Sample records for bocarra oligusarcus argenteus

  1. Deformities in silver pomfret Pampus argenteus caught from Kuwait waters (United States)

    Almatar, Sulaiman; Chen, Weizhong


    During sampling for spawning stock of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus in Kuwait waters, a few seriously deformed individuals were captured. These individuals had been attacked and wounded, but had healed and survived. The fish body deformities are believed to be caused by predation attempts on silver pomfret by predators such as sharks, groupers, and croakers.

  2. Draft genome sequence of the silver pomfret fish, Pampus argenteus. (United States)

    AlMomin, Sabah; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Amad, Sami; Al-Hussaini, Mohsen; Dashti, Talal; Al-Enezi, Khaznah; Akbar, Abrar


    Silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, is a fish species from coastal waters. Despite its high commercial value, this edible fish has not been sequenced. Hence, its genetic and genomic studies have been limited. We report the first draft genome sequence of the silver pomfret obtained using a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. We assembled 38.7 Gb of nucleotides into scaffolds of 350 Mb with N50 of about 1.5 kb, using high quality paired end reads. These scaffolds represent 63.7% of the estimated silver pomfret genome length. The newly sequenced and assembled genome has 11.06% repetitive DNA regions, and this percentage is comparable to that of the tilapia genome. The genome analysis predicted 16 322 genes. About 91% of these genes showed homology with known proteins. Many gene clusters were annotated to protein and fatty-acid metabolism pathways that may be important in the context of the meat texture and immune system developmental processes. The reference genome can pave the way for the identification of many other genomic features that could improve breeding and population-management strategies, and it can also help characterize the genetic diversity of P. argenteus.

  3. Morphological development of larvae and juveniles of Prochilodus argenteus

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    Irũ Menezes Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prochilodus argenteus is an endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin that is of high economic and environmental importance. The present study aimed to contribute with information to the taxonomic identification of larvae and juveniles of this species. Larvae , obtained from induced spawning of wild animals, were reared in ponds. Individuals were collected daily and classified into larval stages or juvenile phase. Morphological descriptions and morphometric measurements were performed, together with a piece wise linear regression analysis of the body proportions throughout the development process. Individuals in the preflexion stage had a standard length (SL of 4.48 to 6.64mm, long to moderate body (BH/SL, small to moderate head (HL/SL, and a small to moderate eye (ED/HL. In the flexion stage, the SL varied from 6.60 to 11.00mm, long to moderate body, moderate head, and small to moderate eye. Larvae in the postflexion stage presented SL of 10.54-19.93mm, moderate body, moderate to big head and small eye. The juvenile phase included specimens with a SL of 18.27 to 42.21mm which presented a moderate to high body, big head and small to moderate eye. Regression analysis showed significant moments of change in rate of increase of the body proportions, presenting a change in the growth pattern from allometry to isometry during the early development.

  4. Low occurrence of the new species Staphylococcus argenteus in a Staphylococcus aureus collection of human isolates from Belgium. (United States)

    Argudín, M A; Dodémont, M; Vandendriessche, S; Rottiers, S; Tribes, C; Roisin, S; de Mendonça, R; Nonhoff, C; Deplano, A; Denis, O


    Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel Staphylococcus species closely related to Staphylococcus aureus that has been recently described. In this study, we investigated the proportion and the characteristics of S. argenteus recovered from humans in Belgium. S. aureus. human isolates collected in Belgium from 2006 to 2015 (n = 1,903) were retrospectively characterised via the presence of non-pigmented colonies on chocolate agar, spa typing and rpoB sequencing to determine if some of them were in fact S. argenteus. Out of 73 strains non-pigmented on chocolate plates, 3 isolates (0.16 %) showed rpoB sequences, in addition to spa and sequence types (ST2250/t5787, ST2250/t6675, ST3240/t6675), related to S. argenteus. Two of them were methicillin-resistant, harbouring a SCCmec type IV. The three S. argenteus isolates carried genes (sak, scn) of the immune evasion cluster. This first Belgian nationwide analysis showed a low occurrence of S. argenteus. Further studies should be conducted to identify the distribution range and the clinical impact of this new species.

  5. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study. (United States)

    Chantratita, N; Wikraiphat, C; Tandhavanant, S; Wongsuvan, G; Ariyaprasert, P; Suntornsut, P; Thaipadungpanit, J; Teerawattanasook, N; Jutrakul, Y; Srisurat, N; Chaimanee, P; Anukunananchai, J; Phiphitaporn, S; Srisamang, P; Chetchotisakd, P; West, T E; Peacock, S J


    Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Most S. argenteus (54/58) were multilocus sequence type 2250. Infection with S. argenteus was more common in males, but rates of bacteraemia and drainage procedures were similar in the two groups. S. argenteus precipitated significantly less respiratory failure than S. aureus (5.2% versus 20.2%, adjusted OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.74, p 0.015), with a similar but non-significant trend for shock (6.9% versus 12.3%, adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.15-1.44, p 0.18). This did not translate into a difference in death at 28 days (6.9% versus 8.7%, adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.24-2.65, p 0.72). S. argenteus was more susceptible to antimicrobial drugs compared with S. aureus, and contained fewer toxin genes although pvl was detected in 16% (9/58). We conclude that clinical differences exist in association with sepsis due to S. argenteus versus S. aureus.

  6. Reproductive biology of Oligosarcus argenteus (Gunther, 1864 adult males and description of the gonadal maturation stages

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    Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matt


    Full Text Available Oligosarcus argenteus belongs to the Acestrorhynchinae subfamily, being restricted to South America, and found in several Brazilian hydrographic basins, in lotic and lentic environments, where they are able to reproduce. With the purpose of studying the reproductive biology of the males from this species, many morphological parameters were analyzed during a 24 month period, as well as characterizing the different testicular maturation stages. A maturity scale, with three stages (I - Initial Maturing, II - Intermediate Maturing, III - Final Maturing was proposed for the adult males of Oligosarcus argenteus. The reproductive period was established by the bimonthly frequency of spermatogenesis and by the gonadal maturation stages.Oligosarcus argenteus é uma espécie pertencente à subfamília Acestrorhynchinae, restrita à América do Sul, sendo comumente encontrada nas várias bacias hidrográficas brasileiras, em ambientes lóticos e lênticos, onde se reproduzem. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia reprodutiva de machos desta espécie, vários parâmetros morfológicos foram analisados durante um período de 24 meses, assim como foram caracterizados os diferentes estádios de maturação testicular. Estes foram descritos, considerando-se exemplares adultos, em: Estádio I - Maturação Inicial, Estádio II - Maturação Intermediária e Estádio III - Maturação Final. Pela freqüência bimestral das células germinativas e dos estádios de maturação gonadal, a época de reprodução foi determinada.


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    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área - CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se recolectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos ma- duros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas (La Guajira, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceano- grafía local está modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribu- yeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones (La Guajira y el río Buritaca (Magdalena, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general, los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de E. argenteus en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano, siendo la temperatura y la profundidad las variables que predijeron mejor la distribución espacial de la especie.

  8. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

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    Alcione Eneida Santos


    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  9. Estructura espacial de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano

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    Sanchez Claudia


    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área – CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en  la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre  Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos maduros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceanografía local esta modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribuyeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones y el Río Buritaca, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de

  10. B chromosomes in the species Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae: morphologicalidentity and dispersion

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    Manolo Penitente


    Full Text Available B chromosomes have attracted the attention of Neotropical fish cytogeneticists in recent years, both for their remarkable occurrence in this group and also because of the interest in studies of the genetic structure and role played in the genome of these organisms. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in Prochilodus argenteus (Agassiz, 1829, this being the fifth carrier species among thirteen within the genus Prochilodus (Agassiz, 1829. The extra elements identified in this species are small sized heterochromatic chromosomes characterized by a low mitotic instability index, being very similar to other supernumerary chromosomes described in the species of the genus Prochilodus. Morphology, structure and dispersion of the supernumerary genomic elements which occur in species of this genus are discussed aiming to better understand aspects involved the origin of supernumerary chromosomes and the differentiation process and relationships among species of this family.

  11. Estructura espacial de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Spatial structure of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean Sea

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    Maria Pacheco

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área - CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (Febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella ( La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad This research was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of density (catch per unit area - CPUA and size structure of Eucinostomus argenteus and their relationship with environmental variables in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean sea. The data comes from a survey of fisheries research during the dry season (February of 2006 between Puerto Estrella ( La Guajira and Santa Marta ( Magdalena . Biological samples were taken with a bottom trawl net (< 50 m and 50- 100 m stratum of depth following a systematic design survey. The mature fishes with higher sizes were mainly located in the sector between Manaure and Punta Gallinas, where the continental shelf is very wide and the local oceanography is modulated by the seasonal upwelling. The juvenile fishes were found toward the south of the study area between Boca Camarones and the Rio Buritaca, close to the coast. In this sector the continental shelf is very narrow with high biological productivity for the presence of rivers, mangroves and sea grasses, which serve as feeding grounds and nursery habitat for E. argenteus. In general, our results suggest that environmental conditions were important determinants of spatial distribution of abundance and sizes of E. argenteus in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean Sea, with temperature and depth as variables that better predict the spatial distribution of this specie.

  12. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings. (United States)

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D


    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  13. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings

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    Full Text Available Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if theCroton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE and its hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CLF and ethyl acetate (EAF fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  14. Hormonal changes in relation to lunar periodicity in the testis of the forktail rabbitfish, Siganus argenteus. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Morita, Masaya; Takemura, Akihiro; Takano, Kazunori


    Correlation of hormonal changes in the testis and the lunar periodicity was studied using the forktail rabbitfish, Siganus argenteus, which spawns synchronously around the last quarter moon. Weekly change in sperm motility peaked around the last quarter moon. The pH and osmolality in the seminal fluid increased and decreased around the same lunar phase, respectively. These results suggest that the testis of this species develops toward the specific lunar phase. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated in vitro production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in the testicular fragments around the full moon. When the testicular fragments and the sperm preparations were incubated, respectively, with testosterone (T) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), conversion of T to 11-KT in the testicular fragments decreased and, alternatively, that of 17alpha-OHP to 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) in the sperm preparations increased from the full moon to the last quarter moon. Administration of the fish with hCG or DHP prior to the predicted spawning lunar day resulted in increases in the sperm motility and the seminal fluid pH. Plasma level of DHP, but not T and 11-KT, increased after hCG injection. These results indicate that gonadotropin (GtH) and DHP are related to the final stage of testicular maturation, and that GtH acts through production of DHP in the testis. Moreover, the present study shows that use of the lunar cue(s) in the rabbitfish occurs in the higher part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  15. Selection of diet for culture of juvenile silver pomfret,Pampus argenteus

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    PENG Shiming; SHI Zhaohong; YIN Fei; SUN Peng; WANG Jiangang


    Juvenile silver pomfret,Pampus argenteus,was grown in culture tanks for 9 weeks on four different diets,and their effects on fish growth,digestive enzyme activity,and body composition were assessed.The feeding regime was as follows:Diet 1:fish meat; Diet 2:fish meat+artificial feed; Diet 3:fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam meat; Diet 4:fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam+copepods.The greatest weight gain was associated with Diet 4,while the lowest weight gain was associated with Diet 1.No significant difference was observed in weight gain between fish receiving Diet 2 and Diet 3.Specific growth rate followed similar trends as weight gain.The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed Diet 1 was significantly higher than the other fish groups,but no significant differences were observed in FCRs of fish fed Diet 2,Diet 3 or Diet 4.There was also no significant difference in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) between the four diets.For fish that received Diets 2-4,containing artificial feed,higher protease activities were detected.A higher lipid content of the experimental diets also significantly increased lipase activities and body lipid content.No significant differences in amylase activity or body protein content were found between Diets 1-4.In conclusion,a variety of food components,including copepods and artificial feed,in the diet of silver pomfret significantly increased digestive enzyme activity and could improve growth performance.

