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Sample records for boars sus scrofa

  1. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

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    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  2. Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.

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    Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine.

  3. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

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    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar (Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  4. Wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa seminiferous tubules morphometry

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    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this data was to analyze morphology and function of the seminiferous tubule in adult wild boars. Testes removed by unilateral castration of five animals were used. The testicular parenchyma was composed by 82.1±2.2% of seminiferous tubule and 17.9±2.2% of intertubular tissue. The tubular diameter was 249.2±33.0 µm and the seminiferous tubule lenght per gram of testis was 19.3±4.9m. The spermatogonial mitoses efficiency coefficient, meiotic index and spermatogenesis efficiency were 10.34, 2.71 and 30.5 respectively. Each Sertoli cell supported about 13 germinatives cells. The hystometric parameters studied were very similar to those related for domestic boars, however, the wild boars intrinsic efficiency of spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells indexes were smaller than in domestic boars.Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar as características morfométricas e funcionais dos túbulos seminíferos de javalis adultos. Utilizaram-se testículos de cinco animais submetidos a orquiectomia unilateral. O parênquima testicular foi composto por 82,1 ± 2,2% de túbulos seminíferos e 17,9 ± 2,2% de tecido intertubular. O diâmetro tubular foi de 249,2 ± 33,0µm e o comprimento dos túbulos seminíferos por grama de testículo foi de 19,3 ± 4,9m. O coeficiente de eficiência das mitoses espermatogônias, o rendimento meiótico e o rendimento geral da espermatogênese foram, respectivamente, 10,34, 2,71 e 30,50. Cada célula de Sértoli suportou cerca de 13 células germinativas. Conclui-se que os parâmetros histométricos estudados nesta pesquisa foram muito semelhantes aos valores relatados para suínos domésticos, entretanto, o rendimento intrínseco da espermatogênese e os índices de células de Sértoli de javalis foram relativamente baixos quando comparados com aqueles animais.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa.

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    Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Xiao-Tian; Yang, En

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,770 bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.63%), G (13.38%), C (26.21%), and T (25.78%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (60.41%) was higher than G + C (39.59%). Similar to other pigs, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would add a new genetic resource and new study on the evolution of the genus Sus.

  6. First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

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    Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibod

  7. In Vitro Study of Caecal and Colon Microbial Fermentation Patterns in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

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    Pecka-Kiełb, Ewa; Bujok, Jolanta; Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bozena; Górecka, Justyna; Zawadzki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) caecal and colon products of microbial activity including short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia and methane concentrations. The in vitro method was applied to caecal and colon contents after 12 and 24-hour incubation with the substrate (wheat bran), or without any additive (control samples). The pH was also measured in each sample. In samples incubated with the substrate, a lower pH was noted as compared to the control (P < 0.001). In terms of the total SCFA concentration, the hindgut microbial fermentation pattern of wild boar was characterized by a high acetate level, followed by propionate and then butyrate at a ratio of 7:1.5:1. Substrate addition decreased acetate molar proportions (P < 0.001) and increased those of butyrate (P < 0.001) as well as propionate (P < 0.05). The total SCFA level in fresh, unincubated caecal samples (128 mmol/kg) was similar to that in the colon (111 mmol/kg). The ammonia concentrations were at the level of 0.8-1.5 mmol/kg of hindgut content and did not differ between the two investigated hindgut parts. Methanogenesis was also similar in the caecum and colon and after 24h was 2.69 mmol/kg and 2.27 for caecal colon control samples, respectively. The substrate increased total gas production and methane concentration (P < 0.001).

  8. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

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    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

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    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%).

  10. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus G3 in a Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Central Italy Using PCR and Sequencing.

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    Di Paolo, Antonella; Piseddu, Toni; Sebastianelli, Martina; Manuali, Elisabetta; Corneli, Sara; Paniccià, Marta; Papa, Paola; Viali, Selina; Mazzone, Piera

    2017-01-24

    We report cystic echinococcosis in a free-living wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Europe. Parasites were identified by histopathology and molecular techniques, revealing Echinococcus granulosus of the G3 genotype.

  11. Cross-Reactivity of Porcine Immunoglobulin A Antibodies with Fecal Immunoglobulins of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) and Other Animal Species.

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    Seo, Sang Won; Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sunyoung; Hyun, Bang Hun; Lyoo, Young S

    2016-06-01

    Fecal samples obtained from wild boar habitats are useful for the surveillance of diseases in wild boar populations; however, it is difficult to determine the species of origin of feces collected in natural habitats. In this study, a fecal IgA ELISA was evaluated as a method for identifying the porcine species from fecal samples. Both domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) showed significantly higher levels of fecal IgA than other animal species. Additionally, age dependent changes in the level of Ig A in wild boars and domestic pigs were identified; Titers of Ig A were highest in suckling period and lowest in weanling period.

  12. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

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    Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.

  13. FATAL CASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS INFECTION IN A YOUNG WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN.

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    Risco, David; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Gonçalves, Pilar; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Rosales, Rubén; Gómez, Luis; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus suis is a recognized pathogen that may cause important diseases in pigs and humans. This microorganism has been repeatedly isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). However, its health implications for this wild species are still unknown. This article reports a detailed description of a fatal case of septicemia by S. suis affecting a young wild boar. The affected animal, about 15 days old, was found near death and exhibiting neurologic signs at a wild boar estate in southwestern Spain. Postmortem examination showed generalized congestion, brain hemorrhages and lobular pneumonia. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated the presence of meningitis and encephalitis with marked congestion and suppurative bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 isolates exhibiting important virulence factors (extracellular factor, muramidase-released protein, and suylisin) were isolated from the affected animal. This study confirms the presence of potentially virulent and zoonotic strains of S. suis in wild boar from Spain.

  14. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

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    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-08

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars.

  15. Serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

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    Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.

  16. Differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR analysis targeting the mitochondrial D-loop and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) genes.

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    Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, Marı A; Hernández, Pablo E; Garcı A, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-03-01

    This work describes the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR targeting sequences from two molecular markers: the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. A polymorphic D-loop fragment (∼270bp) was amplified and sequenced in a number of wild and domestic Sus scrofa meat samples, to find a nucleotide region suitable for PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence data showed the presence of only a few point mutations across Sus scrofa D-loop sequences, not allowing direct discrimination between wild boar and domestic swine meats. Later, the MC1R gene was targeted and Sus scrofa-specific primers designed to amplify a 795bp MC1R fragment. Subsequent RFLP analysis of the MC1R swine-specific amplicons allowed selection of BspHI and BstUI endonucleases to carry out intraspecific Sus scrofa differentiation. Digestion of MC1R amplicons with the chosen enzymes generated characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles that allowed discrimination among meats from wild and domestic swine specimens. The technique also enabled the detection of samples that yielded heterozygous profiles, suggesting hybrids resulting from wild boar and domestic pig breeding. The PCR-RFLP reported here, targeting the MC1R gene may be routinely applied to verify the correct labelling of game products.

  17. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Costa Vânia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999, low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9 and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.

  18. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

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    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  19. Spatiotemporal and Ecological Patterns of Mycobacterium microti Infection in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

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    Chiari, M; Ferrari, N; Giardiello, D; Avisani, D; Pacciarini, M L; Alborali, L; Zanoni, M; Boniotti, M B

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium microti has recently been described as the causative agent of tuberculosis-like lesions in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a reservoir specie of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in some European Mediterranean ecosystem. Through a five-year survey on tuberculosis in free-living wild boars, the epidemiological trend of M. microti infections and the host and population risk factors linked with its occurrence were described. Retropharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes of 3041 hunted wild boars from six different districts were macroscopically inspected. The sex and age of each animal were registered, as well as the animal abundance in each district. Lesions compatible with tuberculosis (190) were collected and analysed using a gyrB PCR-RFLP assay. M. microti was identified directly in 99 tissue samples (Prev = 3.26%; 95% CI: 2.67-3.97%), while neither Mycobacterium bovis, nor other members of the MTBC were detected. The probability of being M. microti positive showed spatio-temporal variability, with 26% of increase of risk of being infected for each year. Moreover, a positive effect of wild boar abundance and age on the prevalence was detected. The generalized increase in the European wild boar population, coupled with its sensitivity to M. microti infection, poses a future concern for the identification and management of MTBC members in wild boar.

  20. On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

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    Gayet, Thibault; Devillard, Sébastien; Gamelon, Marlène; Brandt, Serge; Say, Ludovic; Baubet, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity.

  1. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

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    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    presented reduced growth rate, anorexia, lethargy, cough and dyspnea, especially after they were moved. High body temperature (40ºC in average was verified in some animals. Auscultation revealed moderate pulmonary crepitation and stertors. Pulmonary gross lesions were typical of lobular bronchopneumonia. Lung lesions were characterized by ventral-cranial consolidation in the majority of the cases. The color of affected pulmonary areas varied from diffuse dark red to mosaic pattern (dark red lobule intercalate by grayish lobule or diffusely grayish. The majority of the lungs had mucopurulent exsudate in the bronchial lumen that also drained from the parenchyma cut surface. Upon microscopy, the changes were characterized by purulent and histiocytic bronchopneumonia with necrotic foci. In some animals, there was BALT hyperplasia associated with perivascular and peribronchial plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration in most of these cases. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Immunohistochemistry evaluation demonstrated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and the DNA of bacteria was detected by PCR. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boars associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  2. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  3. 'Post-mortem examination of the reproductive organs of female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden'.

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    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-13

    In recent decades, wild boars (Sus scrofa) have increased in numbers and distribution in Europe. Compared to other wild ungulates of similar body size, wild boars have a high reproductive capacity. To increase the knowledge of wild boar reproduction, the objective of this study was to investigate characteristics of reproductive organs, and to provide information on the occurrence of abnormalities in reproductive organs from free-ranging female wild boars. Between December 2011 and December 2015, reproductive organs from female wild boars (>30 kg body weight), were collected during hunting in four Swedish counties at estates where supplementary feeding was applied. The organs were macroscopically examined and measured. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to the ovarian structures and in relation to uterus characteristics. Observed abnormalities were noted. The results from 569 animals that met the requirements to be included in this study showed significant differences in weight and length of the uterus between the various reproductive stages. Sampling region had significant effect on these differences. Abnormalities in the reproductive organs were present in approximately 10% of the examined animals. The prevalence of abnormalities increased significantly with age and was significantly affected by sampling region.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southeastern France.

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    Roqueplo, Cedric; Blaga, Radu; Jean-Lou, Marie; Vallee, Isabelle; Davoust, Bernard

    2017-01-25

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. Since meat of wild boar, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus), has been demonstrated to be a potential source of human infection, a careful evaluation of the prevalence of infection with T. gondii in hunted animals is needed to protect public health. In the Var area in southeastern France, we performed a spatio-temporal survey in order to investigate the prevalence of IgG antibodies in wild boars shot by hunters in the Canjuers military camp during two subsequent hunting seasons. Of 841 wild boars screened, antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, cut-off 1 : 6) were found in 141 (16.8%) muscle extract samples. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between positivity and age, but not gender, and hunting districts. The results obtained indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars carries an important risk of infection with T. gondii. Wild boars may be considered as a bioindicator of parasite circulation in this ecosystem.

  5. Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.

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    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars.

  6. Lead and cadmium in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Rocío; Cano-Manuel, Javier; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Pérez, Jesús M; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón; Fandos, Paulino; Granados, José E; Romero, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate Pb and Cd levels in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS) (southern Spain). Heavy metal concentrations in livers, kidneys and bones from 111 animals were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Bones and kidneys were the most Pb- and Cd-contaminated tissues, respectively; Cd concentrations were 5.6 times higher in kidneys than in livers. This is the first biomonitoring study of these pollutants in wild boar tissues in the SNNS, and findings indicate that this population is chronically exposed to these heavy metals. The detected Pb and Cd concentrations were lower than those found in many studies performed in Europe on the same species.

  7. Occurrences of ochratoxin A in slaughtered wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Giancarlo Bozzo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are considered powerful nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens in rats and likely in humans. In 2011, during a programme aimed to survey the presence of ochratoxin A in 35 regularly slaughtered wild boars in Calabria region (Southern Italy, ochratoxin A (OTA was detected in 35 kidneys, 33 urinary bladders, 33 livers and 32 muscles of 35 animals at the following levels: 1.05 ppb (0.1-3.9 ppb, 0.5 ppb [not detected (ND-2.6 ppb], 0.4 ppb (ND- 2 ppb, 0.2 ppb (ND-0.5 ppb, respectively. A total of 12 samples of kidney, 4 samples of liver, and 4 samples of urinary bladder showed levels of OTA higher than the level (1 ppb established by the guidelines of the Italian Ministry of Health circular No. 10.

  8. Evaluation of different soil parameters and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] grassland damage

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    Žiga Laznik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the correlations between different soil parameters [presence of grubs, earthworms, pH, content of P2O5, K2O and organic matter (OM in soil] and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] damage to grasslands. The soil samples and damage assessments were performed at six locations in the Kočevje region, which is a densely wooded part of South East Slovenia. A significant positive correlation was discovered between the extent of damage due to wild boar rooting in grasslands and the number of grubs (r=0.73, the weight of grubs (r=0.69 and the content of P2O5 (r=0.87 in the soil. The quantity and weight of grubs in soil were significantly influenced by soil pH, the content of CaCl2 (r=0.71/0.72, P2O5 (r=0.90/0.91, and OM (r=0.74/0.77; while the quantity and weight of earthworms in soil were influenced by the content of K2O (r=0.81/-0.84. A moderate yet insignificant correlation (r=0.48/0.56 was discovered between the number and weight of earthworms in soil and the extent of grassland damage. Grubs represent a more important source of protein for wild boars than earthworms; consequently, reducing the quantity of grubs in soil could minimise the extent of damage caused by boars.

  9. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy.

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    Mazzei, M; Nardini, R; Verin, R; Forzan, M; Poli, A; Tolari, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011-2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar-derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection.

  10. Genetic characterization and phylogeography of the wild boar Sus scrofa introduced into Uruguay

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    Graciela García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European wild boar Sus scrofa was first introduced into Uruguay, in southern South America during the early decades of the last century. Subsequently, and starting from founder populations, its range spread throughout the country and into the neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Due to the subsequent negative impact, it was officially declared a national pest. The main aim in the present study was to provide a more comprehensive scenario of wild boar differentiation in Uruguay, by using mtDNA markers to access the genetic characterization of populations at present undergoing rapid expansion. A high level of haplotype diversity, intermediate levels of nucleotide diversity and considerable population differentiation, were detected among sampled localities throughout major watercourses and catchment dams countrywide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two different phylogroups, thereby reflecting two deliberate introduction events forming distantly genetic lineages in local wild boar populations. Our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the invasive potential of populations emerge from introgressive hybridization with domestic pigs. On taking into account the appreciable differentiation and reduced migration between locales in wild boar populations, management strategies could be effective if each population were to be considered as a single management unit.

  11. Morphometrical Analysis of Reproduction Traits for the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa L. in Croatia

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    Nikica Šprem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa L. is native game in Croatia, whose population have tendency of increasing as well throughout the Europe. The wild boar is a natural inhabitant of Europe, Asia, and North Africa and is phylogenetically the ancestor of the domestic pig. Because of its phylogenetic and economic importance, this species is an interesting model for studying testis function. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the testis morphometry, and gonadosomatic index (GSI for 77 individuals. The mean live body weight was 75.03 kg, testis weight was 0.355 kg and with a gonadosomatic index (GSI of approximately 0.40%. The mean circumference for the left and right testes were not significant, but a significant and positive correlation was observed between testis weight and body weight (r = 0.88, p<0.05. A high reproductive contribution of juveniles is a likely consequence of a high hunting pressure rather than a species specific life history pattern characterizing wild boar. Generally, beside female seasonal reproductive activity knowledge of male reproduction cycle in wild boar is very important for established better management of free-ranging population.

  12. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

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    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  13. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

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    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  14. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-04-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea.

  15. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

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    Alina Narcisa Postolache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan.

  17. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

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    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  18. Current distribution and population status of wild boar (Sus scrofa L. in Greece

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    TSACHALIDIS, Efstathios P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first attempt to estimate wild boar (Sus scrofa L. population density anddistribution in Greece. The study took place in 2004, in all 38 Greek counties of the mainland, as wellas in the larger forested Greek islands: Crete, Rodos, Samos, Lesvos, Limnos, Thasos, Corfu,Kefalonia and Zakinthos. It was observed that the species was present in every county in continentalGreece, with the exception of the two counties Attica and Evia. Attica, which includes the capital cityof Athens, is densely inhabited not allowing much space for wildlife. Evian is an island connected tothe mainland with a bridge. Wild boar can be found in an area around 19,495 km2, which is about 14%of the country. The mean distribution altitude reaches 686 ± 266 m. The average population numberwas estimated at 19,033 (0.98 ± 0, 21 ind/km2 individuals with maximum population level 23,030animals, and a minimum of 16,536. The highest mean density was observed in the prefecture of StereaHellas (1.26 ind/km2 and the lowest in the prefecture of Thrace (0.89 ind/km2. The maximum densitywas found in Sterea Hellas (3.14 ind/km2 and the minimum density in Thrace (0.13 ind/km2. Theabove results are expected to provide valuable information for the management of wild boar in Greece.

  19. Multiple Origins and Admixture of Recently Expanding Japanese Wild Boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) Populations in Toyama Prefecture of Japan.

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    Yamazaki, Yuji; Adachi, Fuminari; Sawamura, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) populations have expanded drastically throughout the Japanese Archipelago in recent decades. To elucidate the dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar in Toyama Prefecture in central Japan, we used a multi-locus microsatellite DNA analysis to determine its population structure and the degree of admixture. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in either total or separate regional wild boar samples from Toyama Prefecture. This result could be explained by the Wahlund effect resulting from the mixture of samples from different sources. Bayesian structure analysis, assignment test, and factorial correspondence analysis suggested that wild boars around Toyama Prefecture derive from at least two ancestral sources. The migration and possible mating of each individual may have occurred recently and continued in each geographically neighboring region. The present genetic results may be useful for prediction of future dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar, as well as other animals in expansion.

  20. Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus.

  1. Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofa in Moncayo Nature Park, Spain

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    Rodrigues, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofaz was examined during a three-year period in Moncayo Nature Park, a protected mountain area in the Iberian mountain system, Spain. Tracking indirect signs of activity was used to collect data on the species occurrence, according to vegetation type, topography, hunting activity, and season. The data were analysed using binary logistic regression. Habitat used by wild boar differed according seasons, management practices, and vegetation. Main selected habitats were at medium elevations (1,101-1,600 m in areas dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex, beech (Fagus sylvatica and oak woods of Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pyrenaica. Non-hunting areas were selected over hunting areas. We found a seasonal variation in the habitat use of wild boar, with areas dominated by holm oak being used disproportionately in spring, and areas at medium elevations selected only during summer. The results also support the view that non-hunting areas provide a refuge for this species inside the protected area.Estudiamos el uso del hábitat por parte del jabalí Sus scrofa a lo largo de tres años en el Parque Natural del Moncayo, un área protegida de montaña en el Sistema Ibérico, España. Para ello rastreamos las huellas y señales de su actividad en función de la vegetación, topografía, actividad cinegética y estacionalidad. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando regresiones logísticas binarias. El hábitat usado por el jabalí difiere según las estaciones, gestión y vegetación. Los hábitat mayoritariamente seleccionados fueron las altitudes medias (1101-1600 m en áreas dominadas por la encina (Quercus ilex, haya (Fagus sylvatica y robles (Q. robur, Q. petraea y Q. pirenaica. Las zonas no cinegéticas fueron seleccionadas frente a las cinegéticas. Encontramos diferencias estacionales en el uso del hábitat, con un uso mayor al esperado de los encinares en primavera así como de altitudes medias durante el verano. Los

  2. Occurrence and first molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Romania: Public health significance of the isolates.

