production wastewater%稠油乳化段废水厌氧处理过程中COD与BOD5的协同变化及可生化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书海; 曲久辉; 刘会娟; 张海荣

    2002-01-01

    稠油乳化段废水中的主要污染物为有机聚合物和石油类污染物,BOD5/COD值极低,可生化性差.通过厌氧处理可使污染物发生水解反应,BOD5/COD值由0.08升为0.15(288h).与其它难降解有机废水的厌氧处理结果不同,在BOD5增加的同时,COD亦大幅度增加.而在全部厌氧反应过程中,TOC一直呈下降趋势,表明水样中的污染物在生物作用下不断得到削减;在COD达到最高时,石油类污染物中胶质的浓度大幅度降低,烷烃的浓度升高,说明以胶质为代表的大分子污染物因水解反应,由K2Cr2O7不能氧化状态变为可氧化状态,导致COD测量值显著升高.

  19. One-pot synthesis of 3-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-based hydrogel as support for microbe immobilization and BOD biosensor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Gao, Ying; Wang, Yue; Han, Yanchao; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-01-15

    We report a hydrothermal method to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based hydrogel (Gel(rGONR)), using neutral red (NR) to mediate the assembly of rGO sheets and tune the pore size of Gel(rGONR). A series of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and BET were employed to characterize the physico-chemical properties of Gel(rGONR). A large pore size of up to 20 µm and interconnected porous structure of Gel(rGONR) were obtained. Gel(rGONR) was used as a support for immobilizing microbe (denoted as Gel(rGONR-M)), which showed ~3.3 times more load mass of microbe than commonly used supports (i.e., activated carbon and carbon fiber felt) and 2.5 times higher biodegradation efficiency (BE) than carbon fiber felt. Further use of Gel(rGONR-M) as a biocatalyst for establishing a BOD biosensor exhibits a linear range of 2-64 mg O L(-1) and a detection limit 0.4 mg O L(-1) for glucose-glutamic acid (GGA). Moreover, our proposed BOD detection strategy shows a long-term viability over one year and stability up to 2 months with a relative standard deviation of 2.1%. Our results demonstrated the great potential of employing Gel(rGONR) as a microbe-immobilization support for biosensor development.

  20. A co-immobilized mediator and microorganism mediated method combined pretreatment by TiO2 nanotubes used for BOD measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Shengsen; Xing, Li; Zhao, Huijun; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we proposed a method by using co-immobilized Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a biocatalyst and neutral red (NR) as an artificial electronic acceptor to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement. Two different modification approaches of GCE were utilized and compared. In one approach, NR was electropolymerized on the surface of GCE, and E. coli cells were mixed with grafting copolymer PVA-g-PVP (briefly gPVP) and covered on NR polymer film to obtain a (gPVP/E. coli)/PNR/GCE. In the second approach, both NR and E. coli cells were mixed with the copolymer gPVP and modified GCE, after drying, which was electrochemically treated similar as above for obtaining a (gPVP/E. coli/NR)p/GCE. Based on the electrochemical evaluation, the performance of the latter was better, which may be caused by that the NR deposited on the surface of E. coli resulting in a good electron transport and permeability of cells membrane. To develop the results obtained at (gPVP/E. coli/NR)p/GCE further, the pretreatment by TiO(2) nanotubes arrays (TNTs) was employed, and different effects on samples of GGA, OECD, urea and real wastewater were evaluated. These results suggest that the present method holds a potential application for rapid BOD biosensor.

  1. Prediction of BOD, COD, and total nitrogen concentrations in a typical urban river using a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix with PARAFAC and UV absorption indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Cho, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1), terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2), and protein-like organic substances (C3), and UV absorption indices (UV(220) and UV(254)), and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV(220), C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV(220) and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN.

  2. Prediction of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations in a Typical Urban River Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix with PARAFAC and UV Absorption Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total nitrogen (TN concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1, terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2, and protein-like organic substances (C3, and UV absorption indices (UV220 and UV254, and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV220, C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV220 and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN.

  3. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pereira tratadas com AIB e mantidas em ambiente de estufa tipo B.O.D. e de telado Rooting of hardwood cuttings of pear tree with IBA under B.O.D. chamber and greenhouse environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o enraizamento da pereira em ambiente controlado de estufa tipo B.O.D. e em telado simples. Utilizou-se a cultivar híbrida 'Limeira', destinada exclusivamente para fins culinários e para porta-enxerto. Estacas lenhosas sem folhas, medindo 25 cm de comprimento, foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 2.000; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por 10 segundos. Como substrato, utilizou-se da mistura de vermiculita e areia grossa (2:1 v/v, sendo a mesma umedecida com meio contendo solução salina MS e sacarose 1%. As estacas permaneceram por 42 dias dentro de estufas tipo B.O.D. (temperatura de 25ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 90% e fotoperíodo de 8 horas e de telado com irrigação por microaspersão, sem controle ambiental. Em ambiente controlado de estufa, as estacas não-tratadas com AIB iniciaram intensa brotação das gemas e formação de calo após sete dias do plantio. Já em ambiente de telado, essas estacas demoraram 21 dias para o início de brotação das gemas, mostrando menor desenvolvimento de calo. Nas estacas tratadas com AIB, os calos surgiram nas regiões dos cortes após o terceiro dia de incubação na estufa B.O.D. As raízes desenvolveram-se a partir dos tecidos da base e dos calos, tornando-se mais nítidas a partir de 14 e 28 dias, respectivamente, para os ambientes de estufa e de telado. Após 42 dias, o melhor percentual de enraizamento (83% foi verificado no tratamento com AIB a 2.000 mg.L-1, em ambiente de estufa B.O.D. O emprego dessa estufa, com temperatura, luz e umidade relativa controladas, mostrou-se viável em relação ao telado, no processo de enraizamento das estacas lenhosas da pereira 'Limeira', podendo favorecer o sistema de propagação vegetativa da pereira e encurtar o período da formação de mudas.The rooting of cuttings pear under controlled environment of chamber (B.O.D. type and greenhouse was searched. Hardwood cuttings of 'Limeira' pear, without leaves, measuring

  4. Concurrent validity of the BOD POD and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry techniques for assessing body composition in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Cardinal, Bradley J; Snow, Christine A

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of the BOD POD (BP) (Life Measurement Instruments) and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Elite 4500A (Hologic, Inc.) techniques for assessing the body fat percentage of young women. The participants were forty-three white college-aged women (19.4 +/- 1.4 years) with a BMI of 23.4 +/- 2.3. Both body composition analyses were completed on the same day and were taken within 10 minutes of each other. Body fat percentage was estimated to be 24.3 (SE = 1.1) and 23.8 (SE = 0.8) using the BP and DXA techniques, respectively. Exact matches, in terms of body fat percentage, were obtained for 10 of the 43 participants (23.3%). In conclusion, our data supports the concurrent validity of the BP and DXA techniques for assessing body fat in young women.

  5. 基于神经网络的BOD参数软测量仪表的设计%Design of soft measurement instrument for BOD parameters based on neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔俊飞; 郭楠; 韩红桂

    2013-01-01

    在污水处理过程中,BOD(生化需氧量)是评价水质好坏和处理效果的关键参数之一。由于其涉及很多复杂的生化反应过程,因此长期以来 BOD 的测量都存在着很多问题,具体表现在:国际通用的标准检测方法测量滞后性较大,快速检测方法测量成本过高且测量不准确。针对这些问题,在此结合神经网络软测量技术,设计了一种软硬件结合的水质参数软测量仪表,实现对水质参数 BOD 的快速检测。仪表硬件部分包括 PH(酸碱度)、ORP(氧化还原电位)、DO(溶解氧)、温度的检测设备,软件部分是神经网络软测量软件。仪表的创新性在于将硬件检测和神经网络软测量相结合设计出了1套切实可用的软测量仪表,仪表实现快速在线检测和在线调整,可以适用于不同的污水处理系统。经实践验证表明该软测量仪表可以实现 BOD 的快速精确软测量,解决现有的BOD测量仪表测量耗时过长,仪器昂贵等缺陷,具有广阔的应用前景。%BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) is one of the key parameters in evaluating water quality and sewage effect. Measuring BOD is very difficult because it involves many complex biochemical reaction process. Specific evidence is that international standard test method of measuring BOD has big hysteresis. Besides the instrument would be too expansive and the results might not be precise if we want to make it faster. To solve these problems, using Neural network soft measurement technology, an instrument which combines software and hardware has been devised to measure water quality parameters of BOD rapidly. The hardware in instrument involves devices detecting PH, ORP, DO and temperature. The neural network has been used in the software. Innovation of the Instrument lies in combining hardware detection and neural network soft measurement to design a set of practical and available soft measuring instrument. This soft

  6. Analysis on Number Limitation of BOD Triggered Thyristors in a Thyristor Valve%单阀中允许最多BOD触发晶闸管级数的简要分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建峰

    2013-01-01

    Light triggered thyristor valves have been widely used in many Chinese HVDC or UHVDC power transmission projects,such as Xiluodu Project,GG Ⅰ Project,and GG Ⅱ Project,where many thyristors are connected in series in a thyristor valve.Break over diode (BOD) circuits are integrated into each thyristor to ensure reliable stand-by emergent protective triggering.The author analyzes the working principle of BOD circuit,and discusses the limiting principle of the maximum number of thyristors triggered by the BOD circuits in a thyristor valve.%中国溪洛渡贵广一回、贵广二回等直流输电工程中均采用了直接光触发晶闸管换流阀.为了满足超高压、特高压工程的要求,换流阀采用众多晶闸管的串联技术.为了确保触发的可靠性,作为后备紧急保护触发,在每个晶闸管内部有集成了转折二极管(BOD)电路.笔者就该电路的工作原理和单阀中允许最多BOD触发晶闸管级数的限定原则进行分析.

  7. The effects of nutrient limitation (nitrogen and phosphorus) on BOD removal from post-coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp and paper mill wastewater in a baffled aerated stabilisation basin-laboratory pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R; Van Leeuwen, J A; Everson, A; Nothrop, S C; Chow, C W K

    2011-01-01

    The use of coagulation and flocculation for tertiary treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent was investigated, where the evaluation was based on the removal of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and BOD from post-coagulated wastewater. The study was undertaken on laboratory scale aerobic stabilisation basins (ASB). Two post coagulated (alum) wastewaters were studied, where the BOD:N:P ratios were 100:1.3:0.06 and 100:1.3:0.3. These wastewaters were treated in two identical concurrent simulations (A & B). The influent ratio for 'A' was selected representing the composition of actual coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp effluent mixed with paper mill effluent. The input composition for 'B' represented a typical P concentration found in existing pulp and paper mill effluents. Unmodified sludge collected from a mill-pond was added at 4% v/v to each simulation replicating the treatment conditions at full-scale. Similar high percentage removals of BOD and COD occurred after 28 days (two HRTs) which were 94 and 67% respectively for 'A', and 98 and 70% respectively for 'B', where both remained at steady state during the third HRT. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the sample variance of the BOD and COD results.

  8. Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD) in Wastewater with Ferrocene (Fc) Grafted Mediator Microbial Sensor%接枝二茂铁介体微生物传感器对污水BOD的快速测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶

    2012-01-01

    采用接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量污水的BOD.将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面用作微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥提取的微生物混合,并用聚乙烯醇(PVA)进行固定化,以此制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量污水水样的BOD.结果表明,传感器的线性范围为2~300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.并讨论了pH,温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.通过对实际水样的测试表明,测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关性.%A novel biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) detecting method employing a ferrocene(Fc) grafted SBA-1S mediator immobilized in PVA matrix was developed. Fc was combined with SBA-15 via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, which was employed for a modified glassy carbon electrode. In a three-electrode system, a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate(GGA) concentration was 2~300 mg/L. Single sensor (measuring 20 samples) reproducibility were less than 4.2 %, and the sensor can works for 35 days continuously. The effects of pH, temperature and heavy metal on the BOD responses were studied. Comparaiion of detecting the BOD and BOD; of real samples showed a good correlation

  9. Significant reduction in toxicity, BOD, and COD of textile dyes and textile industry effluent by a novel bacterium Pseudomonas sp. LBC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telke, Amar A; Kim, Seon-Won; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-03-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical characteristics were confirmed that the isolated bacterium is Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. The commonly used textile dye, Direct Brown MR has been used to study the fate of biodegradation. Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 showed 90% decolorization of Direct Brown MR (100 mg/L) and textile industry effluent with significant reduction in COD and BOD. The optimum condition for decolorization was 7.0 pH and 40°C. Significant increase in a activity of extracellular laccase suggested their possible involvement in decolorization of Direct Brown MR. Biodegradation metabolites viz. 3,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-7-aminonaphthol-3-sulfonic acid, and p-dihydroperoxybenzene were identified on the basis of mass spectra and using the 1.10 beta Shimadzu NIST GC-MS library. The Direct Brown MR and textile industry effluent were toxic to Sorghum bicolor and Vigna radiata plants as compared to metabolites obtained after decolorization. The Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 could be useful strain for decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes as well as textile industry effluent.

  10. Body composition in Mexican adults by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD and deuterium oxide dilution using infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Nayeli; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María; Bolaños, Adriana V; Alemán, Heliodoro; Esparza, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2002-09-01

    Thirty four subjects (13 men and 21 women), 24 to 70 years old from northern Mexico, were measured for body density by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD, and for total body water by deuterium oxide dilution and infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD). Subjects were given a 30 g dose of deuterium oxide. Saliva samples were filtered, sublimated, and deuterium was measured using a Miran 1 FF, IRS. Linear regression of the fat mass (FM) derived from both methods showed that the intercept (0.071) was not different from zero (p = .96) and the slope was 0.96 (p < .0001) demonstrating the techniques to be equivalent. Further, mean FM was 26.7 +/- 12.4 and 25.6 +/- 12.4 kg, for IRS-DOD and ADP techniques, respectively (p = .08). Precision analysis by the model R2 showed that 92.3% of the variability was explained (SEM = 3.4 kg). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias (r = 0.017; p = .93). Mean difference between methods was -1.08 (CI: -2.3 to + 0.13) kg FM.

  11. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM < 0.1 μm. For all examined samples, the average iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65% in

  12. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  13. HJ505-2009法测定生化需氧量[BOD_5]不确定度评定%Evaluation of Uncertainty in Determination of by HJ505-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门朝荣

    2011-01-01

    测量不确定度(uncertainty of measurement)是表征合理地赋予被测量之值的分散性,与测量结果相联系的参数。不确定度一词指可疑程度,广义而言,测量不确定度是对测量结果正确性的可疑程度。如何对测量结果的不确定度进行合理评定,一直是困扰检测实验室的一个难题。依据HJ505—2009标准的方法,测定了水样的生化需氧量BOD5,估算了测试过程中的随机效应和系统效应所产生的不确定度分量,最终评定了生化需氧量浓度的测量不确定度。%Uncertainty of measurement signifies for the dispersive of the value measured rationally,with measuring the parameter and interrelated result.The mean of uncertainty is suspicious intensity,Uncertainty of measurement fruit suspicious intensity of exactness measuring in broad sense.How to rationally assess the uncertainty of measure results disturb the laboratories all the time,The paper aims to determine the BOD5 in water sample in accordance with HJ505—2009.The uncertainty produced by random effect and system effect is estimated and the uncertainty of the determination of BOD5 is evaluated.

  14. YB菌株生化需氧量的测定及对河豚毒素毒性的响应%The Determination of BOD and TTX using the YB Bacterial Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婧; 杨卓

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to learn the function of YB strain in BOD biological sensor and toxin in dolphin. [ Method] Considering YB strain as responding strain, and using membrane to fix microbiological membrane, the microbiological sensor was assembled and tested. [Result] When the determination of YB strain on BOD was at 33 ℃ and a pH of 7.2, its response to BOD was good. Under such condition, standard curve of sensor by static method was y =0. 061 2x -0. 001 3. Linear relevant coefficient was 0.995. Standard curve of sensor by dynamic method was y = 0. 072 2x - 0. 031 9. Linear relevant coefficient was 0.996. In the meantime, YB strain didn' t response to toxin in dolphin. [ Conclusion ] YB strain can be considered as BOD micro biological sensor. However, it can' t test strain as toxin sensor of dolphin.%[目的]了解自有YB菌株在BOD生物传感器及河豚毒素毒性传感器中的作用.[方法]以YB菌株作为响应菌株,采用夹层膜法制作固定化微生物膜,组装成微生物传感器并测试其性能.[结果]YB菌株在33℃,pH为7.2的条件下对BOD响应良好,在此条件下静态法测得传感器标准曲线为y=0.0612x-0.0013,线性相关系数为0.995;动态法测得传感器标准曲线为y=0.0722x-0.0319,线性相关系数为0.996.同时,YB菌株对河豚毒素基本没有响应.[结论]自有YB菌株可以作为BOD微生物传感器的敏感菌,但不能作为河豚毒素毒性传感器测试菌株.

  15. Methods of ultimate carbonaceous BOD determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; McKenzie, S.W.; Cherry, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted to provide an accurate and practical technique for determining the concentration of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and the rate at which this demand is exerted. The three methods evaluated were carbon derived, nitrification adjusted, and nitrification inhibited. The studies indicate that comparable concentrations and reaction rates can be determined from either non-nitrified samples using no chemical nitrifying inhibitor, or from partially nitrified samples using the chemical inhibitors, 1-allyl-2 thiourea or nitrapyrin, and that the combined use of time-series analysis and Lee's graphical method provide a reliable and accurate technique for determining ultimate biochemical oxygen demand concentration and reaction rate in 5 to 7 days.

  16. Efeito da concentração inicial de oxigênio no coeficiente de aeração para experimentos de DBO de longo prazo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1976 Effect of initial concentration of dissolved oxygen in aeration coefficient for long-term BOD experiments- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Incubações de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO de longo prazo foram realizadas para determinar o coeficiente de aeração proveniente de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio. Os frascos de DBO foram preparados com água destilada e incubados no escuro e sob temperatura controlada (19,4ºC. Os frascos foram submetidos a dois tratamentos que foram baseados na concentração inicial de oxigênio dissolvido (OD: Tratamento 1 = 1,43mg L-1 e Tratamento 2 = 7,67mg L-1. As concentrações de OD foram determinadas com oxímetro durante 52 dias. Os resultados foram ajustados a um modelo cinético de primeira ordem. Os frascos de DBO apresentaram um incremento nas concentrações de OD para ambos os tratamentos e o coeficiente de aeração (ka foi de 0,065 dia-1. Os ajustes apontam dispersão nos valores de ka e a concentração inicial de OD nos frascos de DBO não interferiu no processo de aeração sendo um processo aleatórioLong-term incubations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD were performed to determine the aeration coefficient derived from oxygen uptake experiments. The BOD bottles were prepared with distilled water and the incubation occurred in the dark, under controlled temperature (19.4ºC. The bottles were submitted to two different treatments based on the initial dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations (Treatment 1: 1.43mg L-1 and Treatment 2: 7.67mg L-1. The DO concentrations were measured with an OD meter during 52 days. The results were fitted to a first-order kinetics model. The BOD bottles showed an increase in DO concentration for both treatments and the mean aeration coefficient (ka was 0.065 a day-1. The fittings pointed to some dispersion in the ka values, and the initial concentration of DO in the BOD bottles does not interfere in the aeration process, being a random process

  17. 黔产苗药“薄丈达”中不同极性组分DPPH自由基清除活性的研究%Study on scavenging activity to DPPH free radical of different polarity components in Guizhou Miao medicine "bod zangd dak"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜洪志; 农亨; 董立莎; 李家丽; 刘明; 何席呈; 张静

    2015-01-01

    为进一步开发贵州药用植物新资源,寻找更多天然抗氧化剂,该实验以黔产苗药“薄丈达”(bod zangd dak)为原料,利用60%乙醇等为溶剂,通过提取分离得到该药材中不同极性组分,以抗坏血酸为阳性对照,采用DPPH自由基(1,1-二苯基-2-苦肼基自由基)清除法评价苗药“薄丈达”中不同极性组分的抗氧化活性.结果黔产苗药“薄丈达”中不同极性组分的IC50依次为抗坏血酸(0.033 4 g· L-1)<乙酸乙酯部位(0.052 3 g· L-1)<总鞣质部位(0.054 9 g·L-1)<60%乙醇提取物部位(0.0767g· L-1)<正丁醇部位(0.110 g· L-1)<水溶性多糖部位(0.168 g· L-1)<水提取物部位(0.174 g· L-1)<萃取后水部位(0.226 g·L-1)<总多糖部位(0.645 g· L-1).研究表明黔产苗药“薄丈达”中不同极性组分均有不同程度的清除DPPH自由基活性,这为进一步寻找其活性成分和研究抗氧化活性机制提供一定的实验依据.%The paper is aimed to search more natural plant antioxidants and further research and develop new medicinal plant resources in Guizhou.The Guizhou special miao medicine "bod zangd dak" was extracted with 60% ethanol.The antioxidant activity of the different polarity components separated from the extract was tested by DPPH method with ascorbic acid as positive control.The results showed that the IC50 of the different polarity components was as following:ascorbic acid (0.033 4 g · L-1) < ethyl acetate components (0.052 3 g · L-1) <total tannins components (0.054 9 g · L-1) < 60% ethanol extraction components(0.076 7 g · L-1) < butanol extraction components(0.110 g · L-1) < water-soluble polysaccharides components(0.168 g · L-1) < water extraction components (0.174 g · L-1) < water components after extraction (0.226 g · L-1) < total polysaccharides components(0.645 g · L-1).It is concluded that the different polarity components have different free radical scavenging activity

  18. Interpolace obrazových bodů

    OpenAIRE

    Mintěl, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA® CUDA™. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation metho...

  19. BOD生物传感器(BODs)的研究及应用现状%Study and Application of BOD Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 王乐恒

    2004-01-01

    在介绍水质指标-BOD现有测定方法的基础上,综述了用于水中BOD快速测定的BOD生物传感器的研究现状及发展趋势.重点说明了其速测原理及其核心部分-微生物膜的研究状况,总结了目前BODs用于水质测定的特点、种类及存在的问题,并就目前本课题组的研究现状进行了简单介绍.

  20. Improving BOD removal at SNJ wastewater treatment plant by biological treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hantanirina, Jeannine Marie Olga

    2010-01-01

    SNJ uses chemical precipitation method to treat domestic wastewater. With regard to organic removal requirement; chemical treatment alone does not seem to be sufficient at SNJ/IVAR wastewater plant. This thesis is to assess the performance of the aerobic biological treatment on the wastewater of the plant in order to upgrade the existing plant to include biological treatment. The work was to conduct a laboratory scale SBR test for determination of the wastewater characteristics and the effect...

  1. The South African water management framework : Lethabo power station as a case study / Sadie de Bod

    OpenAIRE

    De Bod, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    South Africa is considered to be a water scarce country and it is estimated that by 2030 the water demand would have surpassed the water supply. There are therefore serious implications if all sectors of South Africa do not utilise natural water resources efficiently. The power generation sector is one of the more dominant water users, utilising more than 2 % of the available water resources. Since Eskom is guaranteed a 99.5 % water supply from the Department of Water Affairs, ...

  2. Feasibility of air plethysmography (BOD POD) in morbid obesity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, M L; Bertoli, S; Maggioni, M; Morini, P; Battezzati, A; Tagliaferri, M A; Liuzzi, A; Testolin, G

    2003-10-01

    The assessment of body composition (BC) in morbidly obese patients is a difficult procedure. Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), which measures body density, is a very promising technique for BC assessment in health and disease. However, there are very few data about the feasibility of applying ADP on morbidly obese patients, which theoretically could be affected by large body size and difficulty in lung volume measurements. The main aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ADP for BC assessment in morbidly obese patients. We studied nine subjects (6 males and 3 females) who had a mean age (+/-SD) of 47.0+/-13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) of 46.6+/-7.7 kg/m(2) (range 36.4-58.8). All patients could fit into the instrument chamber and perform the manoeuvre for pulmonary plethysmography. Mean lung volume was 3.9+/-1.2 l and mean percent body fat was 53.1+/-6.6 (range 46.0-67.5). These results indicate that ADP appears to be suitable for patients with BMI over 40 kg/m(2) and produces realistic BC data.

  3. KEMAMPUAN SISTEM SARINGAN PASIR-TANAMAN MENURUNKAN NILAI BOD DAN COD AIR TERCEMAR LIMBAH PENCELUPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. Budiarsa Suyasa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colored of clothes has developed as concentrated in Denpasar area. The process has a negativeeffect because of waste, the resulting organic toxicants and heavy metal into aquatic system. The effect ofthe pollution including the river, well water and organism that live there. The research of bioremedialeffectiveness of herb-sand treatment system on laboratory simulation were studied in Denpasar, from June2004 to September 2004.For laboratory simulation, the plants were cultured in 25 cm sand bed, in between 5 cm palmfiber ofwhich were in between 10 cm pumicestone for the top and 5 cm gravel for the bottom with surface area of 25x 50 cm2.The result of treatment system showed that effective for decrease biological oxygen demandcompared to those of chemical oxygen demand parameters. The treatment system reduced significantly BODlevel respectively to 13,15 for 3 days, 11,19 for 10 days and 5,79 for 20 days with 85,55 – 93,63 effectively.While COD level respectively to 76,68 for 3 days, 61,38 for 10 days and 58,57 for 20 days with 42,78 – 56,50effectively. Time of treatment for 3, 10 and 20 days showed a little increase of pH from 6,87 to 7,00.

  4. 浅谈微生物膜传感器快速测定BOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭珺

    2015-01-01

    BOD是反映水体中有机物含量的重要指标之一,其表示水中污染物经微生物分解时所需要消耗的分子氧的数量(mg/L),BOD的数值越高,表明水中可降解的有机物越多。BOD能较正确地反映水中有机物生物氧化分解时消耗的氧量,从而反映出水体污染的程度。

  5. [Development of a low-cost single chamber microbial fuel cell type BOD sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhi; Zhou, Ben; Zhou, Shun-gui; Rao, Li-qun; Wang, Yue-qiang

    2010-07-01

    The principle of the detector is based on the effect of microbial toxicity of water sample on the electricity generation in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The performance of the MFC-type biotoxicity detector was evaluated with the synthetic water containing heavy metals of Cd2+ and Cu2+. The experimental results demonstrated that: (1) relative to the conventional methods, the MFC-type detector is easy to operate, and suitable for on-line measurements with high sensitivity; (2) it only requires 4 h to complete measurements, and can get ready for next measurement within 4 h; (3) there is a significant linear correlation between the concentration of toxic metal(s) and inhibition ratios in Coulombic yields of MFC. As the IC20 (concentration causing 20% inhibition) of Cd2+, Cu2+ and mixed metals (Cd2+ and Cu2+) were 0.6, 0.8 and 0.25 mg/L, the regression coefficients were shown to be 0.9960, 0.9744 and 0.9907. PMID:20825031

  6. Die integrering van onderwysmedia in die vak ekonomie / Steyn de Bod

    OpenAIRE

    De Bod, Steyn

    1996-01-01

    A multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic instructional media are available to both teachers and learners. This multitude of available instructional media confront the teacher with the problem of media selection. Choosing the appropriate available instructional media for the teaching situation is no easy task. This study attempts to (i) identify factors that are disclosed in media selection models and that need to be considered when instructional media are selected for the teachin...

  7. BOD-DO modeling and water quality analysis of a waste water outfall off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Das, V.K.; Vethamony, P.

    zone environment so that the coastal ecosystem can be ved. It can be achieved by adopting a suitable waste allocation strategy for effluent disposal in the ecologi- NIO at Kochi, for their help in the data collection. We express our gratitude to Dr. P...

  8. To the question of construction of sporting training during year of sportsmen, specialized in bodуbuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedljar J.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate data are resulted about going near the construction of the sporting training during a year. Systematization of information is presented the special to scientifically-methodical literatures on the construction of training process of sportsmen in bodybuilding. The open questions of construction of training process of highly skilled bodybuilders are marked in a circannual macrocycle. The methodical receptions of construction of training process of sportsmen are rotined. Preparation of sportsmen of highly skilled sportsmen is characterized the expressly expressed recurrence.

