Suzuki, Yasunori; Kubota, Hiroaki; Ono, Hisaya K; Kobayashi, Makiko; Murauchi, Konomi; Kato, Rei; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji
Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel species subdivided from Staphylococcus aureus. Whether this species can cause food poisoning outbreaks is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the enterotoxigenic activities of two food poisoning isolates suspected to be S. argenteus (Tokyo13064 and Tokyo13069). The results for phylogenic trees, constructed via whole genome sequencing, demonstrated that both isolates were more similar to a type strain of S. argenteus (MSHR1132) than any S. aureus strain. Moreover, the representative characteristics of S. argenteus were present in both strains, namely both isolates belong to the CC75 lineage and both lack a crtOPQMN operon. Thus, both were determined to be "S. argenteus." The compositions of the two isolates' accessory elements differed from those of MSHR1132. For example, the seb-related Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island, SaPIishikawa11, was detected in Tokyo13064 and Tokyo13069 but not in MSHR1132. Both isolates were suggested to belong to distinct lineages that branched off from MSHR1132 lineages in terms of accessory elements. Tokyo13064 and Tokyo13069 expressed high levels of s(arg)eb and produced S(arg)EB protein, indicating that both have the ability to cause food poisoning. Our findings suggest that S. argenteus harboring particular accessory elements can cause staphylococcal diseases such as food poisoning, similarly to S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Thomas A.; Bartels, Mette D.; Hogh, Silje V.
Staphylococcus argenteus (S. argenteus) is a newly identified Staphylococcus species that has been misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and is clinically relevant. We identified 25 S. argenteus genomes in our collection of whole genome sequenced S. aureus. These genomes were compare...
Maturity and spawning of the Silver Pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphr.) have been studied in an area between the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Cambay. The method of studying were: direct observation on the occurrence of maturity stages, measurements...
Wakabayashi, Yuki; Umeda, Kaoru; Yonogi, Shinya; Nakamura, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Kaori; Kumeda, Yuko; Kawatsu, Kentaro
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food materials. SE genes are encoded on mobile genetic elements and are widely found across Staphylococcus species including S. argenteus, although most SFP cases are caused by S. aureus. S. argenteus, recently discriminated from S. aureus as a novel species, are non-pigmented staphylococci phenotypically related to S. aureus. In 2014 and 2015, two independent food poisoning cases occurred in Osaka, Japan, in which non-pigmented staphylococci were predominantly isolated. Several enterotoxin genes (seb, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu2) were found in their genome and the production of SEB was confirmed by reverse passive agglutination tests. The non-pigmented isolates from patients, food handlers, food, and cooking utensils all produced the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. These non-pigmented isolates were coagulase-positive and biochemically identical to S. aureus. We performed further genetic analysis using nucA sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing, and identified these isolates as S. argenteus. We also found that seb was encoded on the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island, while seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and selu2 were encoded on the enterotoxin gene cluster. From these results, we concluded that the two food poisoning outbreaks were SFP cases caused by S. argenteus harboring SE genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete E.
Deep-sea mussels associated with sunken wood are less well known in terms of anatomy, biology and evolution than their bathymodioline allies from cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. During the Danish 'Ingolf Expedition' (1895-96) to the Northeast Atlantic, two pieces of pinewood were collected from...... a depth of 1836 m. The wood was inhabited by several hundred individuals of the deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus and the wood-boring pholadid Xyloredo ingolfia. Idas argenteus is the type species of its genus and differs from some of the species until now referred to Idas by having gill filaments like those...... to its shell development, alimentary system, gill anatomy and life habits provide important clues to the evolution of the Bathymodiolinae....
Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área â€“ CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos maduros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceanografía local esta modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribuyeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones y el Río Buritaca, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de E. argenteus en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano, siendo la temperatura y la profundidad las variables que predijeron mejor la distribución espacial de la especie.
Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Yin, Fei
Common aquaculture practices subject fish to a variety of acute and chronic stressors. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production but can adversely affect survival, growth, immune response, reproductive capacity, and behavior. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses helps with methods to alleviate the negative effects through better aquaculture practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of liver and kidney was performed in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) subjected to handling stress versus controls. A total of 162.19 million clean reads were assembled to 30 339 unigenes. The quality of the assembly was high, with an N50 length of 2 472 bases. For function classification and pathway assignment, the unigenes were categorized into three GO (gene ontology) categories, twenty-six clusters of eggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: non-supervised orthologous groups) function categories, and thirty-eight KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Stress affected different functional groups of genes in the tissues studied. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways (carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino-acid metabolism, uptake of cofactors and vitamins, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites), environmental information processing (signaling molecules and their interactions), organismal systems (endocrine system, digestive system), and disease (immune, neurodegenerative, endocrine and metabolic diseases). This is the first reported analysis of genome-wide transcriptome in P. argenteus, and the findings expand our understanding of the silver pomfret genome and gene expression in association with stress. The results will be useful to future analyses of functional genes and studies of healthy artificial breeding in P. argenteus and other related fish species.
Alcione Eneida Santos
Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.
Full Text Available B chromosomes have attracted the attention of Neotropical fish cytogeneticists in recent years, both for their remarkable occurrence in this group and also because of the interest in studies of the genetic structure and role played in the genome of these organisms. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in Prochilodus argenteus (Agassiz, 1829, this being the fifth carrier species among thirteen within the genus Prochilodus (Agassiz, 1829. The extra elements identified in this species are small sized heterochromatic chromosomes characterized by a low mitotic instability index, being very similar to other supernumerary chromosomes described in the species of the genus Prochilodus. Morphology, structure and dispersion of the supernumerary genomic elements which occur in species of this genus are discussed aiming to better understand aspects involved the origin of supernumerary chromosomes and the differentiation process and relationships among species of this family.
Corrêa, B; Vianna, M
This study determined the spatial and temporal distributions of the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), one of the most abundant teleost species in bays and estuaries. Sampling was conducted from July 2005 to June 2007. The species was captured on all sampling dates and at six of the seven sampling stations. Approximately 80% of the individuals were below the size of first sexual maturity (12·0 cm total length, LT ). Although the spatial distribution of juveniles and adults differed throughout the study period, the environmental variables measured explained only a small part of their distribution. The recruitment period occurred during the first part of each year. Despite the high pollution levels in Guanabara Bay, this coastal system plays an important role as a nursery ground and for the growth of E. argenteus. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
KATLIN S. RECH; CRISTIANE B. SILVA; JULIANA D. KULIK; JOSIANE F.G. DIAS; SANDRA M.W. ZANIN; VITOR A. KERBER; FERNANDA M.M. OCAMPOS; LUCIANE DALARMI; GEDIR O. SANTOS; EUCLÉSIO SIMIONATTO; CRISTINA P. LIMA; OBDÚLIO G. MIGUEL; MARILIS D. MIGUEL
Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if theCroton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-mal...
KATLIN S. RECH
Full Text Available Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if theCroton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE and its hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CLF and ethyl acetate (EAF fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.
Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D
Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.
Peng, Shiming; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiangang
Juvenile silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, was grown in culture tanks for 9 weeks on four different diets, and their effects on fish growth, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition were assessed. The feeding regime was as follows: Diet 1: fish meat; Diet 2: fish meat+artificial feed; Diet 3: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam meat; Diet 4: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam+copepods. The greatest weight gain was associated with Diet 4, while the lowest weight gain was associated with Diet 1. No significant difference was observed in weight gain between fish receiving Diet 2 and Diet 3. Specific growth rate followed similar trends as weight gain. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed Diet 1 was significantly higher than the other fish groups, but no significant differences were observed in FCRs of fish fed Diet 2, Diet 3 or Diet 4. There was also no significant difference in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) between the four diets. For fish that received Diets 2-4, containing artificial feed, higher protease activities were detected. A higher lipid content of the experimental diets also significantly increased lipase activities and body lipid content. No significant differences in amylase activity or body protein content were found between Diets 1-4. In conclusion, a variety of food components, including copepods and artificial feed, in the diet of silver pomfret significantly increased digestive enzyme activity and could improve growth performance.