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    Imre, Kálmán; Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Imre, Mirela; Ciontu, Cătălin; Chisăliță, Ion; Dudu, Andreea; Matei, Marius; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-03-01

    Domestic and wild pigs, as intermediate hosts, can harbor tissue cysts of three Sarcocystis species namely S. miescheriana, S. suihominis and S. porcifelis. Out of them, S. suihominis is zoonotic. Romania is a country with high consumption of raw and/or undercooked traditional pork products. This fact may greatly favor the acquiring of the zoonotic Sarcocystis infections by humans, as definitive host. Based on this consideration and in order to investigate the occurrence and public health significance of Sarcocystis spp. in two western counties (Caraş-Severin and Timiş) of Romania, a total of 165 heart samples from hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa, n=101) and home slaughtered domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, n=64) were screened using microscopic fresh examination and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 60.4% of wild boars, and 23.4% of domestic pigs. Genetic characterization of isolates through the PCR-RFLP procedure, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, was successfully achieved for all microscopically positive samples, indicating the presence of a single species, S. miescheriana, in both hosts. The identity of 13 selected S. miescheriana isolates was also confirmed through sequencing. The tested hosts older than 27 months were found to be significantly higher infected (p<0.05) with Sarcocystis than the 6 to ≤27months age group. Although the human infective S. suihominis has not been registered, for a more reliable epidemiological picture, further molecular studies enrolling a larger number of animals and diagnosis on human intestinal Sarcocystis infections are still necessary.

  3. Spargana in a weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a wild boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk; Seo, Min

    2013-06-01

    To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana.

  4. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  5. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

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    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible.

  6. THE CHALLENGE OF DETECTING CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS CIRCULATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA): SIMULATION OF SAMPLING OPTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus) and wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). For at least 4 decades, several European Union member states were confronted with outbreaks among wild boar and, as it had been shown that infected wild boar populations can be a major cause of primary outbreaks in domestic pigs, strict control measures for both species were implemented. To guarantee early detection and to demonstrate freedom from disease, intensive surveillance is carried out based on a hunting bag sample. In this context, virologic investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted a simulation to model the possible impact of changes in sample size and sampling intervals on the probability of CSF virus detection based on a study area of 65 German hunting grounds. A 5-yr period with 4,652 virologic investigations was considered. Results suggest that low prevalences could not be detected with a justifiable effort. The simulation of increased sample sizes per sampling interval showed only a slightly better performance but would be unrealistic in practice, especially outside the main hunting season. Further studies on other approaches such as targeted or risk-based sampling for virus detection in connection with (marker) antibody surveillance are needed.

  7. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  8. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

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    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-07

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.

  9. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

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    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

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    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D.

  11. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

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    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree.

  12. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic).

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    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-03-23

    A total of 193 faecal samples of adult Eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the Czech Republic and examined for Cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Thirty-two positive cases of Cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested PCR. Mono-infection with Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were found in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Five mixed infections of C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were detected using PCR/RFLP with genus specific primers. The number of detected mixed infections increased 2.4 fold when a species-specific PCR was employed. No other Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. Unlike cryptosporidiosis of domestic pigs, C. suis was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars. There was no association between diarrhoea and the presence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Eurasian wild boars studied. This is the first report on the Cryptosporidium infection caused by C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

  13. Heavy metals in wild boar (Sus scrofa and related lesions

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    A. Zaccaroni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are toxic elements naturally present in the environment which can be bioconcentrated by plants and animals and incorporated into food cycles. Thus the use of wildlife species as monitors is a useful tool to assess environmental pollution. Because of its ethological characteristics, wild boar is highly probable to be exposed to pollution, mainly by heavy metals. These pollutants, when present at high enough concentrations, can induce histological lesion in various tissues. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the levels of five metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in wild boar, Sus scrofa, originating from an Apennine area of Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy, and to evaluate any possible correlation with histological lesions eventually observed. Samples of several organs (liver, heart, kidney, diaphragm, abductor muscle, masseter, eye, testis, brain, lung and spleen were collected from hunted animals during winter 2001. Levels of metals were determined on freeze dried tissues employing microwave wet digestion. Toxicological analysis were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and data expressed on a dry weight basis. Histopatological analyses were performed on fixed samples of the same tissue. Highest mean values were found in kidney for cadmium and copper (7 ± 1 ppm and 30 ± 2.6 ppm respectively and in liver for copper (21.16 ± 3.28 ppm, lead (2139 ± 680.6 ppb, iron (415.92 ± 24.41 ppm and zinc (94.76 ± 6.11 ppm. In all other tissues, mean concentrations of each metal were at low levels, and were comparable one another. A statistical difference was found for iron (p<0.05, copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 in kidney, in testis (p<0.01 for zinc and in liver for copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 as function of age cohorts. When sex was considered, a statistical difference was found for iron in eye, for copper in heart and for cadmium in heart and kidney. Histopatological analysis allowed

  14. Development of a microsatellite-based method for the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) from domestic pig breeds (Sus scrofa domestica) in food.

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    Conyers, Christine M; Allnutt, Theodore R; Hird, Heather J; Kaye, Joy; Chisholm, James

    2012-04-04

    Twenty microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) were used to discriminate wild boar from domestic pig and to identify mixtures of the two. Reference groups of wild boar and pig samples were collected from the UK and Europe for genetic assignment tests. Bayesian Analysis of Populations software (BAPs) gave 100% correct assignment for blind wild boar and pig samples and correctly identified mixed samples. DNA was extracted from 12 commercial food samples (11 labeled as containing wild boar) including patés, salamis, and sausage, and good SSR profiles were obtained. Eleven samples were correctly assigned as pig, and two as mixed meats. One sample sold as wild boar meat was clearly assigned as pig. A further 10 blind samples of meat cuts were analyzed, eight wild boar and two pig, and all were correctly assigned.

  15. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea.

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    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

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    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2014-02-01

    From 2011 to 2012, the occurrence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was surveyed at 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across four Central European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. Isolates were genotyped by PCR amplification and characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using Enterocytozoon and Encephalitozoon-specific protocols. PCR revealed 16 mono-infections of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 33 mono-infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and 5 concurrent infections of both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Enterocytozoon bieneusi out of 460 faecal samples. Two genotypes (I and II) were revealed by sequence analysis of the ITS region of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Eleven genotypes, five previously found in other hosts including domestic pigs (D, EbpA, EbpC, G and Henan-I) and six novel (WildBoar1-6), were identified in Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No other microsporidia infection was found in the examined faecal samples. Prevalence of microsporidia at the locality level ranged from 0 to 58.8 %; the prevalence was less than 25 % at more than 86 % of localities. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected as a predominant species infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). The present report is the most comprehensive survey of microsporidia infections in wild boars within the Czech Republic and selected Central European countries.

  17. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Southern Spain: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic concerns.

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    García-Jiménez, W L; Benítez-Medina, J M; Martínez, R; Carranza, J; Cerrato, R; García-Sánchez, A; Risco, D; Moreno, J C; Sequeda, M; Gómez, L; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2015-02-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in wet soil, marshland, rivers or streams, but also are causative agents of a wide variety of infections in animals and humans. Little information is available regarding the NTM prevalence in wildlife and their effects or significance in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemiology and diagnosis. This research shows the most frequently NTM isolated in lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from southern Spain, relating the NTM presence with the individual characteristics, the management of animals and the possible misdiagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in concurrent infections. A total of 219 NTM isolates were obtained from 1249 wild boar mandibular lymph nodes sampled between 2007 and 2011. All but 75 isolates were identified by the PCR-restriction analysis-hsp65, and a partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA was carried out to identify the rest of the isolates. Results showed that Mycobacterium chelonae was the most frequently isolated NTM specie (133 isolates, 60.7%), followed by Mycobacterium avium (24 isolates, 11%). No relation was found regarding sex, body condition and management, but M. chelonae was more frequently detected in adults, whereas M. avium was more prevalent in subadults. The high NTM prevalence observed in the studied wild boar populations could make difficult the bTB diagnostic.

  18. Mesenteric lymph node granulomatous lesions in naturally infected wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Portugal--Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular aspects.

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    Matos, A C; Andrade, S; Figueira, L; Matos, M; Pires, M A; Coelho, A C; Pinto, M L

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that wildlife reservoirs of mycobacteria are responsible for the maintenance and spreading of the infection to livestock and wildlife counterparts. Recent data report the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic inflammatory response in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild boar with granulomatous lymphadenitis (n=30). Morphological parameters of the lesions were recorded. The expression of CD3 and CD79α molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Molecular genotyping and culture to identify mycobacteria were performed. The lesions consisted mainly of stage III and stage IV granulomas. CD3 and CD79α positive cells were observed in 15 (50%) and in 11 (36.6%) MLN, respectively. In these lesions, higher percentages of T lymphocytes were found and a limited number of animals exhibited a tendency for an increased percentage of B lymphocytes. Our results suggest that there are similar percentages and distribution patterns of CD3 and CD79α in the lesions, regardless of the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), M. bovis or Map-M. bovis co-infection, and confirm that wild boar is both susceptible and could be an important Map and M. bovis wild reservoir in the study area.

  19. Molecular survey of porcine teschovirus, porcine sapelovirus, and enterovirus G in captive wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa of Paraná state, Brazil

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    Daiane G. Donin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPorcine teschovirus (PTV, porcine sapelovirus (PSV, and enterovirus G (EV-G are infectious agents specific to pig host species that are endemically spread worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the natural infection by these porcine enteric picornaviruses in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa of Paraná state, Brazil, and to evaluate peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari as alternative host species for these viruses. Fecal samples (n=36 from asymptomatic wild boars (n=22 with ages ranging from 2 to 7 months old (young, n=14 and 2 to 4 years old (adult, n=8 and from peccaries (6 to 8 months old, n=14 were collected from a farm and a zoo, respectively, both located in Paraná state. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested-PCR (n-PCR assays targeting the 5'non-translated region of the virus genome were used for screening the viruses. Porcine enteric picornaviruses were detected in 12 out of the 22 wild boar fecal samples. According to each of the viruses, EV-G was most frequently (11/22, 50% detected, followed by PTV (10/22, 45.5% and PSV (4/22, 18.2%. Regarding the age groups, young wild boars were more frequently (9/14, 64.3% infected with PTV, PSV, and EV-G than adult animals (3/8, 37.4%. One n-PCR amplified product for each of the viruses was submitted to sequencing analysis and the nucleotide sequences were compared with the related viruses, which showed similarities varying from 97.7% to 100% for PTV, 92.4% to 96.2% for PSV, and 87.1% to 100% for EV-G. Peccaries tested negative for the viruses and in this study they did not represent infection reservoirs. This study is the first to report the molecular detection of PTV, PSV, and EV-G from captive wild boars in a South American country and the first to screen peccaries as alternative host species for porcine enteric picornavirus.

  20. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  1. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

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    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  2. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

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    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  3. Viral and Antibody Prevalence of Hepatitis E in European Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Hunters at Zoonotic Risk in the Latium Region.

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    Montagnaro, S; De Martinis, C; Sasso, S; Ciarcia, R; Damiano, S; Auletta, L; Iovane, V; Zottola, T; Pagnini, U

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a member of the genus Hepevirus within the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa) are known reservoirs of HEV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HEV in wild boars and hunters exposed to infection in central Italy (Latium region). During the hunting season, blood samples were collected from 228 wild boars and 20 hunters. The seroprevalence of HEV infection was determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, previously validated for use in man, pigs and wild boars. The estimated HEV seroprevalence in wild boars and in hunters was 40.7% (93/228; 95% confidence interval [CI] 34.4-47.1%) and 25% (5/20; 95% CI 6.1-43.9%), respectively. Liver samples were collected from the boars and HEV RNA was detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-five of 164 tested wild boar liver samples (33.5%; 95% CI 26.2-40.7%) and three of 20 (15.0%; 95% CI 1.3-28.7%) tested human serum samples were positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences obtained from PCR products indicated that the HEV strains present in wild boars and the human population all belonged to genotype 3, supporting the zoonotic role of wild boars in the spread of HEV infection.

  4. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

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    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  5. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

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    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar.

  6. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Trichinella species infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations of central Spain: a long-term study.

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    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Pozio, E; Montoro, V; Vicente, J; Gortazar, C; Acevedo, P

    2012-07-01

    In south-central Spain, the harvest of Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) has increased significantly during recent decades in association with more intensive management actions to increase hunting yields and with consequent effects on the health status of the wild boar populations. We investigated the spatio-temporal trends and the risk factors related to the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boar in order to obtain the annual probability of occurrence for these parasites in the Ciudad Real province of south-central Spain. Based on muscle samples collected during the hunting seasons from 1998/1999 to 2009/2010, the mean prevalence for Trichinella spp. in 95,070 wild boar was 0.2% (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.23). A subsample of 1,432 wild boar was also tested by ELISA. No correlation was observed between the prevalence of infection detected by serology and by the artificial digestion of muscle. The presence of Trichinella infections in wild boar showed a decreasing trend during the study period and was negatively related with fenced wild boar populations. The predicted 'favourability' for Trichinella infections disappeared almost completely after the 2006/2007 hunting season. Risk maps based on biogeographical tools showed, however, that most hunting estates presented favourable risk factors for these parasites during at least one of the hunting seasons studied.

  7. Evidence of low prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

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    Witkowski, Lucjan; Orłowska, Blanka; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Anusz, Krzysztof; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-25

    Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi are generally regarded as the main causes of lymphadenitis in pigs and wild boars. In Poland, mycobacterial submandibular lymphadenitis was first diagnosed in a wild boar in 2012 but Mycobacterium spp. infections are also present in the Polish population of European bison (Bison bonasus). The prevalence of lymphadenitis in Polish wild boars has been found to 8.4% (95% CI 6.2-11.3%) and it has been proved that R. equi is not an important cause of purulent lesions in these animals. The current study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in the Polish wild boar population. Submandibular lymph nodes with purulent lesions collected from 38 wild boars in 2010/2011 and negative for R. equi were included. Calculations based on the hypergeometric approximation were used to determine the probability that at least one positive individual would be detected if the infection had been present at a prevalence greater than or equal to the design prevalence. All 38 samples were negative for Mycobacterium spp. [0% (95% CI 0, 9.2%)]. Epidemiological analysis showed that the true prevalence was 95% likely to be lower than 10%. In conclusion, mycobacterial lymphadenitis seems to occur rarely in wild boars in Poland. Due to the presence of Mycobacterium spp. infections in other wildlife, the surveillance of mycobacterial infections in wild animals in Poland remains an important issue.

  8. Long-Term Surveillance of Aujeszky's Disease in the Alpine Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Mario; Ferrari, Nicola; Bertoletti, Marco; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Alborali, Loris G; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Lelli, Davide; Martin, Ana Moreno; Antonio, Lavazza

    2015-12-01

    Although wild boar can act as a persistent Aujeszky's disease (AD) reservoir, limited data are available on long-term epidemiology in free-ranging wild boar living in areas where industrial swine herds are limited. Hence, this study provides crucial information, which fills this knowledge gap, on the natural dynamics of AD infection. From 3260 sera sampled during eight hunting seasons, 162 (4.97%) were tested positive. Factors, including the animal's age class, and the sampling year, had significant effects on the probability of the wild boar being seropositive, while wild boar mean abundance per area, yearly abundance and the total number of pig farms, as well as interactions among age, year and sex, were not significant. In particular, a positive trend of seroprevalence was observed over the years, with values ranging from 2.1 to 10.8%. This long-term surveillance showed an increase in seroprevalence with a higher probability of being seropositive in older individuals and the independence of wild boar seropositivity from the likelihood of contact with pigs in the area.

  9. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) as bioindicators of environmental levels of selenium in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, E; Pilarczyk, B; Pilarczyk, R; Tomza-Marciniak, A; Bąkowska, M; Marciniak, A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine selenium content in selected organs (liver, kidney) of wild boars from different regions of Poland. Materials for the study were obtained from 28 sites located in 16 provinces of Poland. Selenium concentrations in organs were determined using spectrofluorometric methods after wet mineralization in HNO3 and HClO4 mixture. Mean selenium concentrations in the investigated wild boars from Poland were 0.230 μg/g wet weight in the liver and 1.327 μg/g w.w. in the kidneys. Hepatic and nephric Se concentrations ranged from 0.036-0.626 μg/g w.w. and 0.322-4.286 μg/g w.w., respectively. Selenium concentrations in the wild boars differed considerably according to geographical location. Concentrations of selenium were highest in wild boars from south-eastern provinces and lowest in animals from northern provinces. Most of Poland's area is environmentally deficient in this trace element, as evidenced by marginal selenium levels in the organs of the wild boars.

  10. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

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    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  11. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals.

  12. Genetic Structure of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa L. Population in Portugal

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    Fonseca, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the assessment of the genetic structure and level of variability in the Portuguese wild boar population. A total of 65 wild boar blood samples were collected all over the continental territory, during 2002/03 and 2003/04 hunting seasons. A set of six microsatellite markers, developed for domestic pig, was used. Loci SW986 and SW828 presented a small number of alleles for the Portuguese population, whereas other l o c i, like SW1701 and SW1517, presented a high degree of polymorphism. From the six analysed l o c i, four presented significant deviation from Hardy-We i n b e rg equilibrium conditions, suggesting the existence of genetic structure in the population. Samples were divided into North, Centre and South groups according to the position of wild boar capture location in relation to rivers Douro and Tejo. All the FST estimates were statistically significant and the highest FST value was 0.08 (P<0.001, referring to the distance between Northern and Central groups. FCA analysis was also performed. The resulting bi-dimensional diagram suggests structuring of the Portuguese wild boar population.

  13. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed.

  14. Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case after wild-boar (Sus scrofa pork consumption in northern Italy

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    Romano F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar (Sus scrofa hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti-Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters.

  15. The establishment and distribution of feral wild boar (Sus scrofa in England

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    C. Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, geographic isolation has protected Britain from the widespread increases in wild boar populations seen elsewhere in Europe, but following the development of wild boar farming in the 1980s a number of escapes and releases have occurred, resulting in the re-establishment of the species in the wild in England. The present study monitored the establishment and presence of wild boar in England by collating reports of escapes or releases and ground-truthing evidence of animals in the wild. This data is used to give an up-to-date indication of the distribution of the species in England. In the twenty years from 1989/90 to 2008/9 an average of one to two escape/release incidents occurred each year, with individual incidents involving from one to more than 50 individuals. These have resulted in the establishment of at least four distinct populations, the largest of which probably has a pre-breeding population in excess of 200 animals. None of the escapes or releases involving five or fewer individuals is believed to have led to establishment of a population. Based on the availability of woodland, there is potential for a total population in England of around 30,000 – 40,000 animals. However, future development of local populations is likely to be constrained over much of the country because of low woodland cover and culling pressure, and it is likely to take many years for a population of this size to develop, if at all.

  16. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa: Chemical and Histological Analysis

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    Elvira De Giglio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.

  17. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): chemical and histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-12-04

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.

  18. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk.

  19. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in European wild boar (Sus scrofa); Latium Region - Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment.

  1. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  2. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacolina, L; Brajković, V; Canu, A; Šprem, N; Cubric-Curik, V; Fontanesi, L; Saarma, U; Apollonio, M; Scandura, M

    2016-12-01

    Y-chromosome markers are important tools for studying male-specific gene flow within and between populations, hybridization patterns and kinship. However, their use in non-human mammals is often hampered by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We identified new male-specific short tandem repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5-10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD  = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD  = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST  = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across Europe, with a number of local private haplotypes and high diversity in northern populations. The described Y-chromosome markers can be useful to track male inheritance and gene flow in wild and domestic populations, promising to provide insights into evolutionary and population genetics in Sus scrofa.