  9. To the question of construction of sporting training during year of sportsmen, specialized in bodуbuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Sedljar J.V.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate data are resulted about going near the construction of the sporting training during a year. Systematization of information is presented the special to scientifically-methodical literatures on the construction of training process of sportsmen in bodybuilding. The open questions of construction of training process of highly skilled bodybuilders are marked in a circannual macrocycle. The methodical receptions of construction of training process of sportsmen are rotined. Preparation of ...

  10. To Analyze The Relationship between BOD, Nitrogen And Phosphorus Contents at Constant Dissolved Oxygen Concentration In Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Syed Faraz Ali; Sudthanom, Juthatip

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the application of Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS)  regression analyzing methods used to understand the relationship of interdependent loads in municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two different wastewater treatment plants were chosen for analysis of  the relationship between interdependent loads. Firstly, the collected data of incoming wastewater and outgoing water from both Västerås and Eskilstuna wastewater treatment plants were analyzed t...

  11. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  12. 鞍山城市污水BOD与COD的关系研究%Anshan City Sewage BOD and COD Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2011-01-01

    叙述了通过鞍山市城市污水BOD和COD的数值,从BOD与COD构成和降解动力学出发构建他们之间的数学关联性,再利用其通过COD数值快速预报BOD数值,以解析鞍山市内工业废水对城市污水水质的影响.

  13. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN UREA, KOMPOS CAIR, DAN CAMPURAN KOMPOS DENGAN GULA TERHADAP KANDUNGAN BOD DAN COD PADA PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH PENCELUPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. BUDIARSA SUYASA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed of Mikroorganisme from river mud sediment that sampling of Tebe counted ± 10 gr. Phase of seeding withcapasity of 3 litre (sediment of Tebe, was counted by 3 gr, NPK = 2,5 gr, Mgso4.7H2O = 0,2 gr, and aquades untilborder. Aerasi is conducted by using given aerator into seed place. Growth of microorganism was measured of eachevery 2 day during one week with measuring value of biomass till reach price 2000 mg / L. After seed process, intotreatment place aeraeration of process of seeding domestic waste water and each counted 500 mL. Variation of nutrienttreatment (NPK respectely 0,25 gr, 0,50 gr, 0,75 gr and 1.00 gr while control without addition of nutrient. Process ismeasured by value of pH, COD on 1, 3, 5, and 7 day.Result of research show that Sediment River of Tebe have potency as active mud. This matter is showed withgrowth of biomass of microbe till reach number 3.610 mg / L. Addition variation of NPK at treat of domestic waste havean effect on very real to value of COD. Best Result with value of COD lowest that is 38,096 mg / L with its effectivenessto 91,11% at addition of NPK counted 0,5 gr.

  14. Pemanfaatan Biji Asam Jawa (TamarindusIndica) sebagai Koagulan Alternatif dalam Proses Menurunkan Kadar COD dan BOD dengan Studi Kasus pada Limbah Cair Industri Tempe

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Intan Ramadhani; Atiek Moesriati

    2013-01-01

    Biji asam jawa yang selama ini jarang dimanfaatkan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk pengolahan limbah cair yang lebih ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan.  Kandungan polisakarida dalam biji asam jawa (Tamarindus Indica) merupakan koagulan alami yang terbukti cukup efektif dalam peningkatan kualitas air limbah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan pada limbah cair industri tempe sehingga diperoleh hasil yang optimum. Adapun yang dimaksud dengan hasi...

  15. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the heating rate retrievals in the optically thickest part of the dust plume was estimated to be between 0.5 and 1.4 K day−1. During nighttime much smaller values of heating/cooling are retrieved (less than ±1 K day−1. Furthermore, cooling is observed as the result of the longwave forcing in the dust layer, while warming is observed below the dust layer, in the monsoon layer.

  16. Evaluation of the BOD POD and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating percent body fat in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Curt B; Deitrick, Ronald W; Pierce, Joseph R; Cutrufello, Paul T; Drapeau, Linda L

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent body fat (%BF) estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group (n = 25) of NCAA Division III collegiate wrestlers. Body composition was assessed during the preseason wrestling weight certification program (WCP) using the NCAA approved methods (HW, 3-site skinfold [SF], and ADP) and LBIA, which is currently an unaccepted method of assessment. A urine specific gravity less than 1.020, measured by refractometry, was required before all testing. Each subject had all of the assessments performed on the same day. LBIA measurements (Athletic mode) were determined using a Tanita body fat analyzer (model TBF-300A). Hydrostatic weighing, corrected for residual lung volume, was used as the criterion measurement. The %BF data (mean +/- SD) were LBIA (12.3 +/- 4.6), ADP (13.8 +/- 6.3), SF (14.2 +/- 5.3), and HW (14.5 +/- 6.0). %BF estimated by LBIA was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than HW and SF. There were no significant differences in body density or %BF estimated by ADP, SF, and HW. All methods showed significant correlations (r = 0.80-0.96; p < 0.01) with HW. The standard errors of estimate (SEE) for %BF were 1.68, 1.87, and 3.60%; pure errors (PE) were 1.88, 1.94, and 4.16% (ADP, SF, and LBIA, respectively). Bland-Atman plots for %BF demonstrated no systematic bias for ADP, SF, and LBIA when compared with HW. These preliminary findings support the use of ADP and SF for estimating %BF during the NCAA WCP in Division III wrestlers. LBIA, which consistently underestimated %BF, is not supported by these data as a valid assessment method for this athletic group.

  17. Benefit-of-doubt (BOD) scoring: a sequencing-based method for SNP candidate assessment from high to medium read number data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlazeck, Fritz Joachim; Talloji, Prabhavathi; von Haeseler, Arndt; Bachmair, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a key element in sequence-based genetic analysis. Next generation sequencing offers a cost-effective basis to generate the necessary, large sequence data sets, and bioinformatic methods are being developed to process sequencing machine readouts. We were interested in detection of SNPs in a 350 kb region of an EMS-mutagenized Arabidopsis chromosome 3. The region was selectively analyzed using PCR-generated, overlapping fragments for Solexa sequencing. The ensuing reads provided a high coverage and were processed bioinformatically. In order to assess the SNP candidates obtained with a frequently used alignment program and SNP caller, we developed an additional method that allows the identification of high confidence SNP loci. The method can easily be applied to complete genome sequence data of sufficient coverage.

  18. Research on the Realization of BoD Service in MAN%城域网BoD业务实现研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淼; 潘三明; 张杰

    2005-01-01

    按需带宽(BoD)是运营商将在未来新型城域网上开展的极具竞争力的个性化增值业务之一.首先概述了未来新型城域网的需求以及BoD业务的产生,然后对BoD业务的特点以及实现机制进行了一定的分析,再对城域网BoD业务的实现就集中式和分布式两种控制体系分别进行了较为详细的分析,最后总结了城域网BoD业务的优势及发展前景.

  19. 基于过程神经网络的BOD在线检测仪研究%Research on the Online Monitor of BOD Based on Process Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继平; 刘载文; 王小艺

    2010-01-01

    为了实现污水处理过程中BOD的在线检测,提出了具有权函数动量项和自适应学习速率权值的新的过程神经网络改进算法,并利用该算法建立了BOD软测量模型,设计了基于ATMEGA1280单片机的系统主控制器,采用模块化软件设计理念,利用AVR Studio开发环境,编程实现数据采集、软测量、液晶显示、数据存储、打印驱动等功能.此仪表已在工业现场得到应用,平均相对预测误差小于4.1%.

  20. 可信数字仓储认证:必要性、标准与主体%The Certification of Digital Reposi-tories:the Necessity, Standards and bod-ies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐

    2014-01-01

    The massive amounts of digital informa-tion promote the emergence of digital repository, while the trusted and reliable of digital resource also put forward higher requirements for the trusty of digi-tal repositories. At the beginning, the paper briefly de-scribes the necessity of certification of trusted digital repositories, and then mainly describes the certifica-tion standards and bodies in the certification process.%数字信息的海量生成促使数字仓储的出现,而数字资源的真实可靠也对数字仓储的可信任程度提出了更高要求。本文首先简介了可信数字仓储认证的必要性,然后阐述可信数字仓储的认证标准与主体。

  1. 黄浦江下游段水质参数BOD和DO计算方法初探%Calculation of the Water Quality Parameters BOD and DO for the Lower Reach of the Huangpujiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强耀

    2006-01-01

    BOD和DO是衡量河流水质好坏的两个常用的参数,利用O'connor河口衰减模式,从溶解氧成因分析黄浦江下游吴泾至吴淞段DO与BOD和NOD的相关性,提出有别于Streeter-Phelps(S-P模式)的计算方法,计算结果与实测数据较符合,可以为黄浦江下游段水环境影响评价和容量的计算以及水质目标管理提供服务.

  2. Discussion on Correlation of BOD and COD of Synthetic Sewerage in Pingdingshan City%平顶山市综合污水BOD与COD的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦连喜; 肖晓存

    2007-01-01

    通过对平顶山市综合污水BOD和COD值的多次测定,建立了BOD与COD的相关曲线和区间估计范围,从而利用该曲线,根据COD值可快速求出BOD值,用于指导污水处理厂的生产,可达到简单、快速、准确之目的.

  3. 40 CFR 405.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.976 0.488 TSS 1.462 .731 pH (1) (1) English units... for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Metric units (kilograms per 1,000 kg of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.716 0.290 TSS 1.088 .435 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 100 lb of BOD5 input) BOD5 0.073...

  4. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  5. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... except as provided for in § 133.103, or paragraphs (d), (e) or (f) of this section. (a) BOD 5. (1) The 30...) of this section. Where concurrent BOD effluent data are available, they must be submitted with...

  6. 40 CFR 35.929-1 - Approval of the user charge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minimum, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) per volume of flow. Dischargers with a volume exceeding 25,000 gpd or the weight of BOD or SS equivalent to that weight found in 25,000 gpd...

  7. 40 CFR 133.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consecutive days. (c) Act. The Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., as amended). (d) BOD. The five day measure of the pollutant parameter biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). (e) CBOD 5. The five day measure...

  8. C2-3、T10-11和L3-4椎间盘段弯曲力学特性%The Bending (Extension Bit) Mechanical Properties of C2 - 3, T10 - 11, L3 - 4 Intervertebral Disc and Adjacent Vertebral Bod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 王溪原; 赵宝林; 马洪顺

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to realize the mechanical properties of the C2 -3 、T10 - 11、 L3 -4 in order to prevent and treat the herniated disk. So we test the bent experiment of the C2 -3、T10 -11、L3 -4 taken from the fresh dead bodies and provide biological mechanical data for clinic. The experimental specimens are taken from male fresh corpses of normal people, 20 -30 years old respectively. The C1 - S1 spine specimens are taken from the bodies within one hour after death, and the C2 -3 、T10 - 11 、L3 -4 intervertebral discs and vertebral bodies are cut by line cutting, each thirteen samples. Do the test on the Japanese shimadzu electronic universal testing aircraft, the experimental speed is 5mm/min, obtain the bending mechanics performance index of maximum load、 maximum bending moment、 maximum stress of the C2 - 3、 T10 - 11、 L3 - 4 groups. The maximum load and maximum bending moment of C2- 3group is less than the T10 - 11 group and the L3 -4 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of C2 - 3 group is less than T10 - 11 group, with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ). The maximum stress of L3 -4 group is greater than the T10- 11 group and the C2- 3 group with a significant difference (p < 0.05 ).%预防和治疗椎间盘脱出等退行性改变需要了解C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体的弯曲力学特性,本文对人体C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体进行弯曲试验,为临床提供生物力学参数.实验标本取自正常人新鲜尸体脊柱标本,男性,年龄20~30岁,人死后1h内解剖尸体取出C1-S1脊柱标本,以线锯切取C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体各13个标本,在日本岛津电子万能测试机上以5 mm/min的实验速度进行弯曲实验,得出C2-3、T10-11、L3-4组标本的最大载荷、最大弯矩、最大应力等力学参数.实验结果得出,C2-3组标本最大载荷、最大弯矩小于T10-11组和L3-4组,有显著性差异(p<0.05);C2-3组标本最大应力小于T10-11组,有显著性差异(p<0.05);L3-4组最大应力大于T10-11组和C2-3组,有显著性差异(p<0.05).此结果说明C2-3、T10-11、L3-4椎间盘与相邻椎体具有不同的抗弯曲力学特性,可对了解腰椎间盘的损伤机理提供生物力学参.

  9. Bod a škvrna. Od symbolistického kódu k hľadaniu nového jazyka spirituálnej poézie (1. časť (The Point and the Blur. From the Symbolistic Code to the Search for the New Language of Spiritual Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Juhásová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual themes in the 20th century Slovak poetry were influenced first of all by the aesthetic code of symbolism with a small exception in the 1930s when it was influenced by H. Bremond’s conception of pure poetry. Only in contemporary spiritual poetry the power of the symbolist code is weakening, and aesthetic impulses of avant-gardes and poststructuralist tendencies become a more distinctive source of inspiration. Against the background of the interpretation of two poetic texts—Milan Rúfus: Vlastnoručný podpis, zb. Vážka, 1998 [The Handwritten Signature, coll. The Dragonfly], and Erik Jakub Groch: Sa, zb. Druhá naivita, 2005 [Self, coll. The Second Naïveté], the study focuses on important developmental impulses in literary thought, observing how in a certain period the power of one aesthetic code begins to weaken and leaves a space for a new one to succeed.

  10. 77 FR 44717 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Sur Terminal Terrestre de Carga Bloque 4 Bod. 32, Cota, Cundinamarca, Colombia; NIT 860517890-9... Bloque 4 Bod. 32, Cota, Cundinamarca, Colombia; NIT 860522569-9 (Colombia) 7. PANOS Y SEDAS LTDA. (a.k.a....5 Autop. Medellin Via Siberia Costado Sur Terminal, Terrestre de Carga Bloque 4 Bod. 32,...

  11. Women in the boardroom: how do female directors of corporate boards perceive boardroom dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how female directors of corporate boards of directors (BoD) experience boardroom dynamics. The study represents an initial research trend that moves from a unilateral focus on financial outcomes of female representation in BoDs toward stronger attention on the social dynamics in the boardroom. Drawing on social identity theory, the study proposed that female directors often constitute an out-group within the BoD, preventing them from experiencing positive b...

  12. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  13. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    on the same order of magnitude for all three catchments. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction) in Ume river was four...... times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment than in the two southern catchments. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help...

  14. Measurement of Atrial Septal Defect Size: A Comparative Study between Transesophageal Echocardiography and Balloon Occlusive Diameter Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Eslami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect secundum (ASD-II has become an alternative method for surgery. We sought to compare the two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE method for measuring atrial septal defect with balloon occlusive diameter (BOD in transcatheter ASD-II closure.Methods: A total of 39 patients (71.1% female, mean age: 35.31 ± 15.37 years who underwent successful transcatheter closure of ASD-II between November 2005 and July 2008 were enrolled in this study. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and TEE were performed to select suitable cases for device closure and measure the defect size before the procedure, and BOD measurement was performed during catheterization via TEE. The final size of the selected device was usually either equal to or 1 – 2 mm larger than the BOD of the defect.Results: The mean defect size obtained by TEE and BOD was 18.50 ± 5.08 mm and 22.86 ± 4.76 mm, respectively. The mean difference between the values of ASD size obtained by TEE and BOD was 4.36 ± 2.93 mm. In comparison with BOD, TEE underestimated the defect size in 94.9%, but TEE value being equal to BOD was observed in 5.1%. There was a good linear correlation between the two measurements: BOD = 0.773 × ASD size by TEE+8.562; r2 = 67.9.1%. A negative correlation was found between TEE sizing and the difference between BOD and TEE values (r = -0.394, p value = 0.013.Conclusion: In this study, BOD was larger than ASD size obtained by two-dimensional TEE. However, TEE maximal defect sizing correlates with BOD and may provide credible information in device size selection for transcatheter ASD closure.

  15. Development and characterization of microbial biosensors for evaluating low biochemical oxygen demand in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Gab-Joo

    2013-12-15

    Five microorganisms were used to construct a biosensor for the evaluation of low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in rivers. Characterization and comparison of BOD biosensors were performed using two standard solutions: glucose and glutamic acid (GGA) and artificial wastewater (AWW). Pseudomonas putida SG10 demonstrated the best response when using AWW. Trichosporon cutaneum IFO10466, however, had an extremely poor response. When evaluating the biosensor response to each component of AWW, all of the microorganisms except T. cutaneum displayed the highest response to tannic acid. In a comparison of the two standard solutions for all the microorganisms, the biosensor responses of GGA were approximately three times higher than those of AWW were. In the BOD determination of environmental samples, the biosensor BOD values evaluated using AWW were slightly lower or equivalent to BOD5 values, whereas the biosensor BOD values evaluated using GGA were considerably lower. These results suggest that GGA is suitable for the detection of high BOD in industrial wastewaters and factory effluents, while AWW is suitable for the detection of low BOD in rivers. PMID:24209354

  16. A Novel Biosensor for the Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-SONG CHEN; LI-SHENG ZHANG; JIAN-LONG WANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the function of a novel biosensor used for the rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is developed by our research group based on suspended immobilized microbial cell system in a completely mixed determining chamber as a substitute of the traditional membrane system. Methods Activated sludge was immobilized by PVA gel and used as a bio-sensing element. The novel biosensor was used to measure the short time BOD value and the conventional cultivation method was used for BOD5 measurement. Results A linear relationship was observed for the difference between the current and the concentration of glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution below 200mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The optimal response of the sensor was obtained at pH 7.0 and 30℃. The sensor response was within 15 min and was reproducible within ±5% of the mean in a series of eight samples containing 75 mg/L BOD using standard GGA solution. The novel sensor response was found to be fairly constant over a period of 0days, with ±5% fluctuations. Conclusion A relatively good agreement is found between BOD estimated by the novel BOD biosensor and that determined by the conventional 5-day BOD method. This novel BOD biosensor has good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.

  17. Development and characterization of microbial biosensors for evaluating low biochemical oxygen demand in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Gab-Joo

    2013-12-15

    Five microorganisms were used to construct a biosensor for the evaluation of low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in rivers. Characterization and comparison of BOD biosensors were performed using two standard solutions: glucose and glutamic acid (GGA) and artificial wastewater (AWW). Pseudomonas putida SG10 demonstrated the best response when using AWW. Trichosporon cutaneum IFO10466, however, had an extremely poor response. When evaluating the biosensor response to each component of AWW, all of the microorganisms except T. cutaneum displayed the highest response to tannic acid. In a comparison of the two standard solutions for all the microorganisms, the biosensor responses of GGA were approximately three times higher than those of AWW were. In the BOD determination of environmental samples, the biosensor BOD values evaluated using AWW were slightly lower or equivalent to BOD5 values, whereas the biosensor BOD values evaluated using GGA were considerably lower. These results suggest that GGA is suitable for the detection of high BOD in industrial wastewaters and factory effluents, while AWW is suitable for the detection of low BOD in rivers.

  18. 40 CFR 432.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform ( 2 ) ( 3... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3)...

  19. Nutrient fluxes and adaptation to environmental dynamics by phytoplankton in the Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.; Mandalia, A.V.; Narvekar, S.M.; Karangutkar, S.H.

    was analysed by titrating 5 ml sample against silver nitrate using potassium chromate as an indicator. DO was determined by Winkler method and BOD was determined by using unseeded method after incubating BOD bottles for 3 days (Grasshoff et al., 2002...

  20. Systematic review of foodborne burden of disease studies: Quality assessment of data and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); S. Polinder (Suzanne); C. Stein (Claudia); A.H. Havelaar (Arie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBurden of disease (BoD) studies aim to identify the public health impact of different health problems and risk factors. To assess BoD, detailed knowledge is needed on epidemiology, disability and mortality in the population under study. This is particularly challenging for foodborne dise

  1. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik;

    2010-01-01

    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...... to be slightly less sensitive than Leuctra. Other plecopterans such as Isoperla showed a similar type of response curve to Leuctra (negative exponential) but occurred at sites with relatively high concentrations of BOD5 up to 3-4 mg L-1. In contrast, the response curve of the isopod Asellus aquaticus followed...... a saturation function reaching a plateau above 3-4 mg L-1 BOD5 and the dipteran Chironomus showed an exponential increase in occurrence with increasing BOD5 concentration. Macroinvertebrate occurrence appeared to be related primarily to concentrations of BOD5, NH4-N and total-P whereas there were almost...

  2. Influence of biological oxygen demand degradation patterns on water-quality modeling for rivers running through urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Wang, Wei-Shen

    2008-10-01

    Water-quality modeling has been used as a support tool for water-resources management. The Streeter-Phelps (SP) equation is one often-used algorithm in river water-quality simulation because of its simplicity and ease in use. To characterize the river dissolved oxygen (DO) sag profile, it only considers that the first-order biological oxygen demand (BOD) degradation and atmospheric reaeration are the sink and source in a river, respectively. In the river water-quality calculation, the assumption may not always provide satisfactory simulation due to an inappropriate description of BOD degradation. In the study, various patterns of BOD degradation were combined with the oxygen reaeration to simulate the DO sag profile in a river. Different BOD degradation patterns used include the first-order decay, mixed second-order decay, and oxygen-inhibition decay. The results shows that the oxygen-inhibition SP equation calculates higher BOD and DO concentration, while the mixed second SP equation calculates the least among the three tested models. In river-water calculation of Keelung River, the SP and oxygen-inhibition SP equations calculate similar BOD and DO concentrations, and the mixed second SP equation calculates the least BOD and DO concentration. The pollution loading of BOD and atmospheric reaeration constant are the two important factors that have significant impacts on aqueous DO concentration. In the field application, it is suggested that the mixed second SP equation be employed in water-quality simulation when the monitoring data exhibits a faster trend in BOD decay. The oxygen-inhibition SP equation may calculate the water quality more accurately when BOD decay is slower.

  3. Oxygen demand of aircraft and airfield pavement deicers and alternative freezing point depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Mericas, Dean; Bowman, George

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft and pavement deicing formulations and other potential freezing point depressants were tested for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Propylene glycol-based aircraft deicers exhibited greater BOD5 than ethylene glycol-based aircraft deicers, and ethylene glycol-based products had lower degradation rates than propylene glycol-based products. Sodium formate pavement deicers had lower COD than acetate-based pavement deicers. The BOD and COD results for acetate-based pavement deicers (PDMs) were consistently lower than those for aircraft deicers, but degradation rates were greater in the acetate-based PDM than in aircraft deicers. In a 40-day testing of aircraft and pavement deicers, BOD results at 20°C (standard) were consistently greater than the results from 5°C (low) tests. The degree of difference between standard and low temperature BOD results varied among tested products. Freshwater BOD test results were not substantially different from marine water tests at 20°C, but glycols degraded slower in marine water than in fresh water for low temperature tests. Acetate-based products had greater percentage degradation than glycols at both temperatures. An additive component of the sodium formate pavement deicer exhibited toxicity to the microorganisms, so BOD testing did not work properly for this formulation. BOD testing of alternative freezing point depressants worked well for some, there was little response for some, and for others there was a lag in response while microorganisms acclimated to the freezing point depressant as a food source. Where the traditional BOD5 test performed adequately, values ranged from 251 to 1,580 g/kg. Where the modified test performed adequately, values of BOD28 ranged from 242 to 1,540 g/kg.

  4. Application of Single Regression Analysis on Wastewater Treatment Plant%一元回归分析在污水处理厂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫艳萍; 王劼

    2013-01-01

    以沈阳某污水处理厂的进水水质为例,用SPSS软件对COD和BOD进行回归分析.结果表明,COD和BOD之间具有线性关系,其一元线性回归方程为COD=35.76+2.26*BOD.利用该回归方程测算BOD,对BOD预测值和实际值进行t检验,发现两者之间不存在显著性差异,从而表明利用回归方程洲算BOD方便快速,有助于生产运行管理.%Taking the influent water quality of a wastewater treatment plant in Shenyang as example, this paper analyzed the relationship between COD values and BOD values by SPSS software. The results indicate that values of COD and BOD are in linear relation. The linear regression equation is COD=35.76+ 2.26*BOD. Compared the BOD value estimated by regression equation and the actual value with t test, there is no significant difference. So, using regression equation to estimate BOD value is convenient and helpful for management.

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis from paper mill wastewater treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, Mayra; Pozo, Guillermo; Baeza, Rocío; Martínez, Miguel; Vidal, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in paper mill wastewater treated by a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was evaluated. A MBBR was operated during 300 d. The increasing effect of the Organic Load Rate (OLR) from 0.13 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d to 2.99 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d and the influence of two relationship of BOD(5:) N: P (100: 5: 1 and 100: 1: 0.3) on the PHA biosynthesis were evaluated. With an OLR of 0.13 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d, the maximum organic matter removal measure as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD(5)) was 98.7% for a BOD(5:) N: P relationship of 100: 5: 1. Meanwhile for BOD(5): N: P relationship of 100: 1: 0.3, the maximum efficiency was 87.2% (OLR: 2.99 kg BOD(5)/m(3)·d). The behaviour of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and total phenolic compound removal efficiencies were below 65.0% and 41.0%, respectively. PHA biosynthesis was measured as a percentage of cells that accumulate PHA, where the maximum percentage was 85.1% and 78.7% when MBBR was operated under a BOD(5): N: P relationship of 100: 5: 1 and 100: 1: 0.3, respectively. Finally, the PHA yields in this study were estimated to range between 0.11 to 0.72 mg PHA/mg VSS and 0.06 to 0.15 mg PHA/mg COD.

  6. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    the distribution between particulate and unsedimented (suspended and dissolved) organic waste. Quantifying aquaculture waste, including organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), into different waste fractions (particulate and unsedimented) is essential for optimising the design of different treatment setups...... it was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The study...

  7. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  8. Performance of anaerobic fixed film down-flow reactor for spent wash treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a bench scale 'anaerobic fixed-film down-flow bioreactor' with glass bead as a packing material for treatment of high strength wastewater (spent wash) in terms of percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal at various temperatures has been studied. The reactor is operated at temperatures ranging from 35 deg. C to 51 deg. for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days. For this hydraulic retention time, experimental results show that COD removal is 60-64.8 % and BOD removal is 65.3 - 70%. The maximum percent COD and BOD removal is observed at 41 deg. C. (author)

  9. Schurft en aardappelen : introductie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    In deze introductie wordt ingegaan op enkele resultaten van het onderzoek naar de beheersing van schurft in aardappelen door teeltmaatregelen, chemische bestrijding en rassenverschillen; drie soorten schurft komen aan bod: poerderschurft, gewone schurft en netschurft.

  10. Some aspects of pollution of coastal marine environment of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.

    of the Bay. Studies undertaken in recent years to delineate effects of anthropogenic impacts on water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics have revealed marked increase in nutrient concentrations, depletion in DO and enhancement of BOD...

  11. Soft Computing of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using an Improved T-S Fuzzy Neural Network☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Qiao; Wei Li; Honggui Han

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the online values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) due to the characteristics of nonlinear dynamics, large lag and uncertainty in wastewater treatment process. In this paper, based on the knowledge representation ability and learning capability, an improved T–S fuzzy neural network (TSFNN) is in-troduced to predict BOD values by the soft computing method. In this improved TSFNN, a K-means clustering is used to initialize the structure of TSFNN, including the number of fuzzy rules and parameters of membership function. For training TSFNN, a gradient descent method with the momentum item is used to adjust antecedent parameters and consequent parameters. This improved TSFNN is applied to predict the BOD values in effluent of the wastewater treatment process. The simulation results show that the TSFNN with K-means clustering algorithm can measure the BOD values accurately. The algorithm presents better approximation performance than some other methods.

  12. Marketingmanagement : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze v

  13. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze v

  14. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  15. Kalkoenen: relatie stress-voeding-kwaliteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferket, P.; Veldkamp, T.