  16. Silver pomfret (Pampus Argenteus, Euphrasen, 1788) spatial variation in Kuwait and implications for establing marine protected areas, a GIS based approach



    Despite the establishment of a fish ban, the silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) biomass in the Northern Persian Gulf is declining due to overfishing, and other environmental stressors. To address this problem, the distribution of silver pomfret in Kuwait waters and its habitat preference was analyzed in a Geographical Information System (GIS), as a basis to design a marine protected area (MPA). The data analyzed comprised catch, maturity stage, temperature, salinity and bottom type, obtained t...

  17. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae). (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo


    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

  18. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro


    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  19. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations. (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos


    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  20. Occurrence of Larvae and Juveniles of Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Menticirrhus americanus, Menticirrhus littoralis, Umbrina coroides and Micropogonias furnieri at Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná

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    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid


    Full Text Available Despite its importance, most ichthyoplankton studies in the South-Southeastern coast of Brazil, have been accomplished on the continental shelf. Regarding the beach environment, recognized as a nursery, little is known about the ichthyoplankton. We analyzed 288 samples collected with a 18 by 2 m seine net, 1 mm mesh and a conical plankton net, with a mesh of 300 mum and a 60 cm mouth. Eucinostomus argenteus comprised 78 % of the larvae and juveniles caught in the samples. The occurrence of gerreids was strongly concentrated in the summer, while the Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus and Umbrina coroides were present during all seasons. M.littoralis was most abundant during spring, while M. americanus and U. coroides dominated during winter. For all species, the largest captures occurred during low tide. Environmental preferences are indicated in the principal component analysis, with the larvae and juveniles of E. argenteus and E. gula positively correlated with smaller waves and smaller morphodynamism, whereas M. americanus, U. coroides and M. furnieri seem to prefer periods with lower temperatures and larger morphodynamism.Apesar da importância, a maioria dos estudos de ictioplâncton na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil, foram realizados sobre a plataforma continental. No que se refere ao ambiente praial, reconhecido como área de criação, pouco se sabe sobre o ictioplâncton. Foram analisadas 288 amostras coletadas com uma rede tipo picaré com 18 x 2 m e malha de 1mm, e rede de plancton cônica, com malha de 300 mim e boca de 60 cm. A espécie E. argenteus totalizou 78 % das larvas e juvenis capturados. A ocorrência dos gerreideos foi fortemente concentrada no verão, enquanto que Menticirrhus littoralis, Menticirrhus americanus e Umbrina coroides estiveram presentes em todas as estações do ano. M. littoralis foi mais abundante na primavera, enquanto que M. americanus e U. coroides dominaram no inverno. Em todas as esp

  1. The roles of marginal lagoons in the maintenance of genetic diversity in the Brazilian migratory fishes Prochilodus argenteus and P. costatus

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    Bruno F. Melo


    Full Text Available The rio São Francisco basin contains many endemic species, such as Prochilodus argenteus and P. costatus, which have great commercial importance. However, information about the main recruitment sites and genetic studies containing extensive sampling of these species are scarce. To investigate the roles of the marginal lagoons in the maintenance of genetic variability and in the population structure, we analyzed six microsatellite loci in nine sampling groups of P. argenteusand five sampling groups of P. costatus. Our results showed high levels of genetic variability and low values of genetic differentiation for P. argenteus (FST =0.008, P< 0.05 and for P. costatus(FST =0.031, P < 0.05. In addition, high values of gene flow combined with a small genetic distance suggest the presence of a single population for each species in the middle rio São Francisco basin. Moreover, putative migration routes involving marginal lagoons during the reproductive season could be detected, confirming the importance of these nurseries in the lifecycle of these species. Our results also indicate the necessity of adequate management of the fish resources and the conservation of the floodplains in the rio São Francisco basin.

  2. Novel staphylococcal species that form part of a Staphylococcus aureus-related complex: the non-pigmented Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. and the non-human primate-associated Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov. (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; Schaumburg, Frieder; Ellington, Matthew J; Corander, Jukka; Pichon, Bruno; Leendertz, Fabian; Bentley, Stephen D; Parkhill, Julian; Holt, Deborah C; Peters, Georg; Giffard, Philip M


    We define two novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that are phenotypically similar to and have near identical 16S rRNA gene sequences to Staphylococcus aureus. However, compared to S. aureus and each other, the two species, Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. (type strain MSHR1132(T) = DSM 28299(T) = SSI 89.005(T)) and Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov. (type strain FSA084(T) = DSM 28300(T) = SSI 89.004(T)), demonstrate: 1) at a whole-genome level considerable phylogenetic distance, lack of admixture, average nucleotide identity aureus; 6) a separate ecological niche for S. schweitzeri sp. nov.; and 7) a distinct clinical disease profile for S. argenteus sp. nov. compared to S. aureus.

  3. Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid to inhibit Vibrio anguillarum-induced inflammation and apoptosis in silvery pomfret (Pampus argenteus) intestinal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Gao, Quanxin; Gao, Qian; Min, Minghua; Zhang, Chenjie; Peng, Shiming; Shi, Zhaohong


    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major constituent of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. The structure and immunomodulation of LTA vary greatly between different species. LTA from Lactobacillus plantarum has been shown to exert anti-pathogenic effects. Vibrio anguillarum is a major causative agent of vibriosis, one of the most prevalent fish diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of L. plantarum LTA on V. anguillarum growth, adhesion, and induced inflammation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells of silvery pomfret (Pampus argenteus). Our results showed that L. plantarum LTA was unable to inhibit V. anguillarum growth; however, it significantly inhibited adhesion of V. anguillarum. It also showed significant inhibitory effects on EHEC-induced inflammation and apoptosis by modulating the expression of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB), Bcl2 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2), BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), IL-8 (interleukin 8) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and via inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. These data extend our understanding of the beneficial effects of L. plantarum LTA, which is related to the inhibition of V. anguillarum, and suggest that L. plantarum LTA has potential as a new therapeutic agent against V. anguillarum-caused vibriosis in fish.

  4. 冷藏鲳鱼贮藏期间的细菌种群变化%Bacterial Species Changes in Pampus argenteus During Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝蔚青; 谢晶; 施建兵; 周会; 张琛杰


    分析了鲳鱼(Pampus argenteus)冷藏期间的感官、pH值、微生物指标及主要细菌种群变化.研究表明,初始样品pH值为7.217±0.015,菌落总数(CFU/g)的对数值为3.967±0.012;初始细菌种类较多,其中45.92%为革兰氏阴性菌,54.08%为革兰氏阳性菌,优势菌为腐生葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus saprophyticus 28.81%)、松鼠葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus sciuri 15.38%)、嗜冷杆菌(Psychrobacter spp.12.09%)、草莓假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fragi 9.02%)、荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens 8.53%)与腐败希瓦氏菌(Shewanella putrefaciens 6.39%),同时检出一定比例的成团肠杆菌、微杆菌与嗜根库克菌.冷藏过程中,腐生葡萄球菌与松鼠葡萄球菌等生长受到抑制,细菌菌相组成逐渐单一,适应低温环境条件的革兰氏阴性菌比例逐渐增加,在贮藏的第3、5、7天至货架期终点(pH值为8.057±0.005,菌落总数(CFU/g)的对数值为9.137±0.032)时,阴性菌比例分别达到83.82%、95.86%、96.88%与93.57%.其中,假单胞菌与腐败希瓦氏菌增长显著,在贮藏末期比例为45.71%与33.57%,荧光假单胞菌(35.00%)明显多于草莓假单胞菌(10.71%).

  5. Energy Utilization Pattern and Survival Strategy in Starvation Juvenile Pampus argenteus%饥饿银鲳幼鱼的能量利用规律及其生存策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雪梅; 谷江稳; 郭晓鸽; 巩建华; 徐善良


    To reveal the energy utilization pattern of juvenile Pampus argenteus on starvation stress, the bio-chemical components such as crude protein, crude fat, ash contents of whole fish with gutted and the activities of pepsin, trypsin, lipase and amylase in liver and gastrointestinal tract were analyzed by using the juvenile P. argenteus [body weight: (2.61±1.05) g] in hunger 0 (S0 group), 3 (S3 group), 5 (S5 group), 7 (S7 group) and 9 days ( S9 group) , respectively. The results showed as follows:1) the crude protein content sig-nificantly decreased during starvation ( P0.05) , while it decreased to 0.61% in the 9th day, and the relative loss rate of crude protein was up to 28. 15% ( P0.05),至饥饿9 d时骤降至0.61%,相对损失率达28.15%( P<0.05);此时,肝脏中的淀粉酶活性也由S0组的0.31 U/mg升至0.69 U/mg,达到峰值. 5)鱼体比能值变化印证了饥饿银鲳幼鱼对能量的利用规律. 由此可见,银鲳幼鱼在饥饿胁迫下的生存策略表现为:初期主要利用脂肪提供能量,随着饥饿时间延长,开始动用蛋白质作为主要能源物质,饥饿后期随着脂肪与蛋白质利用接近极限,只能加大对碳水化合物的利用.

  6. 银鲳的人工繁育研究进展%Advances in the artificially reproductive and breeding studies of silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳宝; 乐琪君; 杜丽红; 郑华坤; 徐小双; 徐善良; 王亚军


    银鲳作为一种重要的海洋经济鱼类,随着人类采捕及环境的变化,野生资源的不断减少。在银鲳生物学特性的研究基础上,开展人工养殖、育种将是未来研究工作的重点内容。银鲳繁殖期一般在每年4月—6月,产卵场主要位于水深10~20 m,盐度26‰~31‰的河流入海口及近海养料、浮游生物丰富的海域;银鲳性腺发育分成I~VI期,因海域温度、光照等条件不同造成性腺发育时期不同。目前,养殖银鲳在性腺发育与野生个体存在较大差异,并且在繁殖季一般饲料不足以提供足够营养,因此应添加桡足类、水母类等作为配合饵料喂养;气泡病、白点病、细菌病等病害对银鲳造成的死亡率极高,因此在人工养殖过程中,应以预防为主,防治结合。基于目前国内外银鲳野生及人工繁育方面的研究,比较了野生和养殖银鲳的性腺、胚胎发育特点,总结了人工亲鱼培育、养殖环境控制、饲料配置等方面的研究结果;针对目前人工养殖环节中存在的问题提出了建议,并对未来银鲳的养殖品质提升、营养饲料、优良种质筛选提出了展望。%As an important marine commercial fish , with the change of environment and human exploitation , the number of wild silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) increasingly reduces .On the basis of biological characteristics of silver pomfret , the artificial cultivation and breeding will be the main reducing reason .The reproductive periods are from April to June each year , and the spawning areas are mainly in depth of 10-20 m and 26‰-31‰salinity, close to the river estuary and the coast with abundant nutriment and plankton;the gonadal change of silver pomfret can be divided into phase I ~VI, and the fish will be different developing period in same time be-cause of temperature and illumination .At present, there is large difference between wild and reared

  7. 基于嗅觉可视化的鲳鱼TVB-N预测模型%Total volatile basic nitrogen prediction models of Pampus argenteus based on olfaction visualization detection technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星奕; 蒋飞燕; 穆丽君; 孙宗保


    采用半微量凯氏定氮法对4℃恒温下储藏的冰鲜鲳鱼的TVB-N进行检测,同时利用嗅觉可视化技术提取其挥发性气味信息,将嗅觉可视化传感器阵列与鲳鱼挥发性气体发生反应前后的RGB颜色变化值作为传感器响应值,分别建立TVB-N的偏最小二乘法(PLS)、遗传偏最小二乘法(GA-PLS)预测模型.经比较,GA-PLS模型预测效果更优,预测集相关系数达到0.851 7;可视化传感器阵列响应信号与TVB-N之间存在较高的相关性,可以快速预测出鱼储藏期间TVB-N变化,从而无损评价鱼的新鲜度.%TVB-N contents of Pampus argenteus samples stored in refrigerator at constant temperature of 4 ℃ were measured by semimicro-fixation of nitrogen method. The headspace volatile gases of Pampus argenteus samples were extracted by olfaction visualization detection system. The RGB value changes of the colorimetric sensor array before and after exposure to the headspace gas were obtained as the sensor array responses. Partial least squares (PLS) model and genetic algorithm-partial least square (GA-PLS) model were established and compared. The GA-PLS model is good with the correlation coefficient (RP) between actual value and predicted TVB-N content of 0. 851 7 for the validation dataset. There exists a good correlation between the colorimetric sensor array responses and TVB-N content. The olfaction visualization detection technique can be used as a rapid way to predict TVB-N content and to evaluate fish freshness with non-destructive test.