  3. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

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    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism impairing lipopolysaccharide signaling in Sus scrofa, and its restricted distribution among Japanese wild boar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Hiroki; Okumura, Naohiko; Suzuki, Rintaro; Muneta, Yoshihiro; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2012-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responds to lipid A, the active moiety of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria, in cooperation with myeloid differentiation protein-2 and plays a vital role in innate immunity. Polymorphisms in TLR4 are associated with changes in susceptibility to various infectious diseases. We previously found seven amino acid polymorphisms in Sus scrofa TLR4. In this study, we showed by luciferase reporter assay that an alteration from cysteine to tryptophan at position 506 (C506W) caused loss of ability to induce nuclear factor-κB activation after lipid A stimulation. This polymorphism was found only in Japanese wild boar (JWB) populations of S. scrofa. Genotyping of TLR4 in different JWB populations revealed that C506W polymorphism was under pressure from purifying selection in a local population (Tajima's D=-0.98; p<0.05). However, in another population, this polymorphism existed at a frequency such that homozygous animals with the W506 alleles seldom appeared. These findings suggest that the C506W polymorphism is under different types of pressure by natural selection between populations, which may reflect differences in residential pathogens or demographic factors.

  5. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  6. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  8. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Khabisi, Samaneh Abdolahi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first molecular and serological evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus infections in wild boars in Iran. Twenty five wild boars were collected in south-western Iran, during authorized hunting program, from March to October 2013, necropsied and examined for E. granulosus infection. Furthermore, seroprevalence of cystic echinococcosis in hunted boars was evaluated by an ELISA system. A fertile hydatid cyst due to E. granulosus was detected in the lung of one of the animals. Genotype analysis of the isolate was determined by analyzing a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (co1). DNA was extracted from the cyst sample and polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the specific region of the co1 gene was performed. Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a sheep strain, the G1 genotype, in the wild boar in south-western Iran. This is the first report of the presence of G1 genotype of E. granulosus in wild boar in Iran. Serological evaluation of hydatid cyst by antigen-B ELISA revealed E. granulosus antibodies in 5 (20%) of 25 wild boars. A statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of E. granulosus antibodies and gender while the difference between the seroprevalence of E. granulosus and age was insignificant. Findings of this study might have important implications for the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis.

  9. Accumulation and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of (137)Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone - 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone - 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of (137)Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The (137)Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg - animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3-10.6 kBq/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of (137)Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of (90)Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that (90)Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of (90)Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained (90)Sr - 30.0-110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0-30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone.

  10. The effect of selected environmental Fusarium mycotoxins on the ovaries in the female wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcka, M; Żmudzki, J; Gajęcki, M

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of agricultural crops with Fusarium mycotoxins poses one of the greatest problems in food production. Wild boars live in specific habitats and are physiologically sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxins, therefore, they are an interesting model for studies investigating the effects of the discussed toxin, in particular under low-dose exposure. The objective of this study was to determine potential effects of Fusarium mycotoxins ingested with naturally contaminated food on reproductive function based on the proliferation and apoptotic indices of ovarian follicles in female wild boars. The experiment was conducted on 40 wild boars inhabiting north-eastern Poland. The effect of seasonal variations in the quantity and quality of ingested food on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites in the blood of wild boars was analyzed. The observed differences in toxin levels were accompanied by changes in proliferation and apoptotic indices. Proliferation processes were most intense in autumn-winter and were least advanced in winter-spring. The intensity of apoptotic processes was inversely correlated with proliferation.

  11. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  12. Wildlife genetics and disease: allozyme evolution in the wild boar (Sus scrofa caused by a swine fever epidemy

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    Schreiber Arnd

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme polymorphism at 42 loci was compared before and after a major epidemy of swine fever in wild boars from northern Vosges (France. No change was observed in the 38 monomorphic loci, but allele frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase locus PGM-2* changed significantly. Possible causes for this observation are discussed, and it appears that PGM-2 locus could be a genetic marker of resistance to this viral disease.

  13. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (PTrichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba

  14. PCV2-DNA in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa ssp. scrofa: one sampling approach for two laboratory techniques

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    Morandi Federico

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superficial inguinal lymph nodes from 72 wild boars examined in a previous immunohistochemical (IHC study on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were selected for a PCV2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Four of these lymph nodes were PCV2-IHC strongly positive with PMWS histological lesions (outcome 1, 6 weak to mild PCV2-IHC positive without PMWS histological lesions (outcome 2 and 62 PCV2-IHC negative. Considering IHC the gold standard for diagnosis, the aims of the study were to evaluate the suitability of the PCV2-DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue and the sensitivity and specificity of PCR under two IHC interpretations criteria: (A the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1; (B the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1 or 2. Under (A criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100% and 89.7%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.49. Under (B criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 80.0% and 95.2%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.72. The high Cohen's Kappa coefficient under the (B interpretative criteria indicates good agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, 1 DNA extracted from FFPE specimens of wild boar is suitable for PCR and further represents a screening test for PCV2/PCVD (PCV2 Diseases investigations in wild boar as well; 2 routine histological sampling can also be useful for PCV2 virological studies in wild boar.

  15. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

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    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  16. A statistical GIS-based analysis of Wild boar (Sus scrofa traffic collisions in a Mediterranean area

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    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available vThis study was aimed at analysing the most relevant environmental variables involved in vehicle–wild boar road collisions in a Mediterranean area, starting from a territorial information system implemented in a GIS environment. Landscape structure indices and local qualitative and quantitative variables were correlated to identify the most frequent predisposing factors of collisions. Statistical tests of the considered parameters indicated a higher frequency of collisions in the evening hours of late summer and autumn (P<0.05 compared with daytime and night-time, localized nearness to attraction points (feeding or resting sites; P<0.001 and closeness to no-hunting areas (P<0.001. In addition, local road parameters (shape of road, visibility at road sides, etc. considerably increased the risk of collisions.

  17. Damage caused by red deer (Cervus elaphus & wild boar (Sus scrofa in forest hunting grounds in Serbia

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    Gačić Dragan P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study and assessment of the damage by big game in forest hunting grounds in Serbia was infrequent, although the damage was evident. The objective of this paper is to identify the rates and types of damage by red deer and wild boar at three localities: (1 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Crni Lug' (Srem, (2 fenced part of the hunting ground 'Podunavsko Lovište Plavna' (Southwestern Bačka, and (3 fenced rearing centre 'Lomnička Reka' (Mt. Veliki Jastrebac. The damage was not recorded on locality (1. The damage on locality (2 (new polar plantations and locality (3 (beech forests was caused by red deer. The main causes of the damage were excessive density and disturbed population structure (sex and age, nonharmonised forest and hunting management, shortage of natural food, especially of pasture areas.

  18. Presence of Cryptosporidium scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Presedo, Ignacio; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio

    2013-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain). A sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (DFA). The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA was determined using nested PCR involving amplification of a fragment of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). A total of 35 (16.7%) samples tested positive with both techniques. However, sequencing was only possible in 27 samples. Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 19, 5 and 3 of the samples, respectively. Moreover, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting all age groups (juveniles, sub adults and adults). Sequence analyses of the glycoprotein (GP60) gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 in 2 juveniles and IIaA13G1R1 in 1 sub adult wild boar. These species and subtypes have previously been described in human patients, indicating that isolates from asymptomatic wild boars might have zoonotic potential. This is the first report of the presence of C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in wild boars (S. scrofa) in Spain.

  19. Origins and distributions of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in fetuses of wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, Linnaeus – 1758

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    Tharlianne Alici Martins de Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical behavior of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries was studied in 21 wild boars fetuses, female and male, in which one injected, through the thoracic aorta, a Neoprene Latex “450” solution, stained with a specific pigment and, then, they were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The analysis of results allowed one to state that the cranial mesenteric artery originated from the abdominal aorta, caudal to the celiac artery, issuing right and left adrenal branches, pancreatic, and the caudal pancreaticduodenal, jejunal, middle and right colic, and ileo-ceco-colic arteries. The caudal mesenteric artery originated from the abdominal aorta, from its caudal third, issuing the left colic and the cranial rectal arteries. Anastomoses were found between jejunal, left colic and cranial rectal, and left and middle colic arteries. In the three species, the cranial and caudal mesenteric, caudal pancreatic-duodenal, jejunal, right and middle colic, and ileo-cecocolic arteries showed similar vascular patterns, whereas the differences with regard to emission of branches or isolated emergence or emergence in common trunk didn’t change the blood supply.

  20. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

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    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  1. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

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    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  2. Effect of cattle on Salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.

  3. Effect of cattle on Salmonella carriage, diversity and antimicrobial resistance in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in northeastern Spain.

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    Nora Navarro-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19-43.70 than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74-29.91. Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35. Serotype richness (diversity was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern.

  4. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

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    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.

  5. First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana S; Paiva-Cardoso, Maria das Neves; Nunes, Mónica; Carreira, Teresa; Vale-Gonçalves, Hélia M; Veloso, Octávia; Coelho, Catarina; Cabral, João A; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vieira, Maria L

    2015-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. Several vertebrates are crucial in the epidemiological cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, but the role of wild boar as a reservoir is still unknown. Sera were collected from 90 wild boars shot in the Trás-os-Montes region, Northern Portugal (hunting season 2011/2012). In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting.

  6. {sup 137}Cs concentration in meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia a decade and half after the Chernobyl accident

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    Vilic, M. [Department of Physiology and Radiobiology, The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: marinko.vilic@vef.hr; Barisic, D. [Laboratory for Radioecology, Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, PO Box 160, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: dbarisic@irb.hr; Kraljevic, P. [Department of Physiology and Radiobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: petar.kraljevic@vef.hr; Lulic, S. [Laboratory for Radioecology, Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, PO Box 160, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: lulic@irb.hr

    2005-07-01

    Gamma-spectrometric measurements of {sup 137}Cs activities in meat of wild boars collected in Croatia at several locations with different levels of {sup 137}Cs contamination are presented. Samples were collected during the period between 2000 and 2002, about 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. {sup 137}Cs concentrations ranged over three orders of magnitude: 0.4-611.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. On the basis of these results, {sup 137}Cs concentrations at researched areas could be categorized into three groups: (i) the area of Slavonski Brod, Lipik and Slunj with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in meat of only a few Bq kg{sup -1}; (ii) the area of Vrbovsko and Sirac with {sup 137}Cs concentrations of a few tens of Bq kg{sup -1}; and (iii) the Fuzine area with {sup 137}Cs values in wild boar meat of a few hundreds of Bq kg{sup -1}. In areas with approximately equal contamination level, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in wild boar meat varied over two orders of magnitude. This fact suggests that the main reason for high {sup 137}Cs values in wild boar meat could be due to food consumed by wild boars, and only secondarily in contamination level of area where they live. Intensive mushroom consumption during autumn months could be one of the factors responsible for high {sup 137}Cs values in wild boar meat. An average dose arising from {sup 137}Cs due to ingestion of wild boar meat in Croatia is below radiological health concern except in the area of Fuzine, and only in cases of high annual wild boar meat intake, probably by hunters or members of their families.

  7. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet.

  8. Use of a line intercept snow track index and plot sampling for estimating densities of wild boar (Sus scrofa in southwestern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n Bory Dolnośląskie Forest (southwestern Poland, in 8 forest districts with a total of 121,783 hectares (ha of forest area, 16 sampling plots of a total area of 7,100 ha were marked. Using the block count method, the presence of 157 wild boars was found in 12 sampling plots where the population density ranged from 2.2 to 52.9 individuals/1000 ha. By counting snow tracks along 16 line transects situated within the sampling plots (total length – 70.9 km, the presence of 103 wild boars was found. In places where tracks of wild boars were found, the relative population density of this species ranged from 0.10 to 5.6 individuals/km of transect. Using non-linear regression, a mathematical formula was derived where the relative population density index (N/km was the independent variable, and the absolute population density (N/1000 ha was the dependent variable. A high correlation was found between these variables (R2=0.85. It is suggested that the population numbers evaluated by snow tracks of wild boars found on line transects, and the regression equation derived in this study be used in the management of this species.

  9. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-25

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Hunted Wild Boars (Sus scrofa): Heart Meat Juice as an Alternative Sample to Serum for the Detection of Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Catarina; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Cardoso, Luís; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Detection of antibodies to T. gondii in serum samples from hunted animals may represent a key step for public health protection. It is also important to assess the circulation of this parasite in wild boar population. However, in hunted animals, collection of blood is not feasible and meat juice may represent an alternative sample. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart meat juice of hunted wild boars as an alternative sample for post-mortem detection of antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). The agreement beyond chance between results from meat juice assessed with Cohen's kappa coefficient revealed that the 1:20 meat juice dilution provided the highest agreement. McNemars's test further revealed 1:10 as the most suitable meat juice dilution, as the proportion of positive paired samples (serum and meat juice from the same animal) did not differ at this dilution. All together, these results suggest a reasonable accuracy of heart meat juice to detect antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and support it as an alternative sample in post-mortem analysis in hunted wild boars.

  11. Galanin is Co-Expressed with Substance P, Calbindin and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) in The Enteric Nervous System of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czujkowska, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2016-04-01

    Galanin is a neuropeptide widely present in the enteric nervous system of numerous animal species and exhibiting neurotransmittery/neuromodulatory roles. Colocalization patterns of galanin with substance P (SP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and calbindin were studied in the small intestine of the wild boar using immunofluorescence technique. We demonstrated the presence of SP in substantial populations of galanin-immunoreactive (IR) submucous neurons. Additionally, different amounts of nerve fibres exhibiting simultaneous presence of galanin and SP were noted in the small intestinal smooth musculature, submucous ganglia, lamina muscularis mucosae and mucosa. In the wild boar duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the co-expression of galanin and calbindin was limited to minor populations of submucous neurons only. Single galanin-/CRF-IR nerve fibres were exclusively present in the duodenal and jejunal (but not ileal) mucosa. These results strongly suggest that galanin participates in neuronal control of the wild boar small intestine also by functional co-operation with other biologically active neuropeptides.

  12. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Hind Limb Ischemia/reperfusion Injury CAPT Thomas J...porcine model of hind limb ischemia. Method: Swine (Sus Scrofa ; 76 +/-6kg) were randomly assigned to no fasciotomy or prophylactic fasciotomy after...of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus scrofa ) survival model of extremity vascular injury. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan;53(1):165

  13. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  14. 阉割对金华猪肝脏miR-122和miR-378表达量和膻味性状的影响%Effect of Castration on the Boar Taint and the Expression Variation of miR-122 and miR-378 in Liver of Jinhua Pig (Sus scrofa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马义涛; 李艳华; 周辉云; 王颖; 徐宁迎

    2013-01-01

    microRNA是一种小分子RNA,是细胞内复杂而精确的调控网络的组成部分.为了研究阉割对miR-122和miR-378表达量的影响以及miR-122和miR-378对雄烯酮和粪臭素代谢的调控作用,本研究利用荧光定量PCR检测了miR-122和miR-378在不同生长阶段金华猪(Sus scrofa)公猪肝脏中的表达量变化及其在阉割和非阉割公猪体内表达量的差异,利用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography,HPLC)检测了金华猪皮下脂肪的粪臭素含量,并预测了调控pre-miR-122和pre-miR-378转录的相关转录因子及miR-122和miR-378与雄烯酮、粪臭素代谢相关基因的靶关系.结果发现,miR-122在胚胎期高表达,随着日龄的增加表达量逐渐下降;miR-378在胚胎期高表达,生长期呈现先增后减的态势.阉割后两者的表达量均较同期非阉割组表达下调.并且阉割后皮下脂肪中粪臭素的含量显著下降(P<0.01).根据研究结果推测,阉割后激素水平的变化通过相关转录因子影响microRNA的表达,直接或间接影响雄烯酮和粪臭素代谢而实现对公猪膻味性状的调控.而在这个调控网络中,microRNA可能发挥了重要作用,为深入研究公猪膻味性状提供了一个新的思路.%MicroRNA(miRNA) is a class of small RNA,it is involved in the intracellular complicated and precise regulatory networks.In order to study the effect of castration on the expression of miR-122 and miR-378 and the regulation effect of miR-122 and miR-378 on androstenone and skatole metabolism,we detected the skatole content in subcutaneous fat of boars and barrows with the help of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the expression of miR-122 and miR-378 in various growth stages in liver of Jinhua Pig (Sus scrofa) by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and analysed the expression variation between boars and barrows.The results showed that the skatole content in adipose tissue was higher (P<0.01) in boars

  15. Survey and Control of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Damage in Qingyun Forest, Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江青云林场野猪危害调查及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 刘丙万

    2012-01-01

    人和野猪的冲突已经成为日益关注的问题。2010年6-10月,在黑龙江省尚志市青云林场利用走访和问卷调查对野猪危害进行了研究,并通过散布东北虎粪便、放置东北虎图像、播放东北虎声音的方法对野猪危害进行了防治并与当地居民防治野猪危害的措施进行了比较。结果如下:(1)野猪危害多在夏初至秋末,主要危害玉米和西葫芦,受危害的农田多是林缘地和林间地。(2)把野猪第2次进入农田与第1次进入农田的间隔天数作为防治措施的有效性评估指标,研究发现利用东北虎粪便、图像、声音防治野猪危害的有效期分别是3.00±0.58d、1.33±0.33d、5.25±0.63d。(3)林场84.09%的居民会采取防治措施,防治措施有效期一般是3-7d。(4)利用东北虎粪便和图像防治野猪危害的效果与林场大多数居民采取的防治措施效果相比差异不显著(P〉0.05)。利用声音防治危害的效果只与利用塑料绳围栏(P=0.029)和干扰物(P=0.029)的防治效果相比差异显著。利用东北虎粪便、图像和声音防治野猪危害效果不理想可能和这个地区东北虎消失时间比较长有关。%In recent years, the frequency of conflicts between wild boar and humans has increased. From June to October 2010, we surveyed crop damage caused by wild boar in Qingyun forest in Shangzhi County, Heilongjiang Province using questionnaires and field investigations. Wild boar damage took place almost from early summer to late autumn and the main crops damaged by wild boar were corn and squash, mainly in fields located near the forest edge or in the forest. We conducted field experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of various measures intended to deter wild boar from damaging crops. Measures includ-ed placement of tiger faeces at the perimeter of crop areas, playing of recorded tiger vocalizations, placement of life

  16. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this "human-on-pig" approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes.

  17. Differential anti-influenza activity among allelic variants at the Sus scrofa Mx1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, M; Leroy, M; Thomas, A; Linden, A; Desmecht, D

    2007-02-01

    A promising way to oppose infectious challenges would be to improve the resistance of the target species through genetic selection. Theoretically, a candidate gene is available against influenza viruses since a resistance trait was fortuitously discovered in the A2G mouse strain. This trait was demonstrated to be correlated with the expression of a specific isoform of the type I interferon (IFN)-dependent protein MX, an isoform coded by a specific allele at the mouse Mx1 locus. Two allelic polymorphisms were described recently in the Sus scrofa homologous gene. In this study, the frequencies and distribution of both alleles were evaluated among European domestic pig and wild boar populations by PCR-RFLP, and the anti-influenza activity conferred by both MX1 isoforms was evaluated in vitro using transfection of Vero cells followed by flow cytometric determination of the fraction of influenza virus-infected cells among MX-producing and MX-nonproducing cell populations. A significant difference in the anti-influenza activity brought by the two MX1 isoforms was demonstrated, which suggests that a significant improvement of innate resistance of pigs by genetic selection might be feasible provided the differences found here in vitro are epidemiologically relevant in vivo.