    1995-01-01

    leder jaar wordt in het Verenigd Koninkrijk een congres georganiseerd waar allerlei aspecten van de kalkoenhouderij aan bod komen. In april 1995 werd het congres gehouden in Renfrew, Schotland. P. Ferket

  16. A new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of Japanese body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, N; Nonaka, K; Fujii, M

    1999-11-01

    A new device based on the plethysmographic measurement of body volume, named the BOD POD Body Composition System, was developed for the purpose of estimating body composition. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. The coefficient variation (CV:%) in same-day tests was 2.48, in three separate-day tests it was 2.27, and for independent operators it was 4.53, respectively. There was a clear correlation between the results from BOD POD and those from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (r = 0.910, p BOD POD. The findings indicate that the BOD POD is a highly reliable and valid method for determining body fat percentage. This new method has several advantages, e.g. it is quick, simple to operate and may accommodate wide populations.

  17. Learning efficient disambiguation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sima'an, K.

    2001-01-01

    Dit proefschrift analyseert de computationele eigenschappen van hedendaagse performance-modellen van menselijke taalverwerking, zoals Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) (Scha, 1990; Scha, 1992; Bod, 1995a). Het constateert enkele belangrijke beperkingen en tekortkomingen, en doet voorstellen voor verbeterd

  18. Modeling Water Quality in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liren Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, distributed source, nitrogenous BOD, BOD sedimentation, photosynthetic production and benthic demand of oxygen, and so on. The software has been used to model the DO profile along one river, with the aim to improve the water quality through suitable engineering measure.

  19. Theoretical update on two non-resonant three-body channels in charmed meson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, D X

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of two channels in the three-bod decays of the charmed mesons are made within the heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. There still exists the problem that the theoretical expectation is too small compared to the experimental data.

  20. Duurzaamheidsaspecten van de teelt en verwerking van energiegewassen in Zuidoost Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corré, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Resultaten van berekeningen van de effecten van teelt en verwerking van energiegewassen van vier verschillende ketens. De duurzaamheidsaspecten die aan bod komen zijn: vermindering fossiel energiegebruik en broeikasgas (BKG) emissie, behoud organische stof in de bodem, nitraatuitspoeling uit de bode

  1. CO-TREATABILITY OF A DOMESTIC AND AN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER CONTAINING DYESTUFF BY THE ACTIVATED - SLUDGE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    MURATHAN, Ayşe

    1999-01-01

    Co-treatment of an industrial wastewater containing dyestuff was studied with a domestic wastewater by the activated-sludge method was investigated. Treatment efficiency was obtained by determining. BOD, COD and total suspended solids values.

  2. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Performance Standards Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26... standards: Effluent Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N)...

  3. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    in the drainage zones also contribute to pollution loads. These inputs have affected the water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics of receiving waters to varying degrees. BOD in coastal water is often high and water is enriched in dissolved...

  4. From Fire Rain to Rebellion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A publiciation of a selection of the late Rev. Bodding's collection of Santal myth and history. The manuscripts are presently in the Oslo University. The texts are edited in Santali and translated into English with an introduction.......A publiciation of a selection of the late Rev. Bodding's collection of Santal myth and history. The manuscripts are presently in the Oslo University. The texts are edited in Santali and translated into English with an introduction....

  5. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Verma; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response t...

  6. Removal and Utilization of Wastewater Nutrients for Algae Biomass and Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Erick W.

    2009-01-01

    The Logan City Environmental Department operates a facility that consists of 460 acres of fairly shallow lagoons (~ 5'deep) for biological wastewater treatment that meets targets for primary and secondary treatments (solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and pathogen removal). Significant natural algal growth occurs in these lagoons, which improves BOD removal through oxygenation and also facilitates N removal through volatilization as ammonia under high pH conditions created by algal grow...

  7. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zaher Abdallah; Gina Hammam

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are the most commonly used parameters for the characterization of wastewaters. Both of these parameters have advantages and disadvantages, and the choice usually depends on many factors such as the time period required to determine each one of them. It is essential to obtain a correlation between BOD5 and COD for various wastewater treatment plants, to help in the design and operation of these plants. In this paper, the biodegr...

  8. UASB/DHS廃水処理システムによる食品加工排水の処理特性

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 憲哉; 大槻, 洸太; 小野, 心也; 谷川, 大輔; 山口,隆司

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of food processing wastewater treatment was investigated in laboratoryscale continuous UASB/DHS system for 560 days. The UASB reactor was operated at HRT of 9 hours , while DHS reactor was operated at HRT of 4.5 hoursBOD removal of 88 ± 13 % was obtained at influent BOD concentration of 477 ± 193 mg/L. Similarly, SS removal of 91 ± 6 % was obtained at influent SS concentration of 278 ± 78 mg/L.

  9. The effects of different institutional investors and board of director characteristics on corporate social responsibility of public listed companies: the case of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osemeke, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of institutional investors and board of director (BOD) characteristics on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of Public Listed Companies (PLCs) in Nigeria. This study is motivated by the lack of empirical studies in Nigeria concerning the role of different institutional investors and BOD on CSR. More specifically, this study uses multi-method approaches: firstly, the case study method involving in-depth interviews, documentary data followed by postal...

  10. Boardroom diversity and company's financial performance: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the thesis is to study board of directors (BOD) diversity and its relation with firm financial performance of Chinese listed companies. Following previous studies on western countries' BODs, diversity is measured by director's personal background such gender, age and ethnicity and board independence. In addition, this study adds new aspect of board diversity: the director's political background. Company's financial performance is measured by its profitability fi...

  11. Nordlyset og skæbnen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på.......Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på....

  12. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  13. Survey of ENT services in Africa: need for a comprehensive intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Johan J.; Jacobs, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Burden of disease (BOD) is greatest in resource-starved regions such as Africa. Even though hearing disability ranks third on the list of non-fatal disabling conditions in low- and middle-income countries, ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders are not specifically coded for within the framework governing global BOD estimates, and in discussions about health challenges, non-communicable diseases receive scant attention. Implementing cost-effective interventions to address condition...

  14. Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, Juan P; Mesana, Maria I; Poortvliet, Eric; Ortega, Francisco B; Polito, Angela; Nagy, Eniko; Widhalm, Kurt; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.

  15. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  16. 弱衰变Bd→J/ψKs中的CP破坏与新物理%Possible Implications of Small or Large CP Violation in B0d vs B0d-J/ψKs Decays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志忠

    2002-01-01

    We argue that a small or large CP-violating asymmetry in Bod vs Bod→ J/ψKs decays,which seems to be favored by the recent BaBar or Belle data, might hint at the existence of new physics in Bod - Bod mixing. We present a model-independent framework to show how new physics modifies the standard-model CP-violating asymmetry . We particularly emphasize that an experimental confirmation of must not imply the absence of new physics in Bod-Bod mixing.%最近BaBar与Belle国际合作组对弱衰变Bd→J/ψKs中的CP破坏测量结果似乎暗示有新物理存在于Bod-Bod混合.为此给出一个模型无关的分析,以说明新物理对标准模型结果的可能修正.特别强调,即使实验证明Bd→J/ψKs中的CP破坏效应与标准模型的预言相符,仍然有可能存在新物理.

  17. Evaluation of multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks in prediction of water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Abyaneh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the efficiency of multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in prediction of two major water quality parameters in a wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as indirect indicators of organic matters are representative parameters for sewer water quality. Performance of the ANN models was evaluated using coefficient of correlation (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias values. The computed values of BOD and COD by model, ANN method and regression analysis were in close agreement with their respective measured values. Results showed that the ANN performance model was better than the MLR model. Comparative indices of the optimized ANN with input values of temperature (T), pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and total suspended (TS) for prediction of BOD was RMSE = 25.1 mg/L, r = 0.83 and for prediction of COD was RMSE = 49.4 mg/L, r = 0.81. It was found that the ANN model could be employed successfully in estimating the BOD and COD in the inlet of wastewater biochemical treatment plants. Moreover, sensitive examination results showed that pH parameter have more effect on BOD and COD predicting to another parameters. Also, both implemented models have predicted BOD better than COD.

  18. Watershed modeling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand using a hydrological simulation Fortran program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Kieffer, Janna M; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H; Hossain, Faisal

    2007-11-01

    Several inland water bodies in the St. Louis Bay watershed have been identified as being potentially impaired due to low level of dissolved oxygen (DO). In order to calculate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL), a standard watershed model supported by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF), was used to simulate water temperature, DO, and bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD). Both point and non-point sources of BOD were included in watershed modeling. The developed model was calibrated at two time periods: 1978 to 1986 and 2000 to 2001 with simulated DO closely matched the observed data and captured the seasonal variations. The model represented the general trend and average condition of observed BOD. Water temperature and BOD decay are the major factors that affect DO simulation, whereas nutrient processes, including nitrification, denitrification, and phytoplankton cycle, have slight impacts. The calibrated water quality model provides a representative linkage between the sources of BOD and in-stream DO\\BOD concentrations. The developed input parameters in this research could be extended to similar coastal watersheds for TMDL determination and Best Management Practice (BMP) evaluation.

  19. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  20. Performance Evaluation of Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment for the Wastewater of Potato Processing Industry: A Case Study of a Local Chips Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the performance of anaerobic-aerobic treatment system of a local potato processing industry. The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consisted of primary treatment, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), activated sludge process (ASP) and secondary clarifier. The study analyzed the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of the influent (raw sewage) as well as the effluent from each component of the plant. Grab wastewater samples were collected on weekly basis and analyzed for the pH, settleable solids (SS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Study revealed that mean influent wastewater concentrations of TSS, TDS, SS, BOD and COD were 840 mg/L, 2,396 mg/L and 18.7 mL/L, 2,186 mg/L and 3,679 mg/L, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency in UASB for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 56%, 61 % and 51%, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency in activated sludge system for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 70%, 57% and 48%, respectively. The mean percentage removal efficiency of combined anaerobic-aerobic system for TSS, BOD and COD was found to be 93%, 90% and 80%, respectively. The mean effluent concentrations of TSS, BOD and COD were 52 mg/L, 197 mg/L and 784 mg/L, respectively. The effluent from WWTP satisfied NEQS for TSS (200 mg/L) while NEQS for BOD (80 mg/L) and COD (150 mg/L) were not satisfied. Some operational problems, responsible for inadequate efficiencies of the plant components, were identified and solutions were suggested for these problems. (author)

  1. Air displacement plethysmography versus dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lowry

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating fat percentage is important for assessing health and determining treatment course. Methods of estimating body composition such as hydrostatic weighing or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, however, can be expensive, require extensive operator training, and, in the case of hydrostatic weighing, be highly burdensome for patients. Our objective was to evaluate air displacement plethysmography via the Bod Pod, a less burdensome method of estimating body fat percentage. In particular, we filled a gap in the literature by testing the Bod Pod at the lower extreme of the Body Mass Index (BMI distribution.Three BMI groups were recruited and underwent both air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We recruited 30 healthy adults at the lower BMI distribution from the Calorie Restriction (CR Society and followers of the CR Way. We also recruited 15 normal weight and 19 overweight/obese healthy adults from the general population. Both Siri and Brozek equations derived body fat percentage from the Bod Pod, and Bland-Altman analyses assessed agreement between the Bod Pod and DXA. Compared to DXA, the Bod Pod overestimated body fat percentage in thinner participants and underestimated body fat percentage in heavier participants, and the magnitude of difference was larger for underweight BMI participants, reaching 13% in some. The Bod Pod and DXA had smaller discrepancies in normal weight and overweight/obese participants.While less burdensome, clinicians should be aware that Bod Pod estimates may deviate from DXA estimates particularly at the lower end of the BMI distribution.

  2. Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Goran, Michael I; McCrory, Megan A

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory-based body-composition techniques include hydrostatic weighing (HW), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurement of total body water (TBW) by isotope dilution, measurement of total body potassium, and multicompartment models. Although these reference methods are used routinely, each has inherent practical limitations. Whole-body air-displacement plethysmography is a new practical alternative to these more traditional body-composition methods. We reviewed the principal findings from studies published between December 1995 and August 2001 that compared the BOD POD method (Life Measurement, Inc, Concord, CA) with reference methods and summarized factors contributing to the different study findings. The average of the study means indicates that the BOD POD and HW agree within 1% body fat (BF) for adults and children, whereas the BOD POD and DXA agree within 1% BF for adults and 2% BF for children. Few studies have compared the BOD POD with multicompartment models; those that have suggest a similar average underestimation of approximate 2-3% BF by both the BOD POD and HW. Individual variations between 2-compartment models compared with DXA and 4 -compartment models are partly attributable to deviations from the assumed chemical composition of the body. Wide variations among study means, -4.0% to 1.9% BF for BOD POD - HW and -3.0% to 1.7% BF for BOD POD - DXA, are likely due in part to differences in laboratory equipment, study design, and subject characteristics and in some cases to failure to follow the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Wide intersubject variations between methods are partly attributed to technical precision and biological error but to a large extent remain unexplained. On the basis of this review, future research goals are suggested.

  3. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  4. Wet oxidation lumped kinetic model for wastewater organic burden biodegradability prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich, Svetlana; Kallas, Juha

    2002-08-01

    In many cases, treatment of wastewaters requires a combination of processes that very often includes biological treatment. Wet oxidation (WO) in combination with biotreatment has been successfully used for the treatment of refractory wastes. Therefore, information about the biodegradability of wastewater solutes and particulates after wet oxidation is very important. The present work proposes a model that can describe the oxidation process via organic concentration characteristics such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and immediately available BOD (IA BOD) and so can allow the prediction of biodegradability (i.e., BOD/COD ratio). The reaction mechanism includes the destruction of nonbiodegradable substances bytwo pathways: oxidation to carbon dioxide and water and oxidation to larger biodegradable compounds with their further degradation to smaller ones measured via IA BOD. The destruction of small biodegradable compounds to end products is also included in the model. The experiments were performed at different temperatures (170-200 degrees C) and partial oxygen pressures (0.5-1.5 MPa) in a batch stainless steel high-pressure autoclave. The model of concentrated thermomechanical pulp circulation water was selected for the experiments. The proposed model correlates with the experimental data well and it is compared with other WO models in the literature. PMID:12188362

  5. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SEWAGE INCOMING TO AND DISCHARGED FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN KOLBUSZOWA DOLNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  6. Combined UV/ Fenton and SBR Treatment of a Semi-aerobic Landfill Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the combined UV/ Fenton and sequencing batch biological reactor (SBR) treatment of a semi-aerobic landfill leachate. Fenton pretreatment of the leachate was optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). UV/ Fenton pretreatment of the leachate was performed under the optimum operating conditions of the Fenton pretreatment (H2O2/ COD molar ratio 2.25, H2O2/ Fe2+ molar ratio 10.0 and reaction/ irradiation time 1.5 h). The characteristics of the UV/ Fenton pretreated leachate were: COD 390 mg/ L, sCOD 330 mg/L, BOD5 136 mg/L, BOD5/ COD ratio 0.35, NH3-N 112 mg/ L, TKN 157 mg/ L, NO3--N 6.8 mg/ L and colour 99 Pt-Co Unit. SBR treatment of the UV/ Fenton pretreated leachate resulted in sCOD, BOD5 and NH3-N removal of 78 %, 81 % and 88 %, respectively. The final effluent characteristics were: COD 92 mg/ L, sCOD 71 mg/L, BOD5 26 mg/ L, NH3-N 7 mg/ L, NO3--N 27 mg/ L, TKN 13 mg/ L and TSS 38 mg/ L. The effluent met the Malaysian discharge standard (B) - COD 100 mg/ L, BOD5 50 mg/ L and TSS 100 mg/ L. Combined UV/ Fenton and SBR is an effective treatment for mature leachate from semi-aerobic landfill. (author)

  7. Comparison of air-displacement plethysmography, hydrodensitometry, and dual X-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition of children 10 to 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, D W; Heyward, V H; Baumgartner, R N; Jenkins, K A

    2000-05-01

    Body density (Db) of 54 boys and girls 10-18 years of age (13.9 +/- 2.4 years) was measured in an air-displacement plethysmograph, the BOD POD, and compared to Db determined by hydrodensitometry (HW). Both Db values were converted to percent body fat (%BF) using a two-component model conversion formula and compared to %BF determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body density estimated from the BOD POD (1.04657 +/- 0.01825 g/cc) was significantly higher than that estimated from HW (1.04032 +/- 0.01872 g/cc). The relative body fat calculated from the BOD POD (23.12 +/- 8.39 %BF) was highly correlated but, on average, 2.9% BF lower than %BF DXA. Average %BF estimates from HW and DXA were not significantly different. Despite consistently underestimating the %BF of children, the strong relationship between DXA and the BOD POD suggests that further investigation may improve the accuracy of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in children.

  8. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF and humic-like fluorescence (HLF, respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  9. Physical-chemical and operational performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR treating swine wastewater - 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i4.7203

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Lopes Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since hog raising concentrates a huge amount of swine manure in small areas, it is considered by the environmental government organizations to be one of the most potentially pollutant activities. Therefore the main objective of this research was to evaluate by operational criteria and removal efficiency, the performance of a Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR, working as a biological pre-treatment of swine culture effluents. The physical-chemical analyses carried out were: total COD, BOD5, total solids (TS, fix (TFS and volatiles (TVS, temperature, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus, total acidity and alkalinity. The ABR unit worked with an average efficiency of 65.2 and 76.2%, respectively, concerning total COD and BOD5, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT about 15 hours. The results for volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR, organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic loading rate (HLR were: 4.46 kg BOD m-3 day-1; 1.81 kg BOD5 kg TVS-1 day-1 and 1.57 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. The average efficiency of the whole treatment system for total COD and BOD5 removal were 66.5 and 77.8%, showing an adequate performance in removing the organic matter from swine wastewater.

  10. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus dos Santos Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto;

    2011-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring...... of biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m2 was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD5 of 317±15mg O2/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD5 concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O2/L...... to 78±7.6mg O2/L. The current generation from the BOD biosensor was dependent on the measurement conditions such as temperature, conductivity, and pH. Thus, a correction factor should be applied to measurements done under different environmental conditions from the ones used in the calibration...

  11. Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Based on Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Absorption, and Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 is the most commonly practiced test to assess the water quality of surface waters and the waste loading. However, BOD5 is not a good parameter for the control of water or wastewater treatment processes because of its long test period. It is very difficult to produce consistent and reliable BOD5 results without using careful laboratory quality control practices. This study was performed to develop software sensors to predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration, UV light absorbance at 254 nm, and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluate the feasibility of the software sensors. In short, the software sensors developed in this study could well predict the BOD5 of river water (r=0.78 and for the WWTP effluent (r=0.90.

  12. Integrating the Anaerobic Process with Ultrafiltration in Meat Industry Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study meat industry wastewater treatment efficiency during fermentation process in ASBR reactor and post-treatment in UF process. The anaerobic process obtained a considerable degree of the removal of organic pollutants from raw wastewater designated as COD (73.3%, BOD (71.4% and TOC (83.2%. The concentrations of COD and BOD were 435 and 443 mg/dm3, respectively. The value of TOC reached a level of 136 mg/dm3. Generated biogas in the methane fermentation process of wastewater from meat industry plants was characterized by high methane content (80.9% vol.. In the final part of the experiment, the UF process was used in order to post-treating effluent from ASBR reactor. During the UF process, COD, BOD and TOC parameters were removed at 67.2%, 68% and 70.4%, respectively.

  13. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  14. Saharan dust transport and deposition towards the Tropical Northern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schepanski

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Saharan dust export towards the tropical North Atlantic using the regional dust emission, transport and deposition model LM-MUSCAT. Horizontal and vertical distribution of dust optical thickness, concentration, and dry and wet deposition rates are used to describe seasonality of dust export and deposition towards the eastern Atlantic for three exemplary months in different seasons. Deposition rates strongly depend on the vertical dust distribution, which differs with seasons. Furthermore the contribution of dust originating from the Bodélé Depression to Saharan dust over the Atlantic is investigated. A maximum contribution of Bodélé dust transported towards the Cape Verde Islands is evident in winter when the Bodélé source area is most active and dominant with regard activation frequency and dust emission. Limitations of using satellite retrievals to estimate dust deposition are highlighted.

  15. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  16. Application of iron nanaoparticles in landfill leachate treatment - case study: Hamadan landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashitarash, Zahra Esfahani; Taghi, Samadi Mohammad; Kazem, Naddafi; Abbass, Afkhami; Alireza, Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total solids (TS) and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reaction time and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. Maximum removal efficiencies were 47.94%, 35%, 55.62% and 76.66% for COD, BOD5, TS and color, respectively (for 2.5 g/L iron nanoparticles dosage, pH = 6.5 and 10 min reaction time). The results showed that the removal of COD, BOD5 and color had reverse relationship with contact time and TS removal followed a direct relationship (P solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants. PMID:23369361

  17. Anammox brings WWTP closer to energy autarky due to increased biogas production and reduced aeration energy for N-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, H; Salzgeber, D; Eugster, J; Joss, A

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago when only BOD was removed at municipal WWTPs primary clarifiers were designed with 2-3 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). This changed with the introduction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge treatment that needed more BOD for denitrification. The HRT of primary clarification was reduced to less than one hour for dry weather flow with the consequence that secondary sludge had to be separately thickened and biogas production was reduced. Only recently the ammonia rich digester liquid (15-20% of the inlet ammonia load) could be treated with the very economic autotrophic nitritation/anammox process requiring half of the aeration energy and no organic carbon source compared to nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification. With the introduction of this new innovative digester liquid treatment the situation reverts, allowing us to increase HRT of the primary clarifier to improve biogas production and reduce aeration energy for BOD removal and nitrification at similar overall N-removal. PMID:18309216

  18. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  19. Marine pollution in Cameroon (Gulf of Guinea): State and remedies for successful control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the various research results obtained over several years in Cameroon on coastal and marine pollution, especially pollution by solid wastes, industrial and domestic effluents, hydrocarbons (tar balls), heavy metals and pesticides. Values in the order of 175,531 and 194,685 tons have been estimated for annual pollution loads in terms of BOD and suspended matter respectively. With respect to BOD, the most polluting industries are petroleum refineries, food processing and chemical industries which respectively represent 38, 36 and 10% of the total annual BOD. Measurement of tar balls on various Cameroonian beaches shows values as high as 42.40 g/m2 of beach, while the concentration of heavy metals encountered in shrimps and fish consumed in Cameroon shows a very wide range of values. Most of these values are similar to those obtained within the region, and some are alarming in their magnitude

  20. Influence of Strong Diurnal Variations in Sewage Quality on the Performance of Biological Denitrification in Small Community Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Urbini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The great diurnal variation in the quality of wastewater of small communities is an obstacle to the efficient removal of high nitrogen with traditional activated sludge processes provided by pre-denitrification. To verify this problem, the authors developed a pilot plant, in which the domestic wastewater of community of 15,000 inhabitants was treated. The results demonstrate that average and peak nitrogen removal efficiencies of over 60% and 70%, respectively, are difficult to obtain because of the strong variations in the BOD5/NO3-N ratios and the unexpected abnormal accumulation of dissolved oxygen during denitrification when the BOD5 load is low. These phenomena cause inhibitory effects and BOD5 deficiency in the denitrification process. The results demonstrate the need for a more complex approach to designing and managing small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs provided with denitrification than those usually adopted for medium- and large-size plants.

  1. 曝气生物滤池处理石油采出水的动力学特性研究%Kinetic Performance of Oil-field Produced Water Treatment by Biological Aerated Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德林; 王建龙; 刘凯文; 周定

    2007-01-01

    The biological aerated filter (BAF) was used to treat the oil-field produced water. The removal efficiency for oil, COD, BOD and suspended solids (SS) was 76.3%-80.3%, 31.6%-57.9%, 86.3%-96.3% and 76.4%-82.7%, respectively when the hydraulic loading rates varied from 0.6m·h-1 to 1.4m·h-1. The greatest part of removal, for example more than 80% of COD removal, occurred on the top 100cm of the media in BAF. The kinetic performance of BAF indicated that the relationship of BOD removal efficiency with the hydraulic loading rates in biological aerated filters could be described by cr/ci=1-exp(-2.44/L0.59). This equation could be used to predict the BOD removal efficiency at different hydraulic loading rates.

  2. Pilot Experimentation with Complete Mixing Anoxic Reactors to Improve Sewage Denitrification in Treatment Plants in Small Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of two sewage treatment tests in a community of 15,000 inhabitants. The sewage treatment plant is subject to strong fluctuations in load (BOD5, COD, TKN, and in particular in the BOD5/TKN ratio. These fluctuations adversely affect the biological denitrification, as demonstrated by many pilot and real-scale plants. The plants we tested were subjected to two treatment types: anoxic-aerobic and simultaneous denitrification. Both processes are designed for complete mixing conditions in the reactors in order to level the fluctuations in the load and thus improve the denitrification efficiency. The results prove that an average denitrification efficiency of up to 80% can be achieved with the sludge loading close to 0.1 kg BOD5 (d∙kgMLVSS−1. The effect of the sludge loading and dissolved oxygen on the denitrification efficiency is highlighted.

  3. Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, J

    1996-01-01

    Excellent results have been reported for Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) of natural language texts (Bod, 1993). Unfortunately, existing algorithms are both computationally intensive and difficult to implement. Previous algorithms are expensive due to two factors: the exponential number of rules that must be generated and the use of a Monte Carlo parsing algorithm. In this paper we solve the first problem by a novel reduction of the DOP model to a small, equivalent probabilistic context-free grammar. We solve the second problem by a novel deterministic parsing strategy that maximizes the expected number of correct constituents, rather than the probability of a correct parse tree. Using the optimizations, experiments yield a 97% crossing brackets rate and 88% zero crossing brackets rate. This differs significantly from the results reported by Bod, and is comparable to results from a duplication of Pereira and Schabes's (1992) experiment on the same data. We show that Bod's results are at least partially due to an e...

  4. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  5. Rapid determination of effluent pollution by potentiometry; Determinacion rapida de la polucion de efluentes por potenciometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Rodriguez, M. [Esc. Tec. Sup. Ing. C. C. y P. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we are showing a analytical procedure of rapid determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD, of effluents by potentiometry, that consumes about 30 minutes versus 5 days for classical procedure. It is expound kinetics equations of measurement evolution of BOD and the two analytical device more frequently used for its analysis. It is showing the design and performance of measurement device of rapid BOD. Vessel design constituted by two parts, one is a decantation funnel with communications in its wide and narrow sites, other is a measurement piece where fits both probe and gas inlet, that design helps liquid flow to probe impeding direct contact with the gas. The meter device in this analytical procedure is the Oxidation Reduction Potential meter, ORP, it is represented by Pt parallel KCI (3 M), Ag Cl (sat) Ag. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. Removal of contaminants in a paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sivakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on removal of various parameters in paper mill effluent using a method called bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana.  The experimental investigations have been carried out using Azolla caroliniana for conducting the sorption study with various dilution ratios (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 and biomass (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 g. The maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was obtained at the optimum dilution ratio of 6, pH of 8 and biomass of 800 g. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent was 82.3 %, 88.6 % and 79.1 % respectively.  Also, the study focused on uptake of TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent by Azolla caroliniana through bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor. The results of bioaccumulation factor revealed that TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent were adsorbed by Azolla caroliniana.  The results of translocation factor revealed that the roots of Azolla caroliniana translocate the TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent to the shoots of Azolla caroliniana. From the results, this study concluded that bioremediation by Azolla caroliniana could be effectively used for removing TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent. This study also suggested that Azolla caroliniana may be used for removing various contaminants, not only from paper mill effluent, but also from any other industrial effluents.

  7. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation.