Full Text Available Ikan bawal putih (Pampus argenteus mempunyai nilai ekonomis penting dan sebagai salah satu komoditas unggulan di perairan Tarakan. Informasi tentang biologi perikanan ikan tersebut masih terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmengestimasi parameter populasi meliputi pertumbuhan, umur, mortalitas dan tingkat eksploitasi ikan bawal putih. Data frekuensi panjang bulanan dikumpulan pada Februari – Nopember 2013 dengan bantuan enumerator. Sebaran frekuensi panjang ikan dipisahkan kedalam sebaran normal menggunakan metode Bhattacharya pada progran FiSAT (FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools. Estimasi parameter populasi dengan aplikasi model analitikmenggunakan program ELEFAN-1 (Electronic Length Frequency Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ukuran panjang ikan bawal putih berkisar antara 9,0 cm–35,0 cmFL. Hubungan panjangberat ikan bawal putih yang tertangkap dengan jaring insang bersifat allometrik negatif mengikuti persamaan W= 0,187L2,374. Nilai rata-rata panjang ikan pada saat pertama kali tertangkap (Lc sama dengan ukuran pertama kali matang gonad (Lm. Laju pertumbuhan (K sebesar 0,52/tahun dan panjang asimptotik (L sebesar 37,28 cmFL. Persamaan pertumbuhan dari Von Bertalanffy sebagai Lt = 37,28 (1 – e-0,52(t-+0,07. Mortalitas alami (M adalah 1,11/tahun, mortalitas karena penangkapan (F = ,65/tahun dan mortalitas total (Z = 1,65/tahun. Laju pengusahaan (E sebesar 0,60 berarti tingkat eksploitasinya sudah melebihi dari nilai optimal (E=0,5 atau populasi ikan bawal putih dalam keadaan lebih tangkap (over exploited. Untuk itu diperlukan kebijakan pengelolaan secara hati-hati dengan mempertimbangkan aspek biologi dan aspek penangkapan yang sedang berjalan. White pomfret (Pampus argenteus is one of the economically important fish and includes leading commodity in Tarakan waters. Information of fishing biology of those species were still limited. This study aims to determine the population parameters including growth, age
Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.
It is difficult for agencies to evaluate the impacts of the many planned dams on Sa??o Francisco River, Brazil, migratory fishes because fish migrations are poorly known. We conducted a study on zulega Prochilodus argenteus, an important commercial and recreational fish in the Sa??o Francisco River, to identify migrations and spawning areas and to determine linear home range. During two spawning seasons (2001-2003), we radio-tagged fish in three main-stem reaches downstream of Tre??s Marias Dam (TMD), located at river kilometer (rkm) 2,109. We tagged 10 fish at Tre??s Marias (TM), which is 5 km downstream of TMD; 12 fish at Pontal, which is 28 km downstream of TMD and which includes the mouth of the Abaete?? River, and 10 fish at Cilga, which is 45 km downstream of TMD. Late-stage (ripe) adults tagged in each area during the spawning season remained at or near the tagging site, except for four Cilga fish that went to Pontal and probably spawned. The Pontal area at the Abaete?? River mouth was the most important spawning site we found. Prespawning fish moved back and forth between main-stem staging areas upstream of the Abaete?? River mouth and Pontal for short visits. These multiple visits were probably needed as ripe fish waited for spawning cues from a flooding Abaete?? River. Some fish homed to prespaw ning staging areas, spawning areas, and nonspawning areas. The migratory style of zulega was dualistic, with resident and migratory fish. Total linear home range was also dualistic, with small (<26-km) and large (53-127-km) ranges. The locations of spawning areas and home ranges suggest that the Pontal group (which includes Cilga fish) is one population that occupies about 110 km. The Pontal population overlaps a short distance with a population located downstream of Cilga. Movements of late-stage TM adults suggest that the TM group is a separate population, possibly with connections to populations upstream of TMD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society
Divya, P R; Gopalakrishnan, A; Basheer, V S; Swaminathan, Raja; Mohitha, C; Joy, Linu; Kumar, Raj; Manoj, P; Jena, J K
Silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus is an economically important seafood species. The fishery resource of pomfret in Indian waters shows a dwindling catch since the last few years and the pomfrets caught were mostly undersized which calls for immediate attempts for management of resources. An accurate definition of population structure is important for management of this species. The genetic stock structure of P. argenteus distributed along Indian coast was identified using analysis of 842 bp of complete ATPase 6/8 genes of mitochondrial DNA. Altogether, 83 silver pomfret (P. argenteus) collected from 4 locations along Indian coast (Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal) were sequenced. Twenty four haplotypes were identified among 83 individuals with haplotype diversity (0.87) and nucleotide diversity (0.0025). The significant pair-wise FST and AMOVA values, between samples from West Bengal (east coast) and other locations along the west coast (Gujarat and Kerala) indicated the occurrence of distinct population structure in silver pomfret along the coast.
Bogestam, Katja; Vondracek, Martin; Karlsson, Mattias; Fang, Hong; Giske, Christian G
Many countries using sensitive screening methods for detection of carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have a sustained low incidence of MRSA infections. For diagnostic laboratories with high sample volumes, MRSA screening requires stability, low maintenance and high performance at a low cost. Herein we designed oligonucleotides for a new nuc targeted hydrolysis probe PCR to replace the standard in-house nuc SybrGreen PCR assay. This new, more time-efficient, PCR assay resulted in a 40% increase in daily sample capacity, with maintained high specificity and sensitivity. The assay was also able to detect Staphylococcus aureus clonal cluster 75 (CC75) lineage strains, recently re-classified as Staphylococcus argenteus, with a sensitivity considerably increased compared to our previous assay. While awaiting consensus if the CC75 lineage of S. aureus should be considered as S. argenteus, and whether methicillin-resistant S. argenteus should be included in the MRSA definition, many diagnostic laboratories need to update their MRSA assay sensitivity/specificity towards this lineage/species. The MRSA screening assay presented in this manuscript is comprised of nuc oligonucleotides separately targeting S. aureus and CC75 lineage strains/S. argenteus, thus providing high user flexibility for the detection of CC75 lineage strains/S. argenteus.
Occurrence of Larvae and Juveniles of Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Menticirrhus americanus, Menticirrhus littoralis, Umbrina coroides and Micropogonias furnieri at Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná
Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid
Full Text Available Despite its importance, most ichthyoplankton studies in the South-Southeastern coast of Brazil, have been accomplished on the continental shelf. Regarding the beach environment, recognized as a nursery, little is known about the ichthyoplankton. We analyzed 288 samples collected with a 18 by 2 m seine net, 1 mm mesh and a conical plankton net, with a mesh of 300 mum and a 60 cm mouth. Eucinostomus argenteus comprised 78 % of the larvae and juveniles caught in the samples. The occurrence of gerreids was strongly concentrated in the summer, while the Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus and Umbrina coroides were present during all seasons. M.littoralis was most abundant during spring, while M. americanus and U. coroides dominated during winter. For all species, the largest captures occurred during low tide. Environmental preferences are indicated in the principal component analysis, with the larvae and juveniles of E. argenteus and E. gula positively correlated with smaller waves and smaller morphodynamism, whereas M. americanus, U. coroides and M. furnieri seem to prefer periods with lower temperatures and larger morphodynamism.Apesar da importância, a maioria dos estudos de ictioplâncton na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil, foram realizados sobre a plataforma continental. No que se refere ao ambiente praial, reconhecido como área de criação, pouco se sabe sobre o ictioplâncton. Foram analisadas 288 amostras coletadas com uma rede tipo picaré com 18 x 2 m e malha de 1mm, e rede de plancton cônica, com malha de 300 mim e boca de 60 cm. A espécie E. argenteus totalizou 78 % das larvas e juvenis capturados. A ocorrência dos gerreideos foi fortemente concentrada no verão, enquanto que Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus e Umbrina coroides estiveram presentes em todas as estações do ano. M. littoralis foi mais abundante na primavera, enquanto que M. americanus e U. coroides dominaram no inverno. Em todas as esp
Full Text Available This study investigated the physical (L*, a*, b*, texture profile analyses, pH, chemical (TVB-N, K value and TBA, microbiological, amino acid content, and flavor effects that Gingko biloba leaf extract (GBLE had on silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus stored at 4 ± 1 °C in ice for 18 days. Fresh pomfret samples were obtained directly from the local fish market and transported to the laboratory with ice immediately. After being gutted, washed, filleted and trimmed in a water-ice mixture, samples were treated with different concentrations of GBLE (0.0 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL, 5.0 mg/mL, 10.0 mg/mL and packaged in Polyethylene bag, then stored in a refrigerator at 4 ± 1 °C with ice. The results show that the shelf-life of untreated (0.0 mg/mL pomfret samples was 8–9 days compared to 14–15 days for the GBLE1 (2.5 mg/mL treated group. The assessment results showed that different concentrations of GBLE had variable effects on preserving the texture parameters of acceptability limit, inhibit lipid oxidation, protein degradation, and microorganism growth. 2.5 mg/mL of GBLE was the best for the preservation of pomfret during storage in ice. Therefore, there is potential use for GBLE as a preservative to extend the shelf-life of pomfret during chilled storage in ice.
Novel staphylococcal species that form part of a Staphylococcus aureus-related complex: the non-pigmented Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. and the non-human primate-associated Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov.