  18. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  19. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desflurane in the Pig (SUS SCROFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    HALOTHANE, ISOFLURANE, AND DESFLURANE IN THE PIG ( SUS SCROFA ) / Allen Vinegar MANTECH-GEO CENTER JOINT VENTURE PO BOX 31009 ~ DAYTON, OH 45437-0009...Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Contract F41624-96-C-9010 Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desfiurane in the Pig ( Sus Scrofa ) PE 62202F PR 7757 6. AUTHOR(S) TA...PFA) " CA Figure I - Physiologicallly Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Pig ( Sus scrofa ). Abbreviations: CA, arterial concentration; CX, exhaled

  20. Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    UDIIILI: oa. I..UN I ItA!.. I NUMDI:It Does Glucagon improve survival in a porcine (Sus Scrofa ) of adult asphyxial cardiac arrest in addition to...EXPIRATION DATE: 25 Mar 13 PROTOCOL TITLE: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition...Additions: Deletions: 2 Protocol No: A-2007-03 Protocol Title: Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Model of Adult Asphyxial

  1. Sodium Thiosulfate Versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    IUIVIJ:lt:M Sodium thiosulfate versus hydroxocoba~amin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity in a swine (Sus Scrofa )model on...treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity in a swine (Sus Scrofa ) model .. 4. Principal Investigator (PI): ’ ~ I ’ ·, .. Name Rank Date

  2. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-04-01

    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  3. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, H.C.M.; van Wijk, R.H.J.; Dibbits, B.; van Kampen, T.A.; Knol, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Genet Sel Evol. 2009 Jan 5;41:4. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs. Heuven HC, van Wijk RH, Dibbits B, van Kampen TA, Knol EF, Bovenhuis H. Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. h.c.m.heuven

  4. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  5. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  6. First record of wild boar infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilska-Zając Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

  7. Genetic differences in recombination frequency in the pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, L

    1995-10-01

    A comparison has been performed on 3 recently published linkage maps of the pig, hereafter designated as the American (A), European (E), and Swedish (S) maps. The cumulated distances between common markers in these 3 maps were in the ratio 1.00 (A):0.88 (E):0.77 (S), in keeping with the ratio of the percentages of domestic genome in the reference families used to build the corresponding maps, i.e., 1.00 (A):0.81 (E):0.50 (S). From further recombination frequencies reported in wild boars (in the S report), the wild pig genome length (in centimorgans) is expected to represent 66% of the domestic pig genome length. These observations tend to confirm a general result of Burt and Bell (Nature (London), 326: 803-805 (1987)), showing higher chiasma frequencies in domestic mammalian species compared with wild species. Consequences for mapping studies are discussed.

  8. Molekulargenetische und archäologische Untersuchungen zur Domestikation und Züchtung des Schweins (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Krause-Kyora, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Die Arbeit behandelt die Domestikation der Stammart des europäischen Wildschweins (Sus scrofa) und den Beginn und Umsetzung der Schweinehaltung im nordmitteleuropäischen Raum mit Hilfe von archäologischen und genetischen Analysemethoden.

  9. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Nidhi Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All ...

  10. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed.

  11. Changes to soil bacterial profiles as a result of Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Komang Ralebitso-Senior, T

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cadaver decomposition knowledge for clandestine grave location cannot be over emphasised. Notwithstanding this, only a limited understanding is available on the resulting soil microbial community dynamics. To address this paucity, a pig leg (Sus scrofa domesticus; 5kg) was buried in freshly weighed (20kg) sandy loamy soil in a sealed microcosm (40cm height) in parallel with a soil only control. Both microcosms were perforated nine times at equal distances and maintained outside. Soil samples were collected through these perforations from the top (0-10cm), middle (10-20cm) and bottom (20-30cm) segments every three days for the first two weeks, and then weekly up to 14 weeks. PCR-DGGE gels quantified by 1D Phoretix showed increases in the cumulative soil community richness values of 43, 66 and 106 for the top, middle and bottom segments, respectively, in the presence of Sus scrofa domesticus. Shannon-Wiener's (H') and Simpon's (D) indices confirmed corresponding species diversity increases in the middle (H'=1.58-2.33; D=0.79-0.91) and bottom (H'=2.48-3.16; D=0.85-0.95) depths between days 10 and 71 compared with the control. In contrast, similar evenness was recorded for all segments in both the Sus scrofa domesticus and control soils.

  12. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with ...

  13. Analysis of muscle and ovary transcriptome of Sus scrofa: assembly, annotation and marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2011-10-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future.

  14. Intravenous Cobinamide, a Novel Cyanide Antidote, versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity and Apnea in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity of severe hypotension and of cardiac arrest in a swine (Sus Scrofa ) model Intravenous...cobinamide, a novel cyanide antidote, versus hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity and apnea in a swine (Sus Scrofa ) model...hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity and apnea in a swine (Sus Scrofa ) model Background: Hydroxocobalamin (HOC) is an FDA approved

  15. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  16. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1 Gene%Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜会坡; 台玉磊; 王伟杰; 杨国宇

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆分析Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-I基因,以期为其生物学功能研究奠定基础.[方法]利用Homo sapiens interferon eμsilon l(IFNEI)序列(NM_176891.3)对猪HTG库进行搜索,通过对获得的2个片断(CU074336、AC 127471)的序列分析,在5’- UTR和3’-UTR设计I对克隆引物,对7日龄仔猪的胃组织进行RT - PCR,将PCR产物克隆、测序,并进行相关分析.[结果]同源性分析结果表明,猪SIFNEI与人、小鼠interferon epsilon-1基因cDNA编码区(CDS)的同源性分别为83.6%和69 2%;蛋白序列同源性分别为76.2%和55.2%.推测其氨基酸序列信号肽为第1~21位氨基酸,IFabd结构域为第59~176位氨基酸,结构特征与人、小鼠的interferon epsilon-1相一致.[结论]该研究克隆了Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1基因,为进一步研究SIFNE1基因的生物学功能奠定了基础。%[ Objective] To clone and analyze the Sus scrofa interfemn epsiton-I gene, so as to lay foundation for the study of its biological func-tions. [ Method] The swine HTG database was searched with the Homo sapiens interferon epsilon-I (1FNEI) sequence (NM_176891.3) , two fragments (CU074336 and AC127471) were obtained and analyzed by sequencing. One pair of primers was cloned at 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR to analyze the gastric tissue of seven-day-old piglets by RT-PCR, the PCR products were cloned, sequenced and correlation analyzed. [ Result] The homology analysts showed that the homology of swine SIFNEI with human and mice interferon epsilon-I gene cDNA CDS was 83.6% and 69.2% respectively, the homology between their protein sequences was 76. 2% and 55.2% respectively. The signal peptide of ami no acid se-quence was predicted to be the 1 - 12 position of amino acid, the protein domains of IFabd were the 59 - 176 position of amino acid, which was consistent with the interferon epsilon-I of human and mice. [Conclusion] The study cloned the Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-I gene, and laid foundation for

  17. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  18. Characterization of African swine fever virus Caucasus isolate in European wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Claudia; Blome, Sandra; Malogolovkin, Alexander; Parilov, Stanislav; Kolbasov, Denis; Teifke, Jens P; Beer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Since 2007, African swine fever has spread from the Caucasus region. To learn more about the dynamics of the disease in wild boars (Sus scrofa), we conducted experiments by using European wild boars. We found high virulence of Caucasus isolates limited potential for establishment of endemicity.

  19. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-05-16

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC.

  20. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meléndez G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products were separated by a vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized by staining with silver nitrate. Results. All microsatellites used were polymorphic. Between 3 (SW1067 and 15 (IFNG alleles were detected with an average number of 6.7 and a total de 134 alleles. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.5278 and 0.5479, respectively. PIC values ranged between 0.1999 and 0.8300 for loci SW1067 and SW911, respectively. Conclusions. Levels of observed and expected heterozygosity found in the present study indicate that the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Córdoba Cereté show high degree of genetic variability

  1. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe.

  2. Exploring PTX3 expression in Sus scrofa cardiac tissue using RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiati, Manuela; Caselli, Chiara; Savelli, Sara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Giannessi, Daniela; Del Ry, Silvia

    2012-02-10

    The prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a novel vascular inflammatory marker sharing similarities with the classic short pentraxin (C-reactive protein). PTX3 is rapidly produced and released by several cell types in response to local inflammation of the cardiovascular system. Plasma PTX3 levels are very low in normal conditions and increase in heart failure (HF) patients with advancing NYHA functional class, but its exact role during HF pathogenetic mechanisms is not yet established. No data about PTX3 cardiac expression in normal and pathological conditions are currently available, either in human or in large-size animals. Of the latter, the pig has a central role in "in vivo" clinical settings but its genome has not been completely sequenced and the PTX3 gene sequence is still lacking. The aim of this study was to sequence the PTX3 in Sus scrofa, whose sequence is not yet present in GenBank. Utilizing our knowledge of this sequence, PTX3 mRNA expression was evaluated in cardiac tissue of normal (n=6) and HF pigs (n=5), obtained from the four chambers. To sequence PTX3 gene in S. scrofa, the high homology between Homo sapiens and S. scrofa was exploited. Pig PTX3 mRNA was sequenced using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from human consensus sequences. The DNA, obtained from different RT-PCR reactions, was sequenced using the Sanger method. S. scrofa PTX3 mRNA, 1-336 bp, was submitted to GenBank (ID: GQ412351). The sequence obtained from pig cardiac tissue shared an 84% sequence identity with human homolog. The presence of PTX3 mRNA expression was detected in all the cardiac chambers sharing an increase after 3 weeks of pacing compared to controls (p=0.036 HF right atrium vs. N; p=0.022, HF left ventricle vs. N). Knowledge of the PTX3 sequence could be a useful starting point for future studies devoted to better understanding the specific role of this molecule in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations.

  4. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA.

  5. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (pscrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments.

  6. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Žele, Diana; Fernandes Barry, Aline; Honing-Hakze, van der Renate; Vengušt, Gorazd; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serolo

  7. Anatomia dos ramos linguais do nervo hipoglosso em Sus scrofa domesticus, L., 1758 = Anatomy of the lingual branches of the hypoglossal nerve in Sus scrofa domesticus, L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marques Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos as ramificações e distribuição do nervo hipoglosso após estepenetrar na raiz da língua (36 antímeros de suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus, L. 1758 adultos de ambos os sexos abatidos em frigorífico (região metropolitana de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás -Brasil. O material foi resfriado para transporte (4ºC, fixado em solução aquosa de formaldeído (7% por 72h, imerso em solução aquosa de ácido nítrico (15% por 72h, dissecado sob lupa (RASOR, II-20. Nos antímeros, observou-se o tronco e ramos nervosos primários, secundários e terciários (método de BITTENCOURT et al., 1987. Seguimos a topográfica do nervo, a partir da região retro mandibular, entre as estruturas miofaciais do milohioideo e hipoglosso. Na raiz da língua, o nervo cruza a artéria lingual, passando a sermedial em relação a esta. Subdivide-se em três ordens de grandeza em direção ao músculo longitudinal superior, como segue: antímero esquerdo, quatro a 13 ramos primários, quatro a 21 ramos secundários e zero a 16 ramos terciários; no antímero direito, oito a 18 ramosprimários, três a 13 ramos secundários e zero a 12 ramos terciários. Em 27,59% dos antímeros analisados, os ramos do nervo hipoglosso estabeleceram junções com fibras do nervo lingual do antímero correspondente.We studied the ramifications and distribution of the hypoglossalnerve after it penetrated the root of the tongue (36 antimeres of adult swine (Sus scrofa domesticus, L. 1758 from both sexes slaughtered in a slaughterhouse (metropolitan region of Goiânia, Goiás State - Brazil. The material was chilled for transportation (4°C; placed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde (7% for 72 hours; submerged in aqueous solution of nitric acid (15% for 72 hours; dissected under magnifying glass (RASOR, II-20. The torso and the primary, secondary and tertiary nervous branches were observed in the antimeres (method of BITTENCOURT et al., 1987. We followed the topography of the nerve

  8. The nuclear DNA longevity in cryopreserved boar spermatozoa assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the dynamics of nuclear DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed (FT) boar spermatozoa incubated over time. Using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (Sperm-Sus-Halomax), this study focused special attention on resolving the hypothesis that the original halo shapes around the sperm head could show dynamic changes over the postthawing incubation time. Twenty FT sperm samples from five boars (four per boar) were incubated at 37 °C during 168 hours and sperm motility (assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (evaluated using the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), and nuclear DNA fragmentation were analyzed at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours. The percentages of motile and viable spermatozoa progressively decreased during incubation, with no motile and viable spermatozoa less than 10% in all boars at 24 hours of incubation. Four different halo shapes around the sperm head were considered in the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test: normal, small, large scattered (typical fragmented nuclear DNA), and absent halo, all of them coexisting at the same time in the boar FT semen samples. Sperm with a large scattered halo did not change during postthaw, consistently showing percentages less than 5% over time in all boars. In contrast, the other three sperm populations showed a dynamic evolution over incubation time, characterized by a gradual reduction of sperm with normal halo, proportional to the increment in the sperm showing a small halo, followed by a switch between the sperm with a small halo and sperm with no halo. These results suggest that three of these four sperm populations, those showing small, large scattered, and absent halo, represent spermatozoa with different degrees of nuclear DNA damage, which should be taken into consideration to indicate the percentage of sperm with fragmented nuclear DNA in boar FT semen samples.

  9. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kowalczykiewicz

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  10. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  11. Genomic structure, promoter analysis, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa) Mx1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne V; Palm, Melanie; Broers, Aurore D; Zezafoun, Hussein; Desmecht, Daniel J-M

    2006-06-01

    Allelic polymorphisms at the mouse Mx1 locus affect the probability of survival after experimental influenzal disease, raising the possibility that marker-assisted selection using the homologous locus could improve the innate resistance of pigs to natural influenza infections. Several issues need to be resolved before efficient large scale screening of the allelic polymorphism at the porcine (Sus scrofa) Mx1 locus can be implemented. First, the Mx1 genomic structure has to be established and sufficient flanking intronic sequences have to be gathered to enable simple PCR amplification of the coding portions of the gene. Then, a basic knowledge of the promoter region needs to be obtained as an allelic variation there can significantly alter absolute levels and/or tissue-specificity of MX protein expression. The results gathered here show that the porcine Mx1 gene and promoter share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in cattle, mouse, chicken, and man. The crucial function of the proximal interferon-sensitive response elements motif for gene expression is also demonstrated. The sequence data compiled here will allow an extensive analysis of the polymorphisms present among the widest spectrum possible of porcine breeds with the aim to identify an Mx1 allele providing antiviral resistance.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of the pig (Sus scrofa) organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yejin; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Zheren; Xiao, Yunpeng; Hong, Mei

    2013-08-01

    1. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a family of transporter proteins that have been extensively recognized as key determinants of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of various drugs. Human OATP1A2 has been demonstrated to transport wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Study on OATP1A2 orthologues of other species, however, is still limited. 2. Here, we described the cloning and functional characterization of a member of the OATP/Oatp family member obtained from pig (Sus scrofa) liver. Sequence analysis suggested that it has a high homology with human OATP1A2 and bovine Oatp1a2. Prototypic substrates estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S) and taurocholic acid were transported by the protein. The transport of these two substrates is pH-dependent, with lower pH showing higher uptake function. Kinetic study showed the transport of these two substrates have a Km of 42.5 ± 12.1 and 33.1 ± 8.7 µM, respectively. Pig Slco1a2 has the highest expression level in the liver, and to a less extend in the brain and small intestine. 3. In conclusion, an OATP member was cloned from pig liver. Sequence analysis and phylogenic study revealed it as an orthologue of human OATP1A2. Its kinetic characteristic for prototypic substrates and organ distribution are similar with that of OATP1A2.

  13. Organization, complexity and allelic diversity of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized the organization, complexity, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain locus, which accounts for about half of antibody light chain usage in swine, yet is nearly totally unknown. Twenty-two IGL variable (IGLV) genes were identified that belong to seven subgroups. Nine genes appear to be functional. Eight possess stop codons, frameshifts, or both, and one is missing the V-EXON. Two additional genes are missing an essential cysteine residue and are classified as ORF (open reading frame). The IGLV genes are organized in two distinct clusters, a constant (C)-proximal cluster dominated by genes similar to the human IGLV3 subgroup, and a C-distal cluster dominated by genes most similar to the human IGLV8 and IGLV5 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the porcine IGLV8 subgroup genes have recently expanded, suggesting a particularly effective role in immunity to porcine-specific pathogens. Moreover, expression of IGLV genes is nearly exclusively restricted to the IGLV3 and IGLV8 genes. The constant locus comprises three tandem cassettes comprised of a joining (IGLJ) gene and a constant (IGLC) gene, whereas a fourth downstream IGLJ gene has no corresponding associated IGLC gene. Comparison of individual BACs generated from the same individual revealed polymorphisms in IGLC2 and several IGLV genes, indicating that allelic variation in IGLV further expands the porcine antibody light chain repertoire.

  14. Radiocesium concentrations in two populations of naturally contaminated feral hogs (Sus scrofa domesticus). [/sup 137/Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stribling, H.L.

    1978-12-01

    Two populations of feral hogs (Sus scrofa domesticus) were studied during the summer and winter seasons from 1976 to 1978 in order to determine concentrations, distributional patterns, and predictability of cesium-137 in the whole body and various body compartments of these animals. One population inhabited the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Aiken, South Carolina, an area contaminated by reactor waste and natural fallout; the other inhabited Ossabaw Island (OI), Georgia, an area contaminated by natural fallout alone. Whole-body burdens on the SRP averaged about 2 and about 1.5 times higher than those samples on OI during the summer and winter seasons, respectively. Radiocesium levels in feral hogs on SRP were not only influenced by the additional source of contamination but apparently fluctuated seasonally as well since the whole-body burdens of SRP hogs sampled were about 1.5 times higher in the summer than in the winter. Levels of cesium-137 in skeletal muscle have decreased in the SRP feral hog population since 1968. On the SRP, feces best predicted whole-body burdens with an r/sup 2/ of 0.67. All internal organs examined predicted levels in skeletal muscle well for SRP animals but best predictability of muscle (R/sup 2/ = 0.94) was achieved when brain, liver, and feces were combined in a multiple regression equation. Muscle was the best predictor of cesium-137 in all body compartments.

  15. Mandibular molar teeth and the development of mastication in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrez, A

    1996-01-01

    The only components of the orofacial complex that are fully developed as soon as they establish function are the occlusal surfaces of teeth. It is usually assumed that the occlusal surface of the molar teeth influences the orientation of the power stroke in spite of the fact that the data supporting this claim are lacking. The purpose of this longitudinal study was therefore to determine whether or not this hypothetical form-function relationship existed during development and whether or not it was related to growth. Serial dorsoventral and lateral radiography, and dorsoventral cineradiography were performed during natural feeding of 5 Hanford miniature pigs (Sus scrofa) of both genders between their 8th and 18th weeks. Sequences of power strokes were analyzed frame by frame and compared between sessions, and related to the position of the fourth primary mandibular molar (dm4). The changes in direction of the power stroke and in position of the dm4 relative to the midline were subsequently related to growth. The results of this study indicate that changes in orientation of the power stroke, though significant only on the balancing side, occur independently of the repositioning working and balancing side mandibular molars, as well as of skeletal growth. The null hypothesis that the mandibular primary molars influence the transverse orientation of the power stroke during growth is therefore refuted.

  16. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa (Suina: Suidae) from southern Gansu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Yan; Tian, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Lei-Lei; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-09-01

    Juema pig is a kind of rare and special pig which is well adapted to high altitude, cold climate and harsh natural environment. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa is a circular molecule of 16 532 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 60.7% (T: 26.2%; C: 26.0%; A: 34.5%; G: 13.3%). ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, ND2, ND3, and ND5 genes begin with ATA as a start codon, and other nine protein-coding genes start with ATG. Cyt b gene is terminated with AGA as stop codon, ND1 and ND2 genes are terminated with TAG as stop codon, COII, COIII, ND3, and ND4 end with T, while ATP6, ATP8, COI, ND4L, ND5, and ND6 end with TAA. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships from neighbor-joining analyses based on the 13 concatenated PCGs indicated (Tylopoda (Suina (Ruminantia (Hippopotamidae, Cetacea)))).