  8. A flow injection analysis system with encapsulated high-density Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyo Seong; Choo, Kwang Ho; Chang, Ho Nam; Park, Joong Kon

    2009-05-01

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination was studied using a novel flow injection analysis (FIA) system with encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and an oxygen electrode and was compared with conventional 5-day BOD tests. S. cerevisiae cells were packed in a calcium alginate capsule at a dry cell weight of 250 g/l of capsule core. The level of dissolved oxygen (DO) was reduced due to the enhanced respiratory activity of the microbial cells when the injected nutrient passed through the bioreactor. The decrease in DO (DeltaDO) was intensified with the amount of microbial cells packed in the bioreactor. However, the specific DeltaDO decreased as the amount of cells loaded in the bioreactor increased. The DeltaDO value was dependent on the pH and temperature of the mobile phase and reached its maximum value at 35 degrees C and pH 7-8. Also, DeltaDO became larger at longer response times as the flow rate of the mobile phase decreased. The measurement of DeltaDO was repeated more than six times consecutively using a 20-ppm standard glucose and glutamic acid solution, which confirmed the reproducibility with a standard deviation of 0.95%. A strong linear correlation between DeltaDO and BOD was also observed. The 5-day BOD values of actual water and wastewater samples were in accordance with the BOD values obtained by this FIA method using encapsulated S. cerevisiae cells. Unlike the cell-immobilized bead system, there was no contamination of the bioreactor resulting from any leak of yeast cells from the sensor capsules during BOD measurements. PMID:19153729

  9. 利用微生物电解池构建新型BOD快速测定生物传感器%A NovelBiosensor Based on Microbial Electrolysis Cells for Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海明; 司万童; 潘建刚

    2015-01-01

    基于微生物电解池构建了新型生化需氧量(BOD)快速测定生物传感器,以葡萄糖-谷氨酸溶液为模拟废水对传感器的性能进行了评估。结果表明:(1)当外加电压保持为0.7 V,传感器的最大电流与BOD浓度在10~400 mgL1内符合Monod方程,且传感器的最大电流和BOD浓度在10~100 mgL1呈线性关系;(2)传感器的测量时间短,BOD浓度在10~400 mgL1测量时间约为10 min;(3)传感器的重复性(±SD<±12.2%,n=6)和稳定性(±SD<±6%,12 d)好。结论:基于微生物电解池开发新型 BOD 生物传感器是可行的,且传感器具有灵敏度高、线性范围宽、检测时间短、重复性及稳定性好等优点,并能快速测定BOD。%A novel microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) based biosensor for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was developed, and its performance was evaluated with glucose-glutamic acid containing artificial wastewater. The results show that when the applied voltage is kept at 0.7 V, the maximum current of the biosensor follows Monod equation under BOD concentration of 10~400 mgL1, and the maximum current has linear relationship with BOD when the BOD concentration is in the range of 10~100 mgL1. The results also indicate that the measurement time is about 10 min when the BOD concentration is in the range of 10~400 mgL1. The relative standard deviation of repeatability was less than ±12.2%, while the relative standard deviation of stability was less than ±6% over a period of 12 days. These results demonstrate that the development of novel biosensors based on MEC for rapid determination of BOD is feasible, and the biosensor has advantages of high sensitivity, wide linear range, short detection time, good repeatability and good stability.

  10. MWD resistivity tool guides bit horizontally in thin bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagin, R.A. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports on the MWD dual processing resistivity (DPR) measurements and modelling which helped steer a horizontal well through a thin oil zone to avoid a nearby oil/water contact. The horizontal well came on-line flowing 380 bo/d with no water production. Offset vertical wells produce an average of 33 bo/d with an 83% saltwater cut. Until recently, horizontal drilling efforts have been focused on thick reservoirs in which the stratigraphic position of the well bore within the target formation was not critical. Navigation through much thinner reservoirs is now possible with a technique that uses an electromagnetic propagation resistivity tool.

  11. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  12. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O3/H2O2 and O3/γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  13. A Study of Treatment of Printing and Dyeing Wastewater from Complex Coagulant and Membrane Bioreactor%混凝_MBR工艺处理印染废水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2010-01-01

    本试验采用混凝沉淀_MBR工艺对印染废水进行处理.试验研究表明:混凝后COD的去除率达到80 %以上,BOD5的去除率达到55 %以上,色度的去除率达到84 %以上;再经MBR处理,出水COD低于30 mg/L,BOD5低于10 mg/L,色度低于30度,达到了回用水的标准.

  14. PW膜-生物反应器法处理制药发酵废水%Treatment of Fermentation Wastewater from Pharmaceutical Production by PW Membrane-Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄其明

    2001-01-01

    采用PW膜生物反应器法处理制药发酵废水, 工程运行结果表明在进水 CODcr为 7 130~2 480 mg/L, BOD 5为 617~668 mg/L, NH 3-N为 141~149 mg/L的条件下, 排出水的 CODcr、 BOD 5、 NH 3-N的平均去除率分别达到了 98% 、 96% 、 98% 以上, 符合国家排放标准的要求.

  15. Preliminary screening of small-scale domestic wastewater treatment systems for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matamoros, Victor; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 13 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as well as BOD5, TSS and NH4þ were evaluated for the first time in thirteen onsite household secondary wastewater treatment systems, including two compact biofilters followed by Filtralite-P filter units......, two biological sand filters, five horizontal subsurface flow and four vertical flow constructed wetlands. As expected, all systems removed TSS and BOD5 efficiently (>95% removal). The PPCP removal efficiencies exceeded 80% with the exception of carbamazepine, diclofenac and ketoprofen because...

  16. BOD快速测定的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳

    2014-01-01

    运用BOD微生物传感器快速测定仪,对大量不同行业和环境水体的实际样品进行了BOD快速并与国标五日生化需氧量法(BOD5)进行对比实验,通过所得到的比对数据以BOD5为基准对BOD快速法的适用性进行了探究.

  17. Guidelines For Health-Based Ventilation In Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, Paolo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo;

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease (BoD) associated with major air exposures indoors in 26 European countries was recently accounted for loss of two million healthy life years annually expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) (Jantunen et al., 2011). The development of health-based ventilation...... guidelines has been recommended as one of the strategic priorities to reduce this BoD (de Oliveira-Fernandes et al., 2009), also because the current ventilation standards in Europe provide different categories of comfort, not health, as the main criteria for designing ventilation requirements (EN 13779, 2007...

  18. Kapitalismens ud- eller afvikling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Ingen af David Harveys mange værker er hidtil blevet udgivet på dansk. Det har forlaget Solidaritet nu rådet bod på med udgivelsen af "17 modsætninger og enden på kapitalisme"......Ingen af David Harveys mange værker er hidtil blevet udgivet på dansk. Det har forlaget Solidaritet nu rådet bod på med udgivelsen af "17 modsætninger og enden på kapitalisme"...

  19. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Patel; R. T. Vashi

    2010-01-01

    The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0%) of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was trea...

  20. ECOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION LAVELS OF WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF NIVKA RIVER NEAR THE AIRPORT «KYIV»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Konovets

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of hydrochemical analyses and biotesting of surface water and sediments of Nivka river near the airport «Kiev» are presented. Exceeding of maximum permissible values for a number of indexes (COD, BOD5, ammonia and nitrates and considerable contamination of surface water and sediments by oil products and some of heavy metals is demonstrated.

  1. Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Es, E.M. van; Graaf, J.L. de

    2006-01-01

    The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole bod

  2. High removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand from tequila vinasses by using physicochemical and biological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes-Pruneda, Jose Luis; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Medina-Ramírez, Iliana; Chavez-Vela, Norma Angelica; Lozano-Alvarez, Juan Antonio; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Jauregui-Rincon, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this research is to find a more effective treatment for tequila vinasses (TVs) with potential industrial application in order to comply with the Mexican environmental regulations. TVs are characterized by their high content of solids, high values of biochemical oxygen demand (BODs), chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and intense colour; thus, disposal of untreated TVs severely impacts the environment. Physicochemical and biological treatments, and a combination of both, were probed on the remediation of TVs. The use of alginate for the physicochemical treatment of TVs reduced BOD5 and COD values by 70.6% and 14.2%, respectively. Twenty white-rot fungi (WRF) strains were tested in TV-based solid media. Pleurotus ostreatus 7992 and Trametes trogii 8154 were selected due to their ability to grow on TV-based solid media. Ligninolytic enzymes' production was observed in liquid cultures of both fungi. Using the selected WRF for TVs' bioremediation, both COD and BOD5 were reduced by 88.7% and 89.7%, respectively. Applying sequential physicochemical and biological treatments, BOD5 and COD were reduced by 91.6% and 93.1%, respectively. Results showed that alginate and selected WRF have potential for the industrial treatment of TVs.

  3. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  5. New data on electron-beam treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on electron-beam treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are presented. The effects of electron irradiation on various parameters (color, COD, BOD5, total number of microbes, odor, content of pollutants and so on) of municipal wastewater are considered. The special attention is paid to the radiation-induced decomposition of synthetic surfactants

  6. Rood en groen : het combineren van verstedelijking en natuur in de praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jókövi, E.M.; Luttik, J.

    2003-01-01

    De combinatie van natuur met verstedelijking is één van de vormen van verbreding van natuur. De centrale vraag in deze studie is hoe dat in de praktijk combineert. In deze studie komen aan bod: rood voor groen in de stadsuitbreiding; vraag en aanbod van groen wonen; groen als vestigingsfacor voor be

  7. (On)duidelijkheid bij Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ducheine; F. Osinga

    2014-01-01

    Het Kamerdebat in april over bewapende onbemande vliegtuigen was uitermate verward en verwarrend. Het ging niet alleen over deze ‘drones’, maar ook de rol van inlichtingendiensten, Amerikaanse contra-terrorisme-operaties en robotisering kwamen in de discussie veelvuldig aan bod. Hoog tijd om een aan

  8. Application of iron nanaoparticles in landfill leachate treatment - case study: Hamadan landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashitarash Zahra Esfahani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total solids (TS and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reaction time and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. Maximum removal efficiencies were 47.94%, 35%, 55.62% and 76.66% for COD, BOD5, TS and color, respectively (for 2.5 g/L iron nanoparticles dosage, pH = 6.5 and 10 min reaction time. The results showed that the removal of COD, BOD5 and color had reverse relationship with contact time and TS removal followed a direct relationship (P 5, TS and color in a short contact time (10 min increasing pH up to 6.5, increased the removal efficiency for COD, BOD5, TS and color and then removal efficiency decreased with increasing pH to 8.5. Increasing the dosage of nanoparticles to 2.5 g/L increased the efficiency of process. High compatibility and efficiency of this process was proven by landfill leachate pre-treatment or post-treatment, so this removal method may be recommended for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants.

  9. Contact- and contact-free wear between various resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Osiewicz; A. Werner; J. Pytko-Polonczyk; F.J.M. Roeters; C.J. Kleverlaan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nowadays direct and indirect resin composites are frequently applied to build up the occlusion when extensive tooth wear took place. To achieve long-lasting restorations it is essential to obtain knowledge about their interactions due to occlusal contacts. Therefore, the two- and three-bod

  10. Water Purification Characteristic of the Actual Constructed Wetland with Carex dispalata in a Cold Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Morio; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsukada, Hiroko

    Carex dispalata, a native plant species applied in cold districts for water purification in constructed wetlands, has useful characteristics for landscape creation and maintenance. In this study, seasonal differences in purification ability were verified, along with comparison of frozen and non-frozen periods' performance. A wetland area was constructed using a “hydroponics method” and a “coir fiber based method”. Results show that the removal rates of BOD, SS, and Chl-a were high. On this constructed wetland reduces organic pollution, mainly phytoplankton, but the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was insufficient. The respective mean values of influent and treated water during three years were 26.6 mg/L and 12.2 mg/L for BOD, and 27.9 mg/L and 7.5 mg/L for SS. The mean value of the BOD removal rate for the non-frozen period was 2.99 g/m2/d that for the frozen period was 1.86 g/m2/d. The removal rate followed the rise of the BOD load rate. The removal rate limits were about 4 g/m2/d during the frozen period and 15 g/m2/d during the non-frozen period. For operations, energy was unnecessary. The required working hours were about 20 h annually for all maintenance and management during operations.

  11. 厌氧/生物脱氮/MBR/NF/RO工艺处理渗滤液%Application of anaerobic-biological denitrification-MBR-NF-RO process to the treatment of landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立勇; 贾赞利; 刘俊良; 梁丽华

    2015-01-01

    The combined process,anaerobic-biological denitrification-MBR-nanofiltration-reverse osmosis has been used for the treatment of highly-concentrated landfill leachate with refractory organic compounds. The operation results show that,the removing rates of CODCr,BOD5,NH4+-N and TN are over 99%. The effluent CODCr, BOD5,NH4+-N and TN are equal to or less than 60,20,8,20 mg/L respectively,meeting the requirements specified in the Standard of Pollutant Control in the Domestic Rubbish Landfill Yard(GB 16889—2008).%采用厌氧/生物脱氮/MBR/NF/RO工艺处理含高浓度难降解有机物的垃圾渗滤液。运行结果表明,该工艺对渗滤液的CODCr、BOD5、NH4+-N、TN的去除率均超过99%,出水CODCr≤60 mg/L,BOD5≤20 mg/L,NH4+-N≤8 mg/L, TN≤20 mg/L,达到《生活垃圾填埋场污染物控制标准》(GB 16889—2008)。

  12. Estimation of Near-Field and Far-Field Dilutions for Site Selection of Effluent Outfall in a Coastal Region - A Case Study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, V.S.

    and no ecological sensitive areas are present in the vicinity. Also laying of pipeline in the southern side of the mouth is not possible due to presence of historical Fort on the bank of the estuary. The concentration field of BOD was simulated by solving the 2...

  13. Lp-centroid Bo dies and Its Characterizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tong-yi; Zhang De-yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the characteristic properties for Lp-centroid bod-ies, and an improved version of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is obtained. In addition, using the definitions of Lp-pole curvature image and Lp-affine surface area, a new proof of Busemann-Petty problem for Lp-centroid bodies is given.

  14. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, A.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced bod

  15. Bulk Densities of Binary Asteroids from the Warm Spitzer NEO Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, John; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazo, G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Warm Spitzer NEO survey, ExploreNEOs, will observe approximately 700 Near Earth Asteroids. Several of these objects are known to be binary asteroid systems. Binary systems are interesting due to the unique opportunity they present for determining the masses and densities of their constituent bod

  16. 40 CFR 417.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the.... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease...

  17. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.03 .01 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per...

  18. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil...

  19. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 1.80 0.60 COD 4.50 1.50 TSS 1.20 .40 Oil and grease 0.30 .10 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds...

  20. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations... anhydrous product) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.06 .02 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English...

  1. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  2. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  3. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  4. 77 FR 70785 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  5. 77 FR 2983 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale-Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of the charter...

  6. 78 FR 12327 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Meeting of the Advisory Panel on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., College of Pharmacy; Ana Natale- Pereira, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine...-President, Healthcare Information and Management System Society; Julie Bod n Schmidt, Associate Vice... establishing this Panel on January 21, 1999 (64 FR 7899, February 17, 1999) and approved the renewal of...

  7. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  8. Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish po

  9. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560

  10. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  11. Biodegradability enhancement of municipal landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pi Kewu; Gong Wenqi

    2008-01-01

    The method of enhancing the biodegradability of landfill leachate via air stripping followed by coagulation/ultrafiltration (UF) processes is introduced. In this study, the air stripping process obtained a removal efficiency of 88.6% for ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), at an air-to-liquid ratio (A/L) of 3 300 (pH=11) and after 18 h of stripping. The single coagulation process increased the BOD (biological oxygen demand)/COD (chemical oxygen demand) ratio by 0.089 with a FeCl3 dosage of 570 mg/L, at pH 7.0, and the single UF process increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.311. However, the combination of coagulation and UF increased the BOD/COD ratio from 0.049 to 0.423, and the final BOD, COD, NH3-N, and colour of the leachate were 1 023 mg/L, 2 845 mg/L, 145 mg/L, and 2 056, respectively, when a 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membrane was used at an operating pressure of 0.7 MPa. In the ultrafiltration process, the average solution flux (JⅤ), concentration multiple (MC), and retention rate (R) for the COD were 107.3 L/(m2.h), 6.3, and 84.2%, respectively.

  12. Field test of best management practice pollutant removal efficiencies in Shenzhen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru ZHANG; Wenbin ZHOU; Richard FIELD; Anthony TAFURI; Shaw L. YU; Keli JIN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the use of best management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint pollution in the Xikeng Reservoir watershed located in Shenzhen, China. A BMP treatment train design, including a pond, a wetland, and a buffer strip placed in series was implemented at the reservoir location. A separate grass swale was also constructed at the site. Low impact development (LID) BMPs, namely a planter box and bioboxes, were used at the parking lot of the reservoir's Administration Building. Samples were collected during storm events and were analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). The removal efficiencies of both BMP systems were evaluated using the Efficiency Ratio (ER) method based on the event mean concentration (EMC) data. In summary, the pond/wetland treatment train removed 70%-90% of TSS, 20%-50% of BOD5, and 30%-70% of TP and NH3-N. The swale removed 50%,90% of TSS, 30%-55% of BOD5, -10%-35% of NH3-N, and 25%-70% of TP. For the planter box and biobox, the ranges of removal rates were 70%-90%,20%-50%, and 30%-70% for TSS, BOD5, and ammonia and phosphorus, respectively.

  13. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  14. Ärikeskus meelelahutajatele / Andres Haabu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haabu, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Balti riikides suurim salvestusega CD- ja DVD-plaate tootev kontsern Baltic Optical Disc (BOD) Group tähistas muusika, filmi ja multimeedia valdkonnale pühendatud ärikeskuse laiendusosa ehitustööde alustamist nurgakivi panekuga Tallinnas Laagris 25. septembril

  15. Seltskond / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Balti riikides suurim salvestusega CD- ja DVD-plaate tootev kontsern BOD Group tähistas muusika, filmi ja multimeedia valdkonnale pühendatud ärikeskuse laiendusosa ehitustööde alustamist nurgakivi panekuga Tallinnas Laagris 25. septembril

  16. Smart with Natural Gas in the built environment; Slim met Gas in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, H.; Oude Elberink, L.; Holwerda, B. [et al.] (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    This magazine addresses the future of the energy system, the role of natural gas in the energy transition process and innovative (gas) technology for the built environment [Dutch] In dit magazine komen de toekomst van de energievoorziening, de rol van aardgas in het energietransitieproces en innovatieve (gas)technologie voor de gebouwde omgeving aan bod.

  17. Altered body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The styd objectives were to identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without type 2 diabetes, and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Participants were overweight and obese (bod...

  18. Erkennen van een MOOC: een statusoverzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuwer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Toekennen van studiepunten aan het succesvol volgen van een MOOC. Dit onderwerp is in de afgelopen jaren al meermalen aan bod gekomen bij discussies over mogelijke effecten van MOOC’s op het reguliere onderwijs. Medio 2014 verscheen een verkenning hierover van de NVAO (NVAO, 2014). Eén van de consta

  19. Stochastic modeling for river pollution of Sungai Perlis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Nurul Izzaty Mohd.; Rahman, Haliza Abd. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [UTM-Centre of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    River pollution has been recognized as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in human. It can pose health dangers to humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is most important to measure the concentration of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a water quality parameter since the parameter has long been the basic means for determining the degree of water pollution in rivers. In this study, BOD is used as a parameter to estimate the water quality at Sungai Perlis. It has been observed that Sungai Perlis is polluted due to lack of management and improper use of resources. Therefore, it is of importance to model the Sungai Perlis water quality in order to describe and predict the water quality systems. The BOD concentration secondary data set is used which was extracted from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Perlis State website. The first order differential equation from Streeter – Phelps model was utilized as a deterministic model. Then, the model was developed into a stochastic model. Results from this study shows that the stochastic model is more adequate to describe and predict the BOD concentration and the water quality systems in Sungai Perlis by having smaller value of mean squared error (MSE)

  20. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed.

  1. Ugens pressefotos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    Nyhedsuge-undersøgelsen fra 1999 blev - med nogen ret - kritiseret for at gøre for lidt ud af nyhedsmediernes billedside. Det råder vi bod på her ved at analysere pressefotografier i dagblade, ugeaviser og fagblade. Det sker på grundlag af 10 vurderingskriterier, som udmøntes i 20 konkrete...

  2. Evaluation of Methods for Nitrogen and Phosporus Control in Sewage Effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, O.; Hansen, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    The design parameters for the City of Copenhagen sewage-treatment works were established on an experimental basis, and parallel studies of six pilot plants were made over a two-year period. The key parameters are (a) the rate of nitrification and denitrification, (b) temperature, and (c) BOD...

  3. Regulære og Singulære Sturm-Liouvilleproblemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig

    1996-01-01

    for Chemical Engineers. Notesamlingen forsøger at råde bod på disse mangler.Noterne indeholder en kort oversigt over de kendte teoretiske resultater for regulære SL-problemer som baggrund for en mere omfattende oversigt over teorien for singulære Sturm-Liouvilleproblemer. Hovedformålet med noterne er...

  4. Opgørelse af regularitet på jernbaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    stedet for togregularitet betyder, at passagererne ikke stilles ringere ved ”overdrevent” fokus på regularitet. Brug af passagerregularitet i bod-bonus-kontrakter betyder endvi-dere, at der vil være fokus på at sikre så gode forhold for passagererne som muligt. Passagerernes forhold kan endvidere...

  5. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Broch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    events with time series of concentration of SS, COD, BOD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The quality parameters showed significant first flush effects. The paper discusses whether either the event average concentration or the accumulated event mass is the most appropriate way to characterize...

  6. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  7. Prediction of wastewater quality using amperometric bioelectronic tongues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Dock, Eva; Tonning, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    regression (PLS-R), we could link the sensor responses to the Microtox (R) toxicity parameter, as well as to global organic pollution parameters (COD, BOD, and TOC). From investigating the influences of individual sensors in the array, it was found that the best models were in most cases obtained when all...

  8. Støj fra installationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.; Ovesen, K.

    søger at råde bod på den manglende erfaring hos fabrikanter, projekterende og udførende. Den omhandler Bygningsreglementets bestemmelser, Strømning i vandfyldte rørsystemer, Brugsvandsanlæg, Afløbsinstallationer, Vandvarmeanlæg, Ventilationsanlæg, Isolering mod vibrationer og rystelser frembragt af...

  9. Monoids of moduli spaces of manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Søren; Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    with generalised orientations specified by a map ¿: X ¿ BO(d). The main result of [Acta Math. 202 (2009) 195–239] is a determination of the homotopy type of the classifying space BC¿. The goal of the present paper is a systematic investigation of subcategories D¿C¿ with the property that BD¿ BC¿, the smaller...

  10. Fate of Triclosan in activated sludge treatment - bridging the missing gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Chen, Xijuan; Furgal, Karolina;

    will present data on which part of the treatment process (BOD removal, nitrogen removal, phosphorus removal, i.e., aerobic-, nitrate reducing- and anaerobic conditions) is the most relevant for the elimination of triclosan as well as the formation of triclosan-methyl. Kinetic data for the different steps...

  11. Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model? A Reply to Joshua Goodman

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, R

    1996-01-01

    This note is a reply to Joshua Goodman's paper "Efficient Algorithms for Parsing the DOP Model" (Goodman, 1996; cmp-lg/9604008). In his paper, Goodman makes a number of claims about (my work on) the Data-Oriented Parsing model (Bod, 1992-1996). This note shows that some of these claims must be mistaken.

  12. Unges friluftsliv set med integrationsbriller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Det er almindelig kendt, at indvandrere ikke deltager i foreningsliv i samme omfang som etniske danskere. Det er der forsøgt rådet bod på ved at invitere unge med anden etnisk baggrund end dansk til at dyrke spejdersport i henholdsvis Varde og København NV. Tilgangen til at integrere de unge var...

  13. Skattereglerne for erhvervsdrivende fonde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    bod herpå. Artiklen skal især belyse de udfordringer, fondene har for at undgå dobbeltbeskatning. Det kan konkluderes, at motiverne for at indføre den såkaldte prioriteringsregel hviler på et tvivlsomt grundlag og fører til en helt forskellig skattemæssig stilling for de enkelte erhvervsdrivende fonde...

  14. Environment and health within the OECD-region: lost health, lost money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse JM; Hollander AEM de; LBM; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the environmental health impact within the OECD region, both in terms of lost health and lost money. 2-5% of the total Burden of Disease (BoD) was attributed to environmental factors. Environmental health loss in the OECD high income subregion was monetary valued at US$45-140 bi

  15. Enhancing the biological degradability of sulfamethoxazole by ionizing radiation treatment in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sági, Gyuri; Kovács, Krisztina; Bezsenyi, Anikó; Csay, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Changes of biodegradability and toxicity were followed up on aqueous solutions of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), during ionizing radiation treatment. The biodegradability of SMX (0.1 mmol dm-3) was specified by five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), using municipal activated sludge, and the results showed an improvement with applying only 0.4 kGy dose. BOD5 further increased with prolonged irradiation, indicating a conversion of SMX, a non-biodegradable compound, to biologically treatable substances. At 2.5 kGy dose, the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0 to 0.16. The total organic carbon (TOC) content showed a decrease of only 15% at this point, thus high degree of mineralization is not necessary to make SMX digestible for the low concentrations of microorganisms used during BOD5 measurements. Increment in respiration inhibition of municipal activated sludge was observed with increasing the dose. The EC50 values showed a decrease of one order of magnitude when changing the dose from 0.4 kGy to 2.5 kGy. The increase of inhibition and formation of H2O2 showed a strong correlation.

  16. A constructed treatment wetland for pulp and paper mill wastewater: performance, processes and implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abira, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The doctoral research study conducted in Kenya gives the first insight into the performance of a constructed treatment wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater in the tropics. The wetland effectively removed organic matter, suspended solids, phenols and nutrients. BOD and phenols reduction

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Federal Guidelines-User Charges for Operation and Maintenance of Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all users per unit of time. Bc = O&M cost for treatment of a unit of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Guidelines-User Charges for... Subpart E of Part 35—Federal Guidelines—User Charges for Operation and Maintenance of Publicly...

  18. 40 CFR 401.11 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... user shall be defined in accordance with section 502 of the Act unless the context otherwise requires... have the following meanings: (1) BOD5 means five-day biochemical oxygen demand; (2) COD means chemical oxygen demand; (3) TOC means total organic carbon; (4) TDS means total dissolved solids; (5) TSS...

  19. Disease: H00920 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1) Oxidative phosphorylation hsa01100(84701) Metabolic pathways COX4I2 [HSA:84701] [KO:K02263] Shwachman-Bod... expressed in acinar cells, leads to failure to absorb fat and deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins. Metabol...ic disease; Pancreas disease; Hematologic disease; Skeletal dysplasia hsa00190(8470

  20. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  1. UV-catalytic treatment of spent caustic from ethene plant with hydrogen peroxide and ozone oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zheng-zhe; SUN De-zhi; LI Chang-hai; SHI Peng-fei; DUAN Xiao-dong; SUN Guo-rong; LIU Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The performance of UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for treating spent caustic froman ethylene plant was investigated. In UV/H2O2 system, with the increase of H2O2 dosage, removal efficiencies ofCOD and the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) to chemical oxygen demand(COD) of the effluent wereincreased and a better performance was obtained than the H2O2 system alone. In UV/H2O2 system, removalefficiency of COD reach 68% under the optimum condition, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from0.22 to 0.52. In UV/O3 system, with the increase of O3 dosage, removal efficiency of COD and BOD/COD ratiowere increased, and a better performance was obtained than the O3 system alone. Under the optimum condition,removal efficiency of COD was 54%, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.22 to 0.48. In UV/H2O2/O3 system, COD removal efficiency was found to be 22.0% higher than UV/O3 system.

  2. 40 CFR 133.102 - Secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary treatment. 133.102 Section... TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.102 Secondary treatment. The following paragraphs describe the minimum level of effluent quality attainable by secondary treatment in terms of the parameters—BOD5, SS and pH....

  3. De petten van de agent : Opkomst en ontwikkeling van de nieuwsagent in de Republiek der Nederlanden, 1600–1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, J

    2015-01-01

    Dit artikel beschrijft de opkomst van de ‘agent’ in de zeventiende eeuw. Meer specifiek komen de agenten aan bod die vanuit de Republiek hun opdrachtgevers bedienden, die zich voornamelijk buiten de Republiek bevonden. Aan de hand van de agency theory betoogt Feringa dat het ontstaan van het fenomee

  4. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable effluent limitations for BOD5. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If...

  5. Orthogonal experiment on reclaimed water treatment and economic optimization model in green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 张成; 柴宏祥; 樊明玉

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of superior drainage in green building treated by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland was launched. The results show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (Nv),temperature (t) and addition dosage (ρ) is BOD5=2.05Nv-0.41t-0.82ρ+38.9. The orthogonal experiment results of constructed wetland post-treatment show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (NA),and temperature (t) is BOD5=1 190NA-0.32t+12.2. Based on the two orthogonal regression equations,combined of green building municipal gray reclaimed water quantity requirements in different seasons,a technology investment on economic optimization model of combinational technique was established. The results offer technological support for reclaimed water treatment,which regards superior drainage as the source and is purified by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland. According to the model,the reasonable scale of reclaimed water treatment systems can be determined,the treatment efficacy can be well predicted,and both the design and operating can be effectively guided.