  8. 不同时期鲳鱼冷藏期间优势腐败菌的多样性变化%Diversity of Dominant Spoilage Bacteria in Pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from Different Growing Seasons during Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝蔚青; 谢晶; 周会; 张琛杰


    目的:比较分析不同时期冷藏鲳鱼(Pampus argenteus)贮藏期间的感官品质、pH值、微生物指标与主要微生物菌群的变化规律.方法:冷藏(4±1)℃条件下,以感官评定、pH值与菌落总数为品质评价指标,采用聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)扩增结合生理生化鉴定法分别对冬、春两个时期的鲳鱼进行优势腐败菌的变化规律研究.将经细菌培养与分离纯化得到单菌落按其形态特征进行分类,再通过生理生化鉴定与革兰氏染色,初步得到菌落种类,对单菌落进行DNA提取与PCR扩增并测序.结果:冬季样品获得12种菌株,春季样品获得9种菌株.贮藏末期时,冬季样品中优势腐败菌的种类与比例分别为嗜冷杆菌(Psychrobacter spp.)21.51%、草莓假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fragi)16.13%、荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)52.68%与热杀索丝菌(Brochothrix thermosphacta)9.68%;春季样品为草莓假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fragi)8.62%、荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)64.66%与腐败希瓦氏菌(Shewanella putrefaciens)26.72%.结论:冬、春时期中冷藏鲳鱼贮藏期间优势腐败菌的种类基本一致,以革兰氏阴性菌为主,但在细菌种类与比例上存在差异,冬季样品的微生物种类较春季丰富.贮藏期间,随着荧光假单胞菌所占比例的增加,使腐败希瓦氏菌的生长受到明显抑制.

  9. 野生银鲳消化道内潜在产酶益生菌产酶条件的初步研究%On enzyme-production conditions of potential probiotics in digestive tracts of wild Pampus argenteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建建; 施兆鸿; 高权新; 彭士明


    采用酶学分析法研究了单因子(温度、pH、发酵时间)变化对野生银鲳(Pampus argenteus)消化道内同时分泌蛋白酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶和脂肪酶中两种以上的5株菌株产酶活力的影响,即通过测定酶活力的大小找到每株菌最适产酶条件范围。结果显示,在温度31~37℃、pH 7~8、发酵时间3 d的条件下,5株产酶菌的蛋白酶活力最大;在不同温度和pH条件下,5菌株分泌的淀粉酶活力各不相同,但都随发酵时间的延长而增大,3~5 d达最大值;4株分泌纤维素酶的菌株纤维素酶活力受环境影响总体变化不大,在温度31~37℃、酸性条件(pH 5)和发酵时间4 d的条件下为活力最大;2株分泌脂肪酶的菌株在28~31℃、中性(pH 7)、发酵时间1 d条件下其脂肪酶活力最大,最大可接近180 U·mL-1,但活力都随发酵时间而显著下降。结果表明,不同产酶菌所分泌的消化酶活力所需的最适条件有很大不同,了解和掌握银鲳肠道中菌群的产酶条件,对开发潜在产酶益生菌有着积极的作用。%In this study,the effects of single factor variation (temperature,pH and fermentation time)on activities of two or more enzymes,including protease,amylase,cellulose and lipase produced simultaneously by enzyme-producing bacteria in the digestive tract of wild silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus)were measured using the method of enzymatic analysis.The aim is to find the optimum range of fermentation conditions for each strain by measuring the enzyme activity by different media,different incubation temperatures,pH and fermentation time.Results showed that the activities of protease produced by five strains of enzyme-producing bacteria were the highest in the conditions of temperature 3 1 -37 ℃,pH 7 -8 and fermentation time 3 d. The activities of cellulose produced by four cellulose-producing bacteria were not affected significantly by

  10. Effects of Temperature Stress on Activities of Digestive Enzymes and Serum Biochemical Indices of Pampus argenteus Juveniles%温度胁迫对银鲳(Pampus argenteus)幼鱼消化酶活性及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兆鸿; 谢明媚; 彭士明; 张晨捷; 高权新


    To investigate how temperature affects activities of digestive enzymes and serum biochemical indices of Pampus argenteus juveniles, in this study we tested their biochemical indices in experimental temperature groups (22℃ and 32℃), and the control group (27℃). P. argenteus juveniles were randomly assigned to three replicates in each group and reared for 48 h. In the 22℃ group, the activities of pepsin and trypsin in the gut showed no significant change (P>0.05). However, the amylase activity was decreased whereas the lipase activity was increased (P0.05); LD decreased first and then increased, whereas COR altered in an opposite way (P0.05),淀粉酶活力逐渐下降,脂肪酶活力则相反(P0.05);LD 含量呈先下降后上升的趋势(P<0.05);COR 先上升后降低,而 CREA 则呈现上升趋势;在肠道和血清中不同处理组在同一时间也出现显著性差异(P<0.05)。研究表明,急性温度胁迫对银鲳幼鱼消化系统及排泄系统造成一定的影响。因此,在实际生产操作及工厂化养殖过程中,应尽量避免急性温度胁迫,减小银鲳幼鱼的应激反应,使其有良好的生活环境。

  11. 人工养殖银鲳子代胚胎发育及仔稚幼鱼形态观察%Observation of embryonic,larval and juvenile development in Pampus argenteus offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兆鸿; 彭士明; 王建钢; 孙鹏; 尹飞


    采用人工培育的子代银鲳(Pampus argentus)为亲本,对银鲳的胚胎及胚后各发育阶段的形态特征进行观察测量,以期为今后苗种培育和繁殖生物学研究提供参考资料.银鲳成熟卵子为端黄卵,单个油球,卵径(1.417±0.063)mm,油球径(0.575±0.031)mm.在水温(20.0±0.5)℃、盐度24±1,pH8.0~8.5条件下,受精卵经36 h孵化出膜.初孵仔鱼在水温19.0~24.0℃、盐度 23±1,pH8.0~8.5、光照2 000~3 000 lx条件下,经60 d培育成幼鱼.银鲳早期发育分前期仔鱼、后期仔鱼、稚鱼和幼鱼,前期仔鱼以卵黄囊吸收消化为主要形态特征;后期仔鱼分化出侧囊、食道、胃、幽门育囊和肝脏等消化器官,外形特征是鱼体腹两侧星状黑色素及金黄色斑点明显,背鳍和臀鳍鳍条原基出现,13日龄仔鱼全长(5.586±0.479)mm,体高((1.068±0.087)mm;稚鱼期消化器官进一步完善,脊索末端向上曲屈,随后尾下骨出现并且尾下骨末端与体轴倾斜,至35日龄尾下骨与体轴垂直,45日龄体高明显增高,全长(25.560±3.870)mm,体高(11.157±1.266)mm.幼鱼期胸鳍前端呈尖形,尾鳍上下两侧生长加快形成深叉状,鳞片完全长成,60 d时全长为(引.000±3.300)mm,体高达(19.750±1.620)mm,此时体形与成鱼已无差别.此外,本研究还对仔稚幼鱼的划分、鲳属鱼类中主要品种胚胎与仔稚鱼发育的异同点以及育苗中容易出现死亡的关键时期进行了分析探讨.%The embryonic, larval and juvenile development of the offspring obtained from cultured silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) was observed, which contributed to the study of larvae rearing and breeding biology of pomfret.The eggs of silver pomfret were telolecithal, and had only one oil globule.The diameter of egg and oil globule were (1.417 ± 0.063) mm and (0.575 ± 0.031) mm, respectively.The hatching time was about 36 h after fertilization when the first larva was hatched at (20.0 ± 0.5) ℃, salinity 24 ± 1

  12. Characterization,tissue distribution and growth regulation of ghrs and igfbp1 in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus)in handling stress%银鲳ghr和igfbp1基因表达特征、组织分布及操作胁迫对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尹飞; 王建建; 李云航


    为探讨急性操作胁迫对银鲳生长的影响,首次克隆了3种生长调控相关基因-生长激素受体1(ghr1)、生长激素受体2(ghr2)和胰岛素样受体1(igfbp1),并对3种基因在银鲳肝脏、心脏、性腺、肌肉和肾脏等不同组织中的表达进行了比较。定量表达结果表明3种基因均广泛分布于所研究的各个组织中,而其中肾脏、性腺和心脏中的表达量较其它组织低。在银鲳受到外界操作胁迫刺激后,3种基因呈现不同的表达模式:其中 ghr2和 igfbp1的表达下调,而 ghr2的表达量与对照组无显著性差异。结果表明,ghr2和 igfbp1在银鲳生长调节中起到重要的作用;在胁迫环境中,外界刺激可通过下调生长相关基因表达以影响鱼体的生长。%Growth activities are mainly involved by growth hormone /insulin-like growth factors (GH/IGF) axis.GH and IGF are anabolic hormones,which increase muscle mass by stimulating protein synthesis and /or inhibiting protein breakdown.In fish,growth hormone receptor genes (ghrs)encode transmembrane receptor protein for GH.By binding GH,it can activate an intra-and intercellular signal transduction pathway leading to growth.Type 1 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein is encoded by igfbp1 gene,a member of igfbp family.Binding of this protein can prolong the half-life of IGFs and alter their interaction with cell surface receptors.Silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus)is an important commercial fish which has a wide distribution from the Arabian Gulf,the India Ocean and the East China Sea to Southeast Asia.Relevant artificial breeding techniques and P.argenteus reproductive biology have been studied in China and Kuwait since the 1980s. Due to its sensitivity to many kinds of stress factors,low growth rate and high mortality has been found in P. argenteus during culture practices.However,little is known about its molecular aspects,including gene expression information of

  13. Morphological variation of Pampus argenteus among five samples near the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and East China Sea%渤海、黄海及东海近海五个银鲳地理群体的形态变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰; 庄平; 章龙珍; 施兆鸿


    针对银鲳(Pampus argenteus)资源衰减、种群结构不清等问题,采集了渤海、黄海和东海近海5个地理群体224个样本,借助多变量形态度量学方法对地理群体间的形态变异进行了研究,旨在为银鲳种群结构研究提供基础资料.研究结果显示,通过聚类分析发现银鲳5个地理群体可以分为4组,江苏连云港群体与河北黄骅群体和浙江舟山群体欧氏距离较小,表明其亲缘关系较近;江苏连云港群体而与福建霞浦群体欧氏距离最大,其亲缘关系较远.利用判别分析和典型变量分析均可以将5个地理群体予以区分,表明银鲳地理群体间形态上存在着一定的差异,但并非某个部位发生变异.地理群体间的栖息环境和生活史差异可能是导致形态变异的主要原因.根据聚类分析、判别分析和典型变量分析综合比较,推测渤海、黄海和东海区银鲳群体可能存在着3个形态差异种群,即黄渤海种群、东海北部种群和东海南部种群.%Silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) is one of the most commercially important marine fish species in China, and its resource has declined sharply in recent years. So far, the population diversity research is rare, and the stock structure of silver pomfret is not clear which are very crucial for rational conservation and exploitation of this important species. So, five geographic samples, totally 224 individuals,were collected near coastal areas of the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and East China Sea. The morphological variation among five samples was studied by using the method of multivariate morphometics. The result of cluster analysis showed that five samples were divided into 4 groups. The normalized Euclidean distance between Lianyungang (LYG) and Zhoushan (ZS) and Huanghua (HH) samples was shorter than others,which indicates that these three samples have close relationship. However, the normalized Euclidean distance between Xiapu (XP) and Lianyungang

  14. Life on wood - the carnivorous deep-sea mussel Idas argenteus (Bathymodiolinae, Mytilidae, Bivalvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ockelmann, Kurt W.; Dinesen, Grete E.