  18. Snaring to control feral pigs sus scrofa in a remote Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen J.; Stone, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Feral pig Sus scrofa control in Kipahulu Valley, a remote rain forest in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, has been achieved with snares over a 45-month period. Initial pig densities in fenced management units of 6·2 km2 and 7·8 km2were estimated at 6 animals/km2 and 14·3 animals/km2 for the two units, based on population reconstruction from animals killed and aged. During the 45 months of the study, 1978 snares were set, and 1·6 million snare nights were logged. Snare density reached 96/km2 and 200/km2 for the two management units by the end of the study. A mean effort of 43 worker hours/pig was used to remove 53 pigs from the upper management unit, and a mean of 7 worker hours/pig to remove 175 animals from the more densely populated lower unit. Pig activity monitoring along transects provided a good measure of control effectiveness until densities of about 1 pig/km2 were achieved, after which transects became less useful than scouting for determining pig activity.

  19. Cholinergic profiles in the Goettingen miniature pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Laura J; Perez, Sylvia E; Emerich, Dwaine F; Wahlberg, Lars U; Mufson, Elliott J

    2017-02-15

    Central cholinergic structures within the brain of the even-toed hoofed Goettingen miniature domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) were evaluated by immunohistochemical visualization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR) . ChAT-immunoreactive (-ir) perikarya were seen in the olfactory tubercle, striatum, medial septal nucleus, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial habenular nucleus, zona incerta, neurosecretory arcuate nucleus, cranial motor nuclei III and IV, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. Cholinergic ChAT-ir neurons were also found within transitional cortical areas (insular, cingulate, and piriform cortices) and hippocampus proper. ChAT-ir fibers were seen throughout the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, in the mediodorsal, laterodorsal, anteroventral, and parateanial thalamic nuclei, the fasciculus retroflexus of Meynert, basolateral and basomedial amygdaloid nuclei, anterior pretectal and interpeduncular nuclei, as well as select laminae of the superior colliculus. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that virtually all ChAT-ir basal forebrain neurons were also p75(NTR) -positive. The present findings indicate that the central cholinergic system in the miniature pig is similar to other mammalian species. Therefore, the miniature pig may be an appropriate animal model for preclinical studies of neurodegenerative diseases where the cholinergic system is compromised. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:553-573, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  1. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and phylogenetic evaluation of geographically disparate Sus scrofa breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M V; Brandebourg, T D; Kohn, M C; Ðikić, D; Irwin, M H; Pinkert, C A

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates studies into the metabolic characteristics of production animals and their relation to production traits. Sequence analysis of mtDNA from pure-bred swine with highly disparate production characteristics (Mangalica Blonde, Mangalica Swallow-bellied, Meishan, Turopolje, and Yorkshire) was initiated to evaluate the influence of mtDNA polymorphisms on mitochondrial function. Herein, we report the complete mtDNA sequences of five Sus scrofa breeds and evaluate their position within the phylogeny of domestic swine. Phenotypic traits of Yorkshire, Mangalica Blonde, and Swallow-belly swine are presented to demonstrate their metabolic characteristics. Our data support the division of European and Asian breeds noted previously and confirm European ancestry of Mangalica and Turopolje breeds. Furthermore, mtDNA differences between breeds suggest function-altering changes in proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase 6 (MT-ATP6), cytochrome oxidase I (MT-CO1), cytochrome oxidase III (MT-CO3), and cytochrome b (MT-CYB), supporting the hypothesis that mtDNA polymorphisms contribute to differences in metabolic traits between swine breeds. Our sequence data form the basis for future research into the roles of mtDNA in determining production traits in domestic animals. Additionally, such studies should provide insight into how mtDNA haplotype influences the extreme adiposity observed in Mangalica breeds.

  3. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications.

  4. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface.

  5. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Ss; Paes, Rcs; Santoro, Pn; Mauro, Ra; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  6. Neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (Canis latrans) and feral swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah; Blizzard, Emily; Bazan, Luis; Whitley, Pat

    2013-10-01

    Limited information exists on Neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. This coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. We examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (Canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (Sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. Eighteen percent of coyotes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-21.8) and 15.8% of feral swine (95% CI = 12.5-19.2) had been exposed to N. caninum, and this is the first report of exposure in US feral swine populations. Analyses suggest that the parasite is present throughout the environment and that exposure is not temporally or spatially linked to antibody-positive coyotes. Antibody-positive feral swine were found in an area where the only definitive host is domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), indicating that wild canids are not required to maintain the parasite in the environment.

  7. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  8. A Comparison of Proximal Tibia and Proximal Humerus Infusion Rates of Plasma Under High Pressure Using the EZ IO Intraosseous Device in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) Hypovolemic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    plasma under high pressure using the EZ IO intraosseous device in the adult swine (Sus scrofa ) hypovolemic model. FWH20100171A FWH20100171ALairet...resuscitation, swine, sus scrofa U U U SAR Vikhyat Bebarta, MD 210-275-3794 WHASC- Animal Final Report 170ct2012 1. Protocol Number: FWH20100171A 2...the EZ 10 intraosseous device in the adult swine (Sus scrofa ) hypovolemic model. 4. Principal Investigator PI): Name Rank Date of Branch Staff

  9. A Comparison of Proximal Tibia, Proximal Humerus and Distal Femur Infusion Rates of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EX IO Intraosseous Device in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) Hypovolemic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EZ IO Intraosseous Device on the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa ) hypovolemic Model.” 4. Principal Investigator...femur infusion rates of blood under high pressure using the EZ 10 intraosseous device in the 00. UI1AIIII IIIUIVII:IC:I1 adult swine (Sus scrofa ...hypovolemic (sus scrofa ). METHOD:3 groups of animals; 14 per group were intubated and ventilated. Central vein and arterjallines were placed, blood

  10. Juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) use human-given cues in an object choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on the comprehension of human-given cues by domesticated as well as non-domesticated species has received considerable attention over the last decade. While several species seem to be capable of utilizing these cues, former work with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) has shown inconclusive results. In this study, we investigated the use of human-given cues in an object choice task by young domestic pigs (N = 17; 7 weeks of age) who had very limited human contact prior to the experiments. Subjects had to choose between two bowls of which only one was baited with a reward. Over the course of five experiments, pigs were able to use proximal and, with some constraints, also distal pointing cues presented in both a dynamic-sustained and in a momentary manner. When the experimenter was pointing from the incorrect bowl towards the correct one, most of the subjects had problems solving the task-indicating that some form of stimulus/local enhancement affected pigs' decision making. Interestingly, pigs were able to utilize the body and head orientation of a human experimenter to locate the hidden reward but failed to co-orient when head or body orientation of the experimenter was directed into distant space with no bowls present. Control trials ruled out the possibility that other factors (e.g. odour cues) affected subjects' choice behaviour. Learning during experiments played a minor role and only occurred in three out of twelve test conditions. We conclude that domestic pigs, even at a very young age, are skilful in utilizing various human-given cues in an object choice task-raising the question whether pigs only used stimulus/local enhancement and associative learning processes or whether they were able to comprehend the communicative nature of at least some of these cues.

  11. Ultra structure of the denervated vocal muscle mechanically in hogs (sus scrofa domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão, Henrique Zaquia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is not clear in the ultra-structural manifestations of the vocal wrinkles after neural wound. Objective: To verify the alterations that occur in a vocal fold mechanically denervated. Method: In this prospective study, it were utilized 15 hogs of commercial race (Sus scrofa domesticates, with age of 4 to 12 weeks. The animals were distributed in three groups, chosen at random. Everybody was submitted to the denervation of the right vocal fold, with surgical removal of a segment with three centimeters of the recurring right laryngeal nerve. After 45, 90 and 180 days of the operations, it was proceeded the biopsy of the vocal muscles, it was prosecuted the samples for transmission electron microscopy and, for the ultra-structural study, utilized the transmission electron microscopy Philips, model EM208S. Results: The biopsied groups with 45 and 90 days after operation of mechanical denervation, presented disorganization miofibrilar, only vestigial lines Z in many samples, as well like altered mithochondrions presenting limited sizes, and matrix mithocondrial rarefied with rare mithocondrial cristae present. The biopsied group with 180 days after operation of denervation, presented regular sarcomeres, mithocondrions with sizes and regular number with correct positioning between the sarcomerical units. Conclusion: The finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggest to re enervation of the muscle being that the muscular mithochondrions were the most sensible structures to the denervated condition, successions by the cytoarchiteture of the miofibrilas; the finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggests to reinervation of the muscle in the period of approximately six months.

  12. Gene expression profile suggests that pigs (Sus scrofa are susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum but control infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Ruth C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of hosts and causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever in ruminants. Infection with A. phagocytophilum results in the modification of host gene expression and immune response. The objective of this research was to characterize gene expression in pigs (Sus scrofa naturally and experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum trying to identify mechanisms that help to explain low infection prevalence in this species. Results For gene expression analysis in naturally infected pigs, microarray hybridization was used. The expression of differentially expressed immune response genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection affected cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased both innate and adaptive immune responses by up regulation of interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1, T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCR-alpha, thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4 and Gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1 genes. Higher serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in infected pigs when compared to controls supported data obtained at the mRNA level. Conclusions These results suggested that pigs are susceptible to A. phagocytophilum but control infection, particularly through activation of innate immune responses, phagocytosis and autophagy. This fact may account for the low infection prevalence detected in pigs in some regions and thus their low or no impact as a reservoir host for this pathogen. These results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface and suggested a role for newly reported genes in the protection of pigs against A. phagocytophilum.

  13. Preliminary study of molecular variability for neolithic pig (sus scrofa domesticus from romania using the cytochrome b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gorgan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to reveal molecular differences between old and actual populations of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus, based on the analysis of hyper variable first part of cytochrome b. Neolithic pig remains (bone fragments are sampled from Poduri-Dealul Ghindaru Tell (Bacau County. The Tell of Poduri-Dealul Ghindaru (positioned in the Eastern part of Romania has a complex stratigraphy and the archaeologists have carried out analyses on Chalcolithic (Precucuteni and Cucuteni and Bronze Age levels.

  14. The phenotypic characterization of wild boar population in Transylvania "Sus Scrofa Ferus"

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    Voichita Ana Maria Gavrila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surveys were conducted over the years 2013-2014. The biological material was represented by 43 females and 63 males, adults, with the age of over 3 years, harvested from three hunting grounds in Transylvania. Conformation measurements were made for the following characteristics: body length, height at the withers, the croup height, thorax perimeter, body weight, head length, forehead width between the ears. There were estimated average and dispersion factors for each characteristics and phenotypic correlations were estimated between concerned characteristics. There is a large variability in all studied characteristics, in both males and females, variability given by individual differences and higher performance limits for each characteristics, given by both individual variability and environmental condition and harvesting season.

  15. Scatter hoarding and cache pilferage by superior competitors: an experiment with wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suselbeek, L.; Adamczyk, V.M.A.P.; Bongers, F.; Nolet, B.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; van Wieren, S.E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food-hoarding patterns range between larder hoarding (a few large caches) and scatter hoarding (many small caches), and are, in essence, the outcome of a hoard size–number trade-off in pilferage risk. Animals that scatter hoard are believed to do so, despite higher costs, to reduce loss of cached fo

  16. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  17. Substitution within erythropoietin receptor gene D1 domain associated with litter size in Beijing Black pig, Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Li, Wen; Yan, Hua; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Lixian

    2011-10-01

    Studies of uterine capacity and litter size in swine have suggested that erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) plays an important role in fetal survival through maturation of red blood cells. In this study, we screened the porcine EPOR gene for mutations and identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two missense mutations and one synonymous mutation. We then genotyped 272 Beijing Black sows, Sus scrofa, and compared this data with litter sizes from a total of 1523 parities among the sows. The G allele of the nonsynonymous SNP, EPOR c.434A>G, was associated with greater litter size at both first parity (P G could be a useful genetic marker to improve litter size in swine.

  18. Volatile emission of decomposing pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) as an indicator for the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Sebastian; Nicke, Sara; Ziegenhagen, Henrik; Schütz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at correlating selected carcass borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the postmortem interval (PMI). Selected volatiles should 1st be reliably emitted during vertebrate decay, 2nd be emitted at high concentrations, and 3rd show a reproducible quantitative dynamic during the decaying process. Four pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed in a deciduous forest in different seasons and volatiles emitted during the decaying process were sampled. Seventeen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Electrophysiological experiments on the antenna of female Calliphora vicina and additional data of Dermestes maculans were used as an evolutionary tuned information filter to evaluate the 1st criterion. The relative quantitative emission of hexanal, nonanal, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 1-butanol, and phenol were correlated with the PMI, and the observed stages of decay and the limitations of this model were discussed.

  19. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): first case in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-09-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea.

  1. Coprological tests underestimate Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus burden in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó, Diana; Serrano, Emmanuel; Castillo-Contreras, Raquel; Aguilar, Xavier Fernández; Cadena, Andreu Colom; Velarde, Roser; Mentaberre, Gregorio; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Risco, David; Gonçalves, Pilar; Lavín, Santiago; Fernandez-Llário, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Ferrer, David

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the limitations of the coprological sedimentation test to assess Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus infestation in 59 wild boars (Sus scrofa) from central Spain. The coprological sedimentation test appeared to be a poor predictor of both prevalence of infestation and the real parasite burden due to the high number of false negative results (prevalence was reduced from 61 to 16 %). Because of the potential increased risk of this zoonosis, it is suggested that alternative techniques be used in wildlife surveillance programmes.

  2. Observation of Intestinal Nematodes and Protozoan Parasite in Sus Scrofa%秦岭北坡野猪肠道寄生虫感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡罕; 车利锋; 张洪峰; 刘艳; 乔继英; 吴晓民

    2013-01-01

      Focus on understanding and diagnosis intestinal parasitic infection in living Sus scrofa for the further treatment ,feces from Sus scrofa grown in northern slope of the Qinling mountain were examined in september 2012 .Wet mount smear and iodine staining were employed to check fecal samples from 5 Sus scrofa .Seven specices of parasites were detected ,including Balantidium coli cyst ,Eimeria ,Ascarts egg ,Globo-cephalus egg ,Metastrongylus apri egg ,Oesophagostomum dentatum egg and Stephanu- rusdentatus egg ,as the reference for disease prevention .%  为了了解秦岭北坡野猪肠道寄生虫感染情况,课题组于2012年9月在秦岭北坡采集5只野猪粪便并进行检查。通过生理盐水涂片、碘液染色法检出结肠小袋纤毛虫包囊、猪艾美耳球虫、蛔虫卵、球首线虫卵、食道口线虫卵、猪肾虫卵等寄生虫及虫卵,为野猪疾病的及早发现和确认提供依据,为野猪寄生虫病的防治提供参考。

  3. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  4. Arterial supply of the cervical thymus lobes in swine fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus of the Camborough 25 lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discover more about the arterial supply of cervical lobes of the thymus, in relation to its origins, distribution and ordination in swine (Sus scrofa domesticus of Camborough 25 lineage. Thus, 29 swine (17 males and 12 females were studied. The arterial system of the models was colored with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450” (50% and after the models were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. Great individual variations in the length and size of the thymus vessel supply, and also in the layout, size and thickness of the cervical lobes of the thymus, were observed. The superficial cervical artery (96.55%, common carotid artery (54.54% and occipital artery (55.17% contribute to the blood supply of the cervical lobes on both sides. In addition, branches from the lingual artery (3.45% and internal carotid artery (3.45% on both sides, as well as the subclavian artery (6.90% on the left side, were observed. No significant differences in vascularization of lobes in relation to antimerals or sexes were evidenced. Considering the findings, it was conclued that each animal had its own characteristics and peculiarities, thus enabling the establishment of a particular arrangement of the swine strain.

  5. A Taphonomic Study Exploring the Differences in Decomposition Rate and Manner between Frozen and Never Frozen Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This research examined differences in decomposition rate and manner of domestic pig subjects (Sus scrofa) in never frozen (control) and previously frozen (experimental) research conditions. Eight control and experimental subjects were placed in an identical outdoor research environment. Daily quantitative and qualitative measurements were collected: abdominal circumference, total body score (TBS), temperature, photographs, descriptive decomposition stages, and visual observations. Field necropsies were performed at accumulated degree days (ADD) between 50 and 300 (Celsius). Paired samples t-tests of ADD to TBS >3.0, TBS >9.5, and TBS >16.0 indicate the rate of decomposition of experimental subjects was significantly slower than controls at both TBS >3 and >9.5 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). A suite of qualitative indicators of predecomposition freezing is also reported. The differences between experimental and control subjects suggest previously frozen subjects should not be used in taphonomic research, as results do not accurately reflect the "normal" taphonomic condition.

  6. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  7. Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Sus scrofa lysozyme by N-terminal fusion of a sextuple unique homologous peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dewei; Cai, Guolin; Li, Xiaomin; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Liang

    2017-02-10

    Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL), an important component of the pig immune system, is a potential candidate to replace antibiotics in feed. However, there is little antimicrobial activity of natural SSL against gram-negative bacteria, which limits its application. In this study, a unique peptide (A-W-V-A-W-K) with antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria was discovered and purified from trypsin hydrolysate of natural SSL. This unique peptide was fused to natural SSL and the recombinant fused SSL exhibited improved activity against gram-negative bacteria. The N-terminal fusion likely increased the membrane penetrability and induced programmed bacterial cell death. The recombinant fused SSL also showed higher activity against some gram-positive bacteria with O-acetylation. By N-terminal fusion of the sextuple peptide, the anti-microbial activity, either to gram-positive or negative bacteria, of the recombinant SSL was higher than the fusion of only one copy of the peptide. This study provides a general, feasible, and highly useful strategy to enhance the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme.

  8. Evidence of leptospirosis in the kidneys and serum of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Anderson, T D; Bevins, S N; Pabilonia, K L; Whitley, P N; Virchow, D R; Gidlewski, T

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in humans worldwide. In the United States, widespread detection of antibodies to leptospirosis have been identified in feral swine (Sus scrofa) with the highest detection of serovars, Bratislava, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Over the past few years, feral swine populations have expanded their geographical range and distribution in the United States with reports in at least 39 of 50 states. Since feral swine serve as reservoirs for serovars that can infect humans, it is important to understand the risk of transmission. In order to learn more about the probability that feral swine shed infectious leptospires, we collected kidneys and paired serum when possible from 677 feral swine in 124 counties of 29 states. These counties had previously been identified as antibody positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae or Pomona. Although exposure to these same six serovars of leptospirosis continued to be high (53% overall) in the counties we sampled, we detected leptospiral DNA in only 3·4% of feral swine kidneys tested. Based on these results, it appears that although feral swine can serve as a source of infection to humans, especially in those who are more likely to encounter them directly such as wildlife biologists, veterinarians, and hunters, the risk may be relatively low. However, further studies to examine the relationship between leptospiral shedding in the urine and kidneys in addition to culturing the organism are recommended in order to better understand the risk associated with feral swine.

  9. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  10. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health.