Tong, Steven Y C; Schaumburg, Frieder; Ellington, Matthew J; Corander, Jukka; Pichon, Bruno; Leendertz, Fabian; Bentley, Stephen D; Parkhill, Julian; Holt, Deborah C; Peters, Georg; Giffard, Philip M
We define two novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that are phenotypically similar to and have near identical 16S rRNA gene sequences to Staphylococcus aureus. However, compared to S. aureus and each other, the two species, Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. (type strain MSHR1132(T) = DSM 28299(T) = SSI 89.005(T)) and Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov. (type strain FSA084(T) = DSM 28300(T) = SSI 89.004(T)), demonstrate: 1) at a whole-genome level considerable phylogenetic distance, lack of admixture, average nucleotide identity aureus; 6) a separate ecological niche for S. schweitzeri sp. nov.; and 7) a distinct clinical disease profile for S. argenteus sp. nov. compared to S. aureus. © 2015 IUMS.
Kosumi, Takuya; Takeda, Makio
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism. Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets. Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland. The climate is characterized by alternating arid and wet seasons, each of which lasts for half a year, and where the available heat mass is much less than lowlands at the same latitude. We first measured the nymphal duration at each rearing temperature and calculated the lower developmental threshold ( t 0) to be 20.19 °C based on Ikemoto and Takai (2000) and 19.38 °C based on a conventional line-fitting method. These values are very high relative to many other insects. The local temperature in winter does not fall below 15 °C, but this is much higher than the lethal limit. This suggested that critical stress in this locality was not coldness but low precipitation in winter. We estimated, based both on local temperature change and the Ikemoto and Takai's t 0, that G. argenteus required 3 years to complete its lifecycle unlike wet lowland species, where univoltinism or multi-voltinism are commonplace. Photoperiodism was observed in this species, but due to a lag between annual cycles in photoperiod, temperature, and humidity, photoperiodism alone cannot atune their lifecycle with local conditions. Synchronization in this species was achieved by three different adaptations: photoperiodism, high t 0, and large body size, which give it a long lifecycle. Although the species cannot achieve a univoltine lifecycle because of its high t0 value, it can escape from dry season by entering diapause at moderate temperatures
Crecimiento somático y relación ARN/ADN en estadios juveniles de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en dos localidades del Caribe de Venezuela Somatic growth and RNA/DNA rate of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae juveniles stages at two localities of the Venezuelan
Ana Teresa Herrera-Reveles
Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar la asociación de índices de crecimiento en estadios tempranos de peces marinos, se estimó la tasa de crecimiento somático y las condiciones fisiológicas de Eucinostomus argenteus en dos zonas del nor-oriente venezolano: Bahía de Mochima y Golfo de Cariaco. La edad y el crecimiento fueron estimados basados en análisis de otolitos sagitta. Las condiciones fisiológicas fueron evaluadas por medio de las concentraciones de proteínas y la relación ARN/ADN, empleando técnicas espectofotométricas y fluorométricas sobre tejido muscular. Las relaciones entre tallas con la edad y el diámetro de los otolitos resultaron positivas, significativas y ajustadas a un modelo de regresión lineal. Los valores de la tasa de crecimiento reciente oscilaron entre 0.178 y 0.418mm día-1, la tasa de crecimiento retrocalculado varió entre 0.295 y 0.393mm día-1, y la tasa ARN/ADN osciló entre 1.65 y 6.97. No se registraron diferencias entre las zonas de estudio, sin embargo se reportaron diferencias entre localidades. A pesar de no encontrarse correlación entre la tasa de crecimiento y la relación ARN/ADN, los valores reportados sugieren crecimiento positivo de los individuos silvestres en las localidades evaluadas. No obstante, ciertas localidades mostraron valores que indican pobres condiciones nutricionales, pudiendo afectarse a futuro otras tasas vitales.Somatic growth and RNA/DNA rate of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae juveniles stages at two localities of the Venezuelan Caribbean. In order to evaluate the association among growth indices of marine fishes at early life stages, the somatic growth rate and physiological conditions of Eucinostomus argenteus were estimated at two Venezuelan North-East zones: Mochima Bay and Cariaco Gulf. The age and somatic growth rate were estimated based on daily growth increments in sagitta otoliths. The physiological conditions were evaluated with proteins concentrations and RNA
Genetic population structure of two migratory freshwater fish species (Brycon orthotaenia and Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River in Brazil and its significance for conservation Estructura genética poblacional de dos especies de peces migratorios de agua dulce (Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus en la cuenca del Río San Francisco (Brasil y su importancia para la conservación
Full Text Available Previous geoetic studies cooducted with migratory fish populatioos from dowostream of the Três Marias dam io the São Fraocisco River Basio (Brazil have documeoted the occurreoce of populatioo structuriog, as reported for Brycon orthotaenia aod Prochilodus argenteus, two commercially importaot species io this basio. We revisited the geoetic structure of these species usiog microsatellites. B. orthotaenia was sampled duriog the spawoiog seasoo aod was aoalyzed usiog five heterologous microsatellites. P. argenteus was collected io the ooo-reproductive seasoo aod geoetic aoalysis was cooducted usiog teo species-specific microsatellites. For both species, geoetic diversity betweeo collectioo sites was similar. Coosideriog B. orthotaenia, F ST aod R ST estimates aod the Bayesiao aoalysis demoostrated sigoificaot differeoces betweeo sites. Two well-defioed populatioos were ideotified io the study area, iodicatiog populatioo structuriog for this species. No sigoificaot differeoces were fouod for P. argenteus. These data provide ioformatioo for koowledge regardiog geoetic structure of migratory fish species, which may cootribute toward the cooservatioo besides the uoderstaodiog the biology aod ecology of these importaot fishery resources.Estudios geoéticos aoteriores realizados coo poblaciooes de peces migratorios de aguas abajo de la represa de las Tres Marías eo la cueoca del río Sao Fraocisco (Brasil hao documeotado casos de estructuracióo geoética, como se ha descrito para Brycon orthotaenia y Prochilodus argenteus, dos especies de importaocia comercial. Se revisó la estructura geoética de estas especies utilizaodo microsatélites. Se obtuvieroo muestras de B. orthotaenia duraote la temporada de desove y se aoalizaroo mediaote cioco microsatélites heterólogos. Muestras de P. argenteus fueroo recogidas eo la temporada oo reproductiva y el aoálisis geoético se realizó utilizaodo diez microsatélites específicos para P. argenteus. Para
Ana Teresa Herrera-Reveles
Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar la asociación de índices de crecimiento en estadios tempranos de peces marinos, se estimó la tasa de crecimiento somático y las condiciones fisiológicas de Eucinostomus argenteus en dos zonas del nor-oriente venezolano: Bahía de Mochima y Golfo de Cariaco. La edad y el crecimiento fueron estimados basados en análisis de otolitos sagitta. Las condiciones fisiológicas fueron evaluadas por medio de las concentraciones de proteínas y la relación ARN/ADN, empleando técnicas espectofotométricas y fluorométricas sobre tejido muscular. Las relaciones entre tallas con la edad y el diámetro de los otolitos resultaron positivas, significativas y ajustadas a un modelo de regresión lineal. Los valores de la tasa de crecimiento reciente oscilaron entre 0.178 y 0.418mm día-1, la tasa de crecimiento retrocalculado varió entre 0.295 y 0.393mm día-1, y la tasa ARN/ADN osciló entre 1.65 y 6.97. No se registraron diferencias entre las zonas de estudio, sin embargo se reportaron diferencias entre localidades. A pesar de no encontrarse correlación entre la tasa de crecimiento y la relación ARN/ADN, los valores reportados sugieren crecimiento positivo de los individuos silvestres en las localidades evaluadas. No obstante, ciertas localidades mostraron valores que indican pobres condiciones nutricionales, pudiendo afectarse a futuro otras tasas vitales.
Procópio, Marcela Santos; Ribeiro, Heder José; Pereira, Luciano Almeida; Oliveira Lopes, Gabriel Augusto; Castro, Antônio Carlos Santana; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Russo, Remo Castro; Corrêa, José Dias
The fish gill is in direct and standing contact with the immediate external environment and, therefore, is highly vulnerable to aquatic pollutants. In this study, Prochilodus argenteus were caught at two different points in São Francisco river. The first point is located near Três Marias dam, while the second is placed downstream the Abaeté river. Chemical approaches showed the presence of metals contamination in the first point. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effects of these contaminants and the likely use of biomarkers on fish gills. Biometric data of length and weight of fish were obtained in order to calculate the condition factor as an organismal biomarker. The histological changes in gills and alterations in mucous and rodlet cells occurrence were detected microscopically and evaluated with quantitative analyses. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Eosinophil Peroxidase (EPO) were also assessed in fish gill. The analysis of the water and sediment samples revealed the presence of metals at the two points. As and Cd were detected at higher concentrations at point 1. The presence of lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, lamellar edema and inflammatory foci varied according to the point. Additionally, mucous and rodlet cells and MPO and EPO activities showed variability according to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, with exception of lamellar hyperplasia and eosinophil peroxidase activity, all others parameters showed sex-variation responses. At the first point, male fish showed a chronical inflammation in gills due to the lowest activity of MPO and EPO, as well as low occurrence of inflammatory foci and glycoprotein secretion by mucous cells, while female fish presented an opposite pattern of response to the same environmental conditions. Therefore, we suggest the use of such biomarkers in future monitoring of aquatic systems, taking into account the sex-variation responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All
Erin Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert Blank
Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentration, nodulation, nodule activity, and rhizodeposition of ...