  6. Archiving challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ringersma, J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching slides on: What is a digital archive? Parties involved in digital archiving Archiving challenges organization of data coherence and persistency access and safety Language archiving software Different users, different needs For: Saami Language Documentation and Revitalization. Winter school, Bodø, Norway

  7. Linear and nonlinear relationships between biodegradation potential and molecular descriptors/fragments for organic pollutants and a theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jia; Qin, Weichao; Zhang, Xujia; Wen, Yang; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuanhui, E-mail: zhaoyh@nenu.edu.cn

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of the biodegradability of organic pollutants is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. In this paper, linear and nonlinear relationships between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and molecular descriptors/fragments have been investigated for 1130 organic chemicals. Significant relationships have been observed between the simple molecular descriptors and %BOD for some homologous compounds, but not for the whole set of compounds. Electronic parameters, such as E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO}, are the dominant factors affecting the biodegradability for some homologous chemicals. However, other descriptors, such as molecular weight, acid dissociation constant and polarity still have a significant impact on the biodegradation. The best global model for %BOD prediction is that developed from a chain-based fragmentation scheme. At the same time, the theoretical relationship between %BOD and molecular descriptors/fragments has been investigated, based on a first-order kinetic process. The %BOD is nonlinearly, rather than linearly, related to the descriptors. The coefficients of determination can be significantly improved by using nonlinear models for the homologous compounds and the whole data set. After analysing 1130 ready and not ready biodegradable compounds using 23 simple descriptors and various fragmentation schemes, it was revealed that biodegradation could be well predicted from a chain-based fragmentation scheme, a decision tree and a %BOD model. The models were capable of separating NRB and RB with an overall accuracy of 87.2%, 83.0% and 82.5%, respectively. The best classification model developed was a chain-based model but it used 155 fragments. The simplest model was a decision tree which only used 10 structural fragments. The effect of structures on the biodegradation has been analysed and the biodegradation pathway and mechanisms have been discussed based on activating and

  8. 2种曝气方式对微孔纤维束膜净化低碳氮比自然水体的影响%EFFECT OF TWO AERATION METHODS ON THE PURIFICATION OF NATURAL WATER WITH LOW RATIO OF C/N BY MICROPOROUS HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晟; 李邦玉; 陈一虎; 王毅婧

    2015-01-01

    以浮岛为载体(30.0 m×l.0 m×2.0 m),在DO的质量浓度(2.1±0.2)mg/L、HRT为24h、水温(25±2)℃下,研究微曝气浮岛A和常规曝气浮岛B净化低碳氮比(m(C)m(N)=1.3:1)水体中BOD5和凯氏氮(TKN)、TN含量的影响.结果表明,除空白对照无显著差异外,浮岛A对BOD5、TKN和TN去除率(分别为73.2%、84.0%、83.9%)均明显高于浮岛B对BOD5、TKN和TN的去除率(分别为31.4%、61.7%、10.9%,P<0.05).在m(C)/m(N)=1.3:1条件下,浮岛A可按m(C)/m(N)=0.9∶1去除BOD5和TN,而浮岛B按m(C)/m(N)=2.5∶1去除BOD5和TN,由于短程硝化-反硝化和同步硝化-反硝化的脱氮作用,浮岛A对BOD5需求量较之于浮岛B的小,可更有效去除水体中氮素,因此,在相同时间内,微曝气中空微孔纤维束膜可更有效净化水体中BOD5、TKN和TN,有利于削减水体中有机污染物和氮素污染,提升景观水体水质.

  9. TINGKAT EFEKTIVITAS INSTALASI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR HOTEL-HOTEL DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period of 2002 - 2003, a study was performed to assess the effectiveness of hotels' wastewater treatment plants in reducing  wastewater pollutant contents in Yogyakarta. There were 11 hotels surveyed, with 44 wastewater samples analysed in the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent. The effectiveness degrees of the wastewater treatment plant in reducing pollutants in 2002 for the above parameters were 72.72% (BOD, 45.45% (COD, 90.90% (TDS, and 90.90% (detergent. While those for 2003 the degrees of pollutant removal were 45.45%, 27.27%, 81.81%, and 90.90% for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent respectively. It was meant that for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent, the effectiveness degree of the plants in 2003 for reducing the pollutants was decreasing as many as 27.27%, 17.73%, 9.09% and 0.0% respectively compared to those in 2002. Then, average level of the plant capability in reducing pollutant content in 2002 for the parameters of BOD, COD, TDS, and detergent were 72.28%, 66.5%, 74.7%, and 56.3% respectively, and those in 2003 were 56.7%, 59.5%, 74.5%, and 37.5% respectively, so the decreasing level of the plant capability for each parameters were 15.8%, 7.0%, 0.2%, and 18.8%. The average contents of BOD, COD, and TDS in outlet of the plants were 38.45 mg/l, 108.27 mg/l, and 20,7 mg/l respectively (2002, and 38.90 mg/l, 97.5 mg/l, and 34.09 mg/l respectively (2003. Improvement of the wastewater treatment plant performance especially was needed to reduce the parameters of BOD and COD.

  10. 循环冷却水中营养物水平与生物黏泥生长特性的相关性%Relationship between nutrition substance concentration and biofouling growth characteristics in recirculating cooling water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芝; 刘芳; 赵朝成; 马涛; 夏璐

    2009-01-01

    为研究循环冷却水系统内循环水水质与生物黏泥形成规律之间的相关关系,设计了以BOD_5(碳源)、MH_4~+-N(氮源)、TP(磷源)为主要影响因素的正交实验,并对生物黏泥内的优势微生物进行了菌种鉴定,结果表明:各因素对EPS浓度、湿重和机械强度的影响最大是BOD_5,其次是TP,NH_4~+-N对其浓度的影响最小,控制循环水中BOD_5浓度是控制生物黏泥生长最有效的措施.为控制生物黏泥的生长,循环冷却水中营养物的最佳浓度BOD_5为5 mg/L、NH_4~+-N为10 mg/L、TP为1 mg/L,当循环冷却水系统中营养物质的浓度及比例构成发生变化时,主要的微生物种类以及生物黏泥胞外聚合物中多糖和蛋白质的浓度均发生了变化.%Biofouling is one of the most serious problems faced in petroleum industry using refinery wastewater as their coolant fluid. Understanding the contribution of nutrient levels to biofouling control is important requirement for management strategies in the recirculating cooling water system. Thus, an orthogonal experiment was designed with BOD_5 (carbon source), NH_4~+-N (nitrogen source), TP (phosphorus source) as the major influencing factors, and the preponderant microorganisms in biofouling were also identified. Results showed that the most important factor affecting polysaccharide, protein, EPS concentration and wet weight is BOD_5, followed by TP and then NH_4~+-N. When BOD_5 is 5mg/L, NH_4~+-N is 10mg/L and TP is 1mg/L in the circulating cooling water system, the biofouling is effectively controlled. In addition, the variation of nutrients concentrations in the recirculating cooling water system results in the change of polysaccharide content, protein content and the types of preponderant microorganisms.

  11. Microbial sensor for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand based on ferrocene-grafted mediator%基于接枝二茂铁介体的BOD微生物传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶

    2012-01-01

    开发出以接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量BOD,将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面,作为微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥微生物 混合固定化于聚乙烯醇(PVA)里,制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量水样的BOD质量浓度.结果表明,传感器测量的质量浓度线性范围为2~ 300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.讨论pH、温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.实际水样的测试结果表明,由微生物传感器测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关度.%A novel microbial sensor using a ferrocene (Fc)-grafted SBA-15 mediator immobilized in a PVA matrix was developed for measurement of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Fc was grafted onto the SBA-15 surface via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, and applied to a modified glassy carbon electrode for measuring BOD rapidly in the three-electrode system. The results showed a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate (GGA) concentration ranging from 2 mg/L to 300 mg/L. The reproducibility of a single sensor measuring 20 samples was less than 4.2%, and the sensor could continuously work for 35 days. The effects of pH, temperature, and heavy metal on the BOD response were studied. The detection results of real samples show that the BOD measured by the microbial sensor was in good correlation with that obtained with the BOD5 method.

  12. The Simulation of Emission Limits for Beer Industries Based on OPMSE and BAT%基于 OPMSE 与 BAT 的啤酒行业排放限值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秋俚; 胡筱敏; 王鹏飞; 韩天放; 苑芷茜

    2016-01-01

    以OPMSE仿真计算啤酒行业排放污水中COD ,BOD ,NH3-N质量浓度为研究对象,查询及调研清河流域典型啤酒行业产生污水中COD ,BOD ,NH3-N质量浓度范围,经BAT处理后通过OPMSE的仿真计算,得出排放污水中污染物质量浓度正态分布置信区间、最佳出水及最差出水质量浓度。结果表明:置信水平为99%时,COD ,BOD ,NH3-N的置信区间分别为(75.83,95.95),(19.30,25.88),(5.68,6.85);最佳出水质量浓度分别为4.14 mg/L ,5.36 mg/L ,2.71 mg/L;最差出水质量浓度分别为20.64 mg/L ,20.70 mg/L ,10.86 mg/L。将仿真结果与现有排放标准对比,拟定啤酒行业的污染物直接排放限值为COD=100 mg/L ,BOD=30 mg/L , NH3-N=8 mg/L;间接排放限值为COD=400 mg/L ,BOD=80 mg/L ,NH3-N=25 mg/L。%Regarding emission concentration of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N for beer industry wastewater by OPMSE simulation calculation as the object of study ,concentrations of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N in typical beer industry wastewater along Qinghe River Basin are investigated and after treatment of BAT ,through the OPMSE simulation calculation ,it is found out the concentrations of each indexes in the discharged wastewater in conditions of pollutants concentration normal distribution confidence interval ,the optimum effluent and the worst effluent .The results show that :when the confidence level is 99%and the confidence interval of COD ,BOD and NH3 -N is(75 .83 ,95 .95) ,(19 .30 ,25 .88)and(5 .68 ,6 .85)respectively , the concentrations of the optimum effluent are COD=4 .14 mg/L ,BOD=5 .36 mg/L and NH3 -N=2 .71 mg/L respective-ly and the concentrations of the worst effluent are COD=20 .64 mg/L ,BOD=20 .70 mg/L ,NH3 -N=10 .86 mg/L .A comparison conducted between the emission standards and simulation results indicates that the direct emission limits of beer industry are

  13. ADSORPSI PENCEMARAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT OLEH KITOSAN YANG MELAPISI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrowati Lasindrang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been used as biosorbent. In addition to having advantages, chitosan as biosorbent also has disadvantages. Chitosan is very soluble in low pH, so it cannot adsorb Cr (total at low pH. It is because the active site (amine group of chitosan undergoes protonation, and its adsorption capability is easily influenced by anions in waters. Therefore, this research studied the use of chitosan coating on active charcoal of coconut shell to increase the adsorption capability of Cr (total, BOD, and COD. This research was done to evaluate the characteristics of the liquid waste quality with or without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL, and compare them with the Regulation of DIY Governor number 7/2010. It also studied the effect of pH and Concentration of chitosan coating on active charcoal as adsorbent on the decrease of Cr (total, BOD, and COD concentration in the liquid waste of leather tanning. The results indicate that the liquid waste of the leather tanning industry with and without Wastewater treatment unit (IPAL have exceeded the quality standard for the liquid waste of leather tanning industry. An ANOVA statistical test indicated that Cr (total, BOD, and COD are significant at 0.05 (p < 0.05, with various pH influencing the decrease in Cr (total, BOD, and COD. The highest removal percentage resulting from the effect of chitosan concentration coating on active charcoal is obtained in adsorbent C (K3A1, with Cr (total (91.9%; BOD (99.5%; and COD (98.47%.;

  14. Leachate Treatment UsingWet Air Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is One of the advanced oxidation process which reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substances and, solid waste leachate,etc. In this study the efficiency of wet air oxidation method in leachate treatment generating from Esfahan Composting factory was Evaluated."nMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit of pretreated leachate sample the steel reactor with the volume of 3L. The reactor then underwent10 bar pressure at different temperature (100, 200 and 300 °C and various retention time (30, 60 and 90 min. Leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 Lit was taken and the WAO method, was used for pre-treatments. Removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH4-N, NO3 and TSS were examined."nResults: The results showed that the removal efficiency was more than 35% for COD, 38% for BOD, and 85% for TSS within one hour of reaction. The Maximum removal efficiency obtained in this study were 53.3% for NH4-N and 73.9 % forNO3-N."nConclusion: the results indicate that the reaction temperatures are the most important factors affecting degradation of organic matter. COD and BOD5 removal efficiency by WAO process increased as the time of reaction went up. In addition, BOD5/COD ratios of the effluents, which are generally regarded as an important index of biodegradability of leachate sample, were determined and improved grately as it reached to 84%. TheWAO process presented in this paper is considered an efficient process for pretreatment of leachate, as the COD, BOD5 and NO3 reduction observed in leachate samples.

  15. UV—Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid—Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TahirImranQURESHI; Hong-TaeKIM; 等

    2002-01-01

    Theperformance of UV/H2O2,UV/O3,and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon(TOC),non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color.In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment, with the increase of H2O2 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation,under the optimum condition H2O2(0.2time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366.In UV/O3 oxidation,with the increase of O3 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a beter performance was obtained than the system O3 alone.Under the optimum condition UV/O3(50mg·min-1),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%,respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system,color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  16. Comparisons of Three Advanced Oxidation Processes in Organic Matter Removal from Esfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karimi B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the advanced oxidation process which is mostly used to reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substance and solid waste leachate.The objective of this paper is comparisons of three advance oxidation in organic matter removal in different conditions from Esfahan composing factory leachateMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3Lit autoclave reactor and adding 10 bar pressure at temperature of 100, 200 and 300 °C and pressure (10 bars with retention time of 30, 60 and 90 min. leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 lit was taken and the three methodsWAO, WPO, and a combination of WAO/GAC were used for pre-treatments. Pure oxygen and 30% hydrogen peroxide was used as oxidation agent.Results: The result shows significant improvement on the removal rate of COD (7.8-33.3%, BOD5 (14.7-50.6%by WAO process.The removal efficiency of 4.6-34% COD, 24-50% BOD, was observed in the reactor.Adding theGACto the reactor improved removal efficiency of all parameters.Combination Process (WAO/GAC removed 48% of COD, 31-43.6% of BOD.Combination process demonstrated higher efficiency than two other previous methods as BOD5/COD ratio of 90% achieved.Conclusion: The WAO process presented in this paper is efficient for pretreatment of leachate, And the modified WPO process remove organic materials and ammonia moreover WAO/GAC can be considered as an excellent alternative treatment for removing reluctant organic matter (COD, BOD5 and organic nitrogen compounds, which found in leachate.

  17. EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY BY USING SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Anggraeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland is one of the alternatives to increase water quality before it flowed into waterways. Sub Surface Flow Wetland System is one type of the constructed wetland for waste water treatment which is using symbiotic relation between water plants and microorganism around rooting system (rhizosphere in media. Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as gravel and sand media are plants and medias that can be used in constructed wetland. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of plant species between Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as the effectiveness of gravel and sand media to decrease nitrite, ammoniak, BOD, and COD concentrations. Four reactors SSF-Wetlands with dimension of 120 cm x 30 cm x 50 cm were used in this research. The study was conducted over 12 days following the  acclimatization of plants for 7 days. Data analysis were performed by comparing the degradation coefficient (k of BOD, COD, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations with retention time of the effluent. The results showed that  the degradation rate for the reactor with with gravel media and Cyperus alternifolius for nitrite variable was 0.60,  ammonia 0.49, BOD 0.45, and COD 0.36. Cyperus alternifolius have a higher effectiveness in reducing the concentration of nitrite, ammonia , BOD and COD than Canna indica , L. Reactors with gravel media have higher effectiveness in reducing BOD , COD , ammonia and nitrite concentration than sand media. Keywords : Canna indica. L. , Cyperus alternifolius, SSF - Wetland, , WWTP effluent of pharmaceutical industry

  18. Application of Iron Nanaoparticles in Landfill Leachate Treatment - Case study: Hamadan Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfahani Kashitarash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficiency of iron nanoparticles for reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD, 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total solids (TS and color of Hamadan city landfill leachate. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main effective factors of pH, reactiontime and concentration of iron nanoparticles were investigated. The obtained data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-13 software. Maximum removal efficiencies were 47.94%, 35%, 55.62% and 76.66%for COD, BOD5, TS and color, respectively (for 2.5 g/L iron nanoparticles dosage, pH = 6.5 and 10 min reaction time.The results showed that the removal of COD, BOD5 and color had reverse relationship with contact time and TS removal followed a direct relationship (P < 0.05. Iron nanoparticles could remove averagely 53% of leachate COD,BOD5, TS and color in a short contact time (10 min increasing pH up to 6.5, increased the removal efficiency for COD, BOD5, TS and color and then removal efficiency decreased with increasing pH to 8.5. Increasing the dosage ofnanoparticles to 2.5 g/L increased the efficiency of process. High compatibility and efficiency of this process was proven by landfill leachate pre-treatment or post-treatment, so this removal method may be recommended for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment plants.

  19. The Performance of Advanced Sequencing Batch Reactor in Wastewater Treatment Plant to Remove Organic Materials and Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS are the most important ionic detergents that produce negative ions in the environment. These compounds enter surface waters through domestic and industrial wastewaters and cause environmental hazards. Objectives The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of advanced sequencing batch reactor (SBR in wastewater treatment plant of Yazd, Iran, to remove organic materials and detergents. Materials and Methods The present research was a descriptive longitudinal study conducted on 96 input and output samples of SBR system over eight months from October 2012 to June 2013. The studied parameters were biochemical oxygen demand 5 (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and detergents (LAS, which were assessed through standard methods. Finally, the study data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA using software package for statistical analysis (SPSS. Results The mean inputs of BOD5, COD, and LAS to the SBR system were 292.40 ± 45.28, 597.15 ± 97.30, and 3.29 ± 0.92 mg/L, and the mean outputs were 20.59 ± 3.54, 59.34 ± 9.47, and 0.606 ± 0.09 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiency of BOD5, COD and LAS were respectively 92.95%, 90.06% and 81.6%. The results of ANOVA indicated that there was a significant relationship between the mean inputs and outputs of BOD5, COD, and the detergents (P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions With the proper operation of wastewater the treatment plant and increasing the retention time, the removal efficiency of the detergents increased. In addition, according to the environmental standards for BOD5, COD and the detergents, the results of the present study indicated that the outputs of these parameters from the SBR system were appropriate for agricultural irrigation.

  20. DESIGN COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL STORM WATER DETENTION SYSTEMS TREATING CONCENTRATED ROAD RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nanbakhsh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems are vital infrastructure assets, which protect our cities from flooding and transmission of waterborne diseases. The objective of this research was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental stormwater detention (extended storage systems receiving concentrated runoff that had been primary treated by filtration with different aggregates. Five detention systems with different packing order arrangements of aggregates and plant roots were used in the system to test the effects of gravel, sand, ecosoil, block paving and turf on the water treatment performance. Inflow water, polluted by road runoff, was collected by manual abstraction with a 2 litter beaker from randomly selected gully pots the near by main roads. Several parameters such as BOD5, NO3, PO4, NH4, SS, TS, DO, pH, EC, NTU and temperature were examined based on standard method book. Results showed that concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 in contrast to suspended solids (SS were frequently reduced to below international secondary wastewater treatment standards. The BOD and SS concentrations within the outflow from the planted system compared to the unplanted gravel and sand systems were similar. However, BOD in the outflow of system 5 was lower than other systems. The denitrification process was not completed. This resulted in higher outflow than inflow nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. An analysis of variance indicated that some systems were similar in terms of most of their treatment performance variables including BOD and SS. It follows that there is no need to use additional aggregates with high adsorption capacities in the primary treatment stage from the water quality point of view.

  1. Temporal and spatial characteristics of the water pollutant concentration in Huaihe River Basin from 2003 to 2012, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guiqiu

    2016-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of 78 monitoring stations from 2003 to 2012, five key water quality indexes (biochemical oxygen demand: BOD5, permanganate index: CODMn, dissolved oxygen: DO, ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, and total phosphorus: TP) were selected to analyze their temporal and spatial characteristics in the highly disturbed Huaihe River Basin via Mann-Kendall trend analysis and boxplot analysis. The temporal and spatial variations of water pollutant concentrations in the Huaihe River Basin were investigated and analyzed to provide a scientific basis for water pollution control, water environment protection, and ecological restoration. The results indicated that the Yinghe River, Quanhe River, Honghe River, Guohe River, and Baohe River were the most seriously polluted rivers, followed by Hongze Lake, Luoma Lake, Yishuhe River, and Nansi Lake. BOD5, CODMn, and NH3-N were the major pollution indexes, for which the monitoring stations reported that more than 40 % of the water quality concentrations exceeded the class IV level. There were 21, 50, 36, and 21 monitoring stations that recorded significantly decreasing trends for BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP, respectively, and 39 monitoring stations showed a significantly increasing trend for DO. Moreover, the water quality concentrations had a certain concentricity and volatility according to boxplot analysis for the 20 monitoring stations. The majority of monitoring stations recorded a large fluctuation for the monitoring indexes in 2003 and 2004, which indicated that the water quality concentrations were unstable. According to the seasonal variations of the water quality concentrations in the mainstream of Huaihe River, the monthly variation trends of the BOD5, CODMn, DO, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were basically consistent among the seven monitoring stations. The BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were affected by the change of the stream discharge; changes in DO and NH3-N concentrations were influenced by

  2. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Robert D., E-mail: rdg@uchicago.edu [Center for Health Statistics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Prucha, Christopher P., E-mail: cprucha@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 1550 Balmer Road, Box 200, Model City, NY 14107 (United States); Caldwell, Michael D., E-mail: mcaldwell@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 3623 Wilson Road, Humble, TX 77396 (United States); Staley, Bryan F., E-mail: BStaley@erefdn.org [Environmental Research and Education Foundation, 3301 Benson Drive, Suite 301, Raleigh, NC 27609 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern.

  3. 用UV/H2O2,UV/O3,UV/H2O2/O3催化处理城市固体垃圾填埋渗出物%UV-Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid-Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The performance of UV/H2O2, UV/O3, and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon (TOC), non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color. In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment,with the increase of H2O2 dosage, removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation, under the optimum condition H2O2 (0.2 time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366. In UV/O3 oxidation, with the increase of O3 dosage, removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system O3 alone. Under the optimum condition UV/O3 (50 mg.min-1), removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%, respectively, and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system, color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  4. Landfill leachate treatment by MBR: Performance and molecular weight distribution of organic contaminant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shaohua; LIU Junxin

    2006-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) with an air-lift bioreactor and gravity flow is applied to'treating landfill leachate. More than 99% of BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand for five days) removal efficiency is achieved with less than 35 mg/L of BOD5 in the effluent at less than 1.71 kg BOD5/m3.d of BOD5 loading rate. When DO (dissolved oxygen) is maintained at the range of 2.3-2.8 mg/L and the loading rate of NH4+-N (ammonium nitrogen) is kept at 0.16-0.24 kg NH4+-N/m3.d, the NH4+-N in the effluent is less than 15 mg/L. However, compared with high removal rates of BOD5 and NH4+-N, the removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)varies between 70% and 96%. The investigation of molecular weight (MW) distribution has been carried out by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) so as to understand the fate of organic matters in the MBR treating of landfill leachate. Results indicate that organic matters of the landfill leachate are composed of a high MW fraction (MW of the peak, MWp =11480-13182 Da) and a low MW fraction (MWp =158-275 Da). The high MW fraction is not biodegradable, but can be decreased with microfiltration membrane. The most of the low MW fraction is biodegradable, but the residue of the low MW fraction is able to permeate through the membrane, thus resulting in high SCOD in the effluent of the MBR.

  5. 基于 OPMSE 的畜禽养殖行业排放限值仿真%Simulation on Emission Limit Values for Livestock Industry Based on the OPMSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秋俚; 王鹏飞; 韩天放; 胡筱敏

    2016-01-01

    The concentration range of different pollutants from the discharged sewage is obtained by analyzing the concentra-tion index of the discharged sewage from livestock industry in the Qinghe river basin .The confidence intervals at the 90% , 95% and 99% confidence levels of normal distribution means of pollution concentration are also acquired after being treated by BAT according to the simulating calculation of OPMSE .In the livestock industry ,the 99% confidence intervals of COD , BOD5 and NH3 - N are (42 .00 ,48 .19) ,(7 .47 ,8 .74) and (6 .78 ,7 .88) respectively .Meanwhile ,the maximum and minimum values of the treated pollutant concentrations are also obtained by simulating calculation .The optimum concentra-tions of COD ,BOD5 and NH3 - N of effluents from livestock industry are 22 .0 mg/L ,2 .1 mg/L and 3 .09 mg/L ,while the worst concentrations of COD ,BOD5 and NH3 -N of effluents from livestock industries are 84 .4 mg/L ,14 .2 mg/L and 13 .29 mg/L .Then making a comparison between the existing emission standards and simulating results ,new emission limits are determined preliminarily ,and the direct and interim emission limits of livestock industries are COD = 50 mg/L ,BOD5 = 9 mg/L ,NH3 - N = 8 mg/L respectively .%通过对清河流域畜禽养殖行业产生污水的各指标(BOD5,COD ,NH3-N )浓度进行统计,得出了排放污水中各污染物指标的浓度值范围。通过 OPMSE 的仿真计算,得出了排放污水经过 BAT 处理后,污染物浓度正态分布均值在90%,95%,99%置信水平下的置信区间。在置信水平为99%时,畜禽养殖行业的 COD 置信区间为(42.00,48.19),BOD5置信区间为(7.47,8.74),NH3-N 置信区间为(6.78,7.88)。同时,依据仿真计算结果还得出了处理后污染物浓度的极小值和极大值,畜禽养殖行业的最佳出水 COD ,BOD5,NH3-N 指标质量浓度分别为22.0,2.1,3.09 mg/L ,最差出水 COD ,BOD

  6. MBR in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater Treatment with Good Effect%MBR在石化工业废水深度处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽华

    2015-01-01

    采用膜生物反应器( MBR)处理石化工业废水,研究了MBR对CODcr、 BOD5、 NH3-N、TP 及石油类等去除效果.结果表明: MBR对石化工业废水具有良好的稳定处理效果,平均去除率CODcr分别为:86�4%, BOD597�6%, NH3-N 99%, TP 68%,石油类86�7%. MBR出水后CODcr, BOD5, NH3-N, TP,石油类质量浓度平均值分别为35�9,2�9,0�46,0�36,1�35 mg·L-1.研究表明:处理后水质满足国家一级排放标准, MBR可以有效地处理石化工业废水.%Membrane Bioreactor MBR process was used to treat petrochemical industry wastewater and removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in MBR system were studied. The experimental result indicates that MBR produces good and steady effects in petrochemical wastewater purification. The removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum averaged 86�4% 97�6% 99% 68% and 86�7%respectively. The concentrations of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in the effluent averaged 35�9 2�9 0. 46 0�36 and 1�35 mg·L-1 respectively meeting the national standards for wastewater discharge I and the system operates with stable effect by on⁃line NaClO backwashing. The industrial application of MBR in petrochemical wastewater treatment produces good effects.

  7. Groundwater Contamination Due to Activities of an Intensive Hog Farming Operation Located on a Geologic Fault in East Mediterranean: A Study on COD, BOD₅ and Microbial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2016-02-01

    The application of treated animal wastewater produced in intensive fog farming operations (IHFOs) on surface soil, leads to groundwater contamination. In this study, the contamination of a Mediterranean aquifer caused by long-term application of treated wastewater, produced by an IHFO, on a plot with a geologic fault within the IHFO boundaries, was investigated. Groundwater samples were taken from monitoring wells close to the IHFO. A significant increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total viable count (TVC) and total coliform (TC) concentrations was found in wells, compared to control monitoring well, which were mainly affected by the subsurface flow of contaminated water, due to the presence of the geologic fault. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of COD, BOD5, TVC and TC were noted and attributed to increased precipitation, which assisted in the accelerated transport of organic compounds and microbial load, through geologic fault, to groundwater.