    Deep-sea mussels associated with sunken wood are less well known in terms of anatomy, biology and evolution than their bathymodioline allies from cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. During the Danish 'Ingolf Expedition' (1895-96) to the Northeast Atlantic, two pieces of pinewood were collected fro...... to its shell development, alimentary system, gill anatomy and life habits provide important clues to the evolution of the Bathymodiolinae....

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0081 gb|AAQ03363.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AA...Q03365.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03367.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon] gb|AAQ03373.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb|AAQ03375.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon] gb|AAQ03385.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] gb...|AAQ03387.1| ATPase synthase subunit 6 [Brycon argenteus] AAQ03363.1 0.33 26% ...

  16. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus mice in Japan. (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi


    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.

  17. Available lysine in canned fish


    Rao, D. Ramananda; Gadre, Ujjwala V.


    Otolithus argenteus was canned in brine by heat processing at two different steam pressures either at 0.70 kg/cm super(2) or 1.05 kg/cm super(2) for 25 minutes. The nutritive value of canned fish as evaluated by the total nitrogen and available lysine did not alter much either during heat processing or during storage over a period of nine months at 28 degree plus or minus 5 degree C.

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012. (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J


    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  19. The Rabbit-Fishes (Family Siganidae) From The Coast Of Sulawesi, Indonesia


    Burhanuddin, andi Iqbal


    ABSTRACT: Fish diversity monitoring could be utilized as a basis for formulating management regulation of the fisheries resources. A study has been carried out to describe the Siganid fishes of the family Siganidae from the coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted from September 2010 to August 2013. Two hundred and thirty five specimen of Siganid belonging 17 species were examined and identified: Siganus argenteus, S. canaliculatus, S. corralinus, S. doliatus, S...



    Iqbal Burhanuddin, Andi; Budimawan, Budimawan; sahabuddin, sahabuddin


    - Fish diversity monitoring could be utilized as a basis for formulating management regulation of the fisheries resources. A study has been carried out to describe the Siganid fishes of the family Siganidae from the coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted from September 2010 to August 2013. Two hundred and thirty five specimen of Siganid belonging 17 species were examined and identified: Siganus argenteus, S. canaliculatus, S. corralinus, S. doliatus, S. fuscescens, S. guttat...

  1. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  2. The Ultrastructure of the Gastrodermis and the Nutrition of the Gill Parasitic Atriaster heterodus Lebedev and Paruchin, 1969 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cláudia P


    Full Text Available The gastrodermis of Atriaster heterodus Lebedev & Paruchin, 1969 (Polyopisthocotylea, a gill parasite from Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes, 1830, is composed of "U"-shape hematin cells and a connecting syncytium, both having cytoplasmic lamellae. These cells show outgrowths and bent folds which were seen to enclose lumen material. The trapped material was then subjected to endocytosis. The nature of ingested food material was comparatively analyzed by cytochemical and histochemical tests. Blood residues were detected in the gut but tests for mucins were negative. No intact erythrocytes were observed in the gut lumen.

  3. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

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    Sreenivasa Rao Jarapala


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS. Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO.

  4. Cytochrome b barcoding, molecular systematics and geographic differentiation in rabbitfishes (Siganidae). (United States)

    Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier; Vigliola, Laurent; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Borsa, Philippe


    The fish genus Siganus (Siganidae) is widely distributed in the coastal habitats of all the tropical Indo-Pacific, with 28 nominal species recognized so far, based on general morphology and coloration patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 16 Siganidae species, based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochome b gene, was produced. Individual haplotypes of given nominal species generally clustered at the extremity of long branches, thus validating the current taxonomy. However, S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group including S. guttatus, while S. fuscescens haplotypes were apparently splitted in two groups, calling for further investigation. S. woodlandi and S. argenteus formed a monophyletic group, as expected from their close morphological relatedness, although they were separated by a substantial, 14.5-16.3% nucleotide distance. Among eight species sampled from different locations across the Indo-West Pacific, S. argenteus and S. spinus showed the lowest degree of geographic differentiation, a result that correlated well with their extended pelagic larval stage. Fixation index estimates were high in all six other species tested (S. doliatus, S. fuscescens, S. lineatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). The cytochrome b gene fragment chosen here proved useful as a barcode in Siganidae.

  5. Developmental and morphological characteristics of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) in Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae and Rattus norvegicus from different geographical locations. (United States)

    Iwaki, T; Nonaka, N; Okamoto, M; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M


    Developmental and morphological characteristics of 3 isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis isolated from Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae in Abuta (70 km southwest of Sapporo), Japan (isolate ACR), and from Rattus norvegicus in Sapporo, Japan (isolate SRN) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (isolate KRN) were compared. Eggs of 3 isolates were administered to several species of rodents. Isolate ACR infected C. rufocanus bedfordiae, Apodemus speciosus, and Apodemus argenteus, but not rats or mice, whereas isolate SRN and isolate KRN were infective to rats, mice, A. speciosus, and A. argenteus, but not to C. rufocanus bedfordiae. The increase in cyst size of isolate ACR continued during the experimental period, whereas that of the other 2 isolates had ceased growing after 30 days postinfection. However, significant differences were observed in the length of the small rostellar hooks, number and distribution of testes, and the length of the cirrus sac between isolate ACR and the other 2 isolates. Thus it is suggested that isolate ACR is a distinct strain or even a new species.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仁协; 梁秀何; 庄志猛; 柳淑芳


    对采白黄海、东海和南海的7个银鲳群体的线粒体CO Ⅰ基因序列变异进行分析,研究银鲳的遗传多样性、遗传结构和群体历史动态.在所分析的111个个体中检测到16个单倍型.7个群体呈现出高的单倍型多样性(h=0.564~0.688)和低的核苷酸多样性(π=0.001~0.003).单倍型遗传学关系、两两群体间的FST值和分子方差分析均表明中国近海7个银鲳群体问的遗传分化不显著.中性检验和核苷酸不配对分析均表明中国近海银鲳经历了晚更新世的群体扩张事件,扩张时间约为6.0×104 ~1.04×105年前.研究结果表明,银鲳的卵和幼体具有较强的扩散能力、中周近海的海洋环流以及近期的群体扩张可能是造成中国近海银鲳群体在线粒体CO Ⅰ基因序列上存在较高的遗传同质性的原因.%To evaluate the population genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus), we sequenced the mtDNACO I gene (591 bp) in 111 individuals of 7 localities sampled from the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea. A total of 16 haplotypes were denned among 111 individuals. High haplotype diversity (0. 564 - 0. 688 ) and low nucleotide diversity ( 0.001 - 0.003 ) were detected within each population. The genetic relationships of haplotypes, pairwise FST comparisons and hierarchical molecular variance analysis ( AMOVA) showed no significant genetic differences between populations in P. Argenteus. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analysis revealed that P. Argenteus had undergone population expansion in die late Pleistocene. And the population expansion occurred approximately at 6. 0×104 - 1. 04 ×105 years ago. The results of this study indicated that P. Argenteus constituted a panmictic mtDNA CO I gene pool from the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea. Factors such as dispersal capacity, ocean currents and insufficient evolution time could be

  7. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. (United States)

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert


    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  8. Dependence of juvenile reef fishes on semi-arid hypersaline estuary microhabitats as nurseries. (United States)

    Sales, N S; Dias, T L P; Baeta, A; Pessanha, A L M


    The differences between fish assemblages in three microhabitat types, in relation to vegetation and sediment characteristics of a hypersaline estuary located in an semi-arid zone in north-eastern Brazil, were investigated. Fishes were collected using a beach seine during the rainy and dry seasons in 2012. A total of 78 species were recorded, with the most common families being Gerreidae, Lutjanidae and Tetraodontidae. The majority of species were represented by juveniles, with Eucinostomus argenteus, Ulaema lefroyi and Sphoeroides greeleyi being the dominant species. The fish assemblage structures differed significantly among microhabitat types, with the narrow intertidal flat adjacent to the mangrove fringe supporting the most diverse fish fauna. In addition, only 27 species were common to all of the microhabitats. The results support the hypothesis that hypersaline estuaries serve as important nursery areas for various reef fish species, due to the structural complexity provided by their macroalgae beds and mangroves.

  9. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries. (United States)

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F


    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed.

  10. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao


    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  11. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran


    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  12. Patterns of lineage diversification in rabbitfishes. (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Lemer, Sarah; Aurelle, Didier


    Fishes of the tropical Indo-Pacific family Siganidae comprise 28 species, characterized by their body proportions and their colour patterns. A mitochondrial phylogeny of 20 Siganidae species was produced to infer their evolutionary history. Three distinct, major clades were found, that also correspond to the early radiation of the family into three major ecological types: fusiform species that also live in schools on the inshore reef flats (S. canaliculatus, S. fuscescens, S. luridus, S. rivulatus, S. spinus, S. sutor); deep-bodied species including brightly coloured ones whose adults live in pairs on the reef front (S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. puellus, S. punctatus, S. unimaculatus, S. virgatus, S. vulpinus), and species that live in small schools in mangroves, estuaries and estuarine lakes (S. guttatus, S. javus, S. lineatus, S. randalli, S. vermiculatus); and a third clade including a cosmopolitan species, S. argenteus, the only species of the family known to possess a pelagic, prejuvenile stage and S. woodlandi, a recently described species from New Caledonia and morphologically close to S. argenteus. The partition of the genus into two sub-genera, Lo (erected for S. unimaculatus, S. vulpinus and three related species possessing a tubular snout) and Siganus (all the other species), had no phylogenetic rationale. The present results indicate that the tubular snout, which apparently results from ecological specialization, is a recent acquisition within the deep-body clade. The Western Indian Ocean endemic S. sutor appeared as the sister-species of the Red Sea endemic S. rivulatus within a well-supported subclade that also included S. canaliculatus and S. fuscescens. S. spinus did not appear as sister-species to S. luridus. S. lineatus haplotypes formed a paraphyletic group with S. guttatus, and an early isolation of Maldives S. lineatus was suggested. Unexpectedly, S. randalli did not appear as the sister-species of S. vermiculatus, but its haplotypes instead

  13. Estructura de la comunidad de larvas de peces en una montaña submarina del Golfo de California Larval fish community structure in a seamount of the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio González-Armas


    Full Text Available Se determinaron los cambios en la estructura de la comunidad de larvas de peces en una montaña submarina conocida como El Bajo del Espíritu Santo (EBES situada al sur del Golfo de California. Las larvas de peces fueron identificadas y agrupadas en 48 familias, 84 géneros y 76 especies. La riqueza de especies fue notable por que representa cerca del 30% del total de las especies de peces del Golfo de California. Los taxa numéricamente dominantes están representados por individuos cuyos adultos pertenecen al hábitat mesopelágico, arrecifal y pelágico costero (Vinciguerria lucetia, Mugil cephalus, Harengula thrissina, Benthosema panamense, Scomber japonicus, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Hyporhamphus rosae, Abudefduf troschelii, Eucinostomus argenteus, Triphoturus mexicanus y Gobiidae. Especies de pelágicos mayores de origen oceánico también estuvieron presentes aunque fueron escasas (Tetrapturus audax, Coryphaena hippurus. Se determinó una alta diversidad (H' desde finales de primavera hasta el otoño (2.0-2.8 en coincidencia con el incremento y máxima temperatura superficial del mar (21-30 °C. La estructura de la comunidad y su variación en el tiempo estuvieron relacionadas con la alternancia en los periodos reproductivos y eventos de mesoescala de la dinámica oceánica del Golfo de California.Larval fish community structure in El Bajo Espíritu Santo seamount from the southern part of the Gulf of California was studied. Fish larvae were identified and grouped in 48 families, 84 genera and 76 species. Their biological richness constitutes about 30% of the actual Gulf of California fishes. Numerically dominant taxa were represented by individuals whose adults belong to the mesopelagic, reef and coastal pelagic habitat (Vinciguerria lucetia, Mugil cephalus, Harengula thrissina, Benthosema panamense, Scomber japonicus, Mulloidichthys dentatus, Hyporamphus rosae, Abudefduf troschelii, Eucinostomus argenteus, Triphoturus mexicanus and