Moravec, František; Diggles, B.K.
Roč. 114, č. 11 (2015), s. 4121-4126 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Australia * Dracunculoidea * Marine fish * Nematode parasite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015
In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...
Keywords: afrikaans; botany; carbohydrate; crude protein content; cutting; digestibility; drought; elyonurus argenteus; fire; flowering; grasses; grazing; heteropogon contortus; in vitro digestibility; moisture content; moisture stress; orange free state; pasture management; production; protein; regrowth; seed production; shoot ...
species amplification and population genetic applications. J. Genet. 93, e89-e93. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/93/OnlineResources/e89.pdf]. Introduction. Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen 1788) is one of the commer-.
Silva, Gabriel S C; Melo, Bruno F; Oliveira, Claudio; Benine, Ricardo C
The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.
Volume 93 Online resources 2014 pp e89-e93. Characterization of microsatellite markers in silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) through cross-species amplification and population genetic applications · C. Mohitha Linu Joy P. R. Divya A. Gopalakrishnan V. S. Basheer Mohammed Koya J. K. Jena.
Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/. OnlineResource/93/e86.pdf. Mohitha C., Joy L., Divya P. R., Gopalakrishnan A., Basheer V. S., Koya M. and Jena J. K. 2014 Characterization of microsatellite markers in silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) through cross-species amplification and population ...
Doczkal, Dieter; Radenković, Snežana; Lyneborg, Leif
The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini). Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus group...
Moller, PR; Jordan, AD; Gravlund, P
), Gadiculus argenteus Guichenot, Micromesistius poutassou (Risso), Pollachius pollachius (L.), Pollachius virens (L.)] and from 4 gadiform outgroup species. With additional data from GenBank, a dataset of all 12 gadine genera (19 species) was analysed using parsimony and neighbour-joining. Arctogadus appeared...
Aug 19, 2014 ... Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen 1788) is one of the commer- cially important marine food fish in India, having high value and demand in both domestic and export market. Pomfrets in Indian waters showed a steady decline in catch due to capture of undersized, juvenile fishes. Baseline information.
We provide the first descriptions of the tadpole and advertisement call of Mantidactylus argenteus. Calls consist of 6–15 short and rather melodious notes, with a dominant frequency at 4100–4400 Hz and are emitted from arboreal positions during the day. The larva is an Orton type IV tadpole, with oval body shape and ...
Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi
Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.
Full Text Available The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini. Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus group [3 spp.]. Five new generic combinations are proposed within Megatrigon: M. argenteus (Walker, 1852 comb. nov., M. flavimarginatus (Hull, 1964 comb. nov., M. jacobi (Hervé-Bazin, 1913 comb. nov., M. nivalis (Hull, 1964 comb. nov. and M. ochreatus (Hull, 1964 comb. nov. All species of the argenteus group are revised and nine new species are described: Megatrigon apiformis sp. nov., M. argentifrons sp. nov., M. argentimaculatus sp. nov., M. cooksoni sp. nov., M. immaculatus sp. nov., M. magnicornis sp. nov., M. natalensis sp. nov., M. sexmaculatus sp. nov., M. tabanoides sp. nov. Within the sexfasciatus group, M. jacobi (Hervé-Bazin, 1913 comb. nov. is treated as a senior synonym of Eumerus connexus Hull, 1964 syn. nov., but no further work is done at the species level due to insufficient material.
Dieta de cinco espécies de Hemiodontidae (Teleostei, Characiformes na área de influência do reservatório de Balbina, rio Uatumã, Amazonas, Brasil Diet of five species of Hemiodontidae (Teleostei, Characiformes in the area of influence of the Balbina reservoir, Uatumã River, State of Amazonas, Brazil
Cylene C. da Silva
Full Text Available A dieta de cinco espécies de Hemiodontidae (Hemiodus argenteus (Pellegrin, 1908, H. atranalis (Fowler, 1940, H. immaculatus (Kner, 1858, H. microlepis (Kner, 1858 e H. unimaculatus (Bloch, 1794 na área de influência do reservatório de Balbina, rio Uatumã, norte do Brasil, foi investigada. Os peixes foram coletados bimestralmente entre abril de 2005 e fevereiro de 2007, em quatro locais, dois no reservatório (a montante da barragem e dois no rio (a jusante da barragem. A dieta foi avaliada usando-se dois métodos: freqüência de ocorrência e volume relativo, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A amplitude do nicho alimentar foi baixa entre as cinco espécies analisadas. Hemiodus unimaculatus apresentou a maior amplitude de nicho, enquanto H. argenteus apresentou o menor. Detrito foi um item importante na dieta de todas as espécies analisadas, sendo predominante em H. argenteus e H. microlepis. Para H. unimaculatus, além dos detritos, as algas filamentosas também tiveram grande participação na alimentação da espécie. Já em H. atranalis e H. immaculatus, o item detrito também teve relativa importância na dieta, porém os itens microcrustáceos e vegetais foram, respectivamente, mais abundantes. Apesar da ampla variedade trófica, ocorreu o consumo preferencial de determinados itens, representados, principalmente, por detritos, matéria vegetal e microcrustáceos. A ampla diversidade trófica pode explicar o relativo sucesso das espécies desta família em ambientes represados.The diet of five species of Hemiodontidae (Hemiodus argenteus (Pellegrin, 1908, H. atranalis (Fowler, 1940, H. immaculatus (Kner, 1858, H. microlepis (Kner, 1858 e H. unimaculatus (Bloch, 1794 from the area of influence of the Balbina Reservoir, Uatumã River, northern Brazil, was investigated. Fish were collected bimonthly from April 2005 to February 2007 in four places, two in the reservoir (upstream the dam and two in the river (downstream the dam. A
Chelomina, G.N. [Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A.; Vorontsov, N.N. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others
The genomes of three species of wood mouse (Apodemus fulvipectus and A. ponticus from the Caucasus and A. argenteus from Japan) were compared by means of restriction analysis of nuclear DNA. The species are differentiated from each other and from previously studied species. Each species has its species-specific features. Within the genus Apodemus, A. ponticus is most closely related to the European species A. sylvaticus and A. flavicollis. A. fulvipectus has a peculiar type of restriction with EcoR I (specific for dispersed repeats) and Hind III (specific for satDNA). The genome of this species contains three families of EcoR I repeats previously found in various species (European and Asian) of wood mouse and Hind III components characteristic of both wood and field mice. A. argenteus differs from all other forms of Apodemus, the genome of which contains the 375-bp Hind III satellite, by the presence of an EcoR I satDNA fraction consisting of 240-bp repeating units. 22 refs., 2 figs.
Paulo de Tarso C. Chaves
Full Text Available Several coastal fish use the estuarine habitat during a part of their life cycle. These sites are considered good for the reproductive activity, as well as for the growth of larvae and juveniles. Concerning the Gerreidae, however, many studies reveal that most species leave the estuaries to reproduce at sea. At Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil, this family is represented by three genera and five species, which make an important fraction of the local assemblage. The present study investigated the populational structure and breeding habits of three Eucinostomus species, in order to know what relationship exists between them and the mangrove. It was found that the Guaratuba mangrove represents a transitory habitat for the life cycle of the Eucinostomus species. The sub-adults grow in the mangrove throughout the year and leave this milieu in spring or summer, when they complete the gonadal maturation and presumably spawn. E. argenteus and E. gula do not return to the mangrove after spawning. The three species feed mainly on polychaetes, but differences occur with respect to the secondary components of the diet.No manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba, litoral sul do Brasil, os Gerreidae são representados por 3 gêneros e 5 espécies, compondo uma parcela numericamente importante da ictiofauna local. Este trabalho descreve a estrutura populacional e os hábitos reprodutivos de Eucinostomus argenteus, E. gula e E. melanopterus, reconhecendo as relações que mantêm com o manguezal. Os resultados indicam que o manguezal representa para elas um habitat transitório. Os subadultos crescem na área ao longo do ano, deixando-na na primavera ou no verão, quando completam a maturação e desovam, no mar ou em outra região da Baía. E. argenteus e E. gula não retornam ao manguezal após a desova, mas E. melanopterus provavelmente sim. As três espécies alimentam-se sobretudo de poliquetos, apresentando diferenças nos itens secundários da dieta.
Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai
Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.
Bangera, Vasanthi S.; Rudran, Kamala
Marine organisms such as fishes, molluscs and crustaceans are known to accumulate 210 Pb. Distribution of 210 Pb in coastal marine organisms mainly fishes and shell fishes is studied. Concentration of 210 Pb obtained in muscle of common fishes (edible portion) varied from BDL to 9.71 ± 0.92 Bq kq -1 wet muscle. For fishes like Pampus argenteus (pomfret), Cynoglossus elongatus (sole), Rastrelliger kanagurta (mackerel), Harpoden nehereus (Bombay duck), Arius dussumieri (catfish), the concentration factors for 210 Pb in edible portion of fish from sea water works out to 10 1 to 10 3 . Radiation dose to the public has been evaluated on the basis of daily intake of 40 g of fish (15 kg y -1 ). Committed effective dose (CED) to 210 Pb due to consumption of seafood is calculated, CED varied from 2.5 x 10 -3 to 1.27 x 10 -1 mSv y -1 . (author)
Nunes, Joséde Anchieta C C; Sampaio, Cláudio L S; Barros, Francisco; Leduc, Antoine O H C
Plastic debris collar wrappings (PDCW) are involved in the frequent entanglement of several groups of marine animals. In fishes, however aside from 'ghost fishing', PDCW events are rarely documented, and no record of this occurrence exists in tropical reef fishes. Here, we present records for four species afflicted by plastic debris collars. Observations occurred during snorkeling, and included the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus, Atlantic thread herring Ophistonema oglinum, tomtate grunt Haemulon aurolineatum and gray parrotfish Sparisoma axillare. While PDCW may not create an instantaneous source of mortality, our observations suggest that debilitating stress, created by reduced swimming performances, feeding and/or antipredator behavior are likely consequences for afflicted individuals. Given the importance of these performances on survival, reduction in fitness is expected. This note aims to report cases of PDCW and underscore that such interactions between fishes and plastic pollution may be more prevalent than previously expected in coastal reef habitats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Roger Raupp Cipriano
Full Text Available In this study, five species of marine fishes from the Paranaguá Bay in the Brazilian coast were evaluated. Eucinostomus argenteus and Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae presented 48 chromosomes, all of which more acrocentric (FN = 48; Strongylura timucu and S. marina (Belonidae also presented 48 chromosomes, but with a higher karyotypic complexity than the Gerreidae, 10M+2SM+36A (FN = 60 and 4M+44A (FN = 52, respectively. The fifth species, Mugil curema (Mugilidae, different than the others, presented only 28 chromosomes 20M+4ST+4A (FN = 48. The species presented diversity in the karyotypic macro-structure, which should be relevant for the cytotaxonomy and the evolution of this group of the vertebrate.Nas últimas décadas tem ocorrido no Brasil um incremento de estudos cariotípicos em peixes marinhos. Atualmente são conhecidos os cariótipos de 118 espécies, distribuídas em 43 famílias e 80 gêneros. Foram estudadas cinco espécies de peixes marinhos do complexo estuarino da Baía de Paranaguá na costa brasileira. Eucinostomus argenteus e Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae, apresentaram 48 cromossomos todos acrocêntricos (NF = 48; Strongylura timucu e S. marina (Belonidae apresentaram 48 cromossomos, porém com complexidade cariotípica maior do que apresentada pelos gerreídeos, 10M+2SM+36A (NF = 60 e 4M+44A (NF = 52, respectivamente. A quinta espécie, Mugil curema (Mugilidae, ao contrário das outras quatro espécies aqui analisadas, apresentou apenas 28 cromossomos 20M+4ST+4A (NF = 48. Apesar da tendência em se verificar um cariótipo constituído por 48 cromossomos em teleósteos marinhos, as espécies aqui analisadas apresentam uma diversidade para a macroestrutura cariotípica a ser considerada para a citotaxonomia e evolução desse grupo de vertebrados.
Stephen S. Curran
Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de
Zélia Maria Pimentel Nunes
Full Text Available Analisou-se o crescimento dos peixes, a composição das espécies e a produtividade de quatro policultivos (P75, P78, P87 e P207, visando melhorar o manejo e a produtividade pesqueira dos pequenos açudes (0,1-5,0ha do Semi-Árido brasileiro. Simulou-se as condições desses açudes em viveiros com 120 e 5.000 m² de área, sem renovação de água, utilizando moderada quantidade de adubo e fertilizante. A biomassa inicial variou de 75 a 207kg ha-1, sendo formada por: tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, curimatã pacu (Prochilodus argenteus, carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. Os peixes apresentaram baixo crescimento (The analysed species composition, fish growth, and productivity of four polycultures (P75, P78, P87, and P207 with the objective to improve the small reservoir (0.1-5 ha fishery management and productivity in the Brazilian semiarid region were conducted a experiment. To mimic reservoir conditions, we used 120 and 5,000m² ponds and evaporation and infiltration water loss was replaced. In addition, manure and fertilizers were used only moderately. The initial biomass of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, 'tambaqui' Colossoma macropomum, 'curimatã pacu' Prochilodus argenteus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and 'tucunaré' Cichla ocellaris ranged from 75 to 207kg ha-1. The fish showed low growth rates (<0.01g g-1 d-1 after 75 days of culture (P78 and P87. Tambaqui, tilapia, and curimatã growth decreased after 53 days (P75. In moderate biomass, tambaqui grew less than carp and curimatã did (P207. Tilapia productivity reached 720kg ha-1yr-1 (P78 and fell to 220kg ha-1yr-1 because of the reproductive process (P75 and P207. The carp productivity of 1,600kg.ha-1yr-1 was higher than those of the other fish (P87. The 75kg.ha-1 biomass level (60:30:4:3:3% of tilapia, tambaqui, carp, curimatã, and tucunaré, respectively optimized fish growth and productivity. The use of
Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C
This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q
The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast.
Contente, Riguel Feltrin; Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski, Carmen Lucia
The use of multiple sampling gears is indispensible to obtain robust characterizations of fish assemblage structure in species-rich subtropical ecosystems. In this study, such a dependence was demonstrated by characterizing the structure of the high-tide fish assemblage in a subtropical tidal flat ecosystem (the Araçá Bay, southeastern Brazil) using eight different gears along five seasonal surveys and estimating the bay's fish species richness, combining these data with those from local tide pool fish surveys. The high-tide fish assemblage was spatially structured, contained five threatened species, and was dominated by persistent and large populations of Eucinostomus argenteus and of the fisheries species Mugil curema and Diapterus rhombeus that intensively use the bay throughout their life cycles. Large, small-bodied fish populations supported a regular use of the bay by piscivores. The autumn-winter peak in abundance of juvenile fishes caused a subsequent increase in piscivore abundance, and both events explained the bulk of the seasonal variability of the fish assemblage. The estimated richness revealed that the combination of sampling methods was enough for sampling the bulk of the local richness, and the bay may hold a surprisingly high richness compared to other costal ecosystem of the region. This faunal characterization, only viable using multiple gears, will be critical to support the implementation of a future study to monitor the impacts on local fish biodiversity of an imminent port expansion over the tidal flat.
Full Text Available A focused review on the use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India was made. Use of LHRHa is mainly restricted to high value brackish water and marine fish species whose market value generally exceeds INR 300-400/kg (USD 4.5-6/kg. Published information on use of LHRHa in induced breeding of fishes in India could document only twelve species out of which nine were brackishwater or marine fish. Besides length and weight, the egg diameter of female fishes (>0.45–0.7 mm is an important criterion for treating the fishes with LHRHa. LHRHa is either used alone or in combination with HCG (most popular, PGE, 17α-MT and Pimozide. Dosage of 20-70 µg/kg body weight for females and 10-40 µg/kg body weight for males with a latency period of 24-36 hours is most common in India. Experiments with LHRHa are being carried out mainly by ICAR-CIBA, Chennai (dominant and ICAR-CMFRI, Kochi. Standardization and optimization of LHRHa dosage has been attained in Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer, Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus while in Grouper (Epinephelus tauvina, Moonfish (Monodactylus argenteus, Milk fish (Chanos chanos, Crescent Bass (Terapon jarbua and Silver Pompano (Trachinotus blochii, it is under progress.