  8. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I--from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II--from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3.

  9. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m(3)/m(2)/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling. PMID:27329062

  10. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  11. Investigation of potential genotoxic activity using the SOS Chromotest for real paracetamol wastewater and the wastewater treated by the Fenton process

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, Emel

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential genotoxic activity associated with high strength real paracetamol (PCT) wastewater (COD = 40,000 mg/L, TOC = 12,000 mg/L, BOD5 = 19,320 mg/L) from a large-scale drug-producing plant in the Marmara Region, was investigated in pre- and post- treated wastewater by the Fenton process (COD = 2,920 mg/L, TOC = 880 mg/L; BOD5 = 870 mg/L). Methods The SOS Chromotest, which is based on Escherichia coli PQ37 activities, was used for the assessment of genotoxicity. The corrected...

  12. AN ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT PROJECT BASED ON NATURAL CIRCULATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM%自然循环方式在生活污水深度处理工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡细全; 陈宁生; 李兆华

    2008-01-01

    采用接触氧化与日本自然循环方式污水处理技术相结合的流程,在进水COD,BOD5和NH3-N分别为209~408mg/L,52~80mg/L和15.3~24.6mg/L的条件下,去除率分别达到88%~93%,96%~97%、98%,出水稳定在COD≈30mg/L、BOD5≤4 mg/L、NH3-N≤0.5 mg/L的水平,SS未检出,以上指标达到国家地表水环境质量Ⅳ类标准(GB3838-2002).

  13. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  14. TREND OF TEMPORAL VARIATION OF CAUVERY RIVER WATER QUALITY AT K R NAGAR IN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDEVI BASU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The data sets of 4 water quality monitoring stations in River Cauvery at K R Nagara which comprised of 10 water quality parameters monitored monthly over 12 years (2000-2011 are used for this study. Temporal variation of the parameters in each station is represented by Box plots. Almost all the plots indicate high positive skewness for all stations, showing rampant pollution in the river due to anthropogenic sources. This is a grave concern as no prominent drains enter the river directly in this stretch, yet high values of BOD, COD,total coliform, faecal coliform along the river indicates human waste enters the river and pollutes the same. Also Pearson’s correlation matrix for all stations indicate positive correlation between BOD and COD, TDS and Conductivity, TDS and Chlorides and TC and FC.

  15. 水解-接触氧化-生物炭工艺处理印染废水%Treatment of dyeing wastewater by hydrolysis-contact oxidation-biocarbon technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑广宏; 乔俊莲; 顾国维; 徐一飞; 沈阳

    2003-01-01

    采用水解-接触氧化-气浮-混凝沉淀-生物炭工艺处理以分散染料为主的印染废水,设计规模为960 m3/d,进水水质为:pH 8.01,CODCr992 mg/L,BOD5 251 mg/L,SS 298 mg/L,色度400倍;经本工艺处理后,总排放口出水水质为:pH 7.64,CODCr72mg/L,BOD5 19mg/L,SS 61mg/L,色度16倍.

  16. Eletrólise de resíduos poluidores: I - Efluente de uma indústria liofilizadora de condimentos Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanira F. de Angelis

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD and chemical (COD oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was significantly increased; furthermore, Fe2+ ions liberated by the electrodes cause microorganisms to die and, when oxidised to Fe3+, contribute for the flocculation and sedimentation of solid residues.

  17. Biomass production from fermented starch wastewater in photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachanurak, Pradthana; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamotob, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    A photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation was applied to treat real fermented starch wastewater and convert it to photosynthetic biomass for further utilization. The photo-bioreactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 10days by circulating mixed liquor through overflow pipes and penetrating light through infrared transmitting filter. During the operation of 154days, the average BOD and COD removals were 95% and 88%, respectively. Majority of photosynthetic bacteria was found attached on pipes as biofilm contributed to 82% of total biomass production. Photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.51g dried solid/g BOD removed and crude protein content of 0.58g/g dried solid. Rhodopseudomonas palustris was found in the photosynthetic system as the predominant bacterial group by denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing method. PMID:24745900

  18. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  19. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  20. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  1. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Dhall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids, and TSS (total suspended solids was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.

  3. E-beam irradiation and activated sludge system for treatment of mixed textiles and food base industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was chosen to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal from textiles effluent in the presence of food industry waste water. Two biological treatments, the first consisting a mix of non irradiated textile and food industry waste water and the second a mix of irradiated textiles waste water and food industry waste water were operated in parallel. Reduction percentage of COD in textiles waste water increased from 29.4 % after radiation to 62.4 % after further undergoing biological treatment. After irradiation, the BOD5 of textiles waste water was reduced by 22.1 % but reverted to the original value of 36 mg/ L after undergoing biological treatment. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and continued to decrease to 109.3 ADMI after passing through biological treatment. (author)

  4. Influence of a vinasse-distributing lake on water quality of the groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Farias de França e Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse is an organic matter and nutrient-rich residue generated during alcohol distillation. However, if applied to crops in excess, it may disturb the complex balance of soil absoption and contaminate groundwater. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of a vinasse-distributing pool on the quality of groundwater in a sugarcane field in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 10 observation wells along three parallel transects around the vinasse-distributing pool. The quality of groundwater as well as the fluvial water of the Ipojuca River was assessed as a control for ocean intrusion. The following parameters were measured: CE, SDT, pH, COD, BOD, NO3-, NO2-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl- and HCO3-. Storing vinasse in the distribution lake disturbed CE, COD and BOD values as well TDS, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in groundwater.

  5. Gerris spinolae Lethierry and Severin (Hemiptera: Gerridae and Brachydeutera longipes Hendel (Diptera: Ephydridae: Two Effective Insect Bioindicators to Monitor Pollution in Some Tropical Freshwater Ponds under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance patterns of two insects, Gerris spinolae and Brachydeutera longipes, were found to be affected by abiotic aquatic factors including free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, BOD, and phosphate concentrations prevailing in four tropical freshwater ponds, three of which being anthropogenically stressed. Regression analysis between each individual-independent water quality variable and insect abundance demonstrated a significant positive correlation in each case between B. longipes abundance and BOD, phosphate, free CO2, and algae dry weight, while a significant negative correlation of each of these variables was found with Gerris spinolae abundance. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of B. longipes abundance was calculated with dissolved oxygen concentration, while G. spinolae abundance exhibited a positive correlation with the same. Thus, G. spinolae appears to be a pollution sensitive, effective bioindicator for healthy unpolluted ponds, while B. longipes has potential as a pollution-resistant insect species indicative of pollution occurrence.

  6. 氨吹脱+MBR+UF+RO处理垃圾渗滤液技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永久

    2011-01-01

    利用氨吹脱+膜生物反应器MBR+超滤+反渗透处理老龄化的垃圾渗滤液,设计系统处理能力为150m3/d,在进水CODCr和BOD5的质量浓度分别为10000mg/L、5000mg/L,经处理后,出水CODCr和BOD5的质量浓度分别为60mg/L、20mg/L,去除率分别达到99.4%、99.6%,且出水稳定.

  7. A pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) for woolen mill dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale(10 m3/d) anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor(A/O MBR) was tested for dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen millwithout wasting sludge in 125 days operation. Results showed that the effluent quality was excellent, i.e. effluent COD less than 25 mg/L,BOD5 under 5 mg/L, turbidity lower than 0.65 NTU, and colour less than 30 DT, and met with the reuse water standard of Cb. ina. The removalrates of COD, BOD5, colour, and turbidity were 92.4%, 98.4%, 74% and 98.9%, respectively. Constant-flux operation mode was carriedout in this study, and backwash was effective for reducing membrane fouling and maintaining constant flux. Membrane fouling had heavy impacton energy consumption. More attention should be paid on pipe selection and design for the sidestream MBR system, too.

  8. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  9. Determination of changes in wastewater quality through a treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Carstea, Elfrida

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize municipal wastewater at various stages of treatment in order to understand how its fluorescence signature changes with treatment and how the signal relates to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The impact of size fractionation on the fluorescence signal was also investigated. Fluorescence measurements were taken for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 microm) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge and trickling filter), and final effluent. Good correlations were observed for unfiltered, diluted wastewater samples between BOD and fluorescence intensity at excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm (Peak T1) (r = 0.92) and between COD and Peak T1 intensity (r = 0.85). The majority of the T1 and T2 signal was found to be derived from the wastewater quality assessment and process control of wastewater treatment works. PMID:24617065

  10. Chitosan based grey wastewater treatment--a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J; Kandasamy, S

    2014-01-01

    In this present study, grey wastewater was treated under different operating conditions such as agitation time (1-3 min), pH (2.5-5.5), chitosan dose (0.3-0.6g/l) and settling time (10-20 min) using response surface methodology (RSM). Four factors with three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) were employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as turbidity, BOD and COD removal. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to predict the responses. Under the optimum conditions, experimental values such as turbidity (96%), BOD (91%) and COD (73%) removals are closely agreed with predicted values.

  11. Spatial impact of organic matters from point sources on stream water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-bao; CHEN Dong-mei

    2009-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the spatial impact of organic discharges on stream water quality, a "scenario-testing" approach was proposed to examine how a change in plant treatment efficiency would affect dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration along a stream. An "upper-lower" boundary technique was applied to conduct sensitivity analysis to observe the responses of DO concentration to different DO-related parameters. The results show a non-linear discrepancy of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and DO concentration among different treatment scenarios, which indicates the higher the efficiency of the plant treatment, the shorter the time the stream needs to recover. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the larger the amount of the waste discharge, the more sensitive the BOD to the biological removal parameter. In addition, the DO is more sensitive to the biological removal pa-rameter than to the reaeration parameter.

  12. Management of biodiesel wastewater by the combined processes of chemical recovery and electrochemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two stage management of raw biodiesel wastewater was carried out at a laboratory scale and ambient temperature. In the first step, biodiesel was chemically recovered from the wastewater using sulphuric acid as a proton donor with subsequent natural phase separation. Biodiesel was recovered from the raw biodiesel wastewater, in this case at 6-7% (w/w). In the second stage, the aqueous phase discharged from the first stage was supplemented with sodium chloride to 0.061 M and subject to electro-oxidation using a Ti/RuO2 electrode. The combined treatment completely removed COD and oil and grease, and reduced BOD levels by more than 95%. The rate of removal of all three pollutants fitted a pseudo-first-order rate kinetics with oil and grease removal being approximately 8-16- and 2-7-fold faster than BOD and COD removal, respectively.

  13. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  14. Treatment of wastewater from packaging printing industry using membrane bioreactor%膜生物反应器处理包装印刷废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国一; 王彬

    2007-01-01

    采用混凝沉淀+膜生物反应器组合工艺处理瓦楞纸板包装印刷废水,在进水COD、BOD5、 SS的质量浓度分别为7 000~25 000、3 000~15 000、500~5 000 mg/L,色度为60~80倍的务件下,出水COD、BOD5、SS的质量浓度分别小于500、300、10 mg/L,色度为10倍左右,出水水质指标可以达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978-1996)中规定的三级排放标准.

  15. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...... due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological...

  16. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  17. Performance of Wuxi WWTP in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; WANG Li; JIANG Yifeng

    2003-01-01

    In Wuxi Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Anaerobic, anoxic and oxic (A2/O) process was employed to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus, which exhibited the positive results of the high removal efficiency for phosphorus with a range of 67.7% to 89.9% and an average value of 78.0. The effluent of phosphorus met the national discharge standard. The removal of TN was effected by both BOD variation of influent and wastewater temperature. TN removal was in the range of 28.5% to 55.8% with an average value of 39.4%. The energy cost was 0.15 kWh(m3d)-1 or 1.35 kWh(kgBOD@d)-1. The annual average sludge production was 46.3 m3d-1, the annual average dosage for the dewatering was 40 kg d-1 .

  18. Reform af reformen - den nye ellov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess

    2005-01-01

    Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på.......Konkurrence i dansk elforsyning blev i første omgang i 1999 kun gennemført halvhjertet. Den miljøvenlige energi blev holdt uden for og selskabsstrukturen låst fast. Det skabte problemer, som den nye lov fra 2004 har søgt at råde bod på....

  19. Performance Assessment of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Based on Seasonal Variability of Microbial Communities via High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang; Liu, Shufeng; Zheng, Maosheng; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of activated sludge (AS) play a key role in the performance of wastewater treatment processes. However, seasonal variability of microbial population in varying AS-based processes has been poorly correlated with operation of full-scale wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs). In this paper, significant seasonal variability of AS microbial communities in eight WWTSs located in the city of Guangzhou were revealed in terms of 16S rRNA-based Miseq sequencing. Furthermore, variation redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that the microbial community compositions closely correlated with WWTS operation parameters such as temperature, BOD, NH4+-N and TN. Consequently, support vector regression models which reasonably predicted effluent BOD, SS and TN in WWTSs were established based on microbial community compositions. This work provided an alternative tool for rapid assessment on performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27049964

  20. 生物传感器的BOD计量仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣楠

    2000-01-01

    @@ BOD(生化耗氧量)是测定水质污染的重要指标,其测定时间需5天,且操作繁杂.而水质管理是一项日常项目,其污染状况的正确、迅速把握十分重要,所以BOD作为水质管理指标的操作十分困难.最近日本开发出BOD生物传感器,并以此研制了微生物电极的BOD计量仪,可对BOD值进行连续测定,从而对水质进行现场即刻测定.现将BOD-3000型的原理和特点介绍如下:

  1. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  2. concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth F. Oppenheimer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD in a semi-infinite river where the BOD is prescribed by a time varying function at the left endpoint. That is, we study the problem with a time varying boundary loading. We obtain the well-posedness for the model when the boundary loading is smooth in time. We also obtain various qualitative results such as ordering, positivity, and boundedness. Of greatest interest, we show that a periodic loading function admits a unique asymptotically attracting periodic solution. For non-smooth loading functions, we obtain weak solutions. Finally, for certain special cases, we show how to obtain explicit solutions in the form of infinite series.

  3. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  4. Classification of contaminants and treatability evaluation of domestic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaochang; JIN Pengkang; ZHAO Hongmei; MENG Lingba

    2007-01-01

    Long-term sampling and analysis were conducted in a domestic wastewater treatment plant for the investigation on the characteristics of the representative contaminants in raw sewage such as SS,COD,BOD5,TP,and TN.All these constituents were classified into dissolved and suspended groups by using a 0.45-μm membrane filter,and the concen tration of each constituent in each group was analyzed.As a result.almost 100% of the SS was found to be suspended matter,as well as about 65% of COD,60% Of BOD5,50% of P,and 20% of N.All these could be easily removed by sedimentation or coagulation/sedimentation.A treatability evaluation diagram was proposed for a rational selection of wastewater treatment process in accordance with raw water quality.

  5. 医院污水处理工程设计及运行%Design and application of wastewater treatment project of hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞守业; 贾秀芹

    2005-01-01

    某人民医院的污水处理原来采用化粪池+臭氧氧化方法,出水不达标.对该污水处理站进行改造,采用水解+接触氧化+二氧化氯消毒工艺,在进水CODCr,BOD5,NH3-N的质量浓度分别为304,56.6,11.0 mg/L的条件下,出水中的CODCr,BOD5,NH3-N的质量浓度分别为6,1.24,3.0mg/.达到污水综合排放标准中的一级标准.

  6. 印染废水处理工程设计%Engineering Design on Waster Water Treatment of Printing and Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2011-01-01

    针对印染废水的水质特点,本文采用水解酸化与接触氧化相结合的生化工艺对废水进行处理。设计进水水质CODcr=900 mg/L,BOD5=330 mg/L,pH=11~13,出水水质执行国家《污水综合排放标准》一级标准。%Based on the characteristics of printing and dyeing wasterwater,biochemical process of an integrated hydrolytic acidification and contact oxidation was adopted for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment.If the influent CODcr=900 mg/L,BOD5=330 mg/L,pH=11~13,the effluent after treatment can meet the requirement of national integrated Wastewater Discharge Standards Ⅰ.

  7. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  8. Performance comparison of experimental constructed wetlands with different filter media and macrophytes treating industrial wastewater contaminated with lead and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Miklas; Xu, Jing

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment efficiency of passive vertical-flow wetland filters containing different macrophytes (Phragmites and/or Typha) and granular media with different adsorption capacities. Gravel, sand, granular activated carbon, charcoal and Filtralite (light expanded clay) were used as filter media. Different concentrations of lead and copper sulfate were added to polluted urban stream inflow water to simulate pretreated mine wastewater. The relationships between growth media, microbial and plant communities as well as the reduction of predominantly lead, copper and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) were investigated. An analysis of variance showed that concentration reductions (mg l(-1)) of lead, copper and BOD5 were significantly similar for the six experimental wetlands. Microbial diversity was low due to metal pollution and similar for all filters. There appears to be no additional benefit in using adsorption media and macrophytes to enhance biomass performance during the first 10 months of operation. PMID:12056494

  9. Treatment of hydroponic wastewater by denitrification filters using plant prunings as the organic carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using pre-treated plant liquors as organic carbon sources for the treatment of hydroponic wastewater containing high nitrate-N (>300 mg N/L). The waste plant material was pre-treated to extract organic carbon-rich liquors. When this plant liquor was used as an organic carbon source in denitrification filters at the organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate of 3C:N, nitrate removal efficiencies were >95% and final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently 140 mg/L) of organic carbon (fBOD5) remained in the final effluents. Therefore, a 'compromise' organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate (2C:N) was trialled, at which nitrate removal efficiencies were maintained at >85%, final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently below 45 mg N/L, and effluent fBOD5 concentrations were hydroponic wastewater in a denitrification filter. PMID:17714940

  10. Model development for prediction and mitigation of dissolved oxygen sags in the Athabasca River, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nancy, E-mail: nancy@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); McEachern, Preston [Tervita Corporation, AB (Canada); Yu, Tong; Zhu, David Z. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Northern rivers exposed to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loads are prone to dissolved oxygen (DO) sags in winter due to re-aeration occurring within limited open water leads. Additionally, photosynthesis is reduced by decreased daylight hours, inability of solar radiation to pass through ice, and slower algal growth in winter. The low volumetric flow decreases point-source dilution while their travel time increases. The Athabasca River in Alberta, Canada, has experienced these sags which may affect the aquatic ecosystem. A water quality model for an 800 km reach of this river was customized, calibrated, and validated specifically for DO and the factors that determine its concentration. After validation, the model was used to assess the assimilative capacity of the river and mitigation measures that could be deployed. The model reproduced the surface elevation and water temperature for the seven years simulated with mean absolute errors of < 15 cm and < 0.9 °C respectively. The ice cover was adequately predicted for all seven winters, and the simulation of nutrients and phytoplankton primary productivity were satisfactory. The DO concentration was very sensitive to the sediment oxygen demand (SOD), which represented about 50% of the DO sink in winter. The DO calibration was improved by implementing an annual SOD based on the BOD load. The model was used to estimate the capacity of the river to assimilate BOD loads in order to maintain a DO concentration of 7 mg/L, which represents the chronic provincial guideline plus a buffer of 0.5 mg/L. The results revealed the maximum assimilative BOD load of 8.9 ton/day at average flow conditions, which is lower than the maximum permitted load. In addition, the model predicted a minimum assimilative flow of about 52 m{sup 3}/s at average BOD load. Climate change scenarios could increase the frequency of this low flow. A three-level warning-system is proposed to manage the BOD load proactively at different river

  11. Increasing the catalytic activity of Bilirubin oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: Importance of host strain and chaperones proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounel, Sébastien; Rouhana, Jad; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Cadet, Marine; Mano, Nicolas

    2016-07-20

    Aggregation of recombinant proteins into inclusion bodies (IBs) is the main problem of the expression of multicopper oxidase in Escherichia coli. It is usually attributed to inefficient folding of proteins due to the lack of copper and/or unavailability of chaperone proteins. The general strategies reported to overcome this issue have been focused on increasing the intracellular copper concentration. Here we report a complementary method to optimize the expression in E. coli of a promising Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) isolated from Bacillus pumilus. First, as this BOD has a disulfide bridge, we switched E.coli strain from BL21 (DE3) to Origami B (DE3), known to promote the formation of disulfide bridges in the bacterial cytoplasm. In a second step, we investigate the effect of co-expression of chaperone proteins on the protein production and specific activity. Our strategy allowed increasing the final amount of enzyme by 858% and its catalytic rate constant by 83%.

  12. Impact of Iron and Steel Slag on Crop Cultivation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Syeda Yuhannatul Humaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper addresses the issuesto analyze the impacts of Iron and Steel slag on crop cultivation. The use of steel slag in agriculture produces not only economic but also ecological advantages. The value of silicon (Si application for rice (Oryzasativa has been demonstrated when soil soluble Si is low.Impact of solid waste on crop cultivation depends on the availability and quantity of different constituents like PH, Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates, Permanganate Value (PV, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 or BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS etcpresent in the solid waste.This has also been discussed in this review paper.

  13. [Purification efficiency of vertical-flow wetland system constructed by cinder and turf substrate on municipal wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Luo, Shiming; Liu, Yihu

    2003-04-01

    Vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system not only has a higher hydraulic loading rate (54-64 cm.d-1), but also has a good removal efficiency for organics, ammonia nitrogen (AN) and total phosphorus (TP). The removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5, AN, and TP for septic tank effluent were 76-87%, 82-92%, 75-85% and 77-91%, respectively, and the average effluent concentrations of COD, BOD5, AN, and TP in the treated effluent were less than 60, 20, 25 and 2.0 mg.L-1, respectively. A comparison of planted and unplanted columns showed that plantation of Cyperus alternifolius could increase the removal rates of AN, TN, and TP by 2-3%, 4-6%, and 10-14%, respectively.

  14. Characterisation of biomass and wastewater with a respirometric method; Caratterizzazione di biomasse e reflui attraverso l'utilizzo di tecniche respirometriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagni, A.; Bortone, G.; Luccarini, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Sezione depurazione e ciclo dell' acqua; Ratini, P. [SPES S.r.l., Fabriano, AN (Italy)

    2000-04-01

    A respirometric method for biomass and wastewater characterisation is described. The method, based on a modelling approach, allows to get more information on activated sludge and wastewater characteristics compared to other biological method as BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand). The method, applied on industrial wastewaters, confirms the heterogeneous wastewater composition and the consequent different degradability to biological processes. [Italian] Viene presentato un metodo respirometrico per la caratterizzazione di biomasse e reflui. Il metodo basato su di un approccio modellistico permette di ottenere maggiori informazioni a proposito delle caratteristiche di biodegradabilita' rispetto ad un comune metodo biologico quale il BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). L'applicazione del metodo a reflui di origine industriale conferma l'elevata eterogeneita' del refluo e la conseguente diversa risposta ai trattamenti biologici di depurazione. Generalmente una frazione piuttosto piccola del refluo si presenta velocemente biodegradabile, mentre una frazione piu' consistente si presenta piu' refrattaria ai trattamenti biologici.

  15. Transition to turbulence of the Batchelor flow in a rotor/stator device

    OpenAIRE

    Cros, Anne; Floriani, Elena; Le Gal, Patrice; Lima, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This experimental study is devoted to the transition to turbulence of the flow confined between a stationary and a rotating disk. Using visualization and video image analysis, we describe the different transitions occurring in the flow as the rotating velocity of the disk is varied. The space–time behavior of the wave patterns is analyzed using the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD) technique. This decomposition of the experimental signals on proper modes permits to project the dynamics of the...

  16. Efecto de la temperatura y el período de oxidación sobre la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno de aguas residuales pesqueras

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Álvarez, G.; Valdés Herrera, R.; Romero López, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report intend to know, if BOD5 of fishing industry waste waters,follows a similar and proportional behavior to different temperatures and from incubation times, where the oxidative processes of organic matter are experimentally developed and to obtain a mathematical equation that allows us to know the job stream necessary, when diminishing the experimental time, if we accelerated the processes by means of thermal increases; besides to determine which of the propose methodologies in the b...

  17. Efficiency and kinetic modeling of removal of nutrients and organic matter from a full-scale constructed wetland in Qasre-Shirin, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolmajid Gholizadeh; Mitra Gholami; Reza Davoudi; Ayoob Rastegar; Mohammad Miri

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the removal of organic material and nutrients from full-scale subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) followed by anaerobic stabilization ponds under environmental conditions. Methods: The effluents were distributed evenly in 12 reed beds. Samples were taken twice monthly for a total of 6 months from several points in the wetland. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and nutrient removal from t...

  18. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of the zooplankton community in the Tigris River at Baghdad region, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Shayma Abdulwahab; Adel M. Rabee

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of zooplankton in the Tigris River running in Baghdad City, central Iraq, was investigated. Fourteen physical and chemical parameters, were analyzed, these parameters include water and air temperature, pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, BOD5, total hardness, Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, nitrate and reactive phosphate. Most of these values were within of the Iraqi and international standard limits. In all, 106 taxonomy units of zooplankton were identified, including 65 taxa belonging to rotifer...

  19. Pengaruh Dosis, Lama Pengendapan Dan Ukuran Partikel Koagulan Serbuk Biji Kelor Sebagai Alternatif Pengolahan Limbah Cair Industri Tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Rudi Anas

    2015-01-01

    Soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of many complex organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils. Based on the results of Balai Perindustrian Medan research on soyabean industrial wastewater characteristics in Medan, it found that soyabean (tahu) industrial wastewater contain of BOD (4583 mg/l), COD (7050 mg/l), TSS (4743 mg/l ) and oil or fat (26 mg/l ) at pH 6.1. Therefore wastewater treatment is needed to reduce the contaminants contained in ...

  20. Treatment of Antibiotic Pharmaceutical Wastewater Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun Su; Guangshan Zhang; Peng Wang; Shixiong Li; Ryan M. Ravenelle; JOHN C. CRITTENDEN

    2015-01-01

    Rotating biological contactors (RBC) are effective for treating wastewater, while they are rarely reported to be used for treating antibiotic pharmaceutical wastewater (APW). The current study investigates treatment of APW using an RBC. The effects of influent concentration, number of stages, and temperature on the remediation of APW were studied. The results indicated, even at low ambient temperature, 45% COD and 40% NH4+-N removal efficiencies. Moreover, the BOD5 removal efficiency was 85%....

  1. 合併浄化槽と植物浄化を組み合わせた排水処理システムの性能検証と省電力化に関する研究(学内特別研究)

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 佳樹; Yoshiki, Higuchi

    2016-01-01

    Purification performance of kitchen wastewater in a restaurants and a domestic by Slanted-Soil-Chamber Method was verified. Verification periods are in two years up to 2015. As a result of first a year, BOD (Biochemical Oxigen Demand) was lower than 20ppm by the activity of microorganisms and soil adsorption. But, purification performance was declined in winter because the activity of microorganisms wasn't much activated.

  2. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Austin G Davis-Richardson; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that t...

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS FOR WATER REMEDIATION AND POTENTIAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Addorisio, Veria

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are dark-colored wastes characterized by high values of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand). OMW contains high amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. The first category includes mostly sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, proteins, fatty substances, mixed phenol-polysaccharide polymers, polyalcohols, cellulose and hemicellulose, pectins and tannins. The inorganic substance, present in lower amount, includes mainly potassium and,...

  4. The effect of obesity on adverse outcomes and metabolism in pediatric burn patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Williams, Felicia N.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Obesity influences metabolism and increases the incidence of clinical complications and worsens outcomes in pediatric burn patients. Design Retrospective, single-center study. Subjects Five hundred ninety-two severely burned pediatric patients who had burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area and who were treated between 2001 and 2008 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into ≥ 85th percentile (n = 277) and normal (n = 315) weight groups based on bod...

  5. EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Dąbrowski; Radosław Żyłka; Mariusz Rynkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption during waste water treatment is a very important factor affecting food industry plants. Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy and meat sewage, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, N-total, P-total). Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as total consumption were measured. Indicators of energy consumption per m3 and removed load ...