  11. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  12. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  13. Wild Boar Research – A Never Ending Story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Keuling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar science is changing a lot. The species wild boar (Sus scrofa, once threatened, is one of the latest domesticated species. Wild boar is so successful that currently it causes strong economic and ecological damages all over the world. The interest in Sus scrofa continues to grow rapidly, not only within its native range, but also in all other continents where wild boar and feral pigs have been introduced. Environmentally sensitive and adaptative management plus conservation of wild boar, feral pigs and other suids is of increasing concern to conservation biologists, wildlife managers, veterinarians, policy makers and the general public. Important advances in research may help managing wild boar as a pest and other suids as threatened species. Also a good exchange with stakeholders is of huge importance within wildlife management. In this special issue of Wildlife Biology in Practice some results from the 9th International Symposium on Wild Boar and other Suids as well as additional publications on wild boar are centralised. All together 110 participants from 24 countries took part at the 9th ISWB in Hannover, Germany. The main part of the 59 presentations focused on wild boar management and monitoring (29 contributions. These numbers points out the importance of wild boar in all parts of its current distribution area. Everywhere populations are increasing (with some very few exceptions. In many of these regions economic problems, mainly by agricultural damages, road accidents and animal diseases are the main drivers for scientific interests. Recently many researchers try to establish, or even to create, reliable and practical census methods. Only with reliable data on numbers, reproduction, im- and emigration as well as mortality rates, managers will be able to know the efficiency of management methods. Even if a lot of effort is done, it looks like we are still far away from successful control of wild boar or feral pigs’ populations

  14. Levantamento da fauna de Coleoptera que habita a carcaça de Sus scrofa L., em Curitiba, Paraná A study of the Coleoptera (Insecta fauna that inhabits Sus scrofa L. carcass in Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Makoto Mise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou levantar a fauna de Coleoptera associada à carcaça de Sus scrofa L.,1758, espécie utilizada como modelo em Entomologia Forense. O acréscimo ou a substituição seqüencial das espécies de insetos pode ser utilizado para estimar o intervalo post mortem (IPM. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Politécnico (UFPR, de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. A cada estação foi sacrificado um suíno de 15 kg no local, colocado em gaiola. A captura dos insetos foi realizada diariamente em bandeja posicionada abaixo da carcaça e em armadilha tipo Shannon modificada, e a cada 14 dias em cinco armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foram coletados 4.360 Coleoptera, pertencentes a 112 espécies de 26 famílias, 12 consideradas de importância forense. A coleta ativa realizada na bandeja foi responsável pela maior captura (2.023 espécimes, seguida pela armadilha Shannon modificada (2.016 espécimes e por último pelas do tipo pit-fall (324 espécimes. Staphylinidae foi mais coletada na bandeja e Shannon modificada, e Silphidae na armadilha pit-fall. Os principais hábitos encontrados foram predador/parasita (55%e onívoro (38,05%, com poucas espécies consideradas necrófagas (1,31%.This paper sought to assess the Coleoptera fauna associated with carcasses of Sus scrofa L., 1758, which is usually used as model in Forensic Entomology. The addition and sequential substitution of insect species could be used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI. The present study took place in Centro Politécnico (UFPR, between september 2005 to september 2006. A pig weighting 15 kg was sacrificed each season and put inside a cage. Sampling is made daily in a tray placed below the carcass and in a Shannon modified trap, and each 14 days in five pit-fall traps. 4,360 beetles were collected, belonging to 112 species of 26 families, 12 were considered of forensic potential. The active collecting made in the tray was responsible for the largest number of

  15. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  16. Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

  17. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation.

  18. 应用RACE法分离和克隆猪GPX2基因研究%Study on the Cloning and Isolation of sus scrofa GPX2 Gene by RACE Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 周继昌; 李俊刚; 赵莹; 王康宁

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]Using molecular biotechnology to clone the sus scrofa GPX2 gene.[Method]Using total RNA of sus scrofa duodenum as template,degenerated primer pairs were designed according to the homology alignment analysis of GPX2 gone of human,rat,mouse,dog and cattle.A sus scrofa GPX2 gone sequence of 330 bp was obtained by RT-PCR application method.Primes were designed respectively according to the known sequence,sus scrofa GPX2 gene was isolated and cloned by 3-RACE and 5-RACE method and analyzed the gene sequence.[Result]A mRNA sequence of 924 bp was successfully cloned and isolated in this research.This sequence contained complete 3' end and had higher sequence homology with human,monse,catth and dog GPX2 gene,and there was codon called TGA which encoding See on the position of No.114-116 gene.[Conclusion]Sequence alignment analysis showed that the cloned gene was sus scrofa GPX2 gene(NCBI GenBank database,the sequence number was DQ98982).

  19. Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was describing the temporal evolution of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV contact prevalence among Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa populations under different management regimes and contact likelihoods with domestic pigs. Given the recent increase in wild boar abundance throughout Europe, we hypothesized that wild boar contact with ADV would remain stable in time even after significant reduction of ADV prevalence in domestic pigs. Results Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010. Conclusions Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation.

  20. Comparison of post-thaw DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa assessed with the neutral comet assay and Sperm-Sus Halomax test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Parda, A; Filipowicz, K; Strzeżek, J

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis whether the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the Sperm-Sus-Halomax (SSH) test kit could provide similar measurements of post-thaw DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa. Whole ejaculates or sperm-rich fractions of boar semen were frozen in an extender containing lactose, lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo), glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G) or in a standard boar semen extender (K3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. In all boars, both the NCA and SSH test showed similar levels of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation in samples of the same ejaculates, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure and extender. Yet, the levels of post-thaw sperm DNA damage, detected by the NCA and SSH test, were more accentuated in spermatozoa frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. Both the NCA and SSH detected variations among individual boars in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA fragmentation. Agreement between the measurements of the NCA and SSH was confirmed by scatter plots of differences, suggesting that the DNA integrity tests could detect the same sperm populations, which were susceptible to cryo-induced DNA damage. The findings of this study indicate that the NCA and the SSH test are effective in detecting similar levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and reinforce their importance in the assessment of frozen-thawed boar semen quality.

  1. An RNA-based analysis of changes in biodiversity indices in response to Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, R C; Ralebitso-Senior, T K; Thompson, T J U

    2014-08-01

    Despite emergent research initiatives, significant knowledge gaps remain of soil microbiology-associated cadaver decomposition. Nevertheless, preliminary studies have shown that the vast diversity and complex interactions of soil microbial communities have great potential for forensic applications such as clandestine grave location and postmortem interval estimation. This study investigated changes in soil bacterial communities during pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) leg decomposition. 16S rRNA, instead of the usually applied 16S rDNA marker, was used to compare the metabolically active bacteria. Total bacterial RNA was extracted from soil samples of three different layers on day 3, 28 and 77 after the shallow burial of a pig leg. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA was amplified, analysed by RT-PCR DGGE, and compared with control soil bacterial community profiles. Statistically significant differences in soil bacterial biodiversity were observed. For the control, bacterial diversity (H') and species richness (S) of the three layers averaged 2.48±0.14 (H') and 18.8±2.5 (S), respectively, while for the test soil increases (p=0.027) were recorded between day 3 (H'=2.71±0.02; S=21.3±2.0) and 28 (H'=3.46±0.32; S=60.3±16.9), particularly in the middle (10-20 cm) and bottom (20-30 cm) soil layers. Between day 28 and 77 the diversity and richness then decreased on average for all three layers (H'=3.43±0.20; S=60.0±17.3) but remained higher than on day 3. Thus, responses in soil bacterial profiles and activity to carcass decomposition, detected and characterised by RNA-based DGGE, could be used together with RNA sequencing data, changes in physico-chemical variables (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, temperature, redox potential, water activity and pH) and conventional macroecology markers (e.g. insects and vegetation), to develop a suite of analytical protocols for different forensic scenarios.

  2. Complex links between natural tuberculosis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boar

    OpenAIRE

    Iratxe Díez-Delgado; Mariana Boadella; MariPaz Martín-Hernando; José Angel Barasona; Beatriz Beltrán-Beck; David González-Barrio; Marina Sibila; Joaquín Vicente; Garrido, Joseba M; Joaquim Segalés; Christian Gortazar

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% f...

  3. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  4. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10-1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10-1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  5. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  6. The challenge of detecting classical swine fever virus circulation in wild boar (Sus scrofa): Simulation of sampling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra;

    2016-01-01

    populations can be a major cause of primary outbreaks in domestic pigs, strict control measures for both species were implemented. To guarantee early detection and to demonstrate freedom from disease, intensive surveillance is carried out based on a hunting bag sample. In this context, virologic...... investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted...... a simulation to model the possible impact of changes in sample size and sampling intervals on the probability of CSF virus detection based on a study area of 65 German hunting grounds. A 5-yr period with 4,652 virologic investigations was considered. Results suggest that low prevalences could not be detected...

  7. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  8. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  9. Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio

    2011-07-13

    A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products.

  10. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  11. Wild boar and red deer display high prevalences of tuberculosis-like lesions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-De-Mera, Isabel G; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n=57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n=8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate prevalence 42.51%) and up to 50% in red deer (mean estate prevalence 13.70%). We carried out exploratory statistical analyses to describe the epidemiology of TBL in both species throughout the core area. Prevalence of TBL increased with age in both species. Wild boar and red deer mean TBL prevalence at the estate level were positively associated, and lesion scores were consistently higher in wild boars than in red deer. The wild boar prevalence of TBL in wild boar did not differ between populations that were or were not cohabiting with red deer. Amongst the wild boars with TBL, 61.19% presented generalized lesions, and the proportion of generalized cases was similar between sex and age classes. In red deer, 57.14% of TBL-positive individuals presented generalized lesions, and the percentage of generalized cases increased with age class, but did not differ between the sexes. These results highlight the potential importance of wild boar and red deer in the maintenance of tuberculosis in south central Spain.

  12. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  13. Antibodies to West Nile virus and related flaviviruses in wild boar, red foxes and other mesomammals from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Ana-Valeria; Vicente, Joaquín; Sobrino, Raquel; Perez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-10-12

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) that are raised extensively outdoors, as well as other wild mesomammals from south central Spain and wild boar from Doñana National Park (DNP), were tested for antibodies against related flaviviruses by ELISA and for antibodies against WNV by VNT. Mean flavivirus seroprevalence according to ELISA was 20.4 ± 7.8% (21 out of 103) in red foxes, 12.6 ± 2.8% (69 out of 545) in wild boars, and 3.3±2.7% (6 out of 177) in Iberian pigs. A stone marten (Martes foina) also tested positive. Flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar was significantly higher in DNP, and increased with age. Haemolysis of the serum samples limited interpretation of VNT to 28 samples, confirming WNV seroprevalence in one red fox, four Iberian pigs and nine wild boars. ELISA positive, microVNT negative samples suggest presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against WNV or antibodies to other antigenically related flaviviruses. Despite the importance of wetlands for flavivirus maintenance and amplification, WNV/flavivirus seroprevalence in wild boar and red foxes was not associated to wetland habitats. This is the first report of exposure of red foxes to WNV. With view to use of the tested species as sentinels for flavivirus activity, limited exposure of Iberian pigs that would be available for regular sampling, low numbers of foxes collected and concentration of wild boar harvest in the winter season are major drawbacks.

  14. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs highlights their spatio-temporal expression patterns and evolutional conservation in Sus scrofa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonglin; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yalan; Yang, Yu-Cheng T.; Wang, Zishuai; Yuan, Jiapei; Yang, Yang; Hua, Chaoju; Fan, Xinhao; Niu, Guanglin; Zhang, Yubo; Lu, Zhi John; Li, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Despite modest sequence conservation and rapid evolution, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to be conserved in expression pattern and function. However, analysis of lncRNAs across tissues and developmental stages remains largely uncharacterized in mammals. Here, we systematically investigated the lncRNAs of the Guizhou miniature pig (Sus scrofa), which was widely used as biomedical model. We performed RNA sequencing across 9 organs and 3 developmental skeletal muscle, and developed a filtering pipeline to identify 10,813 lncRNAs (9,075 novel). Conservation patterns analysis revealed that 57% of pig lncRNAs showed homology to humans and mice based on genome alignment. 5,455 lncRNAs exhibited typical hallmarks of regulatory molecules, such as high spatio-temporal specificity. Notably, conserved lncRNAs exhibited higher tissue specificity than pig-specific lncRNAs and were significantly enriched in testis and ovary. Weighted co-expression network analysis revealed a set of conserved lncRNAs that are likely involved in postnatal muscle development. Based on the high degree of similarity in the structure, organization, and dynamic expression of pig lncRNAs compared with human and mouse lncRNAs, we propose that these lncRNAs play an important role in organ physiology and development in mammals. Our results provide a resource for studying animal evolution, morphological complexity, breeding, and biomedical research. PMID:28233874

  16. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  17. ORIGENS, RAMIFICAÇÕES E DISTRIBUIÇÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS FACIAIS EM SUÍNOS (SUS SCROFA DOMESTICUS – LINNAEUS, 1758 DA LINHAGEM SADIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Aparecida Castilho Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, ramifications and distributions of the left and right facial arteries were studied in 30 stillborn pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus of the Sadia lineage, 17 males and 13 females, with the aim of increasing morphological knowledge of these structures in terms of their localization and distribution. The species was chosen for its well known commercial importance. The specimen had its artery system filled with stained solution of neoprene latex 601 A and afterwards fixed in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. It was observed that in 100% of the studied animals the facial arteries originated from the ventrolateral surface of the external carotid artery, rostrally to the lingual artery. The gland branches divided, supplying the mandibular, parotid, monostomática portion of the sublingual and part of the cervical thymus in muscular branches, irrigating the medial pterygoid, masseter, ventral aspect of the digastrics and cutaneous of the face muscles. Furthermore, the pharyngal branch irrigated the soft palate, tympanic bula and basihyoid, and the submentalis artery was directed towards the submental and the dorsal face of the digastrics muscles.

  18. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs highlights their spatio-temporal expression patterns and evolutional conservation in Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonglin; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yalan; Yang, Yu-Cheng T; Wang, Zishuai; Yuan, Jiapei; Yang, Yang; Hua, Chaoju; Fan, Xinhao; Niu, Guanglin; Zhang, Yubo; Lu, Zhi John; Li, Kui

    2017-02-24

    Despite modest sequence conservation and rapid evolution, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to be conserved in expression pattern and function. However, analysis of lncRNAs across tissues and developmental stages remains largely uncharacterized in mammals. Here, we systematically investigated the lncRNAs of the Guizhou miniature pig (Sus scrofa), which was widely used as biomedical model. We performed RNA sequencing across 9 organs and 3 developmental skeletal muscle, and developed a filtering pipeline to identify 10,813 lncRNAs (9,075 novel). Conservation patterns analysis revealed that 57% of pig lncRNAs showed homology to humans and mice based on genome alignment. 5,455 lncRNAs exhibited typical hallmarks of regulatory molecules, such as high spatio-temporal specificity. Notably, conserved lncRNAs exhibited higher tissue specificity than pig-specific lncRNAs and were significantly enriched in testis and ovary. Weighted co-expression network analysis revealed a set of conserved lncRNAs that are likely involved in postnatal muscle development. Based on the high degree of similarity in the structure, organization, and dynamic expression of pig lncRNAs compared with human and mouse lncRNAs, we propose that these lncRNAs play an important role in organ physiology and development in mammals. Our results provide a resource for studying animal evolution, morphological complexity, breeding, and biomedical research.

  20. Functional characterization of a novel lytic phage EcSw isolated from Sus scrofa domesticus and its potential for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easwaran, Maheswaran; Paudel, Sarita; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli Sw1 (E. coli Sw1) and active lytic phage EcSw was isolated from feces samples of Sus scrofa domesticus (piglet) suffering from diarrhea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that isolated EcSw belongs to the Myoviridae family with an icosahedral head (80 ± 4) and a long tail (180 ± 5 nm). The EcSw phage genome size was estimated to be approximately 75 Kb of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phage dynamic studies show that the latent period and burst size of EcSw were approximately 20 min and 28 PFU per cell, respectively. Interestingly, the EcSw phage can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH and ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that the lytic genes of the EcSw phage are notably similar to those of enterobacteria phages. In addition, phage-antibiotic synergy has notable effects compared with the effects of phages or antibiotics alone. Inhibition of E. coli Sw1 and 0157:H7 strains showed that the limitations of host specificity and infectivity of EcSw. Even though, it has considerable potential for phage therapy for handling the problem of the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens.

  1. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  2. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures.

  3. Genome-wide identification, classification and functional analyses of the bHLH transcription factor family in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuyi

    2015-08-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest families of gene regulatory proteins and play crucial roles in genetic, developmental and physiological processes in eukaryotes. Here, we conducted a survey of the Sus scrofa genome and identified 109 putative bHLH transcription factor members belonging to super-groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while four members were orphan genes. We identified 6 most significantly enriched KEGG pathways and 116 most significant GO annotation categories. Further comprehensive surveys in human genome and other 12 medical databases identified 72 significantly enriched biological pathways with these 113 pig bHLH transcription factors. From the functional protein association network analysis 93 hub proteins were identified and 55 hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within their protein families. Especially, there were 20 hub proteins found highly connected in the functional interaction network. The present study deepens our understanding and provided insights into the evolution and functional aspects of animal bHLH proteins and should serve as a solid foundation for further for analyses of specific bHLH transcription factors in the pig and other mammals.

  4. Dipterofauna Associated with Sus scrofa Linné, 1758, Carcasses in Urban and Coastal Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Luiza Cavallari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadaverous entomofauna successions vary according to the region, environment, and climate, and such differences may occur within the same country due to seasonal variations. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the dipterofauna that visit or colonize carcasses in the urban and coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, during summer and winter seasons. Four swine (Sus scrofa Linné, 1758 carcasses of approximately 12 kg were used. The animals were previously euthanized and then placed in metal cages covered with a flight intercept trap (Shannon, modified. In total, 10,495 flies from 39 families were collected, with 15 species belonging to the Calliphoridae family, 14 species belonging to the Fanniidae family, 43 species belonging to the Muscidae family, and 22 species belonging to the Sarcophagidae family. Flies from these four families visited all carcasses; however, they did not show the highest visitation frequencies in all of the trials. Species variations occurred between the experiments that were performed at different locations and in different seasons. Furthermore, difference in the number of insects attracted to each stage of decomposition was observed. In addition to the four families highlighted above, the families Phoridae, Sepsidae, Otitidae, and Piophilidae were observed in all carcasses.

  5. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

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    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  6. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

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    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  7. Assessment of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and an inactivated M. bovis preparation for wild boar in terms of adverse reactions, vaccine strain survival, and uptake by nontarget species

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A; Barasona, José A.; Garrido, Joseba M; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or i...

  8. Quantitative trait loci for the number of vertebrae onSus scrofa chromosomes 1 and 7 independently inlfuence the numbers of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in pigs

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    ZHANG Long-chao; WANG Li-gang; WANG Li-xian; LIU Xin; LIANG Jing; YAN Hua; ZHAO Ke-bin; LI Na; PU Lei; SHI Hui-bi; ZHANG Yue-bo

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae have been identiifed onSus scrofa chromo-somes (SSCs) 1 and 7, the inlfuence of these QTLs on the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is not clear. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with total number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae and for each trait (number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae) separately. A total of 581 individuals from an F2 Large White×Minzhu population were genotyped using an SNP60K chip. Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for total number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae, 38 signiifcant SNPs were identiifed in two QTL regions located on SSC1 and SSC7. Performing a GWAS for number of thoracic vertebrae only, 72 signiifcant SNPs were located on SSC7. While performing a GWAS for number of lumbar vertebrae only, 17 signiifcant SNPs were identiifed on SSC1. Gene mining suggested that the gene encoding orphan nuclear receptor, germ cel nuclear factor (NR6A1) on SSC1 was a strong candidate affecting the number of lumbar vertebrae in pigs. Additionaly, genes encoding vertnin (VRTN), prospero homeobox 2 (PROX2), Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) may be important candidates affecting the number of thoracic vertebrae in pigs. QTLs on SSC1 and SSC7 independently inlfuenced the numbers of tho-racic and lumbar vertebrae. These results shed light on the complex genetic background of vertebrae development in pigs.