Ivan Furtado Junior
Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the biomass of fish stocks in the area of the dam formed by tailings of Sossego mine in Canaã dos Carajás, captured with the use of cast nets for fish. The prospecting work was carried out during the period from 29 February to 6 March 2004, 6 months after closing the dam and immediately before the disposal of waste. The average values estimated for the capture per unit area covered by cast nets (CPUA and biomass were 8.4 g m-² and 16,922.7 kg, respectively. The most representative groups of fish were minnows, with 67.7% and discus with 24.8% of the total estimated biomass. The species caught were: Moenkhausia cf. sanctaefilomenae (redeye tetra fish, Tetragonopterus cf. argenteus (white tetra fish, Tetragonopterus chalceus (red tetra fish, Aequidens viridis (cichlasoma bimaculatum Crenicichla cincta (jacunda Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju Curimata inornata (branquinha and Hoplias malabaricus (trahira. Keywords: fishing survey; yield per unit area; biomass; tailings dam.
Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.
The contents of natural and artificial radionuclides in two types of fresh water fish and four types of marine fish commonly consumed by the Hong Kong population have been measured using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The two types of fresh water fish are grey mullet (mugil cephalus) and grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus). The four types of marine fish are white pomfret (pampus argenteus), red bullseye (priacanthus macracanthus), golden thread (nemipterus) and gingko (gymnocranius griseus). All measurements of U and Th chain radionuclides in the samples have yielded values below MDA except for positive detection of 228 Ra (assuming 228 Ra to be in equilibrium with 228 Ac) in grey mullet and bullseye perch. The 40 K and 137 Cs radionuclides were detectable in all samples, with values of 0.01-0.2 and 41.23-111.47 Bq/kg fresh respectively. The different levels of radioactivity in different species of fish is suggested to be due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The radionuclide 60 Co, the only other artificial radionuclide to be investigated herein, recorded values below MDA for most of the samples; observable values ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 Bq/kg fresh. Committed effective dose due to ingestion of radionuclides from fish have been estimated to be 1.2 (male) and 6.4 (female) μSv/yr for natural radionuclides; 0.027 (male) and 0.026 (female) μSv/yr for artificial radionuclides. (author)
Ashraf, M.; Jaffar, M.
The role of trace metals in marine ecosystems has been keenly investigated during recent years. It is known that abundance of essential trace metals regulates the metal content in the organisms by homeostatic control mechanisms, which when cease to function cause essential trace metals to act in an either acutely or chronically toxic manner. Therefore, a correlation study based on essential and non-essential trace metal concentrations is imperative for extending the existing knowledge of bioaccumulation of trace metals in marine organisms. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to bring out quantitative correlations between the concentrations of iron, copper, lead and zinc in the edible muscle tissue of six species of marine fish: Salmon (salmon sole); tuna (thunnus thynnus); pomfret silver (pampus argenteus); Pomfret black (formioniger); long tail tuna (thynnus tonggel) and Indian oil sardine (sardinella longiceps). These fish are abundantly available in Pakistan along the coastal line of the Arabian Sea and have great commercial value. The computational analysis on the trace metal correlation was conducted using an MSTAT statistical package.
Vega-Cendejas, Ma. Eugenia; Hernández de Santillana, Mireya
Rio Lagartos, a tropical coastal lagoon in northern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, is characterized by high salinity during most of the year (55 psu annual average). Even though the area has been designated as a wetland of international importance because of its great biodiversity, fish species composition and distribution are unknown. To determine whether the salinity gradient was influencing fish assemblages or not, fish populations were sampled seasonally by seine and trawl from 1992 to 1993 and bimonthly during 1997. We identified 81 fish species, eight of which accounted for 53.1% considering the Importance Value Index ( Floridichthys polyommus, Sphoeroides testudineus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Fundulus majalis, Strongylura notata, Cyprinodon artifrons and Elops saurus). Species richness and density declined from the mouth to the inner zone where extreme salinity conditions are prominent (>80) and competitive interactions decreased. However, in Coloradas basin (53 average sanity) and in the inlet of the lagoon, the highest fish density and number of species were observed. Greater habitat heterogeneity and fish immigration were considered as the best explanation. Multivariate analysis found three zones distinguished by fish occurrence, abundance and distribution. Ichthyofaunal spatial differences were attributed to selective recruitment from the Gulf of Mexico due to salinity gradient and to changing climatic periods. Estuarine and euryhaline marine species are abundant, with estuarine dependent ones entering the system according to environmental preferences. This knowledge will contribute to the management of the Special Biosphere Reserve through baseline data to evaluate environmental and anthropogenic changes.
Bangera, V.S.; Rudran, Kamala
Marine organisms such as fishes, molluscs and crustaceans are known to accumulate 210 Po. Distribution of 210 Po in coastal marine organisms mainly fishes and shell fishes is studied. Concentration of 210 Po obtained in muscle of common fishes (edible portion) varied from 2.10 ± 0.11 to 21.90 ± 5.00 Bq kg -1 dry muscle (for fishes like Pampus argenteus (Pomfret), Cynoglossus elongatus (sole), Rastrelliger kanagurta (mackerel), Harpodon nehereus (Bombay duck) etc. Concentration factors for 210 Po in edible portion of fish from sea water works out to 10 3 to 10 4 . Radiation dose to the public has been evaluated on the basis of daily intake of 40 g of fish (15 kg y -1 ). Committed effective dose (CED) to 210 Po due to consumption of sea food is calculated, CED varied from 2.05 x 10 -3 to 4 x 10 -2 mSv y -1 . (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Full Text Available The composition and abundance of megabenthic fauna caught by the commercial trawl fleet in the Alboran Sea were studied. A total of 28 hauls were carried out at depths ranging from 50 to 640 m. As a result of a hierarchical classification analysis four assemblages were detected: (1 the outer shelf group (50-150 m, characterised by Octopus vulgaris and Cepola macrophthalma; (2 the upper slope group (151-350 m, characterised by Micromesistius poutassou, with Plesionika heterocarpus and Parapenaeus longirostris as secondary species; (3 the middle slope group (351-640 m, characterised by M. poutassou, Nephrops norvegicus and Caelorhincus caelorhincus, and (4 the small seamount Seco de los Olivos (310-360 m, characterised by M. poutassou, Helicolenus dactylopterus and Gadiculus argenteus, together with Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Stichopus regalis and Palinurus mauritanicus. The results also revealed significantly higher abundances in the Seco de los Olivos seamount, probably related to a higher food availability caused by strong localised currents and upwellings that enhanced primary production. Although depth proved to be the main structuring factor, others such as sediment type and food availability also appeared to be important. Differences between shelf and slope assemblages could be in part related to a greater dependence on benthic resources in the former and a higher use of planktonic resources in the latter.
de Grado, A A; Bashirullah, A; Prieto, A
The monthly species composition and the spatial and temporal variation of fish community of Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Canaco, Sucre State, Venezuela were analyzed. The samples were collected using two beach seines of different size from December 1995 to November 1996. A cluster analysis for stations inside the lagoon and time of capture showed 4 major groups, defined principally with ecological parameters of each area. Fishing with large seine in and outside the lagoon showed two large groups which were divided into 10 subgroups in function of station and time, while an inverse analysis of the same sample differentiated into 8 groups of species. based on distribution, dominance, and occurrence. Xenomeianiris brasiliensis, Mugil curema and Eucinostomus argenteus were the most abundant species in both time and space. An analysis of conglomerate on the whole fish community of the sampling period indicated the existence of two groups: i) the first half of the year including December 1995 and October 1996 and ii) the second half of the year. The distribution of fishes in relation to ecological factors is discussed.
Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia.
Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth covering the cloacal aperture and in the presence of cervical alae and two small preanal papillae on the median dome-shaped precloacal elevation. This is the second known nominal species of this genus parasitising fishes of the family Serranidae and the second representative of Cucullanus Müller, 1777 recorded from fishes in New Caledonian waters. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. is mainly characterised by 10-12 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, the presence of wide caudal alae, three pairs of pedunculate preanal papillae, two unequally long spicules (465-525 µm and 218-231 µm) and by the tail tip with a knob-like structure in the male, and the broad, rounded tail with a terminal digit-like protrusion without cuticular spikes in the female. This is the fifth nominal species of the subgenus Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952 reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters.
Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi
Full Text Available In recent years the fishery always has been a growing industry. However, fishery like the other industries had faced with some limitations. Pollution of water resources, fight disease and efforts to increase production efficiency have been important challenges of fishing industry in recent years. Also, world statistics show that the fishing did not have much grown in recent years. On the other hand, aquaculture of marine fish as new industry can be a reliable solution for the management of aquatic ecosystems and restore these reserves, and in recent years, it always has been a significant growth in the production. So far, several species such as Mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus, European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Cobia (Rachycentron canadum and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus have been successfully produced and marketed with different aquaculture methods (i.e. cage culture and pen culture. The aim of this study was to summarize marine fish production methods with an emphasis on the production of silver pomfret, as a commercial species and the study of the opportunities and challenges facing this sector in the future.