  6. Kinetics of adrenal medullary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstad, A A

    1993-01-01

    The adrenal medulla of mammals has a heterogeneous population of cells. In adults most are epithelial cells containing a particular type of cytoplasmic granule. Based on a variety of cytochemical and ultrastructural studies it is now accepted that 2 different adrenal medullary chromaffin cell types can be distinguished, i.e. noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) synthesising and storing cells. Other cell types present in the adrenal medulla include neuronal elements comprising either cell bod...

  7. The Effect of Diazepam on the Function of Hypertrophied Rats’ Hearts in Ischemia-Reperfusion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dareuosh Shackebaei; Farid Feizollahi; Mahvash Hesari; Gholamreza Bahrami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophied hearts are susceptible to ischemic injury. Besides, cardiac vulnerability could be changed in the presence of diazepam. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of diazepam on hypertrophied rats’ hearts in ischemia-reperfusion conditions. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (body weight 210 - 270 gr) were administered with isoproterenol (4 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally for 7 days) alone or along with diazepam (1 and 5 mg/kg bod...

  8. Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A worldwide review

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Sayadi; R. Kargar; M.R. Doosti, et al.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of environmentally friendly and eco-safe wastewater treatment plan is nowadays widespread. This study aimed to assess the potentiality of hybrid constructed wetlands for treating of landfill leachate, river polluted water, domestic, industrial, hospital, runoff and agricultural wastewaters in lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale with various configurations. The results revealed that the hybrid constructed wetlands are effective to remove organic matter (BOD5, COD) and suspend...

  9. 相交线与平行线综合题型展示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    点拨∠AOE=∠AOD+∠DOE.因为直线AB.CD相交于点O.故∠AOC=∠BOD=2∠DOE(对顶角性质及角平分线定义)。∠AOC+∠AOD=1800;又∠AOC=∠AOD-80°,可求∠AOD.从而求出∠AOC及∠DOE,问题得到解决.

  10. 物化/厌氧水解/生物强化脱色处理印染废水%Treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by the combined physic-chemical/anaerobic hydrolysis/bio-augmented decolorization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚为进; 窦艳艳; 刘玥

    2013-01-01

    介绍了某印染废水工程实例,针对该工程废水的特点,设计采用物化沉淀—厌氧水解—生物接触氧化—曝气生物滤池组合工艺进行处理.在好氧生化阶段接种强化脱色菌,强化生物脱色效果.运行结果表明,进水CODCr为1 500 mg/L、BOD5为350 mg/L、色度为1 000倍时,处理出水水质为CODCr≤80 mg/L、BOD5≤25 mg/L、色度≤40倍,优于《纺织染整工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 4287-1992)的一级排放标准要求.%An instance of a printing and dyeing wastewater project is introduced.According to the characteristics of the wastewater,the combined treating process,physic-chemical precipitation/anaerobic hydrolysis/biological contact oxidation/aerated biological aerated filter has been designed.Inoculating augmented decolorizing germs during aerobic bio-chemical stage can strengthen the bio-decolorizing efficiency.The running results show that when the influent CODCr is 1 500 mg/L,BOD5 350 mg/L,and chroma 1 000 times,the treated effluent water quality is CODCr ≤ 80 mg/L,BOD5 ≤ 25 mg/L,and chroma ≤ 40 times,which is better than the requirements of the first class of Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry(GB 4287-1992).

  11. Intensive nutritional support improves the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea A. García-Contreras; Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay; Enrique Romero-Velarde; Ana Isabel Ibarra-Gutiérrez; Rogelio Troyo-Sanromán; Imelda E. Sandoval-Montes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated bod...

  12. Die implikasies van die mensbeskouing in die Pauliniese briewe vir die morele status van die menslike embrio ten opsigte van stamselnavorsing : 'n teologies-etiese perspektief / J.G. van der Walt.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Johann George

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell research offers hope to many people suffering from incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, heart disease and spinal back injuries. However this poses a moral dilemma because embryos are destroyed during embryonic stem cell research. To determine whether embryonic stem cell research is morally justifiable, two views in respect of a human being were considered: i. a human has a dualistic nature in which his body and soul are two separate entities or ii. his bod...

  13. Study the Efficiency of the Combined System of Coagulation and Flocculation/Ozonation in Treatment of Fresh Landfill Leachates in Tabriz City

    OpenAIRE

    R Dehghanzade; R Nabizade; A.H Mahvi; A Taghipour

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Fresh leachate has a low pH and high amounts of BOD and COD which are mainly constituents with low weight molecular such as volatile fatty acids ( acetic and propionic acids) .Management and treatment of leachate is an important subject in sanitary landfill operation and performance.Th objective of this study is determining the efficiency of the integrated coagulation -flocculation and ozonation processes in fresh leachate treatment of Tabriz city."nMaterials and ...

  14. 基于改进JIT算法的软测量建模及其在污水处理中的应用%Enhanced JIT-Based Soft-Sensing Modeling and Its Application to Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乙奇; 黄道平; 李艳

    2011-01-01

    为解决污水生化处理过程中的水质参数BOD5(5天生化需氧量)难以在线监测的难题,在充分考虑污水处理过程非线性和多变量耦合的基础上,结合Jolliffe参数和数据选择算法提出了鲁棒最近相关性算法,并将其与RPLS(迭代偏最小二乘)和线性偏差补偿等算法相结合,对JIT(Just-in-Time)在线学习算法进行了改进,最后将改进的JIT算法用于建立BOD5软测量模型.对现场数据的仿真结果表明,与传统JIT算法和RPLS法相比,文中方法提高了软测量的在线预测精度、自适应性和鲁棒性.%In order to overcome the difficulty in on-line measurement of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) during the wastewater treatment, by taking into consideration the nonlinearity and multivariant coupling characteristics of wastewater treatment process, a robust nearest correlation algorithm based on Jolliffe parameters and correlation data selection algorithm is proposed, which is then combined with the recursive partial least square algorithm and the linear bias compensation algorithm to improve the conventional JIT (Just-in-Time) algorithm.Finally, the enhanced JIT algorithm is used to build an on-line soft-sensing model of BOD5.The results of simulation show that the enhanced JIT algorithm outperforms the conventional JIT and RPLS algorithms in terms of on-line prediction accuracy, adaptability and robustness of soft sensing.

  15. Fluvoxamine in the treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Irons, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Fluvoxamine is a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has proved effective in large double-blind, randomized, controlled trials involving patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder. Improvements have also been demonstrated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as those with a range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and bod...

  16. The body self-awareness among women practicing fitness: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera Anna; Kozieł Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to explore the relationship between body awareness and negative body attitude, interoceptive body awareness and physical self in women practicing fitness as well as to analyze the determinants of body awareness. The Body Awareness Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and the Body Attitude Test were applied to 43 women practicing fitness and 32 non-fitness practitioners. Bod...

  17. Film and Tourism: an Information System for Disclosing the Cinematographic Attractiveness of Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Lavarone; Sandro Savino; Stefan Marchioro

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Cultural Heritage of the University of Padova investigated the topic of film-induced tourism in a year-long project, concluded in April 2015, titled Strumenti innovativi per la promozione turistica: film-induced tourism (Novel Tools to Promote Tourism: Film-induced Tourism). The project was financed by the Veneto Region through ESF funds. It brought together the expertise of film scholars, computer scientists and destination management experts, in partnership with public bod...

  18. Photocatalysis as a tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    F. V. Santos; E. B. Azevedo; G. L. Sant'Anna Jr; M. Dezotti

    2006-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been used as tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters to comply with the regulatory discharge limits and to oxidize persistent compounds that had not been oxidized in the biological treatment. The wastewater is generated by the refinery and directly discharged into the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro). Although BOD removal is high, a residual and persistent COD, besides a somewhat high phenol content remains. Three photocatalysts were tested - TiO2 (Aldrich), ZnO...

  19. A comparative study of youth attitudes to teenage suicide in Norway and South Africa : suicide, a permanent solution to a temporary problem!

    OpenAIRE

    Rugunandan, L.

    2006-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of the youths' views towards teenage suicide in Bodø, Norway and Durban, South Africa. The increase in self-destructive behaviour among teenagers was of concern in both countries. This study provides an insight into youths' understanding of the causes of suicide and their prevention strategies. A variety of data gathering techniques was used within the focus group to elicit perception and attitudes from participants in a less threatening way...

  20. 40 CFR 417.15 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... COD 2.10 1.05 TSS 0.80 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.80 0.40 COD 2.10 1.05 TSS 0.40 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...

  1. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap... TSS 0.80 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.80 0.40 COD 2.10 1.05 TSS 0.80 .40 Oil and grease 0.10 .05 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...

  2. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap... 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.02 0.01 COD 0.10 .05 TSS 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to...

  3. 40 CFR 417.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... COD 0.10 .05 TSS 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.02 0.01 COD 0.10 .05 TSS 0.04 .02 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...

  4. 40 CFR 417.55 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine... 0.08 .04 Oil and grease 0.04 .02 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.60 0.30 COD 1.80 .90 TSS 0.08 .04 Oil and grease 0.04 .02 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range 6.0 to...

  5. 40 CFR 417.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine... TSS 0.20 .10 Oil and grease 0.08 .04 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous product) BOD5 0.80 0.40 COD 2.40 1.20 TSS 0.20 .10 Oil and grease 0.08 .04 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...

  6. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Yang Berasal Dari Kolam Akhir (Final Pond) Dengan Proses Koagulasi Melalui Elektrolisis

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin Yunus Nasution

    2009-01-01

    Pengolahan limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit yang berasal dari kolom akhir dengan koagulasi melalui elektrolositelah dilakukan. Sampel limbah cair diambil dari kolom akhir Pabrik Kelapa Sawit PTPN IV Bah Jambi KebuAdolina Perbaungan dan diukur pH, COD, BOD dan kekeruhannya. Sebanyak 250 ml sampel limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit yang berasal dari kolom akhir dimasukkan elektroda aluminium dengan jarak 2 cm dan divariasikan arus yang mengalir selama 2 jam, lalu disaring. Selanjutnya masing-mas...

  7. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation–reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A real printing and dyeing wastewater was pretreated by Fenton process. ► We investigated impacts of operating parameters on ORP and pretreatment efficacy. ► Relationship among ORP, operating parameters and treatment efficacy was established. ► Pretreatment efficacy was in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. ► We investigated kinetics of color and COD removal and BOD5/COD ratio in solution. - Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 g L−1, respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD5/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD5/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD5/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10 h.

  8. Technologies for the removal of dyes and pigments present in wastewater. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios-Ziolo, Leonardo Fabio; Gaviria-Restrepo, Luisa Fernanda; Agudelo, Edison Alexander; Cardona Gallo, Santiago Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Dyes and pigments are beginning to do in the country considered as a series of compounds that can have toxicological characteristics beyond the aesthetic aspects in wastewater. This review attempted to cluster the most effective treatments for the removal, destruction and mineralization of dyes and pigments present in wastewater depend on the physicochemical properties of the constituent molecules. The kinetics of removal of BOD, COD, "real" colour and "apparent" in effluents, in addition ...

  9. Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Huttenhower; Dirk Gevers; Rob Knight; Sahar Abubucker; Badger, Jonathan H.; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Creasy, Heather H.; Earl, Ashlee M.; Fitzgerald, Michael G.; Fulton, Robert S.; Giglio, Michelle G; Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin; Lobos, Elizabeth A.; Ramana Madupu; Vincent Magrini

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin, and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics, and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analyzed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant bod...

  10. An ill-posed parabolic evolution system for dispersive deoxygenation–reaeration in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an inverse problem that arises in the management of water resources and pertains to the analysis of surface water pollution by organic matter. Most physically relevant models used by engineers derive from various additions and corrections to enhance the earlier deoxygenation–reaeration model proposed by Streeter and Phelps in 1925, the unknowns being the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The one we deal with includes Taylor’s dispersion to account for the heterogeneity of the contamination in all space directions. The system we obtain is then composed of two reaction-dispersion equations. The particularity is that both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are available on the DO tracer while the BOD density is free of any conditions. In fact, for real-life concerns, measurements on the DO are easy to obtain and to save. On the contrary, collecting data on the BOD is a sensitive task and turns out to be a lengthy process. The global model pursues the reconstruction of the BOD density, and especially of its flux along the boundary. Not only is this problem plainly worth studying for its own interest but it could also be a mandatory step in other applications such as the identification of the location of pollution sources. The non-standard boundary conditions generate two difficulties in mathematical and computational grounds. They set up a severe coupling between both equations and they are the cause of the ill-posed data reconstruction problem. Existence and stability fail. Identifiability is therefore the only positive result one can search for; it is the central purpose of the paper. Finally, we have performed some computational experiments to assess the capability of the mixed finite element in missing data recovery. (paper)

  11. What is it like to have a body?

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, P.

    2012-01-01

    Few questions in psychology are as fundamental or as elusive as the sense of one’s own body. Despite widespread recognition of the link between body and self, psychology has only recently developed methods for the scientific study of bodily awareness. Experimental manipulations of embodiment in healthy volunteers have allowed important advances in knowledge. Synchronous multisensory inputs from different modalities play a fundamental role in producing ‘body ownership’, the feeling that my bod...

  12. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  13. Urbanization & Urban Land-Use Mapping Using Remote Sensing & GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhruti D. Nanavati 1 ,

    2014-01-01

    A study on “Urbanization & Urban Land-use mapping” was carried out using IRS Satellite data of LISS III and LISS IV covering Gandhinagar city. The GIS data like the Transport Network, Urban Habitation, Bridge; Water bodies (like Rivers, canals, etc) were used along with IRS Satellite data. Satellite data was analyzed using Q-GIS as well as ENVI Image Processing Software. Q-GIS was also used to generate various thematic layers like Transport Network, Urban Habitation, Water Bod...

  14. Research on bioremediation effect of waters by means of engineering bacteria%生物工程菌水体修复效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小俊

    2010-01-01

    采用生物工程菌对某水库3 000 m3水域进行了水体修复试验,结果表明,投加浓度维持在2 ppm时,该生物工程菌对COD,BOD5,TN去除效果明显,以上三个指标能够达到Ⅲ类水体要求.

  15. Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Šostar-Turk, Sonja; Petrinić, Irena; Simonič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anio...

  16. SELF-DESIGNED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER : Wastewater treatment in areas outside sewer networks in Kokkola

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yao

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is related to the Finnish government decree on treating domestic wastewater in areas outside sewer networks (542/2003). The aim of this thesis was to design a simple, cheap and effective domestic wastewater treatment system and build its model. The thesis includes not only the theoretical explanations of methods for removing nitrogen, phosphorus and BOD7, engineering designed and building processes of model, but also the experimental processes of running the model and results...

  17. Impacts of operating parameters on oxidation-reduction potential and pretreatment efficacy in the pretreatment of printing and dyeing wastewater by Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huifang, E-mail: whfkhl@sina.com [College of Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Industrial Water-Conservation and Emission Reduction, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Shihe [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A real printing and dyeing wastewater was pretreated by Fenton process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated impacts of operating parameters on ORP and pretreatment efficacy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship among ORP, operating parameters and treatment efficacy was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment efficacy was in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated kinetics of color and COD removal and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio in solution. - Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a batch reactor for a real printing and dyeing wastewater pretreatment using Fenton process in this study. The results showed that original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and ferrous sulfate concentration affected ORP value and pretreatment efficacy greatly. Under experimental conditions, the optimal original pH was 6.61, and the optimal hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulfate concentrations were 1.50 and 0.75 g L{sup -1}, respectively. The relationship among ORP, original pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ferrous sulfate concentration, and color (COD or BOD{sub 5}/COD) was established, which would be instructive in on-line monitoring and control of Fenton process using ORP. In addition, the effects of wastewater temperature and oxidation time on pretreatment efficacy were also investigated. With an increase of temperature, color and COD removal efficiencies and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio increased, and they were in proportion to the exponent of temperature reciprocal. Similarly, color and COD removal efficiencies increased with increasing oxidation time, and both color and COD removal obeyed the first-order kinetics. The BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio could be expressed by a second-degree polynomial with respect to oxidation time, and the best biodegradability of wastewater was present at the oxidation time of 6.10 h.

  18. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Purnima Dhall; Rita Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated t...

  19. Performance Evaluation of Wastewater Treated Plant for Ninava Drug Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Hamad

    2013-01-01

    In this study the characteristics of raw and treated wastewater from Ninava drug factory were evaluated. The results revealed that the strength of raw wastewater can be classified as medium concentrated wastewater with respect to its BOD5 since the average value is 231.7 mg/l. In addition a strong correlations were found between many characteristics of raw waste. The characteristics of produced effluent from waste water treatment plant of the factory were within the Iraqi specification for th...

  20. Combined Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Anaerobic Bioreactor Posttreated in Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Saima Zeb; Qaisar Mahmood; Saima Jadoon; Arshid Pervez; Muhammad Irshad; Muhammad Bilal; Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater tre...

  1. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Hossein Moein; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Shima Nakhaie

    2013-01-01

    Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal effici...

  2. Electroflotocoagulation wastewater treatment of LLC «Kolomyia meat-processing plant»

    OpenAIRE

    Угляр, Юлія Михайлівна; Борщишин, Ірина Дмитрівна; Хром’як, Уляна Володимирівна

    2014-01-01

    The experimental studies of using bentonite clay of the Sokyrnytsia field in Khust district (Transcarpathian region) for wastewater treatment (WW) were conducted. They actively absorb such pollutants as sulfates, chlorides, heavy metals and others. Also, the use of bentonite in wastewater treatment makes it possible to reduce the load on the microorganisms in aerotanks, reduce the content of ammonia nitrogen, suspended substances and BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) in WW.The possibility of w...

  3. Potential Bacterial Consortium to Increase the Effectiveness of Beer Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Nia Anggraeni; Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam; Retno Kawuri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of microbial consortia in beer wastewater treatment. The research was initiated with the isolation of soil microbial consortium that has been contaminated by beer waste water, followed by the selection of the best potential microbial beer wastewater treatment. At the end, the selection of the best microbial consortium was tested in beer wastewater treatment based on pollutant parameters namely biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  4. BMI not WHR modulates BOLD fMRI responses in a sub-cortical reward network when participants judge the attractiveness of human female bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Ian E Holliday; Olivia A Longe; N Jade Thai; Hancock, Peter J. B.; Tovée, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    In perceptual terms, the human body is a complex 3d shape which has to be interpreted by the observer to judge its attractiveness. Both body mass and shape have been suggested as strong predictors of female attractiveness. Normally body mass and shape co-vary, and it is difficult to differentiate their separate effects. A recent study suggested that altering body mass does not modulate activity in the reward mechanisms of the brain, but shape does. However, using computer generated female bod...

  5. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)). PMID:26114273

  6. Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.

  7. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Cain, Dustin L; Clark, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes.

  8. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  9. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  10. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  11. Water quality assessment of river Beas, India, using multivariate and remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Chawla, Amit; Bhardwaj, Renu; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-03-01

    River Beas originates in the Himalayas and merges into river Sutlej at Harike, a Ramsar wetland. This river is a habitat of the endangered freshwater dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor R. Twenty-five water quality parameters, including eight heavy metals, were studied at four sampling sites over a stretch of 63 km between Beas and Harike towns for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Principal component analysis of the data proved to be an effective tool for data reduction as the first three principal components of all the water quality parameters explained 100% variance. Factor analysis delineated three factors underlying the water quality. Factor 1 comprised pollution-related parameters like BOD, COD, DO, PO4(-3) and hardness. Factor 2 was a natural water quality determinant and explained maximum variance in turbidity, alkalinity and TDS. Factor 3 comprised NO3(-1), a fertilizer-related parameter. Reflectance values from bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) of Landsat (TM) digital data were regressed on PO4(-3), turbidity and TDS using multiple linear regression analysis. PO4(-3) contributed positively to the spectral radiance, whereas TDS contributed negatively. Beta regression analysis revealed that PO4(-3) had a positive relation with BOD, whereas turbidity and TDS were negatively regressed with BOD. Artificial neural network models were fitted to the data. Correlations between the target values from ANN for turbidity, BOD and bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) were highly significant.

  12. Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

  13. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Octoviane Dyan; Gita Permana Putra; Budiyono Budiyono; Siswo Sumardiono; Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW) with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic p...

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER USING BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    OpenAIRE

    P.Priya darshini*, J.Sharpudin

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is a treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or non toxic substances. The microbes are effective in control of pollution due to waste water. The industrial and municipal waste water is analyzed for different Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, TDS, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Chlorides. The collected waste water samples were serially diluted and pour plated on Nutrient Agar medium and incubated at 37˚...

  15. BIOREMEDIATION OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE WATER BY RHODOBACTER SP. GSKRLMBKU-02

    OpenAIRE

    Kadari Rajyalaxmi; Ramchander Merugu; S.Girisham; Reddy SM

    2015-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste waters is a sustainable alternative for waste treatment to existing treatment methods. Microbial metabolism effects pH, BOD, COD, DO and concentration of suspended solids present in slaughter house waste water. Rhodobacter sp. GSKRLMBKU-02 from paper mill waste water was used in the present study to remediate slaughter house waste water. Treatment with this bacterium caused a significant decrease in some of the parameters tested for waste water. Remediation of sl...

  16. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Using Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Kurniadie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A constructed wetland to treat wastewater from farm house has been built in Padjadjaran University farming research station in Jatinangor, Indonesia, in July 2009. Approach: Water samples from both influent and effluent were taken every two weeks and analysed for COD, BOD5, NO3-N, NO2-N, NH4-N, total-N, PO4-P, total coliform bacteria, pH, O2 and settleable solids. Results: The objective of this study was to install one constructed wetland with a vertical flow system to treat sewage from farm house by using an aquatic macrophyte (Phragmites karka. The average treatment efficiencies during the period from August 2009 to January 2010 for BOD5, COD, NH4-N, total- N, PO4-P and total coliform bacteria were 76,03, 78,89, 88,18, 71,70, 91,06 and 99,45% respectively. The average concentration in effluent from period of August to January for BOD5 was 21.87 mg L-1, COD (57.66 mg L-1, NH4-N (0.82 mg L-1, NO3-N (1,36 mg L-1, total-N (2.68 mg L-1, PO4-P (0.07 mg L-1 and total coliform bacteria (4880 MPN/100 ml. Conclusion/Recommendations: The overall results show that all effluent concentration from constructed wetlands except BOD5 were still low and fall considerably short of Indonesian effluent standards for irrigation water. These results were very promising to be used in treating wastewater from agricultural industry and produce clean water which then can still be used for other purposes such as irrigation water, fisheries and other necessities.

  18. A/O-MBR工艺处理垃圾填埋场洗车废水及其回用技术%Treatment of Vehicle Wash Wastewater in Solid Wastes Landfill Site with A/O-MBR Processes and Its Reuse Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤

    2012-01-01

    Anoxic/Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A/O-MBR jprocess was adopted to treat the garbage vehicle wash wastewater in solid wastes landfill site in Fuzhou city. One year's operation shows that under the conditions of reactor influent with CODCr ≤ 1 000 mg/L,BOD5≤500 mg/L, the effluent water quality can reach C0Do<30 mg/L,BOD5<6 mg/L, turbidity<0.1 NTU,NH3-N <0.1 mg/L,anionics <0.1mg/L. The reclaimed water can stably meets the vehicle washing standard set in Reuse of Recycling Water for Urban-Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption (GB/T 18920—2002).%针对福州市某垃圾填埋场洗车台废水特点,设计采用缺氧/好氧平板膜-生物反应器(A/O-MBR)中水回用处理工艺.工程运行结果表明:在反应器进水COD≤1 000 mg/L,BOD5≤500 mg/L条件下,处理后出水的COD<30 mg/L,BOD5<6 mg/L,浊度<0.1NTU,NH3-N<0.1 mg/L,阴离子表面活性剂<0.1 mg/L,出水水质稳定达到《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》(GB/T18920-2002)中车辆冲洗标准.

  19. Integrated treatment of tapioca processing industrial wastewater based on environmental bio-technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Ngoc Phuong Mai,

    2006-01-01

    Tapioca processing wastewater containing high COD (9,630-13,760 mg/L), BOD (7,280-11,510 mg/L), SS (450-1,850 mg/L), total nitrogen (291-355 mg/L) total phosphorus (39-73 mg/L) and low pH (3.4-4.6) are one of the major causes of severe pollution to receiving source in South Vietnam. Based on the cha

  20. Evaluation of methods to overcome dormancy in the germination of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms

    OpenAIRE

    Walquíria Fernanda Teixeira; Evandro Binotto Fagan; Derblai Casaroli; Sabrina de Carvalho Canedo; Kamilla Alves Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the effect of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination of Ormosia arborea. The following treatments were used: 72h of water immersion; chemical scarification with 100% sulfuric acid; mechanical scarification + 24h of imbibing and group control, each treatment being carried out with 12h and 0h photoperiods. The seeds undertook luminosity treatments within the period of germination testing in two germination chambers, BOD model. A completely randomize...

  1. 焼酎蒸留廃液処理としてのアセトン・ブタノール発酵

    OpenAIRE

    小宮山, 晶子; 小林, 元太; 園元, 謙二; 石崎, 文彬; 吉野, 貞蔵; Komiyama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki; Yoshino, Sadazo

    2001-01-01

    Shochu distillery waste contains high suspended solid (SS) material, so that high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration indicates above 40,000ppm. Shochu distillery waste is easy to be spoiled at ambient temperature within a few days. A study for the feasibility of utilizing shochu distillery waste as a substratc for acetone, butanol and ethanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC13564) was carried out. Shochu distillery waste used a s the solevants subs...

  2. Avaliação físico-química de efluente gerado em biodigestor anaeróbio para fins de avaliação de eficiência e aplicação como fertilizante agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Tadeu Lopes da Silva; Antonio Pereira de Novaes; Vivian Kuroki; Lilian Fernanda de Almeida Martelli; Lourenço Magnoni Júnior

    2012-01-01

    The use of biodigester for basic and environmental sanitation has large demand in Brazil. A biodigester was built to treat conjunctly the human and pig feces and urine, regarding to its future application in rural small towns. The results show that the biodigester can reduce 90% of COD and BOD and, up to 99.99% of thermotolerant coliforms. The treated effluent has variable quantities of macro- and micro-nutrients; and organic matter. However, the concentration variability of the nutrients mak...

  3. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Serine Keratinase from Brevibacillus brevis US575 with Promising Keratin-Biodegradation and Hide-Dehairing Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi; Hatem Rekik; Abdelmalek Badis; Sahar Trabelsi; Mouna Belhoul; Amina Benkiar Yahiaoui; Houda Ben Aicha; Abdessatar Toumi; Samir Bejar; Bassem Jaouadi

    2013-01-01

    Dehairing is one of the highly polluting operations in the leather industry. The conventional lime-sulfide process used for dehairing produces large amounts of sulfide, which poses serious toxicity and disposal problems. This operation also involves hair destruction, a process that leads to increased chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the effluent. With these concerns in mind, enzyme-assisted dehairing has often been proposed...

  4. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  5. Advanced Oxidation Processes for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluents : A Technical, Economical and Environmental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Karat, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the dominating source for emissions of degradable organic substances to water is the pulp and paper industry. The organic substances increase oxygen consumption in the recipient which subsequently threatens aquatic species. Improved process engineering, process closures and use of external treatments have in recent years drastically lowered the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has not been reduced to the same extent, as some organic substanc...

  6. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, Maarten p. m.; Antoine Pariselle; Maarten Van Steenberge; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I; Céline Gillardin; Bart Hellemans; Floris C Breman; Stephan Koblmüller; Christian Sturmbauer; Jos Snoeks; Filip A M Volckaert; Tine Huyse

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the bod...

  7. Tracking body and hands for gesture recognition: NATOPS aircraft handling signals database

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yale; Demirdjian, David; Davis, Randall

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified framework for body and hand tracking, the output of which can be used for understanding simultaneously performed body-and-hand gestures. The framework uses a stereo camera to collect 3D images, and tracks body and hand together, combining various existing techniques to make tracking tasks efficient. In addition, we introduce a multi-signal gesture database: the NATOPS aircraft handling signals. Unlike previous gesture databases, this data requires knowledge about both bod...