  14. Sinopse das espécies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Synopsis of the species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Silva


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi baseado na análise de materiais de herbário, referências bibliográficas e coletas, revelando a ocorrência de 35 espécies do gênero Croton para o estado de Pernambuco. A maior parte destas espécies tem distribuição exclusiva na zona fitogeográfica das Caatingas; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. e C. blanchetianus Baill. estendem-se da zona da Mata até a zona das Caatingas; C. polyandrus Spreng. e C. sellowii Baill. ocorrem principalmente na faixa litorânea, em vegetação de restinga; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. e C. triqueter Lam. foram observados apenas na zona da Mata, e C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. e C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. apresentam ampla distribuição no Estado. São apresentadas chave de identificação, comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitats, juntamente com ilustrações de características diagnósticas das espécies.This study was based on the analysis of herbarium material, specialized bibliography and field collections, recording the occurrence of 35 species of the genus Croton for the state of Pernambuco. Most of these species are distributed exclusively in the Caatinga phytogeographic region; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. and C. blanchetianus Baill. are found from the forest zone to the caatinga zone; C. polyandrus Spreng. and C. sellowii Baill. occur mainly along the coast, in restinga vegetation; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. and C. triqueter Lam. were observed only in the forest zone, and C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. and C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. are widely distributed. Identification keys, comments on geographic distribution and habitats and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of the species are provided.

  15. Species-and tissue-specific mercury bioaccumulation in five fish species from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinhu; CAO Liang; HUANG Wei; DOU Shuozeng


    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the tissues (muscle,stomach,liver,gills,skin,and gonads)of five fish species (mullet Liza haematocheilus,flathead fish Platycephalus indicus,sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus,mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius and silver pomfret Pampus argenteus) collected from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China were investigated.The results indicate that Hg bioaccumulation in the five fish was tissue-specific,with the highest levels in the muscle and liver,followed by the stomach and gonads.The lowest levels were found in the gills and skin.Fish at higher trophic levels (flathead fish and sea bass) exhibited higher Hg concentrations than consumers at lower trophic levels.Mercury bioaccumulation tended to be positively correlated with fish length in mullet,silver pomfret,mackerel,and flathead fish,but was negatively correlated with fish length in sea bass.The Hg concentrations in the muscles of all fish species in Laizhou Bay were within the permissible limits of food safety set by national and international criteria.However,the suggesting maximum consumption of sea bass is 263 g per week for human health.

  16. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao


    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  17. Common descent of B chromosomes in two species of the fish genus Prochilodus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae). (United States)

    Voltolin, T A; Pansonato Alves, J C; Senhorini, J A; Foresti, F; Camacho, J P M; Porto-Foresti, F


    To ascertain the origin of B chromosomes in 2 fish species of the genus Prochilodus, i.e. P. lineatus and P. nigricans, we microdissected them and generated B-specific DNA probes. These probes were used to perform chromosome painting in both species and in 3 further ones belonging to the same genus (P. argenteus, P. brevis and P. costatus). Both probes hybridized with the B chromosomes in P. lineatus and P. nigricans, but with none of the chromosomes in the 5 species. This indicates that the B chromosomes have low similarity with DNAs located in the A chromosomes and suggests the possibility that the B chromosomes in the 2 species have a common origin. The most parsimonious explanation would imply intergeneric hybridization in an ancestor of P. lineatus and P. nigricans yielding the B chromosome as a byproduct, which remained in these 2 species after their phylogenetic origin, but was perhaps lost in other Prochilodus species. This hypothesis predicts that B chromosomes are old genomic elements in this genus, and this could be tested once a species from a relative genus would be found showing homology of its A chromosomes with the B-probes employed here, through a comparison of B chromosome DNA sequences with those in the A chromosomes of this other species.

  18. Day and night trophic variations of dominant fish species in a lagoon influenced by freshwater seeps. (United States)

    Arceo-Carranza, D; Vega-Cendejas, M E; Hernández de Santillana, M


    The aim of this study was to determine the trophic structure and nycthemeral variations in the diet of dominant fish species (Ariopsis felis, Bairdiella chrysoura, Micropogonias undulatus, Eucinostomus gula, Eucinostomus argenteus, Lagodon rhomboides and Sphoeroides testudineus) in Celestun Lagoon, a biosphere reserve located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, and influenced by freshwater seeps. A total of 1473 stomachs were analysed and nine trophic groups were recorded. Bray-Curtis analyses with analyses of similarity (ANOSIM) statistical tests were used to determine two groups of feeding guilds: zoobenthivores and omnivores, with significant differences between time and habitat. The relationships between fish feeding habits, size class and environmental variables were investigated using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Most of the species showed a low niche breadth with high specialization towards amphipod consumption, with the exception of L. rhomboides (0·60), which indicated generalist feeding. This study in a protected area is an important source of information for drawing up conservation policies in relation to the management of aquatic resources, and will aid in the establishment of priority areas for conservation.

  19. Factors influencing movement of two migratory fishes within the tailrace of a large neotropical dam and their implications for hydropower impacts (United States)

    Suzuki, F. M.; Dunham, Jason; Silva, L. G. M.; Alves, C. B. M.; Pompeu, P.S.


    Fish attempting to move upstream through hydroelectric dams can be trapped and killed in turbines. Understanding fish movement patterns can provide useful insights for how to manage dam operations to minimize fish kill in turbines. We evaluated the movements of two migratory fish (Curimba—Prochilodus argenteus and Mandi—Pimelodus maculatus) using acoustic telemetry in the tailrace of Três Marias Dam (São Francisco River, Brazil) from 31 October 2011 to 16 February 2012. The majority of tagged fish left the tailrace in less than one week; however, some individuals returned, performing several visits to the tailrace. Mandi remained longer in the tailrace than Curimba. The number of visits was influenced by diel period, turbine and spillway discharge. Although the diel period was the only important contributor to the visits performed by Curimba, the movements of Mandi were significantly influenced by three factors. We found that whereas Curimba was predominantly diurnal, Mandi showed nocturnal habits. Additionally, visits of Mandi were significantly greater during higher turbine and spillway discharge. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding fish movements in the Três Marias Dam tailrace and their potential implications for adapting hydroelectric operations to minimize fish kills.

  20. Trace elements in fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab river, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaychi, J.; Al-Saad, H.T.


    In the Arabian Gulf region, recently, vast industrial, agricultural, economic and social developments have taken place, in addition to an increase in population. This may enhance the magnitude of environmental pollution year by year. No detailed study has been undertaken to assess the concentrations of trace elements in commercial species of fish from the Arabian Gulf and the Shatt al-Arab River, despite the fact that fish are considered an essential part of the diet in the region. Therefore, an investigation was carried out on the concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the following fish species from the Arabian Gulf: Tylosurus strongylurus, Eleutheoronema tetradactum, Pomadasys arel, Platycephalus indicus, Ilisha elongata, Thryssa hamiltonii, Arius thalassinus, Acanthophagrus luteus, Johnieops sina, Liza dussumeiri, Hilsa ilisha, Nematolosa nasus and Otoliths argenteus, and on species from the Shatt al-Arab River: Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi, Barbus xanthopterus, Barbus scheich, Aspius vorax, Cyprinus carpio, and Barbus grypus. Trace element levels in sediment samples from the area were also determined since sediments can accumulate different elements and may reflect the extent of pollution by these elements.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific. (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R


    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  2. Fish community structure and dynamics in a coastal hypersaline lagoon: Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, Mexico (United States)

    Vega-Cendejas, Ma. Eugenia; Hernández de Santillana, Mireya


    Rio Lagartos, a tropical coastal lagoon in northern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, is characterized by high salinity during most of the year (55 psu annual average). Even though the area has been designated as a wetland of international importance because of its great biodiversity, fish species composition and distribution are unknown. To determine whether the salinity gradient was influencing fish assemblages or not, fish populations were sampled seasonally by seine and trawl from 1992 to 1993 and bimonthly during 1997. We identified 81 fish species, eight of which accounted for 53.1% considering the Importance Value Index ( Floridichthys polyommus, Sphoeroides testudineus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Fundulus majalis, Strongylura notata, Cyprinodon artifrons and Elops saurus). Species richness and density declined from the mouth to the inner zone where extreme salinity conditions are prominent (>80) and competitive interactions decreased. However, in Coloradas basin (53 average sanity) and in the inlet of the lagoon, the highest fish density and number of species were observed. Greater habitat heterogeneity and fish immigration were considered as the best explanation. Multivariate analysis found three zones distinguished by fish occurrence, abundance and distribution. Ichthyofaunal spatial differences were attributed to selective recruitment from the Gulf of Mexico due to salinity gradient and to changing climatic periods. Estuarine and euryhaline marine species are abundant, with estuarine dependent ones entering the system according to environmental preferences. This knowledge will contribute to the management of the Special Biosphere Reserve through baseline data to evaluate environmental and anthropogenic changes.

  3. Seasonal and ontogenetic patterns of habitat use in coral reef fish juveniles (United States)

    Mellin, C.; Kulbicki, M.; Ponton, D.


    We investigated the diversity of patterns of habitat use by juveniles of coral reef fishes according to seasons and at two spatial scales (10-100 m and 1-10 km). We conducted underwater visual censuses in New Caledonia's Lagoon between 1986 and 2001. Co-inertia analyses highlighted the importance of mid-shelf habitats at large spatial scale (1-10 km) and of sandy and vegetated habitats at small spatial scale (10-100 m) for most juveniles. Among all juvenile species, 53% used different habitats across seasons (e.g. Lutjanus fulviflamma and Siganus argenteus) and 39% used different habitats as they grow (e.g. Lethrinus atkinsoni and Scarus ghobban). During their ontogeny, at large and small scales, respectively, 21% and 33% of the species studied showed an increase in the number of habitats used (e.g. L. fulviflamma, L. atkinsoni), 10% and 3% showed a decrease in the number of habitats used (e.g. Amphiprion melanopus, Siganus fuscescens), 23% and 3% showed a drastic change of habitat used (e.g. S. ghobban, Scarus sp.) whereas 46% and 61% showed no change of habitat used (e.g. Lethrinus genivittatus, Ctenochaetus striatus). Changes in habitat use at both small and large spatial scales occurred during the ontogeny of several species (e.g. S. ghobban, Scarus sp.). Results pointed out the different spatial and temporal scales of juvenile habitat use to account for in conservation decisions regarding both assemblage and species-specific levels.

  4. Biodiversity of Asterina species on Neotropical host plants: new species and records from Panama. (United States)

    Hofmann, T A; Piepenbring, M


    Two new species of the genus Asterina are described from living leaves collected in provinces Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro in western Panama. Asterina alloplecti on Alloplectus ichtyoderma (Gesneriaceae) differs from other Asterina on Gesneriaceae by its stalked appressoria and host relationship. Asterina compsoneurae on Compsoneura sprucei (Myristicaceae) can be distinguished from other members of Asterina on Myristicaceae by its larger ascomata, larger, prominently spinose ascospores and host relationship. New records for Panama are Asterina corallopoda from a new host plant species (Solanum trizygum, Solanaceae), A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii from a new host plant species (Gonzalagunia rudis, Rubiaceae), A. siphocampyli from a new host plant genus and species (Burmeistera vulgaris, Campanulaceae) and A. styracina from a new host-plant species (Styrax argenteus, Styracaceae). This study increases the number of species of Asterina known for Panama from 12 to 19 and the number of Asterinaceae from 14 to 21. Asterina corallopoda, A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii, A. siphocampyli and A. styracina are illustrated for the first time. A phylogeny inferred from the analysis of LSU rDNA sequences of species of Asterina is presented. The diversity and host-plant patterns of known Neotropical species of Asterina are discussed.