Shimada, Takuya; Nishii, Eriko; Saitoh, Takashi
Mammalian herbivores adopt various countermeasures against dietary tannins, which are among the most widespread plant secondary metabolites. The large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus produces proline-rich salivary tannin-binding proteins in response to tannins. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) react with tannins to form stable complexes that are excreted in the feces. Here, we developed a new method for estimating the tannin intake of free-living small rodents, by measuring fecal proline content, and applied the method to a field investigation. A feeding experiment with artificial diets containing various levels of tannic acid revealed that fecal proline content was clearly related to dietary tannin content in three species (A. speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, and Myodes rufocanus). We then used fecal proline content to estimate the tannin intakes of these three forest-dwelling species in a forest in Hokkaido. In the autumn, estimated tannin intakes increased significantly in the Apodemus species, but not in M. rufocanus. We speculated that an increase in tannin intake during autumn may result from consumption of tannin-rich acorns. This hypothesis was consistent with population fluctuation patterns of the three species, which were well-synchronized with acorn abundance for the Apodemus species but not for M. rufocanus.
Maria Luiza Chisté Flaquer da Rocha
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and abundance of the fish fauna of Palmas bay on Anchieta Island in southeastern Brazil. Specimens were caught in the summer and winter of 1992, using an otter trawl at three locations in the bay. The specimens were caught in both the nighttime and daytime. Data on the water temperature and salinity were recorded for the characterization of the predominant water mass in the region, and sediment samples were taken for granulometric analysis. A total of 7 656 specimens (79 species, with a total weight of approximately 300 kg, were recorded. The most abundant species were Eucinostomus argenteus, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus, Haemulon steindachneri, Eucinostomus gula and Diapterus rhombeus, which together accounted for more than 73% of the sample. In general, the ecological indices showed no differences in the composition of species for the abiotic variables analyzed. The multivariate analysis showed that the variations in the distribution of the fish fauna were mainly associated with intra-annual differences in temperature and salinity, resulting from the presence of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the area during the summer. The analysis also showed an association with the type of bottom and a lesser association with respect to the night/day periods.Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição e a abundância da fauna de peixes provenientes da enseada Palmas em Ubatuba, costa sudeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram obtidos no verão e no inverno de 1992, utilizando-se uma rede de arrasto de fundo em três locais da enseada. Os arrastos foram realizados no período noturno e no período diurno. Foram obtidos dados de temperatura e salinidade da água para caracterização da massa de água predominante na região e amostras do sedimento para análise granulométrica. Foram capturadas 79 espécies de Actinopterygii, representadas por 7 656 indivíduos com peso total aproximado de
Full Text Available Coastal lagoons are important systems for freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms; they are considered important zones of reproduction, nursery and feeding for many fish species. The present study investigates the fish assemblages of the natural reserve of Dzilam and their relationship with the hydrologic variables. A total of 6 474 individuals (81 species were collected, contributing with more than 50% considering the Importance Value Index (IVI, Sphoeroides testudineus, Fundulus persimilis, Anchoa mitchilli, Eucinostomus gula, Eucinostomus argenteus and Mugil trichodon. Differences in species composition were found between seasons the highest during the cold fronts. Spatially, differences were related with the presence of freshwater seeps, the highest in the ecological characterized eastern part and the lowest with higher difference in specific composition located in the western part of the internal zone, due to a higher abundance and dominance of L. rhomboides. Salinity and temperature were the variables that presented a higher influence in the distribution of some pelagic species such as A. mitchilli and A. hepsetus. Because of the abundant freshwater seeps characteristic of the coastal lagoons of Yucatan Peninsula their community structure and fish assemblage display spatial and temporal differences in specific composition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 89-103. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lagunas costeras son sistemas importantes para muchas especies de organismos dulceacuícolas, estuarinos y marinos, ya que son consideradas zonas de reproducción, refugio y alimentación de muchas especies de peces. El presente estudio analizó los ensamblajes de la comunidad íctica de la reserva de Dzilam y su relación con las variables hidrológicas. Se capturaron un total de 6 474 individuos (81 especies, en donde Sphoeroides testudineus, Fundulus persimilis, Anchoa mitchilli, Eucinostomus gula, Eucinostomus argenteus and Mugil trichodon contribuyeron con m
Teodoro Vaske Júnior
Full Text Available A total of 291 stomachs of bigeye tuna caught in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean ranging between 60 and 195 cm fork length, were analyzed between October 2004 and November 2005. The vertical distribution of prey was studied in relation to their feeding strategies. A total of 83 prey items were identified of which 46 were fishes, represented mainly by brephoepipelagic, and meso-bathypelagic fishes; 20 cephalopods, 13 pelagic crustaceans, one tunicate, one heteropod and one pteropod. The Caribbean pomfret Brama caribbea was the most important food item, followed by other mesopelagic fishes such as Alepisaurus ferox, Omosudis lowei, Gempylus serpens, Brama brama and Diretmus argenteus. The squid Ornithoteuthis antillarum was the main preyed-on cephalopod, and the crustaceans Caridea and Brachyuran megalopae were also important food items. The feeding may occur continuously, all the time, or at least during the greater part of the day or night, as part of the feeding strategy to prey upon a vertically scattered small prey distributed in the water column. The relative equality in the proportions of surface, mid-water and deep-water prey organisms reflects the behavior of constant vertical displacement in the search for prey. Although the bigeye tuna prefers subthermocline layers, most of its prey items perform diel migrations and can be preyed on both near the surface and in deeper waters.Um total de 291 estômagos de albacoras-bandolins capturadas no oceano Atlântico tropical oeste variando entre 60 e 195 cm de comprimento furcal, foram analisados entre outubro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A distribuição vertical das presas foi estudada em relação às estratégias alimentares. Um total de 83 itens alimentares foi identificado dos quais 46 foram peixes representados principalmente por peixes brefoepipelágicos e mesopelágicos, 20 cefalópodes, 13 crustáceos pelágicos, um tunicado, um heterópode e um pterópode. A palombeta
Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C; Ehricht, Ralf
Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation.
Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.
Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results
Full Text Available Latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent species in the shrimp bycatch from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The Gulf of California is one of the most mega-diverse regions in the world, for which few fishery information is available. We present here latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent bycatch species from the Gulf of California. The samples were obtained from a total of 111 hauls taken during seven research cruises of the closed shrimp season (2002-2005-2007, and also, from research cruises made at depths up to 90m. Due to the high variety species in this experimental shrimp bycatch, only those with highest biological value index (BVI were selected. A total of fifteen species had the highest BVI and represented about 60% of the total abundance. A total of 16 508 organisms were analyzed, representing 243 fish, crustacean, mollusk and echinoderm species. Fish were the most abundant, being the most frequent species: Urobatis halleri, Synodus scituliceps, Diplectrum pacificum, Haemulopsis nitidus and Eucinostomus argenteus. A wide latitudinal distribution of these species along the study area, as well as a bathymetric distribution from 9 to 67m depth, was observed. Two of these species were found at 325m depth. Due to the wide bathymetric distribution obtained, total abundances and sizes for each species by depth strata should be determined, and one can assume that deeper than 25m, the capture of these species decreases, and these areas can be used as natural repopulation areas, for depths where they are mainly captured by the commercial shrimp fishery. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 255- 267. Epub 2011 March 01.
Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.
Tsuji, M; Wei, Q; Zamoto, A; Morita, C; Arai, S; Shiota, T; Fujimagari, M; Itagaki, A; Fujita, H; Ishihara, C
We have carried out epizootiologic surveys at various sites in Japan to investigate wild animals that serve as reservoirs for the agents of human babesiosis in the country. Small mammals comprising six species, Apodemus speciosus, Apodemus argenteus, Clethrionomys rufocanus, Eothenomys smithii, Crocidura dsinezumi, and Sorex unguiculatus, were trapped at various places, including Hokkaido, Chiba, Shiga, Hyogo, Shimane, and Tokushima Prefectures. Animals harboring Babesia microti-like parasites were detected in all six prefectures. Inoculation of their blood samples into hamsters gave rise to a total of 20 parasite isolates; 19 were from A. speciosus, and the other 1 was from C. rufocanus. Sequencing of the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence revealed that 2 of the 20 isolates were classified as Kobe type because their rDNAs were identical to that of the Kobe strain (the strain from the Japanese index case). The other 18 isolates were classified as a new type, designated the Hobetsu type, because they all shared an identical rDNA sequence which differed significantly from both that of Kobe-type isolates and that of northeastern United States B. microti (U.S. type). The parasites with Kobe-, Hobetsu- and U.S.-type rDNAs were phylogenetically closely related to each other but clearly different from each other antigenically. The isolates from rodents were demonstrated to be infective for human erythrocytes by inoculation into SCID mice whose erythrocytes had been replaced with human erythrocytes. The results suggest that a new type of B. microti-like parasite, namely, the Hobetsu type, is the major one which is prevalent among Japanese wild rodents, that A. speciosus serves as a major reservoir for both Kobe- and Hobetsu-type B. microti-like parasites, and that C. rufocanus may also be an additional reservoir on Hokkaido Island.
Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf
Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523
Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete
River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.
De Grado, A A; Bashirullah, A
Species composition, relative abundance, diversity and community structure of fishes were studied from monthly sampling during December 1995 to November 1996 in the Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela. Sampling were realised in 3 stations inside the lagoon with a small beach seine and the other 4 stations with a large beach seine. Seventy four species belonging to 33 families and 68 genera were identified of which 8 species dominated, constituting 90.43% of total catch. Mugil curema, Xenomelaniris brasiliensis, Opistonema oglinum, Atherinomorus stipes and Anchoa hepsetus were present in high abundance in the biomass. M. curema dominated the catch with large seine while X. brasiliensis, M. curema and Eucinostomus argenteus dominated the catch with small seine. Species diversity (H') ranged from 2.968-4.607 bits/ind and species richness of Margalef from 2.752-7.464. An inverse analysis realized on catches by small seine and based on nodal constancy and fidelity allowed to define a pattern of spatial distribution of 9 groups containing 1 to 11 species on the basis their abundance, frequency of appearance and ecological characteristics of each area. An analysis of correlation showed that the salinity, dissolved O2 and precipitation did not show any significant correlation with the ecological parameters studied but existed significant correlation with average surface water temperature (p < 0.05), number of species (S), individuals (N), diversity (H') and species richness (D). The positive correlation was found with surface temperature but no relationship with relative dominance (D1 and D2). The CPUE in biomass did not show any significant association with temperature.
Jenney, Adam; Holt, Deborah; Ritika, Roselyn; Southwell, Paul; Pravin, Shalini; Buadromo, Eka; Carapetis, Jonathan; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew
There are few data describing the microbiology and genetic typing of Staphylococcus aureus that cause infections in developing countries. In this study we observed S. aureus infections in Pacific Island nation of Fiji in both the community and hospital setting with an emphasis on clonal complex (CC) genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. S. aureus was commonly found in impetigo lesions of school children and was recovered from 57% of impetigo lesions frequently in conjunction with group A streptococcal infection. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) comprised 7% (20/299) of isolates and were all non-multi-resistant and all genotyped as CC1. In contrast, there was a diverse selection of 17 CCs among the 105 genotyped methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) strains. Isolates of the rare, phylogenetically divergent and non-pigmented CC75 lineage (also called S. argenteus) were found in Fiji.From hospitalized patients the available 36 MRSA isolates from a 9-month period were represented by five CCs. The most common CCs were CC1 and CC239. CC1 is likely to be a community-acquired strain, reflecting what was found in the school children, whereas the CC239 is the very successful multi-drug resistant MRSA nosocomial lineage. Of 17 MSSA isolates, 59% carried genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The S. aureus bacteraemia incidence rate of 50 per 100,000 population is among the highest reported in the literature and likely reflects the high overall burden of staphylococcal infections in this population. S. aureus is an important cause of disease in Fiji and there is considerable genotypic diversity in community skin infections in Fijian schoolchildren. Community acquired- (CA)- MRSA is present at a relatively low prevalence (6.7%) and was solely to CC1 (CA-MRSA). The globally successful CC239 is also a significant pathogen in Fiji.
Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues
Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and
Bray, Rodney A; Palm, Harry W; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) harbouring six, and the Chinese silver pomfret P. chinensis (Euphrasen) two. A host-parasite checklist is presented. We discuss the host-specificity of members of the genus, questioning some records such as that of O. decapteri in a deep-sea macrourid. We also comment on the morphological similarity, but phylogenetic distance, between the various Pomfret species, advancing the possibility that a series of host misidentifications has occurred. Sequences of the ITS2 rDNA gene generated for O. pampi and O. ovacutus are briefly discussed and molecular data are lodged in the GenBank database.
Hoey, A. S.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, D. R.
Herbivorous fishes are a critical functional group on coral reefs, and there is a clear need to understand the role and relative importance of individual species in reef processes. While numerous studies have quantified the roles of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes on coral reefs, the rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae) have been largely overlooked. Consequently, they are typically viewed as a uniform group of grazing or browsing fishes. Here, we quantify the diet and distribution of rabbitfish assemblages on six reefs spanning the continental shelf in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Our results revealed marked variation in the diet and distribution of rabbitfish species. Analysis of stomach contents identified four distinct groups: browsers of leathery brown macroalgae ( Siganus canaliculatus, S. javus), croppers of red and green macroalgae ( S. argenteus, S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. spinus) and mixed feeders of diverse algal material, cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment ( S. lineatus, S. punctatissimus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). Surprisingly, the diet of the fourth group ( S. puellus) contained very little algal material (22.5 %) and was instead dominated by sponges (69.1 %). Together with this variation in diet, the distribution of rabbitfishes displayed clear cross-shelf variation. Biomass was greatest on inner-shelf reefs (112.7 ± 18.2 kg.ha-1), decreasing markedly on mid- (37.8 ± 4.6 kg.ha-1) and outer-shelf reefs (9.7 ± 2.2 kg.ha-1). This pattern was largely driven by the browsing S. canaliculatus that accounted for 50 % of the biomass on inner-shelf reefs, but was absent in mid- and outer-shelf reefs. Mixed feeders, although primarily restricted to the reef slope and back reef habitats, also decreased in abundance and biomass from inshore to offshore, while algal cropping taxa were the dominant group on mid-shelf reefs. These results clearly demonstrate the extent to which diet and distribution vary within the Siganidae and emphasise the importance of
Redescription of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from freshwater fishes (Pimelodidae) in the basins of the Paraná and La Plata Rivers, Argentina, with comments on P. bagre Pearse, 1920.
Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita C; Arredondo, Nathalia J; Doma, Irene L; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A
The type-specimens of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) from Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, and new material from Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken), Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken), Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes), Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes), P. argenteus Perugia and P. maculatus caught in the basins of the La Plata and Paraná Rivers, Argentina, were studied to elucidate its taxonomic status. The type-specimens of Parspina bagre Pearse, 1920 from Pimelodella metae Eigenmann in Lake Valencia, Venezuela, were also studied and new observations on its morphology recorded. The amendation of the generic diagnosis of Parspina Pearse, 1920 is proposed based on the study of both species, which revealed, among other features, the absence of a thin walled-membrane enclosing the male terminal genitalia. Parspina argentinensis is characterised by the following features: absence of a gonotyl; presence of a bipartite seminal vesicle, pars prostatica and ejaculatory duct; caeca of nearly equal length; uterus extending from the level of the ventral sucker to end of body; testes symmetrical to slightly oblique; ovary transversely elongate, compact and variable in shape; and the utilisation of a wide range of freshwater fishes as hosts. The tegumental surface of this species is covered with pectinate spines arranged quincuncially. Spines decrease in size and density from forebody to hindbody. There are two types of sensory papillae, ciliated and dome-shaped. Ciliated papillae are distributed on the surface of the oral region and on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body, whereas dome-shaped papillae are found on the surface of the ventral rim of the oral sucker associated with a ciliated papilla. Gland-duct openings are interspersed with the spines of the oral crown. In addition, the infection indices of P. argentinensis vary widely, not only among different hosts but also between the Paraná and La Plata River basins. Higher prevalences of P. argentinensis
Natalia Juliana Bayona-Vásquez
en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y por último se realizó el secuenciamiento de regiones flanqueantes y motivos de repetición en aquellos sistemas que presentaron resultados positivos, de esta forma, se diseñaron primers de regiones microsatélite para la especie. De los trece sistemas evaluados, de las cuatro especies, se obtuvo amplificación positiva de seis. Por medio de la t
naturally occurring in and around areas of commercial melon production serve as reservoirs for the melon viruses and ensure the survival of the viruses from one production season to the next. Several new host species of three of the melon viruses (PRSV, WMV-2 and ZYMV were identified. Previously unreported hosts of PRSV included Tridax procumbens, Cleome viscosa, Cleome spinosa, Malvaviscus arboreus and Sida rhombifolia. New hosts of WMV-2 included C. viscosa, Crotum argenteus, Musa pardisiaca and Ponsetia heterophylla. New hosts of ZYMV included Guazuma ulmifolia, Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Malachra alceifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, P. heterophylla and C. viscosa.