  8. How Effective Are Spiritual Care and Body Manipulation Therapies in Pediatric Oncology? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas G. Poder; Lemieux, Renald

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effects of cancer and associated treatments have a considerable impact on the well-being and quality of life of pediatric oncology patients. To support children and their families, complementary and alternative medicines are seen by nurses and doctors as practical to integrate to the services offered by hospitals. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine if the practice of complementary and alternative medicine, specifically spiritual care and treatments based on bod...

  9. Assessing CSR and Applying Social Life Cycle Assessment: A case study on Biochemical Oxygen Demand Online Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, He

    2012-01-01

    Wuhan China and Borlänge Sweden collaborate to promote sustainable business growths. This thesis, being part of sustainable business project, aims to understand how business can contribute to sustainable development and explore mechanisms of social life cycle assessment. In an effort to answer research questions and further to achieve the general purpose, a BOD online monitor case study is described and analyzed by applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data collection is base...

  10. An Artificial Neural Network Model for Wastewater Treatment Plant of Konya

    OpenAIRE

    Tumer, Abdullah Erdal; Edebali, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, modelling of Konya wastewater treatment plant was studied by using artificial neural network with different architectures in Matlab software. All data were obtained from wastewater treatment plant of Konya during daily records over four month. Treatment efficiency of the plant was determined by taking into account of input values of pH, temperature, COD, TSS and BOD with output values TSS. Performance of the model was compared via the parameters of Mean Squared Error (MSE), and...

  11. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  12. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  13. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Kurniawan; Yuhelsa Putra; Dewi Murni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889...

  14. Stochastic Water Quality Optimization Using Imbedded Chance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. Hugh

    1987-12-01

    A chance-constrained stochastic programming model is developed for water quality optimization. It determines the least cost allocation of waste treatment plant biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiencies, subject to probabilistic restrictions on maximum allowable instream dissolved oxygen deficit. The new model extends well beyond traditional approaches that assume streamflow is the sole random variable. In addition to streamflow, other random variables in the model are initial in-stream BOD level and dissolved oxygen (DO) deficit; waste outfall flow rates, BOD levels and DO deficits; deoxygenation k1, reaeration k2, and sedimentation-scour rate k3 coefficients of the Streeter-Phelps DO sag model; photosynthetic input-benthic depletion rates Ai, and nonpoint source BOD input rate Pi for the Camp-Dobbins extensions to the Streeter-Phelps model. These random variables appear in more highly aggregated terms which in turn form part of the probabilistic constraints of the water quality optimization model. Stochastic simulation procedures for estimating the probability density functions and covariances of these aggregated terms are discussed. A new chance-constrained programming variant, imbedded chance constraints, is presented along with an example application. In effect, this method imbeds a chance constraint within a chance constraint in a manner which is loosely associated with the distribution-free method of chance-constrained programming. It permits the selection of nonexpected value realizations of the mean and variance estimates employed in the deterministic equivalents of traditional chance-constrained models. As well, it provides a convenient mechanism for generating constraint probability response surfaces. A joint chance-constrained formulation is also presented which illustrates the possibility for prescription of an overall system reliability level, rather than reach-by-reach reliability assignment.

  15. BOD在同步发电机励磁装置中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓晴

    2003-01-01

    BOD(折返二极管)是一种较为少见的电力电子器件.本文通过其原理、特性参数的分析,设计出BOD替代电路应用于发电机励磁装置上,较好地解决了励磁绕组尖峰过电压保护问题.

  16. Oplevelsesøkonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om nye vinkler på forbrug. Oplevelsesøkonomien udfordrer nemlig gængse forestillinger om forbrug ved at gøre nydelse, oplevelse, emotionalitet og engagement til et centralt salgsargument. Der mangler imidlertid teorier der kan forstå og forklare disse aspekter ved forbrug. Det vil b...... bogen råde bod på ved at fokusere på forbrugerens egen rolle i frembringelsen af relevante og interessante oplevelser....

  17. Hvad så?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    Unge hørehæmmedes situation har længe været ubelyst. Dette råder denne afhandling bod på. Med udgangspunkt i et omfattende empirisk materiale - heriblandt en stor kvantitativ undersøgelse - beskrives unge hørehæmmedes livssituation i en række forskellige sociale arenaer, såsom folkeskolen...

  18. Opskrift på en sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2011-01-01

    falde regn, skriver Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen fra DTU Space. Ved et forsøg på DTU Space for nogle år siden skabte man forhold, der ligner atmosfæren i den højde, hvor skyer dannes. Men der blev ikke brugt kosmiske partikler i forsøget, og det er der nu rådet bod på med den nye partikelaccelerator på...

  19. Danske lægebøger til menigmand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    helt frem til 1900-talet. Bøgerne indfører i en forestillingsverden, hvor arvesynden såvel som den daglige synd er den ultimative årsag til sygdom, der konkret udløses af ubalance i kroppens væsker. Vejen til helbredelse kræver bod, anger og omvendelse til et gudvelbehageligt levned, og i anden omgang...

  20. RevFisk – et projekt som kvantificerer stenrevs (et lavtliggende stenrev i den fotiske zone og et dybere liggende stenrev i den afotiske zone) betydning for fisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Christoffersen, Mads; Aarestrup, Kim;

    . Det er derfor i dag ikke muligt kvantitativt at redegøre for stenrevs betydning for fiskeressourcerne eller udarbejde målrettede natur-genopretningsplaner for stenrev med det formål at genskabe gyde- og opvækstområder for fisk. Det vil Projektet RevFisk forsøge at råde bod på. Centrale spørgsmål i...

  1. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R.; Cain, Dustin L.; Clark, Nicolas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes. PMID:27073854

  2. En ny undersøgelse viser - eller gør den?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kresten; Friis, Lars

    Danske medier præsenterer næsten dagligt resultater af undersøgelser, hvor et antal borgere er blevet spurgt om deres mening. Desværre er mange undersøgelser både dårligt gennemtænkt, halvhjertet udført og mangelfuldt analyseret. Det råder denne bog bod på. Uanset om du skal lave egne rundspørger...

  3. Om de såkaldte fejlslutninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    I artiklen, der er et bidrag til logik og argumentationsteori, tages de såkaldte fejlslutninger op til behandling. Det hævdes, at den nylige litteratur om emnet i Danmark ikke er opdateret om de sidste 30 års internationale debat. I et forsøg på at rode bod på denne tingenes tilstand gives et rids...

  4. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter;

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...

  5. BOD快速测定仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    园丁

    2004-01-01

    中国科学院长春应用化学研究所研制成功“在线生物化学需氧量(BOD)监测仪”,经中国科学院专家鉴定,该BOD快速测定仪具有自主知识产权,达到国际先进水平。

  6. Det marinarkæologiske Eksperimentarie: Oplevelser, Design, Inddragelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Pedersen, Michael Haldrup; Kallmeyer Bloch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Dette forsøger ”Eksperimentariet” at råde bod på ved at afprøve forskellige former for visualiseringer. Kerneideen i at lave et ”eksperimentarie” – og ikke bare en udstilling båret af visualiseringer og genstande, er et ønske om dels at tillade udstillingsgæsterne at ”eksperimentere” med rollen som...

  7. Hannah Arendt og pædagogikken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    lille skrift at råde bod på. Arendts tanker om pædagogikken udgør nemlig et væsentligt alternativ til de tanker om pædagogik, der er fremherskende i dag, og giver et nyt perspektiv på pædagogikken. Bogen argumenterer bl.a. for, at man med ideerne om læringssamfundet og konkurrencestaten helt glemmer...

  8. Radio in Proportion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    Dansk radiohistorie er på mange måder et uskrevet kapitel. Selvom der findes flere udgivelser fra Statsradiofonien selv og en dansk mediehistorie i fire bind, henligger mange centrale problemstillinger endnu i historiens mørke. Det vil nærværende afhandling søge at råde bod på med et fokus på...

  9. Udspil om læring i arbejdslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . Der mangler dog et generelt overblik over feltet arbejdspladslæring. Det råder antologien UDSPIL OM LÆRING I ARBEJDSLIVET nu bod på. Bogen er den første udgivelse fra Learning Lab Denmark. Bag bogen står en række forskere tilknyttet konsortiet Workplace Learning. I bogen gennemgår forfatterne...

  10. RevFisk - et projekt som kvantificerer stenrevs (et lavtliggende stenrev i den fotiske zone og et dybereliggende stenrev i den afotiske zone) betydning for fisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Christoffersen, Mads; Aastrup, Kim;

    . Det er derfor i dag ikke muligt kvantitativt at redegøre for stenrevs betydning for fiskeressourcerne eller udarbejde målrettede natur-genopretningsplaner for stenrev med det formål at genskabe gyde- og opvækstområder for fisk. Det vil Projektet RevFisk forsøge at råde bod på. Centrale spørgsmål i...

  11. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponenti...

  12. Water quality assessment of river Beas, India, using multivariate and remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Chawla, Amit; Bhardwaj, Renu; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-03-01

    River Beas originates in the Himalayas and merges into river Sutlej at Harike, a Ramsar wetland. This river is a habitat of the endangered freshwater dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor R. Twenty-five water quality parameters, including eight heavy metals, were studied at four sampling sites over a stretch of 63 km between Beas and Harike towns for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Principal component analysis of the data proved to be an effective tool for data reduction as the first three principal components of all the water quality parameters explained 100% variance. Factor analysis delineated three factors underlying the water quality. Factor 1 comprised pollution-related parameters like BOD, COD, DO, PO4(-3) and hardness. Factor 2 was a natural water quality determinant and explained maximum variance in turbidity, alkalinity and TDS. Factor 3 comprised NO3(-1), a fertilizer-related parameter. Reflectance values from bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) of Landsat (TM) digital data were regressed on PO4(-3), turbidity and TDS using multiple linear regression analysis. PO4(-3) contributed positively to the spectral radiance, whereas TDS contributed negatively. Beta regression analysis revealed that PO4(-3) had a positive relation with BOD, whereas turbidity and TDS were negatively regressed with BOD. Artificial neural network models were fitted to the data. Correlations between the target values from ANN for turbidity, BOD and bands 2 (green), 3 (red) and 4 (near infra-red) were highly significant. PMID:26842241

  13. Fine-scale spatial age segregation in the limited foraging area of an inshore seabird species, the little penguin

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    International audience Competition for food resources can result inspatial and dietary segregation among individuals fromthe same species. Few studies have looked at such segregationswith the combined effect of sex and age in specieswith short foraging ranges. In this study we examined the3D spatial use of the environment in a species with a limitedforaging area. We equipped 26 little penguins (Eudyptulaminor) of known age, sex, and breeding output withGPS (location) and accelerometer (bod...

  14. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters by Using the Multidimensional Scaling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suheyla Yerel; Huseyin Ankara

    2010-01-01

    The surface water quality parameters of the western region of Black Sea in Turkey were assessed by using multidimensional scaling analysis. This technique was applied to the surface water quality parameters obtained from the five monitoring stations. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that Cl-, SO42-, Na+ and BOD5 are the most important parameters causing difference in the monitoring stations. These analysis results present from the domestic waste and organic pollution affected of surfa...

  15. "Algorithms for some Graph-Theoretical Optimization Problems"

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Samenvatting Deze thesis situeert zich in het onderzoeksgebied van operationeel onder zoek. We richten ons op methoden om een aantal graaf-theoretische optima lisatie problemen op te lossen. Allereerst geven we een korte introducti e in lineair en integer programmeren en bespreken we enkele oplossingsme thoden die in deze thesis worden gebruikt. Het vervolg van deze thesis k an grofweg in twee delen worden opgesplitst. In het eerste deel komt het opdelen van een partial order aan bod. In h...

  16. "Algorithms for some Graph-Theoretical Optimization Problems".

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Samenvatting Deze thesis situeert zich in het onderzoeksgebied van operationeel onder zoek. We richten ons op methoden om een aantal graaf-theoretische optima lisatie problemen op te lossen. Allereerst geven we een korte introducti e in lineair en integer programmeren en bespreken we enkele oplossingsme thoden die in deze thesis worden gebruikt. Het vervolg van deze thesis k an grofweg in twee delen worden opgesplitst. In het eerste deel komt het opdelen van een partial order aan bod. In het ...

  17. Treatment of turtle-breeding wastewater and domestic fecal sewage with soil cultivating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Turtle-breeding wastewater and domestic fecal sewage were treated by means of soil cultivating system. Results indicated that more than 50% CODcr and BOD5 of wastewaters were removed, removal rates of NH4+ -N could reach about 70%-80%, but PO34- could not be removed. The thesis analyzed functional mechanisms for pollutants and put forward main elements affecting treatment efficiencies, thus provided conditions for further research.

  18. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M; Kristensen, G H; Brynjolf, M; Grüttner, H

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (treatment, addition of nitrogen was necessary. The biodegradability of the permeate was very low (BOD5 treatment through reverse osmosis.

  19. Erratum to: “Pancreatic cancer and SBRT: A new potential option?” [Rep. Pract. Oncol. Radiother. 20 (2015) 377–384

    OpenAIRE

    Hajj, Carla; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Local control remains a major issue for patients with unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The role of radiation therapy in the management of LAPC represents an area of some controversy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is an emerging treatment option for LAPC as it can provide a therapeutic benefit with significant advantages for patients’ quality of life over standard conventional chemoradiation. The objective of this review is to present the rationale for stereotactic bod...

  20. Swelling Properties of Water-Swelling Materials Exposed to Organic Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Inazumi, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakatsuki, T; Shishido, K.

    2011-01-01

    A water-swelling material is one of the rubbery impermeable materials which mixed synthetic resin elastomers as a base material, high absorbency polymers, filler and solvents. In this study, swelling characteristics of the water-swelling material on the water polluted with COD and BOD, as an impermeable material at coastal landfill sites, are examined by laboratory swelling ratio test. Furthermore, the factor in which it influences the swelling pressure of water-swelling material is clarified...

  1. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... where the ratio of avg. wt. of processed meat products/avg. LWK is 0.55. Adjustments can be made...

  2. Analysis of Nisin Production Wastewater Treatment Process%乳酸链球菌素生产废水处理工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华敏; 裘建平; 王洪龙; 张会展; 任俊华

    2009-01-01

    某生物制药企业排放的生产废水中含乳酸链球菌素等大量抗生素和有机物,其COD、BOD_5和Cl~-均较高.该企业采用UV/TiO_2/Fenton-水解酸化-UASB-A/O工艺进行处理.经过两年多的稳定运行,出水COD为92 mg/L、BOD_5为20 mg/L、NH_3-N为12 mg/L,完全满足(GB 8978-1996)的一级标准.此外,甲烷产气量达到300 m~3/d,可为热交换器提供能源.%The wastewater from a biopharmaceutical enterprise has high concentration nisin and or-ganic pollutants. The combined process of UV/TiO_2/Fenton + hydrolysis acidification + UASB + A/O was applied to treat this wastewater with high concentration COD, BOD_5 and chloride ion. After the stable op-eration for more than two years, the average concentrations of COD, BOD_5 and NH_3 - N in the effluent are 92 mg/L, 20 mg/L and 12 mg/L, respectively. The effluent quality achieves the first level criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978 -1996). Further more, the production of biogas is 300 m~3/d, which can provide energy for heat exchanger.

  3. Cassava starch effluent treatment with concomitant SCP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1991-03-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like organisms were chosen for the aerobic treatment of cassava starch factory effluent. A mixed culture of Candida utills and Endomycopsis fibuliger efficiently and rapidly utilized both starch and free sugars. After 28 h fermentation the protein content of the biomass was 22% (w/w), which remained unchanged during the remainder of the fermentation (60 h). This treatment removed 94% of the COD and 91% of the BOD.

  4. Morphological differences between wild and farmed Mediterranean fish

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Sfakianakis, Dimitris G.; Somarakis, Stylianos

    2012-01-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are important commercial marine fish species both for aquaculture and fisheries in the Mediterranean. It is known that farmed individuals escape from farm facilities, but the extent of escape events is not easy to report and estimate because of the difficulty to distinguish between wild and farmed individuals. In this study, significant differences provided through morphometry evidence that the cranial and bod...

  5. Impact of mass bathing during Ardhkumbh on water quality status of river Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, H; Sharma, S

    2006-05-01

    The study highlighted that mass bathing during Ardhkumbh caused the changes in the river water quality and indicated that water is not fit for either drinking or bathing purposes. The presence of faecal coliforms in water also hints at the potential presence of pathogenic microorganisms, which might cause water borne diseases. Although the water was found to be safe with respect to dissolved oxygen content, the values of BOD and COD exceeded the maximum permissible limit during bathing. PMID:17436540

  6. Verification, Validation and Evaluation of the Virtual Human Markup Language (VHML)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Camilla; Strindlund, Linda; Wiknertz, Emma

    2002-01-01

    Human communication is inherently multimodal. The information conveyed through body language, facial expression, gaze, intonation, speaking style etc. are all important components of everyday communication. An issue within computer science concerns how to provide multimodal agent based systems. Those are systems that interact with users through several channels. These systems can include Virtual Humans. A Virtual Human might for example be a complete creature, i.e. a creature with a whole bod...

  7. PENGOLAHAN PRIMER LIMBAH TEKSTIL DENGAN ELEKTROKOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Lieke Riadi; Whenny Ferydhiwati; Liok Dimas Sanjaya Loeman

    2014-01-01

    Limbah industri tekstil di area pinggir kota Surabaya mempunyai karakteristik perbandingan COD dan BOD = 5.57. Limbah jenis ini sulit untuk dibiodegradasi. Studi ini mempelajari tekonologi elektrokoagulasi untuk mengolah limbah tekstil dengan menurunkan intensitas warna, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Percobaan batch pada suhu kamar dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pH, jarak elektroda terhadap penurunan warna,TSS dan COD dan membandingkan biaya operasinya ji...

  8. PENGOLAHAN LINDI DENGAN OZON DAN PROSES OKSIDASI LANJUT BERBASIS OZON

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Rangga Sururi; Siti Ainun Saleh; Amalia Krisna

    2014-01-01

    Limbah industri tekstil di area pinggir kota Surabaya mempunyai karakteristik perbandingan COD dan BOD = 5.57. Limbah jenis ini sulit untuk dibiodegradasi. Studi ini mempelajari tekonologi elektrokoagulasi untuk mengolah limbah tekstil dengan menurunkan intensitas warna, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Percobaan batch pada suhu kamar dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pH, jarak elektroda terhadap penurunan warna,TSS dan COD dan membandingkan biaya operasinya ji...

  9. 针织染色废水的治理%Treatment of Dyeing Wastes from Knitting Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春媛; 薛琪

    2000-01-01

    浙东针织厂废水排放量4 000 m3/d,染色废水经生物接触氧化工艺处理后,CODCr去除率达88.3%,BOD5去除率为98.7%,出水水质大大优于国标(GB 8978-1996)的一级排放标准.

  10. 40 CFR 419.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable effluent limitations for BOD5. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... mg/l total organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2)...

  11. Future narratives for two locations in the Barents region

    OpenAIRE

    van Oort, Bob; Bjørkan, Maiken; Klyuchnikova, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    What does the future look like from the perspective of municipalities in various locations in the Barents region? What climatic, social and environmental challenges might there be, and how might local people respond? This report documents the results from two workshops held in Kirovsk and Bodø in 2015, addressing above questions. These workshops are part of a series of four workshops across the Barents region with the aim to build visions of different local futures in the Barents region u...

  12. Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters of the Three Rural Ponds of Sasaram of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Choudhary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico chemical and biological parameters of the three rural pond of Sasaram,Bihar has been studied to see the present condition for its better utilization. The study revealed that parameters are within permissible limit for fish culture and the stocking should be done as per the productivity of the water. As per the BOD estimation the ponds falls under moderately polluted category.

  13. Evaluation Of Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Anaerobic Baffled Reactor And Biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Hendriarianti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of communal Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP in city of Malang since 1998 but until recently had never done an evaluation the performance. Communal WWTP performance evaluation is needed to see how far the efficiency of processing result. Until now, Environmental Agency Malang City only measure effluent from WWTP Communal  to know the suitability  with domestic wastewater quality standards. Effluent quality data in 2014 showed value above the quality standard of domestic wastewater from East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 in 2013 for parameters BOD and COD. WWTP Communal USRI research objects are on a six (6 locations by involving the user community during the planning, construction, operation and maintenance. Technology choice of ABR followed by a biofilter reactor with the stone media proved capable of processing organic matter of BOD and COD with the removal levels respectively by 78% -99% and 71% -99%. As for the parameters of TSS, NO3 and PO4 have the ranges of removal respectively by 56% -100%, (43% - 72%, (2% - 13%. Ratio BOD and COD in influent are low and ranged from 0.22 to 0.41. From the evaluation shows that high organic matter concentrations in influent along with the HRT and operation time high will result in a higher removal level

  14. Evaluation of pollutants removal efficiency to achieve successful urban river restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sung Min; Ham, Young Sik; Ki, Seo Jin; Lee, Seung Won; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Park, Yongeun; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Greater efforts to provide alternative scenarios are key to successful urban stream restoration planning. In this study, we discuss two different aspects of water quality management schemes, biodegradation and human health, which are incorporated in the restoration project of original, pristine condition of urban stream at the Gwangju (GJ) Stream, Korea. For this study, monthly monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) data were obtained from 2003 to 2008 and for 2008, respectively, and these were evaluated to explore pollutant magnitude and variation with respect to space and time window. Ideal scenarios to reduce target pollutants were determined based on their seasonal characteristics and correlations between the concentrations at a water intake and discharge point, where we suggested an increase of environmental flow and wetland as pollutants reduction drawing for BOD(5) and FIB, respectively. The scenarios were separately examined by the Qual2E model and hypothetically (but planned) constructed wetland, respectively. The results revealed that while controlling of the water quality at the intake point guaranteed the lower pollution level of BOD(5) in the GJ Stream, a wetland constructed at the discharge point may be a promising strategy to mitigate mass loads of FIB. Overall, this study suggests that a combination of the two can be plausible scenarios not only to support sustainable urban water resources management, but to enhance a quality of urban stream restoration assignment. PMID:19494448

  15. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  16. Treatment of biodiesel wastewater by adsorption with commercial chitosan flakes: parameter optimization and process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitakpoolsil, Wipawan; Hunsom, Mali

    2014-01-15

    The possibility of using commercial chitosan flakes as an adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from biodiesel wastewater was evaluated. The effect of varying the adsorption time (0.5-5 h), initial wastewater pH (2-8), adsorbent dose (0.5-5.5 g/L) and mixing rate (120-350 rpm) on the efficiency of pollutant removal was explored by univariate analysis. Under the derived optimal conditions, greater than 59.3%, 87.9% and 66.2% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil & grease, respectively, was removed by a single adsorption. Nevertheless, the remaining BOD, COD and oil & grease were still higher than the acceptable Thai government limits for discharge into the environment. When the treatment was repeated, a greater than 93.6%, 97.6% and 95.8% removal of the BOD, COD and oil & grease, respectively, was obtained. The reusability of commercial chitosan following NaOH washing (0.05-0.2 M) was not suitable, with less than 40% efficiency after just one recycling and declining rapidly thereafter. The adsorption kinetics of all pollutant types by the commercial chitosan flakes was controlled by a mixed process of diffusion and adsorption of the pollutants during the early treatment period (0-1.5 h) and then solely controlled by adsorption after 2 h.

  17. Pretreatment of apramycin wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shao-xia; FENG Yu-jie; WAN Jia-feng; LIN Qing-ying; ZHU Wan-peng; JIANG Zhan-peng

    2005-01-01

    The pretreatment technology of wet air oxidation(WAO) and coagulation and acidic hydrolysis for apramycin wastewater was investigated in this paper. The COD, apramycin, NH4+ concentration, and the ratio of BOD5/COD were analyzed, and the color and odor of the effluent were observed. WAO of apramycin wastewater, without catalyst and with RuO2/Al2 O3 and RuO2-CeO2/Al2 O3 catalysts, was carried out at degradation temperature of 200℃ and the total pressure of 4 MPa in a 1 L batch reactor. The result showed that the apramycin removals were respectively 50.2% and 55.0%, COD removals were 40.0% and 46.0%, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was increased to 0.49 and 0.54 with RuO2/Al2 O3 and RuO2-CeO2/Al2 O3 catalysts in catylytic wet air oxidation(CWAO) after the reaction of 150 min. With the pretreatment of coagulation and acidic hydrolysis, COD and apramycin removals were slight decreased, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was increased to 0.45, and the effluents was not suitable to biological treatment. The color and odor of the wastewater were the apramycin wastewater. The addition of CeO2 could promote the activity and stability of RuO2/Al2 O3 in WAO of apramycin wastewater.

  18. Biodegradability enhancement by wet oxidation in alkaline media: delignification as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich, S; Kallas, J

    2002-06-01

    Nowadays many industries are considering the recycling of process waters as a way of improving environmental safety, preventing pollution, and avoiding the loss of valuable production materials. One industry in the forefront of this trend is the pulp and paper industry. Lignin is a pollutant present in the mill process waters and such macromolecules can cause problems during biological treatment of process waters. Wet oxidation (WO) is a process that can be used as a pre-treatment method for lignin fragmentation and improvement of biodegradability. Wet oxidation (WO) under alkaline conditions permits faster lignin fragmentation than the conventional WO process and, therefore, should favour biodegradability improvement. In this study, the experiments were carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor with an alkali lignin solution at temperatures up to 438 K, an alkali concentration of 1.5-3.5 g l(-1) and an oxygen partial pressure of 0.4 to 1.5 MPa. At an alkali concentration of 3.5 g l(-1)1 and 0.4 MPa of oxygen partial pressure, an increase in BOD/COD ratio was achieved from an initial 11% to 71%. The experiments also showed that the amount of small molecules in the solution measured by Immediately Available BOD (IA BOD) depends on the amount of alkali added and the operating temperature. PMID:12118617

  19. Occurrence and removal of organic micropollutants in the treatment of landfill leachate by combined anaerobic-membrane bioreactor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yiping; ZHOU Yiqi; WANG Donghong; CHEN Shaohua; LIU Junxin; WANG Zijian

    2008-01-01

    Organic micropollutants, with high toxicity and environmental concern, are present in the landfill leachate at much lower levels than total organic constituents (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), or total organic carbon (TOC)), and few has been known for their behaviors in different treatment processes. In this study, occurrence and removal of 17 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 16 polycyelic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and technical 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in landfill leachate in a combined anaerobic-membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. Chemical analyses were performed in leachates sampled from different treatment processes, using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detector and mass spectrometry.Concentrations of OCPs, PAHs, and 4-NP in the raw leachate were detected within the range from ND (not detected) to 595.2 ng/L,which were as low as only 10-7-10-5 percentage of TOC (at the concentration of 2,962 mg/L). The removal of 4-NP was mainly established in the MBR process, in agreement with removals of COD, BOD, and TOC. However, the removals of OCPs and PAHs were different, mainly achieved in the anaerobic process. High removal efliciencies of both total organic constituents and organic micropollutants could be achieved by the combined anaerobic-MBR technology. The removal efficiencies of total organic constituents were in the order of BOD (99%) > COD (89%) > TOC (87%), whereas the removal efficiencies of investigated organic micropollutants were as follows: OCPs (94%) > 4-NP (77%) > PAHs (59%).

  20. RIVER SYSTEM AND DISTURBANCE FACTORS IN THE LAKE TOBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zulkifli Nasution; Mashhor Mansor

    2004-01-01

    Situated at an elevation of 905 m above sea level in the Province of North Sumatra, Lake Toba and its surrounding landscapes are regarded as a natural heritage in a certain extent, as a quoted national treasure. Unfortunately degradation of the land and water resources in the watershed along Lake Toba is taking place at an alarming and totally unacceptable rate. The quality of the lake is partly depended on input the quality of the rivers. When compared to the control area the water quality that influenced by the piggeries are highly polluted. It can be concluded that the Salbe River at the downstream of the piggeries has been polluted and apparently it is a serious problem to the catchment area management. It should be noted that the polluted river would influence the water quality of the Lake Toba. Based on calculation, the permissible BOD5 according to B - river standard is 238 mg/L, it means the river still in B standard but the condition and quality are decreasing continuously. Following the Indonesian health standard the permissible BOD is - 461 mg/L. It means BOD in the river should be reduced 461 mg/L or clean program is needed.