  5. Functional characteristics of the Staphylococcus aureus δ-toxin allelic variant G10S. (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Yeh, Anthony J; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Duong, Anthony C; Tuffuor, Kwame; Fu, Chih-Lung; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Diep, Binh A; Li, Min; Nakamura, Yuumi; Nunez, Gabriel; Peschel, Andreas; Otto, Michael


    Staphylococcus aureus δ-toxin is a member of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family. PSMs have multiple functions in staphylococcal pathogenesis; for example, they lyse red and white blood cells and trigger inflammatory responses. Compared to other PSMs, δ-toxin is usually more strongly expressed but has only moderate cytolytic capacities. The amino acid sequences of S. aureus PSMs are well conserved with two exceptions, one of which is the δ-toxin allelic variant G10S. This variant is a characteristic of the subspecies S. argenteus and S. aureus sequence types ST1 and ST59, the latter representing the most frequent cause of community-associated infections in Asia. δ-toxin G10S and strains expressing that variant from plasmids or the genome had significantly reduced cytolytic and pro-inflammatory capacities, including in a strain background with pronounced production of other PSMs. However, in murine infection models, isogenic strains expressing the two δ-toxin variants did not cause measurable differences in disease severity. Our findings indicate that the widespread G10S allelic variation of the δ-toxin locus has a significant impact on key pathogenesis mechanisms, but more potent members of the PSM peptide family may overshadow that impact in vivo.

  6. Spatial and temporal characterization of fish assemblages in a tropical coastal system influenced by freshwater inputs: northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Arceo-Carranza, Daniel; Vega-Cendejas, Ma Eugenia


    Coastal lagoons are important systems for freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms; they are considered important zones of reproduction, nursery and feeding for many fish species. The present study investigates the fish assemblages of the natural reserve of Dzilam and their relationship with the hydrologic variables. A total of 6 474 individuals (81 species) were collected, contributing with more than 50% considering the Importance Value Index (IVI), Sphoeroides testudineus, Fundulus persimilis, Anchoa mitchilli, Eucinostomus gula, Eucinostomus argenteus and Mugil trichodon. Differences in species composition were found between seasons the highest during the cold fronts. Spatially, differences were related with the presence of freshwater seeps, the highest in the ecological characterized eastern part and the lowest with higher difference in specific composition located in the western part of the internal zone, due to a higher abundance and dominance of L. rhomboides. Salinity and temperature were the variables that presented a higher influence in the distribution of some pelagic species such as A. mitchilli and A. hepsetus. Because of the abundant freshwater seeps characteristic of the coastal lagoons of Yucatan Peninsula their community structure and fish assemblage display spatial and temporal differences in specific composition.

  7. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic species from the Pearl River Estuary]. (United States)

    Xiang, Cai-hong; Luo, Xiao-jun; Yu, Mei; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Mai, Bi-xian; Zeng, Eddy


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in biota samples collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The concentrations of sigma10 PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183) in fish species (including Platycephalus indicus, Pseudosiaena crocea , Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus robustus, and Harpodon nehereus), shrimps (including Metapenaeus ensis and Metapenaeus affinis) and Squilla oratoria were from 37.8 ng x g(-1) to 407.1 ng x g(-1) (normalized to lipid), from 49.0 ng x g(-1) to 239.1 ng x g(-1) and from 142 ng x g(-1) to 444.5 ng x g(-1), respectively. BDE47 was the dominant congener in all biota samples, with a contribution to sigma10 PBDEs ranging from 53.7% to 66.9%. Differences in concentrations of PBDEs and PBDE patterns in different species may be related to the different feeding habit, living environment and uptaking or elimination rate. High ratios of concentrations of PBDEs in liver /muscle in fish species indicated that PBDEs tended to accumulate more in liver than in muscle.

  8. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon. (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C


    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永东; 金海卫; 张洪亮; 蒋日进; 潘国良


    根据2011年4月、5月与6月对浙江南部沿岸产卵场进行的共3个航次的调查资料,对该海域的鱼卵、仔稚鱼的种类组成和数量分布进行了分析,结果表明,共发现鱼卵、仔稚鱼72个种类,分别隶属11目38科48属.其中鱼卵29种,分别隶属6目18科24属;仔稚鱼55种,分别隶属10目29科40属.4-6月仔稚鱼数量呈逐月递减的趋势,而鱼卵数量6月最多,5月最少.鱼卵优势种4月以斑(鲦)、棱(鮻)、小黄鱼与蓝点马鲛为主,5月以斑(鲦)、(鳗)、龙头鱼、银鲳、蓝点马鲛与石首鱼科为主,6月以鳀、龙头鱼、多鳞(鳍)与鲱科鱼类为主;仔稚鱼优势种4月以虾虎鱼类、褐菖(鮋)与平(鮋)科为主,5月以鳀、虾虎鱼类、棱(鮻)、斑(鲦)与长鳍篮子鱼为主,6月以鳀与虾虎鱼类为主.斑(鲦)、鲳鱼、小黄鱼、棱(鮻)、蓝点马鲛与褐菖鮋的产卵盛期为4月,而鳀与龙头鱼的产卵盛期为6月.%Based on the data of three surveys in the spawning ground along the south coast of Zhejiang province from April to June 2011,the species composition and spatial distribution of fish eggs,larvae and juveniles were analyzed.The results showed that 72 fish species were identified,belonging to 48 genera of 38 families in 11 orders.Among them,eggs of 29 species were in 24 genera of 18 families in 6 orders,together with larvae and juveniles of 55 specie in 40 genera of 29 families in 10 orders.The quantity of fish larvae and juveniles showed a tendency of decrease by month from April to June,while the largest number of fish eggs was in June,followed by April and then May.As for the dominant species of fish eggs,April mainly saw Clupanodon punctatus,Liza carinatus,Pseudosciaena polyactis,Scombermorus niphonius; May mainly saw C.punctatus,Engraulis japonicus,Harpodon nehereus,Pampus argenteus,S.niphonius,Sciaenidae sp.and June mainly saw E.japonicus,H.nehereus,Sillago maculate and Clupeidae sp..As for the dominant species of fish larvae

  10. Forage fauna in the diet of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Vaske Júnior


    Full Text Available A total of 291 stomachs of bigeye tuna caught in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean ranging between 60 and 195 cm fork length, were analyzed between October 2004 and November 2005. The vertical distribution of prey was studied in relation to their feeding strategies. A total of 83 prey items were identified of which 46 were fishes, represented mainly by brephoepipelagic, and meso-bathypelagic fishes; 20 cephalopods, 13 pelagic crustaceans, one tunicate, one heteropod and one pteropod. The Caribbean pomfret Brama caribbea was the most important food item, followed by other mesopelagic fishes such as Alepisaurus ferox, Omosudis lowei, Gempylus serpens, Brama brama and Diretmus argenteus. The squid Ornithoteuthis antillarum was the main preyed-on cephalopod, and the crustaceans Caridea and Brachyuran megalopae were also important food items. The feeding may occur continuously, all the time, or at least during the greater part of the day or night, as part of the feeding strategy to prey upon a vertically scattered small prey distributed in the water column. The relative equality in the proportions of surface, mid-water and deep-water prey organisms reflects the behavior of constant vertical displacement in the search for prey. Although the bigeye tuna prefers subthermocline layers, most of its prey items perform diel migrations and can be preyed on both near the surface and in deeper waters.Um total de 291 estômagos de albacoras-bandolins capturadas no oceano Atlântico tropical oeste variando entre 60 e 195 cm de comprimento furcal, foram analisados entre outubro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. A distribuição vertical das presas foi estudada em relação às estratégias alimentares. Um total de 83 itens alimentares foi identificado dos quais 46 foram peixes representados principalmente por peixes brefoepipelágicos e mesopelágicos, 20 cefalópodes, 13 crustáceos pelágicos, um tunicado, um heterópode e um pterópode. A palombeta

  11. A multilocus coalescent analysis of the speciational history of the Australo-Papuan butcherbirds and their allies. (United States)

    Kearns, Anna M; Joseph, Leo; Cook, Lyn G


    Changes in geology, sea-level and climate are hypothesised to have been major driving processes of evolutionary diversification (speciation and extinction) in the Australo-Papuan region. Here we use complete species-level sampling and multilocus (one mitochondrial gene, five nuclear loci) coalescent analyses to estimate evolutionary relationships and test hypotheses about the role of changes in climate and landscape in the diversification of the Australo-Papuan butcherbirds and allies (Cracticinae: Cracticus, Strepera, Peltops). Multilocus species trees supported the current classification of the morphologically, ecologically and behaviourally divergent Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen (previously Gymnorhina tibicen)) as a member of an expanded genus Cracticus, which includes seven other species with 'butcherbird' morphology and behaviour. Non-monophyly of currently recognised species within Peltops and the white-throated butcherbird species-group (C.argenteus, C.mentalis, C. torquatus) at both mtDNA and nuclear loci suggest that a comprehensive taxonomic revision is warranted for both of these groups. The time-calibrated multilocus species tree revealed an early divergence between the New Guinean rainforest-restricted Peltops lineage and the largely open-habitat inhabiting Cracticus (butcherbirds and magpies) plus Strepera (currawongs) lineage around 17-28Ma, as well as a relatively recent radiation of lineages within Cracticus over the past 8Ma. Overall, patterns and timings of speciation were consistent with the hypothesis that both the expansion of open sclerophyllous woodlands 25-30Ma and the formation of extensive grassland-dominated woodlands 6-8Ma allowed the radiation of lineages adapted to open woodland habitats.

  12. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil. (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete


    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  13. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the species and biogeography of the characid genus Oligosarcus Günther, 1864 (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae). (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alexandre Cunha; Menezes, Naércio Aquino


    The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian

  15. Survey of Babesia microti infection in field rodents in Japan: records of the Kobe-type in new foci and findings of a new type related to the Otsu-type. (United States)

    Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Kasahara, Midori; Kasai, Masatoshi; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Kawai, Atsuko; Fujita, Hiromi; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro


    Of 247 rodents comprising 5 genera and 7 species collected at 17 sites throughout Japan from 2003 to 2005, Babesia microti was detected microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 36 rodents comprising 2 genera and 3 species from 12 sites. Based on the analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA) sequences, the Kobe-type, the etiological type of the first Japanese case of human infection was found in Apodemus speciosus and Apodemus argenteus in Aomori, the northernmost prefecture of the Japanese mainland, while the U.S.-type was found on Hokkaido Island and the Otsu-type was widely distributed. In addition, a new Otsu-related type was detected exclusively in Eothenomys andersoni in Nagano, a prefecture in central Japan. The sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 (ITS1/2) of the present Kobe- and Otsu-types were almost identical to those of the same types previously identified. The ITS1/2 sequence of the U.S.-type identified in Hokkaido in this survey was somewhat different from that of the U.S.-type strain originating from the U.S.A., with approximately 95% identity. This value was similar to the 94% identity found between the ITS1/2 sequences of the Otsu-type and the new Otsu-related type. The new Otsu-related type of B. microti was isolated as the Nagano strain, which was serologically differentiated from the other type strains of B. microti. The divergence and distribution of genotypes are important factors in investigating the epidemiology of human B. microti infection in Japan.

  16. Molecular characterization of benthic foraminifera communities from the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope following the Deepwater Horizon event (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Schwing, Patrick; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snyder, Richard A.