  9. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  10. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

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    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  11. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

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    Christopher M Wurster

    Full Text Available Feral pigs (Sus scrofa are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13C and δ(15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  12. Insectos asociados a fenómenos de descomposición cadavérica en cerdo blanco ( Sus scrofa en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca

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    Ospina Fonseca María Fernanda

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objeto iniciar la investigación de los insectos asociados a fenómenos dedescomposición en una zona alta, específicamente en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundina-marca. Para lograrlo se usó como biomodelo cerdo blanco (Sus scrofa por su similitud conlos humanos, éste se sacrificó y se dejó al aire libre durante ocho meses. El proceso de des-composición se dividió en cinco fases: fresco (2 días, hinchado (13 días, descomposiciónactiva (15 días, descomposición avanzada (31 días y restos secos (160 días. Durante esteperiodo se recogieron 3.539 individuos, el 86.69% pertenecientes a Diptera y el 8.36% aColeoptera. Las familias más numerosas de Diptera fueron Muscidae (62.08% y Calliphoridae(14.44%, mientras que en Coleoptera fueron Silphidae (68.58% y Staphylinidae (14.86%.Se pudo observar la participación de los géneros Calliphora, Paralucilia y Chloroprocta, estosgéneros no aparecen en zonas bajas y podrían ser propios de zonas altas. No se presentarongrupos exclusivos para cada fase del proceso, aunque la presencia y abundancia de Diptera fuemayor al inicio de la descomposición, mientras que Coleoptera (exceptuando Silphidae fuemás abundante y activo al final del proceso. La lluvia ocasionó una "regresión" en la sucesiónde insectos. El presente trabajo no constituye una herramienta de carácter legal pero es elprimer trabajo sobre entomología forense realizado en la Sabana de Bogotá y es base paratrabajos posteriores en la zona.

  13. Desarrollo y caracterización de cebos para la administración oral de medicamentos a jabalíes (sus scrofa): inmunización oral de rayones con la vacuna bcg frente a la tuberculosis bovina.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Hurtado, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa) es un reservorio importante de patógenos como, por ejemplo, aquellos pertenecientes al complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis que afectan a los seres humanos y a los animales domésticos. La erradicación de estas enfermedades requiere el desarrollo de estrategias de control que reduzcan la transmisión de patógenos entre los animales. Una estrategia adecuada, entre otras, es la vacunación oral. La vacunación efectiva de los jabalíes y otras especies silvestres requie...

  14. The role of wild boars in spore dispersal of hypogeous fungi

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    Federica Piattoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars (Sus scrofa L. are well-known for soil disturbance in natural and cultivated truffières but their role in spore dispersal is poorly investigated. In the present work we studied the occurrence of hypogeous fungal spores in faecal contents of 14 wild boars randomly hunted in “Parco dei Gessi e Calanchi dell’Abbadessa” Regional Park (North of Italy where truffle production has been previously investigated for three years. Six methods for spore analysis in faeces were compared and the suspension of faeces in ZnSO4 (70% solution resulted to be the most reliable. Hypogeous fungal spores, including Tuber magnatum and Tuber aestivum spores, were detected in 9 animals. This result suggests that the detection of fungal spores in faeces of wild boars may provide information on the presence of hypogeous fungi in an area. However, the poor abundance of spores suggests that the wild boar can be considered an opportunistic mycophagist, ingesting truffles only occasionally, as a seasonal source of food. Considering the magnitude of wild boar movements during seasonal migrations, it is possible to speculate that they play a key role in truffle long distance dispersal.

  15. Experimental infection of Eurasian wild boar with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Carrasco-García, R; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Ballesteros, C; Aranaz, A; Romero, B; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; de la Fuente, J; Gortazar, C

    2010-07-29

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is increasingly relevant as a host for several pathogenic mycobacteria. We aimed to characterize the first experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in wild boar in order to describe the lesions and the immune response as compared to uninfected controls. Twelve 1-4-month-old wild boar piglets were housed in class III bio-containment facilities. Four concentrations of MAA suspension were used: 10, 10(2) and 10(4) mycobacteria (2 animals each, oropharyngeal route) and 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria (2 animals each by the oropharyngeal and nasal routes). No clinical signs were observed and pathology evidenced a low pathogenicity of this MAA strain for this particular host. Bacteriological and pathological evidence of successful infection after experimental inoculation was found for the group challenged with 2.5 x 10(6) mycobacteria. These four wild boar showed a positive IFN-gamma response to the avian PPD and the real-time RT-PCR data revealed that three genes, complement component C3, IFN-gamma and RANTES, were significantly down regulated in infected animals. These results were similar to those found in naturally and experimentally M. bovis-infected wild boar and may constitute biomarkers of mycobacterial infection in this species.

  16. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  17. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus Farms.

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    Christopher L Burdett

    Full Text Available Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S. can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for

  18. Anatomia dos ramos linguais do nervo hipoglosso em Sus scrofa domesticus, L., 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.772 Anatomy of branches linguais of nerve hipoglosso in sus-scrofa domesticates, L., 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.772

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    Alessandra Guerra Chaves Dias

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos as ramificações e distribuição do nervo hipoglosso após este penetrar na raiz da língua (36 antímeros de suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus, L. 1758 adultos de ambos os sexos abatidos em frigorífico (região metropolitana de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás - Brasil. O material foi resfriado para transporte (4ºC, fixado em solução aquosa de formaldeído (7% por 72h, imerso em solução aquosa de ácido nítrico (15% por 72h, dissecado sob lupa (RASOR, II-20. Nos antímeros, observou-se o tronco e ramos nervosos primários, secundários e terciários (método de BITTENCOURT et al., 1987. Seguimos a topográfica do nervo, a partir da região retro mandibular, entre as estruturas miofaciais do milohioideo e hipoglosso. Na raiz da língua, o nervo cruza a artéria lingual, passando a ser medial em relação a esta. Subdivide-se em três ordens de grandeza em direção ao músculo longitudinal superior, como segue: antímero esquerdo, quatro a 13 ramos primários, quatro a 21 ramos secundários e zero a 16 ramos terciários; no antímero direito, oito a 18 ramos primários, três a 13 ramos secundários e zero a 12 ramos terciários. Em 27,59% dos antímeros analisados, os ramos do nervo hipoglosso estabeleceram junções com fibras do nervo lingual do antímero correspondente.We studied the ramifications and distribution of the hypoglossal nerve after it penetrated the root of the tongue (36 antimeres of adult swines (Sus scrofa domestica, L. 1758 from both sexes slaughtered in frigorific (metropolitan region of Goiânia, Goiás - Brazil. The material was chilled for transportation (4°C; placed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde (7% for 72 hours; submerged in aqueous solution of nitric acid (15% for 72 hours; dissected under magnifying glass (RASOR, II-20. The trunk and the primary, secondary and tertiary nervous branches were observed in the antimeres (method of Bittencourt et al., 1987. We followed the topography of the nerve starting

  19. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

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    Iratxe Díez-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2. Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  20. Complex links between natural tuberculosis and porcine circovirus type 2 infection in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Boadella, Mariana; Martín-Hernando, MariPaz; Barasona, José Angel; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; González-Barrio, David; Sibila, Marina; Vicente, Joaquín; Garrido, Joseba M; Segalés, Joaquim; Gortazar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB) due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2). Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old) wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  1. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio;

    2016-01-01

    Y-chromosome markers are important tools for studying male-specific gene flow within and between populations, hybridization patterns and kinship. However, their use in non-human mammals is often hampered by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We identified new male-specific short tandem r...

  2. Lesions associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in the European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernando, Maria Paz; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquin; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Vidal, Dolors; Barral, Marta; Garrido, Joseba M; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Information on lesion distribution and characteristics is essential to determine the significance of a species as a reservoir host for tuberculosis (TB). Herein, we describe the extension and distribution of lesions in 127 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex culture positive European wild boars (Sus scrofa), and use this information to discuss the role of this wildlife species in TB epidemiology in Mediterranean Spain. Macroscopic TB-compatible lesions were detected in 105 of 127 wild boars (82.68%). Only microscopic lesions were found in 11 wild boars (8.66%). Lesions were not evident in 11 wild boars (8.66%). A total of 49 wild boars had lesions confined to one anatomical region (42.2%, localized TB), while 67 animals had lesions in more than one anatomical region (57.8%, generalized TB). Head lymph nodes (LNs), particularly the mandibular LNs, were most frequently affected (107/116, 92.24%), and 43 wild boar had only mandibular LN lesions. Histopathology evidenced TB lesions in 38.1% of the lungs, 23% of the livers and 13% of the spleens examined. Mammary gland lesions were observed in three cases. When TB lesions were localized, granulomas characterized by a mixed inflammatory cell population were more predominant, whereas strongly necrotic-calcified granulomas were more prevalent in generalized cases of TB infection. Large lesions in more than one anatomical region were more frequent among juveniles. The histopathological characteristics of the tuberculous reaction and the associated tissue damage in various organs, together with the gross pathology, indicate that at least those wild boar with large lesions and generalized infections have the potential to excrete mycobacteria by several routes. This finding, in the context of unusually high densities of wild boar and fencing and feeding, reinforces the suggestion that wild boar can act as a true TB reservoir under the particular circumstances of Mediterranean Spain. Further studies on the routes of excretion as

  3. Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus spermatozoa during epididymal maturation

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    Bonet Sergi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1 and beta (ADAM-2 are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins

  4. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  5. Protection against tuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

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    Joseba M Garrido

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

  6. Protection against tuberculosis in Eurasian wild boar vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.

  7. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó, Diana; Vicente, Joaquín; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Soriguer, Ramón; Jiménez Rodríguez, Rocío; Navarro-González, Nora; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Lavín, Santiago; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Segalés, Joaquim; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS) are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS). The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE); hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB) in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i) to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii) to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM) were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers) was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with

  8. Helicobacter apri sp. nov., isolated from wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Bassi, Patrizia; Mion, Domenico; Cnockaert, Margo; Luchetti, Andrea; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Three isolates (A19T, C21 and F12) with spiral-shaped cells and one bipolar sheathed flagellum were obtained from gastric mucosa and caecal contents of three different wild boars (Sus scrofa) and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. A genus-specific PCR showed that these isolates belonged to the genus Helicobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, 60-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP60) and atpA genes demonstrated they formed a novel lineage within this genus. Pairwise 16S rRNA, HSP60 and atpA gene sequence comparisons of the three isolates revealed 99.7, 99.4 and 99.9 % similarity, respectively, among the three isolates; the 16S rRNA gene of isolate A19T shared 98.5 % sequence similarity with its nearest validly named neighbouring species, Helicobacter mastomyrinus (to the type strain MIT 97-5577T). The taxonomic uniqueness of the wild boar isolates was confirmed by protein analysis performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS and by a distinctive biochemical profile. These data indicated that isolates A19T, C21 and F12 represent a novel taxon, for which the name Helicobacter apri sp. nov. is proposed, with isolate A19T (=DSM 28990T=LMG 28471T) as the type strain.

  9. First data on Eurasian wild boar response to oral immunization with BCG and challenge with a Mycobacterium bovis field strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, C; Garrido, J M; Vicente, J; Romero, B; Galindo, R C; Minguijón, E; Villar, M; Martín-Hernando, M P; Sevilla, I; Juste, R; Aranaz, A; de la Fuente, J; Gortázar, C

    2009-11-12

    The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in south-central Spain. The vaccination of wildlife with BCG offers an alternative to culling and to movement restriction for the control of bTB among wildlife reservoirs. In this study, we hypothesized that oral BCG immunization of wild boar would affect the expression of immunoregulatory genes and confer protection against M. bovis. Three groups were used to describe the infection, pathological findings and gene expression profiles in wild boar: BCG-vaccinated and M. bovis-challenged (vaccinated challenged group; N=6), non-vaccinated and M. bovis-challenged (non-vaccinated challenged group; N=4), and non-vaccinated and mock-infected (control group; N=2) animals. M. bovis was isolated from 50% (3/6) and 75% (3/4) of vaccinated challenged and non-vaccinated challenged animals, respectively. All four wild boar from the non-vaccinated challenged group developed bTB-compatible lesions 114 days after challenge. In contrast, only 50% of vaccinated challenged wild boar developed lesions. The PBMC mRNA levels of IL4, RANTES, C3, IFN-gamma and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) were analyzed at several days post-vaccination (dpi). When vaccinated challenged animals were compared to controls, all five genes were significantly upregulated at the time of M. bovis infection at 186dpi but IFN-gamma levels were also upregulated at 11 and 46dpi. The C3 and MUT mRNA levels were higher at 46dpi, and 11 and 186dpi, respectively, in vaccinated protected wild boar when compared to non-vaccinated challenged animals. At the end of the experiment (300dpi), the mRNA levels of selected genes were lower in non-vaccinated challenged animals when compared to control wild boar. Exposing wild boar to a dose of 10(4)cfu of M. bovis by the oropharyngeal route is an adequate protocol to produce an infection model

  10. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  11. Effects of wild boar grazing on the yield of summer truffle (Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salerni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research presented here seeks to describe the impact of wild boar to a natural truffle ground of Tuber aestivum Vittad. on Monte Amiata (Tuscany – Italy. Pedoclimatic analyses indicated that the selected area could be considered suitable for the truffle production. Then classification of the vegetation of a Quercus cerris forest was carried out exploring the possibility of the BACI (Before-After-Control-Impact sampling design. Finally 10 plots were selected, half of which have been fenced. For the first time the impact of wild boar was evaluated by estimating the surface area turned over by its activity. Moreover in each plot the number and weight of summer truffles was performed every 10 days during the fruiting period (June-November 2006-2008. The hypothesis that the presence of Sus scrofa has a strong negative influence on truffle harvesting has been amply confirmed by the data presented here, given the large increase of fruiting bodies of the summer truffle collected in the fenced plots. Consequently the destructive behaviour of the wild boar imply not only an ecological but also an economic damage in areas in which non-wood forest products are an important source of income.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

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    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  13. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region.

  14. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations.

  15. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed...... since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number...... of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (FST=0.126–0.138), and from DP (FST=0...

  16. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    Introgressive hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig has unpredictable evolutionary consequences and has the potential to alter reproductive, immunological and behavioural traits, influencing individual fitness and possibly increasing species' invasiveness. Though of great interest......, reconstructing patterns of gene flow between wild and domestic form of Sus scrofa is arduous. In fact, hybridization patterns may differ greatly with respect to time (ancient vs. recent), source (intentional in captivity vs. unintentional in the wild), spread (extensive vs. occasional) and directionality (i.......e. involved sexes of the two forms). This is likely to produce a puzzling scenario, where close populations may show contrasting signals of genetic introgression. Whether and how much this can impact the dynamics of local populations remains unproven. Diagnosing hybrids is the first step to address the issue...

  17. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in fenced wild boar and red deer in south central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades the management of large game mammals has become increasingly intensive in south central Spain (SCS), resulting in complex epidemiological scenarios for disease maintenance, and has probably impeded schemes to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in domestic livestock. We conducted an analysis of risk factors which investigated associations between the pattern of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) across 19 hunting estates from SCS and an extensive set of variables related to game management, land use and habitat structure. The aggregation of wild boar at artificial watering sites was significantly associated with an increasing risk of detecting TBL in both species, which probably relates to enhanced opportunities for transmission. Aggregation of wild boar at feeding sites was also associated with increased risks of TBL in red deer. Hardwood Quercus spp. forest availability was marginally associated with an increased risk of TB in both species, whereas scrubland cover was associated with a reduced individual risk of TBL in the wild boar. It is concluded that management practices that encourage the aggregation of hosts, and some characteristics of Mediterranean habitats could increase the frequency and probability of both direct and indirect transmission of TB. These findings are of concern for both veterinary and public health authorities, and reveal tuberculosis itself as a potential limiting factor for the development and sustainability of such intensive game management systems in Spanish Mediterranean habitats.

  18. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

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    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08982-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 365185. 44 6.6 1 ( EU333163 ) Sus scrofa breed Chinese northeast wildboar mitoc... 44 6.6 1 ( EU117375 ) Sus...F304203 ) Sus scrofa breed Swedish wild boar mitochondrion,... 44 6.6 1 ( AF30420...2 ) Sus scrofa breed Landrace mitochondrion, partial ... 44 6.6 1 ( AF304201 ) Sus scrofa breed Italian wild boar

  20. Efecto de dos sistemas de simulación de monta durante la I. A. en el comportamiento reproductivo de las cerdas (Sus scrofa domestica

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    J. Castañeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estímulos del verraco alrededor de la Inseminación Artificial (IA pueden afectar el desempeño reproductivo de la cerda. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de alforjas de 25 kg sobre la grupa o un cinturón alrededor de la zona lumbar de las hembras simulando, respectivamente, la monta y presión de las extremidades delanteras del verraco durante la cópula, en el tiempo requerido para realizar la IA, tasa de parición y número de lechones nacidos vivos por cerda. Treinta y tres cerdas primerizas y 117 multíparas alojadas en jaulas individuales desde el momento de la IA hasta el parto, fueron asignadas de manera aleatoria a uno de tres tratamientos: (I animales inseminados artificialmente sin presión sobre sus grupas ni zona lumbar (testigo; (II individuos con alforjas sobre sus grupas durante la IA y (III animales con un cinturón ajustado alrededor de su zona lumbar durante la IA. No se encontró diferencia (P>0.05 en el tiempo requerido para la aplicación del semen durante cada una de las tres inseminaciones realizadas a cada hembra en celo. Las marranas primerizas en el grupo testigo tuvieron mayor (P<0.05 número de lechones nacidos vivos, en comparación con las sometidas a los tratamientos de alforja o cinturón. Se concluye que los aditamentos utilizados durante la IA bajo las condiciones del presente experimento, no mejoran el tiempo requerido para realizar la IA, la tasa de parición, ni el número de lechones nacidos vivos por cerda

  1. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  2. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of α- and β-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence.

  3. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  4. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain

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    Jaime Bosch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar (Sus scrofa populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data and cross-validation (40% of the data. The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.

  5. Caracterización etnozootécnica y potencial carnicero de Sus scrofa “cerdo criollo” en Latinoamérica.

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    Virginia Linares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente revisión científica fue sistematizar información bibliográfica actualizada, concerniente a los aspectos genéticos, morfológicos, zootécnicos y potencial carnicero de los cerdos criollo s de Latinoamérica encontró una población de 73 millones de cerdos criollos en Latinoamérica, la mayoría de ellos criados bajo sistemas de producción extensivos, semiextensivos y agro pastoriles. Dado su origen europeo, la adaptación a los diferentes ec osistemas del continente y la introducción de razas ha devenido en una gran diversidad de cerdos criollos, lo que ha dado origen al aumento de variabilidad genética de los cerdos criollos latinos beneficiando su rusticidad, que involucra una mayor eficienc ia del sistema inmunológico. De la misma manera, su calidad de omnívoro le permitió una buena adaptación a regímenes alimentarios variados. Los cerdos criollos manifiestan un comportamiento reproductivo aceptable, tomando como referencia los indicadores de producción intensiva, precocidad sexual y alta viabilidad de los lechones al destete; sin embargo, su crecimiento es lento y su periodo de lactancia es largo. Con respecto a la calidad de sus cortes cárnicos, tomando en cuenta criterios subjetivos como la terneza y el valor nutricional, el cerdo criollo tiene mayor valor económico aventajando a los cerdos hipermagros.