    Benthic foraminifera are globally distributed protozoa in the world's oceans, which have been used as ecological indicators in both current and palaeo oceanography. The ecological properties and distribution of these organisms in various regions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have been evaluated using microscopy; however molecular approaches for these purposes have been limited, especially in deeper regions. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil well failure in the northern Gulf of Mexico highlighted the need to better understand the distribution and abundance of these organisms relative to environmental factors and ecosystem perturbations such as the oil spill. Sediment samples were collected using a Shipek grab along transects on the northwest Florida GOM shelf (18-270 m depth). Clone libraries were developed from PCR amplified 18S rDNA genes for sequence analysis. Analysis of random clones from libraries were used as a proxy for community structure (presence and relative abundance) to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of benthic foraminifera on the Northwest Florida Shelf in the NE GOM shelf. Additional continental slope samples (200-1600 m depth) were obtained by a multicorer and treated in similar fashion. Mean species diversity in this study (H=2.49-3.36), agreed with pre-DWH event estimates, however the dominant agglutinated species in the deep-water samples did not match previous studies. Additionally, the dominant calcareous taxa from this study such as Allogromida sp. and Psammophaga sp., were inconsistent with previous reports. The dominant taxa in both coastal and deep-water sites include Glabratellina sp., Trochammina hadai, and Trochammina sp., and Textularia sagittula and Bathysiphon argenteus as well as members of genera Astrammina, Bolivina, Cibicides and Cibicidoides.

  17. 鲳亚目4种鱼类骨骼系统的比较研究%Comparison of Skeletal Characteristics of Four Fishs Species in Stromateoidei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太有; 刘芳; 李艳洁; 李仲辉


    对鲳亚目的印度无齿鲳、银鲳、三刺低鳍鲳和刺鲳的骨骼系统作了详细的比较。研究结果表明,4种鱼类脑颅中的鼻骨、上筛骨、侧筛骨、眶下骨、蝶耳骨、翼耳骨、上耳骨和前耳骨等均有明显的差异;咽颅中的前颌骨、上颌骨、舌颌骨、尾舌骨、鳃盖骨、咽鳃骨和下咽骨等也有显著的区别;附肢骨骼中的肩带骨和腰带骨也各有不同。这些差异可作为种间的分类依据。%The skeletal characteristics of four Stromateoidei fishes including A riomma indica ,Pampus ar-genteus , Peprilus triacanthus and Psenopsis anomala were studied .The results showed that obvious differences existed in neurocranium among four Stromateoidei fishes ,for example ,the shapes of nasal ,up-raethmoid ,lateral ethmoid ,suborbital bones ,sphenotic ,pterotic ,epiotic and prootic with subocular shelf in P .anomala .In splanchnocranium ,there were many bone differences in shape ,such as premaxilla ,max-illa , hyomandibular , urohyal , opercular , pharyngobranchial and pharyngeal . In pectoral girdle , these bones were not alike such as supraposfthemporal ,supratemporal ,supracleithrum and postcleithrum .In Pelvic girdle ,without ventral fin in P .triacanthus ,but there were a pair of two-forked bones in abdominal wall ahead the anus .These differences can be used in classification for inter-species .

  18. Resource partitioning amongst five coexisting species of gurnards (Scorpaeniforme: Triglidae): Role of trophic and habitat segregation (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, L.; Preciado, I.; Velasco, F.; Olaso, I.; Gutiérrez-Zabala, J. L.


    Feeding habits and habitat preferences of five related species ( Aspitrigla cuculus, Chelidonichthys lucerna, Chelidonichthys obscurus, Eutrigla gurnardus and Trigla lyra) (Scorpaeniformes: Triglidae) were studied in the southern Bay of Biscay. Specimens were collected during annual bottom trawl surveys carried out every autumn between 1990 and 2008 on soft bottoms of the Galician and Cantabrian Sea continental shelf between 30 and 800 m depth. All species were found to display a different depth distribution, despite co-occurring in many of the hauls (co-occurrence percentage ranged between 4.45 and 34.77%). Although depth was the main variable explaining the triglid distribution, latitude, temperature and sediment type were also important driving factors. Regarding feeding habits all triglids fed mainly on crustaceans, their main prey being Alpheus glaber, Polybius henslowii, Scyllarus arctus, Chlorotocus crassicornis and Pagurus prideaux. However, fish accounted for a considerable proportion of the diet with Gadiculus argenteus, Callionymus spp., and Cepola rubescens being the most common fish prey. Ontogenetic changes in diet were evident in all species but C. obscurus. Dietary overlap, determined by the Schoener Index greatly differed amongst species pairs ranging between 0.10 and 0.63. Considering all ontogenetic groups in the triglid assemblage, either diet or habitat segregation occurred between most of them. This fact suggests that any of these strategies on their own would suffice in order to avoid inter and intra specific competitions. Nevertheless, habitat partitioning occurred mainly at the inter-specific level and trophic segregation at the intra-specific level. A. cuculus and E. gurnardus showed the poorest resource partitioning in the assemblage, possibly as a consequence of the increasing abundance of the population of the first during the last decades.

  19. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf


    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  20. The Impact Lessons and Lessons Impact of Japan's Fukushima Nuclear Accident in Nearly Four Years Later%日本福岛核事故四年来的影响及教训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕君; 李文红; 邓君; 马剑锋; 刘强; 高玲


    目的 探讨日本福岛核事故发生四年来的影响及其教训.方法 2011年因日本大地震引发海啸而导致的福岛核事故.此事件是人类史上继切尔诺贝利核事故后的第二个被评为第七级事件的核事故.分析福岛核事故四年来对生物和环境的影响,并总结应该从中吸取的教训.结果 福岛核事故后,环境外照射剂量率增高,主要来自福岛核电站泄露的134Cs和137 Cs,同时也在人母乳中检测到131I的污染,对人和环境产生最严重影响的放射性核素131I和137Cs的范围分别为100 ~ 500 PBq和6~20PBq.经过调查,发现日本福岛县中、重度污染区野生小鼠(Apodemus argenteus)和家鼠(Mus musculus)的脾脏淋巴细胞的染色体畸变率明显增加.结论 福岛核事故四年来对人类健康、其他生物和环境造成了较大影响.从事故后的人员撤离、健康管理、信息沟通和灾后重建等方面应该吸取诸多教训.

  1. 崂山湾春季鱼类群落的摄食生态及其主要种类%Feeding ecology of the dominant fish species in spring in Laoshan Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 袁伟; 王俊


    崂山湾位于黄海的胶州湾和丁字湾之间,海湾开阔,是当前增殖放流的重点海域。根据2014年5月在崂山湾海域进行的底拖网调查,分析了该海域春季鱼类群落的种类组成和摄食生态。结果表明,崂山湾春季鱼类群落共32种鱼类,隶属8目,21科,30属;以鲈形目(Perciformes)的虾虎鱼科(Gobiidae)和石首鱼科(Sciaenidae)种类最多;优势种有皮氏叫姑鱼(Johnius belengerii)、短吻红舌鳎(Cynoglossus joyneri)和矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias),主要种有大泷六线鱼(Hexagrammos otakii)、斑鰶(Clupanodon punctatus)、赤鼻棱鳀(Thrissa kam-malensis)、丝虾虎鱼(Cryptocentrus filifer)、方氏云鳚(Enedrias fangi)和银鲳(Pampus argenteus)。崂山湾春季鱼类群落的种类丰富度指数 R 为3.19,多样性指数 H′为2.34;均匀度指数 J′为0.68。胃含物分析结果表明,春季崂山湾生态系统鱼类群落的平均营养级为3.52;主要包括了浮游动物食性、杂食性和底栖动物食性3种食性类型,以底栖动物食性鱼类为主。在当前捕捞、气候变化和人类活动等多重压力下,海湾生态系统承受了巨大的压力,针对不同的海湾生态系统进行基础调研,可为制订相应的增殖放流、渔业保护和管理策略提供重要科学依据。%The stock enhancement program in Laoshan Bay is vital for the Yellow Sea fisheries, and it is essential to understand the ecology of the release areas. The springtime species composition and diversity of the Laoshan Bay fish assemblage were determined using bottom trawl surveys conducted in May 2014. The catch included a total of 32 fish species in 8 orders, 21 families, and 30 genera. Perciformes were the most abundant, where Gobiidae and Sciaenidae accounted for 36.87% and 36.87% of total catch biomass, respectively. The index of relative importance indicated 3 dominant fish species—Johnius belengerii, Cynoglossus joyneri, and Chaeturichthys

  2. Redescription of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from freshwater fishes (Pimelodidae) in the basins of the Paraná and La Plata Rivers, Argentina, with comments on P. bagre Pearse, 1920. (United States)

    Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita C; Arredondo, Nathalia J; Doma, Irene L; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A


    The type-specimens of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) from Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, and new material from Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken), Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken), Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes), Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes), P. argenteus Perugia and P. maculatus caught in the basins of the La Plata and Paraná Rivers, Argentina, were studied to elucidate its taxonomic status. The type-specimens of Parspina bagre Pearse, 1920 from Pimelodella metae Eigenmann in Lake Valencia, Venezuela, were also studied and new observations on its morphology recorded. The amendation of the generic diagnosis of Parspina Pearse, 1920 is proposed based on the study of both species, which revealed, among other features, the absence of a thin walled-membrane enclosing the male terminal genitalia. Parspina argentinensis is characterised by the following features: absence of a gonotyl; presence of a bipartite seminal vesicle, pars prostatica and ejaculatory duct; caeca of nearly equal length; uterus extending from the level of the ventral sucker to end of body; testes symmetrical to slightly oblique; ovary transversely elongate, compact and variable in shape; and the utilisation of a wide range of freshwater fishes as hosts. The tegumental surface of this species is covered with pectinate spines arranged quincuncially. Spines decrease in size and density from forebody to hindbody. There are two types of sensory papillae, ciliated and dome-shaped. Ciliated papillae are distributed on the surface of the oral region and on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body, whereas dome-shaped papillae are found on the surface of the ventral rim of the oral sucker associated with a ciliated papilla. Gland-duct openings are interspersed with the spines of the oral crown. In addition, the infection indices of P. argentinensis vary widely, not only among different hosts but also between the Paraná and La Plata River basins. Higher prevalences of P. argentinensis

  3. Stomach contents of cetaceans in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia-Polo


    Full Text Available This work describes the diet, through the analysis of stomach contents, of different species of cetaceans in Andalusian waters. Stomachs of 53 specimens, 36 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba, 13 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and 4 Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus stranded in the provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Malaga and Almeria (South Iberian Peninsula were examined. Strandings were attended by members of the official stranding network of Andalusia. Fourteen of the specimens had no food remains in the stomachs: 9 striped dolphins, 2 common dolphins and 1 Risso´s dolphin. Prey remains consisted mostly of hard structures e.g. fish otoliths, bones and eye lenses, cephalopod jaws and eye lenses and crustaceans exoskeletons. These remains were identified using published guides (e.g. Clarke, 1986; Härkonen, 1986; Xavier & Cherel, 2009 and reference material available at the Centro Oceanográfico in Vigo of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO. Diet was characterised for each cetacean species using three standard indices, calculated for each category of prey and for group totals: the frequency of occurrence in the stomachs, the number of individuals and the reconstructed prey weight. These indices were also expressed as percentages to allow comparison between cetacean species and groups (e.g. dolphin sex and area of stranding. The results indicate that striped dolphins feed predominantly on small mesopelagic fish, mainly species of the Myctophidae family, although pearlsides (Maurolicus muelleri were also present. Significant numbers of gobies (Gobiidae were also found in the stomachs. Other prey identified were hake (Merluccius merluccius, silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus, bogue (Boops boops and scads (Trachurus spp.. Because of the degree of erosion of some otoliths they could not be identified to species level. Cephalopods were also found in the stomachs of striped dolphins with specimens of the families Brachioteuthidae

  4. Diet and cross-shelf distribution of rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae) on the northern Great Barrier Reef: implications for ecosystem function (United States)

    Hoey, A. S.; Brandl, S. J.; Bellwood, D. R.


    Herbivorous fishes are a critical functional group on coral reefs, and there is a clear need to understand the role and relative importance of individual species in reef processes. While numerous studies have quantified the roles of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes on coral reefs, the rabbitfishes (f. Siganidae) have been largely overlooked. Consequently, they are typically viewed as a uniform group of grazing or browsing fishes. Here, we quantify the diet and distribution of rabbitfish assemblages on six reefs spanning the continental shelf in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Our results revealed marked variation in the diet and distribution of rabbitfish species. Analysis of stomach contents identified four distinct groups: browsers of leathery brown macroalgae ( Siganus canaliculatus, S. javus), croppers of red and green macroalgae ( S. argenteus, S. corallinus, S. doliatus, S. spinus) and mixed feeders of diverse algal material, cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment ( S. lineatus, S. punctatissimus, S. punctatus, S. vulpinus). Surprisingly, the diet of the fourth group ( S. puellus) contained very little algal material (22.5 %) and was instead dominated by sponges (69.1 %). Together with this variation in diet, the distribution of rabbitfishes displayed clear cross-shelf variation. Biomass was greatest on inner-shelf reefs (112.7 ± 18.2 kg.ha-1), decreasing markedly on mid- (37.8 ± 4.6 kg.ha-1) and outer-shelf reefs (9.7 ± 2.2 kg.ha-1). This pattern was largely driven by the browsing S. canaliculatus that accounted for 50 % of the biomass on inner-shelf reefs, but was absent in mid- and outer-shelf reefs. Mixed feeders, although primarily restricted to the reef slope and back reef habitats, also decreased in abundance and biomass from inshore to offshore, while algal cropping taxa were the dominant group on mid-shelf reefs. These results clearly demonstrate the extent to which diet and distribution vary within the Siganidae and emphasise the importance of

  5. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan. (United States)

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio


    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan.

  6. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayona-Vásquez Natalia Juliana


    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae pertenece a los sciaenidae, ésta familia es ampliamente reconocida por ser un recurso
    pesquero importante a nivel mundial, principalmente de especies marinas o estuarinas. P. magdalenae es una
    especie de importancia económica, dada su frecuencia de captura y comestibilidad de su carne, que se encuentra
    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y

  7. Especies leñosas nativas claves para la restauración ecológica del Embalse de Chisacá, Colombia, con base en rasgos importantes de su historia de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Ramírez Natalia


    Full Text Available Se determinaron cinco especies nativas leñosas, como claves para la restauración de plantaciones de Pinus patula
    y Corredor ripario potrerizado del embalse de Chisacá (localidad de Usme, Bogotá, Colombia 3.000-3.250
    msnm; 4°08’59’’ N; 74°17’62’’ W, con base en Rasgos de de Historia de Vida (RHV y otras características de
    especies presentes en estas áreas. Teniendo en cuenta el objetivo del estudio y las características de las áreas
    degradadas se seleccionaron y analizaron 23 rasgos a cada una de las especies evaluadas en los distintos ambientes. En la zona de pinos se estudiaron 23 especies, 21 en el corredor ripario potrerizado y 20 en el Matorral Bajo. Se estableció un sistema de calificación para las posibles respuestas de cada uno de los rasgos según su incidencia en la restauración ecológica de las áreas a restaurar. Posteriormente, se calificaron los resultados de los rasgos de cada una de las especies y se calculó una calificación final de éstas. Se recomiendan como especies claves para la restauración las cinco especies que obtuvieron mayor calificación final. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se recomiendan como especies claves para la restauración de la zona de pinos las especies Hesperomeles goudotiana (72,41%, Vallea stipularis (67,82%, Symplocos s theiformis (67,82%, Holodiscus argenteus (65,52%, y Myrcianthes leucoxyla (65,52% y para el corredor ripario potrerizado las especies Hesperomeles goudotiana (75,86%, Brugmansia sanguinea (74,71%, Myrcianthes leucoxyla (68,97%, Berberis goudotii (65,48% y Vallea stipularis (64,37%. La selección de especies claves para la restauración con base en RHV parece ser una metodología adecuada, siempre y cuando la selección de rasgos se haga cuidadosamente, teniendo en cuenta
    los objetivos del estudio y que las especies consideradas se estudien en cada ambiente donde se desarrollen. En
    efecto, se observó que los rasgos responden de

  8. 夏、秋季长江口鱼类群落结构%Fish community structure of the Yangtze River Estuary in summer and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新强; 史赟荣; 晁敏; 黄厚见; 唐峰华


    For studying the fish community characteristics influenced by the habitat variation in Yangtze River Estuary, which could be used to determine how to manage its fish resources usefully, fishes from Yangtze River Estuary were collected during summer( the second half month of May to August 2010 )and autumn( September 2010 )every week (every half a month in the first half of August). During the study periods,39 species belonging to 6 fish ecological guilds and 20 families, 12 orders were identified, most of them were marine migrant fishes( 17 species )and estuarine resident species (14 species), and Engraulidae had the highest numbers of fishes (6 species ), then followed by Gobiidae and Sciaenidae (4 species ).Cochran and Friedman test was used to indicate that species composition or numbers of each guild in each month between May and September had no significant difference, respectively. Marine migrant taxa were both the most important guild of abundance or catch in each month, and average abundance or catch per net showed no statistical variations between May and August, but it was higher in September than that from May to August( except average abundance in July). Significant difference occurred in abundance or catch rank in each guild. Percentages of juveniles of 6 importantly commercial species (Big head croaker Collichthys lucidus, Japanese grenadier anchovy Coilia nasus, Osbeck' s grenadier anchovy Coilia mystus, silver pomfret Pampus argenteus,dark pomfret Pampus cinereus,and Bombay duck Harpodon nehereus) were examined to exhibit the variability in rank-distributions, C. lucidus and C. nasus declined, by contrast, C. rnystus increased,P. argenteus occured from May to August, while P. cinereus was observed during August to September. C. nasus spawn in fresh water, but C. rnystus breed in the Estuary, which would reflect the temporal or spatial segregation of species of fishes belonging the same genus and were considered the ecological lysimilar, impling that


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东


    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  10. Functional groups of fish assemblages and their major species in the Bohai Sea%渤海鱼类群落功能群及其主要种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李忠义; 金显仕


    根据2009年8月和10月对渤海渔业资源的底拖网调查,采用胃含物分析、聚类分析和功能群划分的方法研究了渤海鱼类群落的功能群组成及其主要种类.结果表明,渤海夏、秋季鱼类群落包括7个功能群,分别为浮游动物食性功能群、杂食性功能群、底栖动物食性功能群、虾食性功能群、虾/鱼食性功能群、鱼食性功能群和广食性功能群;其中主要功能群为浮游动物食性功能群、杂食性功能群和虾/鱼食性功能群;主要种类有小黄鱼、蓝点马鲛、斑(鱼祭)、赤鼻棱鳀、银鲳和黄鲫.圆筛藻、中华哲水蚤、太平洋磷虾、长额刺糠虾、中国毛虾、甲壳类幼体、日本鼓虾、六丝矛尾(鱼段)虎鱼、小黄鱼、双壳类和腹足类是当前渤海夏、秋季鱼类群落的主要饵料种类.%The Bohai Sea is a semi-enclosed shallow sea and is an important spawning,nursery and feeding ground for many migratory species from the Yellow Sea. Currently, overfishing and environment degradation may have changed the community structure in the Bohai Sea. The decline in the biomass, species composition, and size spectrum indicates a degradation of the Bohai Sea ecosystem. At the same time, the mean trophic level at high trophic level declined faster than global trend. So, it is very necessary to re-understand the feeding relationship in the Bohai Sea. Based on the data collected from bottom trawl surveys conducted in August and October of 2009 in the Bohai Sea,23 kinds of fish species, not including silver pomfret Pampus argenteus, and 7263 stomach samples were analyed. According to stomach analysis, the cluster analysis, of which 60% of similarity level was used as criterion, was used to study the functional groups and their major species of fish assemblages in the Bohai Sea. The results suggested that seven functional groups were divided among fish assemblages in the Bohai Sea,that is zooplantivores

  11. The category composition and abundance distributions of ichthyoplankton along the north-central coast of Zhejiang Province in spring and summer%浙江中北部沿岸春、夏季鱼卵和仔稚鱼种类组成与数量分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永东; 金海卫; 蒋日进; 张洪亮; 张亚洲; 潘国良


    distribution,Yushan fishing ground was the place where fishes spawned first and concentratedly. With the passage of time,the central zone of spawning ground shifted gradually towards the north where was Zhoushan fishing ground. The fish eggs abundance percentage of important commercial fish decreased obviously for example P. croea,P. polyactis,Pampus argenteus which were no longer dominant species as they were in 1960. On the contrary, the percentage of Ilisha elongata, and C. mystus increased while their absolute abundance decreased. The abundance of P. croea,and P. polyactis larvae and all fish eggs was lower than that of 1960,which indicated that the resource recruitment decreased in coastal areas,the possible reason of which was related to the decrease of parent stock resulting from environmental change and over-harvest.%根据2008年4,5,6月在浙江中北部沿岸禁渔区线内45个站位开展的产卵场调查资料,研究分析了该海域鱼卵、仔稚鱼的种类组成和数量分布.结果表明,本海区共出现鱼卵、仔稚鱼64个种类,分别隶属13目36科47属,能鉴定到种的有47种,鉴定到科的有17种.3个航次的调查共采集到鱼卵5846个和仔稚鱼5502个.其中4月最少,仅采集到鱼卵366个和仔稚鱼1445个,分别占鱼卵和仔稚鱼总数量的6.26%、26.26%;5月份共采集到鱼卵1530个和仔稚鱼1551个,分别占鱼卵和仔稚鱼总数量的26.17%、28.19%;6月份数量最多,共采集到鱼卵3 950个和仔稚鱼2 506个,分别占总数的67.57% 、45.55%,4-6月鱼卵、仔稚鱼的数量呈月递增趋势.鱼卵中石首鱼科未定种最多占10.06%,其次黄姑鱼占6.45%,再次为凤鲚占总数的6.06%.凤鲚仔稚鱼数量最多,占总种类数的34.06%,其次为虾虎鱼科仔稚鱼,占24.25%,再次为鲻科鱼类仔稚鱼,占23.57%.调查发现杭州湾是凤鲚的主要产卵场,其仔稚鱼也主要分布在杭州湾内,少量分布在舟山渔场和鱼山渔场.小黄鱼产卵场主要分布在舟山渔场

  12. Community structure of fish resources in spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off Shandong%黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振波; 李凡; 王波; 徐炳庆; 魏振华; 张焕君; 张培超


    Fishery science and management are progressively switching their attention from single species to ecosystems,and increasing the need for research of fish community.Based on the data collected by trawl surveys in May and October of 2006 in the Yellow Sea off Shandong, fish community patterns such as species compositions and spatial pattern were analyzed.In the investigated area,35°00’ -38°00’N,120°30’- 124°00’E,45 sample stations were set up.The survey data were standardized by sweep area and capture coefficient.The capture coefficient was set to 0.55 for pelagic fish and 0.35 for near demersal fish and 0.25 for demersal fish.The index of relative importance ( IRI ) was calculated to determine the importance of the species.Species were defined as dominant species when IRI value is more than 1 000.Important species were defined for those IRI value being grealer than 100 but no more than 1000.The multivariate statistical analyses include cluster analysis, NMDS,SIMPER and BIOENV to analyze the pattern of community compositions.The species,whose cumulative biomass less than 0.01% or frequency less than 5% ,were excluded from multivariate statistical analyses.The abundance biomass comparison( ABC)curves and W-statistic,generated by PRIMER,were used to analyze the communities'disturbed states.The results showed that a total number of 61 species belonging to 57 genera,37 families and 13 orders were collected,50 in springs and 50 in autumns.The dominant species were Pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus) ,Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicas ) and fang' s blenny ( Enedrias fangi ) in spring, and were Japanese anchovy and Japanese sardinella ( Sardinella zunasi)in autumn.The important species were Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus ) in spring, and were yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ), silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) ,Pacific sandeel and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis)in autumn.The fish communities were predominant by little