  6. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

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    Gortázar Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (

  7. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  8. Avaliação imunofenotípica de subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de suínos neonatos (Sus scrofa

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    Cesaltina C.M. Tchamo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do uso do sangue do cordão umbilical como fonte potencial de células tronco hematopoiéticas e o uso do suíno doméstico (Sus scrofa como modelo para pesquisas biomédicas em medicina regenerativa, e por outro lado, visando dar um contributo sobre a quantificação das subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico, objetivou-se quantificar as células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ nas amostras de sangue de suínos neonatos. Analisaram-se as amostras do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de 48 leitões de linhagem Topigs, provenientes de porcas hígidas, inseminadas artificialmente e de parto natural. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico no momento do nascimento, por meio de venopunção da veia umbilical e seio venoso retro-oftálmico, respectivamente. As quantificações imunofenotípicas de células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ foram obtidas por citometria de fluxo. Os valores médios obtidos para as contagens das células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico apresentaram-se inferiores aos reportados para o sangue periférico de suínos adultos, sugerindo um componente imunológico imaturo. A proporção CD4+:CD8+ obtida no sangue do cordão umbilical (3,2±1,2% e no sangue periférico (3,2±1,7% ilustrou a predominância dos linfócitos TCD4+ com relação aos TCD8+. A quantidade relativa de células CD4+ e CD8+ no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico foi de 1,37±0,86% e 1,15±0,57%, respectivamente.

  9. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

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    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  10. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan

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    Takaoka H.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable and young (thin cuticle. Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus, O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax. Diagnostic charactets of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus. The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92 %.

  11. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

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    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  12. European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Rosengren, Johan K; Edman, Kjell; Edfors, Inger

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been extensively studied, and their immense importance in innate immunity is now being unveiled. Here, we report pronounced differences--probably reflecting the domestication process and differences in selective pressure--between wild boars and domestic pigs regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes. The open reading frames of TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 were sequenced in 25 wild boars, representing three populations, and in 15 unrelated domestic pigs of Hampshire, Landrace, and Large White origin. In total, 20, 27, and 26 SNPs were detected in TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6, respectively. In TLR1 and TLR2, the numbers of SNPs detected were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01) in the wild boars than in the domestic pigs. In the wild boars, one major high frequency haplotype was found in all three genes, while the same pattern was exhibited only by TLR2 in the domestic pigs. The relative frequency of non-synonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) SNPs was lower for the wild boars than for the domestic pigs in all three genes. In addition, differences in diversity between the genes were revealed: the mean heterozygosity at the polymorphic positions was markedly lower in TLR2 than in TLR1 and TLR6. Because of its localization--in proximity of the bound ligand--one of the non-synonymous SNPs detected in TLR6 may represent species-specific function on the protein level. Furthermore, the codon usage pattern in the genes studied deviated from the general codon usage pattern in Sus scrofa.

  13. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  14. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Schmalhausen Inst. of Zoology; Goshchak, S. [RIA Pripyat, Chernobyl (Ukraine). Restoration Dept.; Jones, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geography; Shcherbatchenko, A. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1996-12-31

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995. 18 refs, 8 figs.

  15. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

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    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  16. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  17. Assessment of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and an inactivated M. bovis preparation for wild boar in terms of adverse reactions, vaccine strain survival, and uptake by nontarget species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Sevilla, Iker A; Barasona, Jose A; Garrido, Joseba M; González-Barrio, David; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Casal, Carmen; Vicente, Joaquín; Gortázar, Christian; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife vaccination is increasingly being considered as an option for tuberculosis control. We combined data from laboratory trials and an ongoing field trial to assess the risk of an oral Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine and a prototype heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis preparation for Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). We studied adverse reactions, BCG survival, BCG excretion, and bait uptake by nontarget species. No adverse reactions were observed after administration of BCG (n = 27) or inactivated M. bovis (n = 21). BCG was not found at necropsy (175 to 300 days postvaccination [n = 27]). No BCG excretion was detected in fecal samples (n = 162) or in urine or nasal, oral, or fecal swab samples at 258 days postvaccination (n = 29). In the field, we found no evidence of loss of BCG viability in baits collected after 36 h (temperature range, 11°C to 41°C). Camera trapping showed that wild boar (39%) and birds (56%) were the most frequent visitors to bait stations (selective feeders). Wild boar activity patterns were nocturnal, while diurnal activities were recorded for all bird species. We found large proportions of chewed capsules (29%) (likely ingestion of the vaccine) and lost baits (39%) (presumably consumed), and the proportion of chewed capsules showed a positive correlation with the presence of wild boar. Both results suggest proper bait consumption (68%). These results indicate that BCG vaccination in wild boar is safe and that, while bait consumption by other species is possible, this can be minimized by using selective cages and strict timing of bait deployment.

  18. Comparative Testing of Hemostatic Dressing in a Large Animal Model (Sus Scorofa) with Severe hepatic Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    hemostatic dressings in a large animal model (Sus scrofa ) with severe hepatic injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Capt...to Date Sus scrofa 36 18 18 Note. Many fewer animals than approved were used because one of the original treatment groups (Lypressin- soaked gauze

  19. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan. A comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, H; Bain, O; Uni, S; Korenaga, M; Kozek, W J; Shirasaka, C; Aoki, C; Otsuka, Y; Fukuda, M; Eshita, Y; Daa, T

    2004-09-01

    Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable) and young (thin cuticle). Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus), O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax). Diagnostic characters of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus). The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92%).

  20. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, P H D; Faccini, J L H; Herrera, H M; Tavares, L E R; Mourão, G M; Piranda, E M; Paes, R C S; Ribeiro, C C D U; Borghesan, T C; Piacenti, A K; Kinas, M A; Santos, C C; Ono, T M; Paiva, F

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population.

  1. Genotype-independent transmission of transgenic fluorophore protein by boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Recently, we generated transposon-transgenic boars (Sus scrofa, which carry three monomeric copies of a fluorophore marker gene. Amazingly, a ubiquitous fluorophore expression in somatic, as well as in germ cells was found. Here, we characterized the prominent fluorophore load in mature spermatozoa of these animals. Sperm samples were analyzed for general fertility parameters, sorted according to X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm fractions, assessed for potential detrimental effects of the reporter, and used for inseminations into estrous sows. Independent of their genotype, all spermatozoa were uniformly fluorescent with a subcellular compartmentalization of the fluorophore protein in postacrosomal sheath, mid piece and tail. Transmission of the fluorophore protein to fertilized oocytes was shown by confocal microscopic analysis of zygotes. The monomeric copies of the transgene segregated during meiosis, rendering a certain fraction of the spermatozoa non-transgenic (about 10% based on analysis of 74 F1 offspring. The genotype-independent transmission of the fluorophore protein by spermatozoa to oocytes represents a non-genetic contribution to the mammalian embryo.

  2. Genetic evidence for the presence of two species of Onchocerca from the wild boar in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the genetic differences between Onchocerca dewittei japonica, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan and a related undescribed Onchocerca sp., both parasitizing wild boar (Sus scrofa of which the infective larval stages are indistinguishable from each other, we compared the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene region from four infective larvae (recovered from experimentally infected black flies, one microfilaria, and one adult of O. dewittei japonica, and from one infective larva (recovered from an experimentally infected black fly, one microfilaria, and a pool of several microfilariae of O. sp. The length of the CO1 gene region was 649 bp for all samples but there was a difference of 8.8 to 9.4% in the sequences between the two species although there were intraspecific variations of 0 to 0.5%. The CO1 sequences of O. sp. did not correspond to any of those deposited in the databases. Our study provides evidence that O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. are genetically different from each other.

  3. Mitochondrial lineages reveal intense gene flow between Iberian wild boars and South Iberian pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, B; Pereira, F; Santos, L S; Carneiro, J; Santos, N; Amorim, A

    2012-02-01

    The phylogeography of wild boars (WB) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) has contributed important insights into where and when domestication occurred. The geographic distribution of two core haplotypes (E1a and E1c) of the main European phylogenetic clade suggests that Central Europe was an early domestication centre, although the complexity of the pattern does not exclude the possibility that multiple domestication events occurred in different regions. To investigate the relationships among WB and domestic pig breeds in Iberia, a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region from a large sample (n=409) of WB and local pig breeds was co-analysed with published sequences from other European populations. The Iberian sample revealed a high frequency of a sub-cluster (E1c) of the European haplogroup E1 in 77% of total Iberian samples, 96% of WB, 90% of Alentejano (Portugal) and 87% of Iberian breed pigs (Spain; Black Hairy, Black Hairless and Red varieties). Low genetic distance (F'(ST) = 0.105) was observed between Alentejano (Portugal) and Iberian breed pigs (Spain). Alentejano and Iberian breed pigs showed low genetic distances to both Iberian and Central European WB (average F'(ST) =0.345 and 0.215, respectively). This pattern suggests that early pig husbandry in the Iberian Peninsula did not solely rely on imported Central European stock, but also included the recruitment of local WB.

  4. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF.

  5. Rho相关蛋白激酶抑制剂Y-27632对猪诱导多能干细胞冻存和传代效率的影响%Effected of Rho-associated Protein Kinase Inhibitor Y-27632 on Improving the Cryopreserved Survival and Passage of Porcine(Sus scrofa)Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成德; 高星; 李珍珍; 高祎; 刘亚军; 鲍建昌; 王华岩

    2012-01-01

    Pig is used as an important model animal, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) have been established in pig now. However, the efficiency of cryopreserved survival and passage is very low. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 enhanced the survival of cryopreserved of human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and improved the ES colony formation. In this study, we used Y-27632 for porcine (Sus scrofa) induced pluripotent stem cells. 5 and 10μmol/L Y-27632 was used for cryopreservation and passage of porcine iPS cells, and it suggested that Y-27632 could greatly suppress cryopreserved-induced apoptosis and increase thaw-survival rates of porcine iPS cells. Meanwhile, it was able to help the adhesion of porcine iPS cell in passage when 5 and 10μmol/L Y-27632 was mixed into culture medium, and it also contributed to porcine iPS colonies formation in 24 h. Furthermore, 10 μmol/L Y-27632 would change the morphology of porcine iPS cells, and made the colonies become flat and loose, but it did not affect alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and the expression level of pluripotenct genes, octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4), SRY-related high-mobility-group (HMG)-box protein-2 (Sox2) and homeobox transcription factor (Nanog) in porcine iPS cells treated with Y-27632. Besides, PB [Act-RFP] DS, the transposon reporter construct, was introduced into porcine iPS cells through electric transfected, and RFP positive cells were sorted by flow-cytometry. After treated with 10μmol/L Y-27632 in culture medium, these sorted cells were easier to grow. After these sorting porcine iPS cells injected into porcine early embryos through micromanipulation, the cells treated with Y-27632 were easier to integrate into porcine parthenogenetic embryos than that without treated cells. Above all Y-27632 were able to improve the cryopreserved survival and passage of porcine iPS cells, and suppress the apoptosis induced by single cell dissociated and fluorescence

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  7. Characterization of a polymorphic IGLV gene in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, John C; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    Swine, unlike other artiodactyls, but similar to humans, utilize both lambda and kappa light chain isotypes almost equally in the generation of their antibody repertoire. The porcine antibody light chain loci have previously been characterized in a single Duroc sow in which was seen extensive allelic variation between light chain genes on homologous chromosomes. However, the extent of variation between individuals is completely unknown. Using deep sequencing of cDNA-derived amplicons from five pigs, we report the identification and characterization of an IGLV gene that is functional and highly expressed in some animals, yet completely absent in others. Our findings provide a possible rationale for the known individual-to-individual variation in antibody responses to vaccination, infectious challenge, and subsequent disease outcome.

  8. Toepasbaarheid in Nederland van afweer- en lokmiddelen voor wilde zwijnen (Sus scrofa scrofa L.).)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Het Faunafonds wil graag meer inzicht in de beschikbaarheid, kosten, toelaatbaarheid en ervaringen in Duitsland van afweer- en lokmiddelen voor wilde zwijnen, omdat in Nederland de overlast door wilde zwijnen in de afgelopen decennia is toegenomen en omdat traditionele afweermiddelen, zoals wildrast

  9. Stable isotopic analysis on sus bones from the Wanfabozi site, Tonghua, Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the sus diets and explore the possibility to distinguish domestic pig from wild boar through dietary analysis, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of 28 pig bones from archaeological site of Wanfabozi in Tonghua City, Jilin Province were analyzed. The δ13C and δ15N values of uncontaminated bones show that the overall pigs in the site were generally herbivores and ate mainly C3 plants. Significant difference of δ15N values was observed between wild boar and domestic pigs, which may result from the higher consumption of animal protein in domestic pigs other than from that in wild boar, possibly from human leftover or waste,. The dietary difference between wild boar and domestic pigs has great potential to differentiate wild boar and domestic pigs in the early stage of pig domestication.

  10. Advances in Boar Semen Cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights aspects of the cryopreservation of boar semen, a species with particular large, fractionated ejaculates, and a cumbersome cryotechnology that had prevented its commercial application. With the dramatic increase of use of liquid pig semen for artificial breeding over the past decade, developments on cryopreservation alongside the routine use of stud boar semen for AI had been promoted. Recent advances in our laboratory, accommodating the best use of portions of the sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate for cryopreservation of the sperm-peak portion (P1 and parallel use of the rest of the collected ejaculated spermatozoa, appears as a suitable commercial alternative.

  11. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (Psperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (Pboar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques.

  12. Is there a future for the boar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes several boar stimuli in their potency to elicit estrous behavior and their potency to affect uterine contractility. With different levels of boar stimuli, onset of estrus can be recorded at different time points relative to ovulation, depending on the change in responsiveness o

  13. Pig, F1 (wild boar x pig) and wild boar meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni, M.; S. Tarricone; Pinto, F.; Dimatteo, S; G. Marsico; Rasulo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen carcasses of wild boars, pigs, hybrids F1 (wild boar x pig) and reared wild boar have been examined to study the meat quality and the fatty acid composition. Four carcasses came from hunted wild boars and twelve from animals reared in outdoor pens till nine months of age. The meat produced by the hunted wild animals, although not marketable, offers the best quality and nutritional characteristics. The use of hybrids reared in outdoor pens can approximate or equalize the hunted wild bo...

  14. Interferon-induced Sus scrofa Mx1 blocks endocytic traffic of incoming influenza A virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Mélanie; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Cornet, François; Desmecht, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The interferon-induced Mx proteins of vertebrates are dynamin-like GTPases, some isoforms of which can additionally inhibit the life cycle of certain RNA viruses. Here we show that the porcine Mx1 protein (poMx1) inhibits replication of influenza A virus and we attempt to identify the step at which the viral life cycle is blocked. In infected cells expressing poMx1, the level of transcripts encoding the viral nucleoprotein is significantly lower than normal, even when secondary transcription is prevented by exposure to cycloheximide. This reveals that a pretranscriptional block participates to the anti-influenza activity. Binding and internalization of incoming virus particles are normal in the presence of poMx1 but centripetal traffic to the late endosomes is interrupted. Surprisingly but decisively, poMx1 significantly alters binding of early endosome autoantigen 1 to early endosomes and/or early endosome size and spatial distribution. This is compatible with impairment of traffic of the endocytic vesicles to the late endosomes.

  15. Expression patterns and subcellular localization of porcine (Sus Scrofa) lectin,galactose-binding, soluble 1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Qiu; Shuhong Zhao; Mei Yu; Bin Fan; Bang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Lectin,galactose-binding,soluble 1 (LGALS1) gene encodes galectin-1,an atypical secretory protein that plays an important role during myoblast proliferation and differentiation.In this study,the porcine LGALS1 gene was cloned and characterized from pig muscle.The predicted protein sequence shared a high identity with its mammalian counterparts.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that porcine LGALS1 was expressed at 33 day post-coitus (dpc) and 65 dpc at a relatively high level,and then decreased to 90 dpc during fetal skeletal muscle development,suggesting that galectin-1 is a potent factor implicated in the formation of myofibers.LGALS1 was found widely expressed in all tissues and transient transfection indicated that galectin-1 locates both in cytoplasm and nucleus.Genomic sequences and analysis predicted a promoter region at approximately 1.279.1.529 kb,but dualluciferase reporter assay indicated that it has little promoter activity.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig in Yunnan Province was firstly reported, which was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig was 16720 bp, including 34.77% A, 26.18% C, 25.81% T and 13.24% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig provides an important data set for the study on genetic mechanism.

  17. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yu-Lan; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig, which was 16,741 bp in size and had a nucleotide composition in A and T (60.46%). The genome consisted of a major non-coding control region (D-loop region) and 37 genes, including 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The genes in the mitochondrial genomes of Wuzhishan pig used three kinds of initiation codons (ATA, ATG, and GTG) and four kinds of termination codons (TAA, AGA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codons T-). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wuzhishan pig provides an important data set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  18. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Liang; Liu, Zhen; Yang, An-Qi; Li, Zhi; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Lantang pig is a native breed of Guangzhou Province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Lantang pig is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,709 bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region, Table 1). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 34.69% for A, 26.18% for C, 25.82% for T and 13.31% for G, in the order A>C>T>G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  19. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Chai, Yu-Lan; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the total length of mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig is 16,731 bp, including 34.66% A, 26.27% C, 25.74% T and 13.33% G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. ND2 selects ATT as the initiation codon, and ATA is chose as an initiation codon in ND3 and ND5, the nonstandard start codon is GTG in ND4L and the rest protein common start codon is ATG. The mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism, which plays an important role in the three-way crossbred pigs.

  20. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Rongchang pig is one of the native breeds in Sichuan province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig is 16,710 bp, including 34.67% A, 26.18% C, 25.82% T and 13.33% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Rongchang pig. The mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig subsequently provides an important information in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.

  1. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hu; Xu, Xing-Li; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the ear tissue of an adult Laiwu Black pig is from the Shandong province of China. The complete mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,710 bp, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (D-loop), with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrates.

  2. Developmental Stage-Specific Imprinting of IPL in Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengping Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted in placenta and liver (IPL gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in the mouse and human. Its sequence and imprinting status, however, have not been determined in the domestic pigs. In the present study, a 259 base pair-specific sequence for IPL gene of the domestic pig was obtained and a novel SNP, a T/C transition, was identified in IPL exon 1. The C allele of this polymorphism was found to be the predominant allele in Landrace,Yorkshire, and Duroc. The frequency of CC genotype and C allele are different in Duroc as compared with Yorkshire (P=.038 and P=.005, resp.. Variable imprinting status of this gene was observed in different developmental stages. For example, it is imprinted in 1-dayold newborns (expressed from the maternal allele, but imprinting was lost in 180-day-old adult (expressed from both parental alleles. Real-time PCR analysis showed the porcine IPL gene is expressed in all tested eight organ/tissues. The expression level was significantly higher in spleen, duodenum, lung, and bladder of 180-day-old Lantang adult compared to that in 1-day-old newborns Lantang pigs (P<.05. In conclusion, the imprinting of the porcine IPL gene is developmental stage and tissue specific.

  3. Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three feral pig populations inhabiting contrasting environments along the north easterncoast of Australia have been investigated with respect to population structure, individual condition andreproduction. The population on Prince of Wales Island contains a large proportion of juvenile andsub-adult pigs but lacks pigs in the higher age classes. Individuals also breed at an earlier age thananimals of the mainland populations. Pig populations on Cape York Peninsula show a largerproportion of older animals and feral pigs living in rainforest habitats show a low proportion ofanimals in very young and very old age classes. Pigs from the lowland rainforest population are inbetter condition than those of the other populations for most of the year, reflecting the availability offood all year round in this environment. Differences in the population structure of the threepopulations are discussed with respect to fecundity and several mortality factors such as predation anddiseases/parasites.

  4. Hybridization levels in European Sus scrofa, comparison between genetic and survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    separation between WB and DP, with a limited number of hybrids in both populations. The introgression level varies considerably among populations, from non-detectable to very high. Perceived presence of hybrids, based on phenotypic characteristics or historic data, is usually higher and widespread than...

  5. Ethnic -Zootechnic characterization and meat potential of Sus scrofa “creole Pig” in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Linares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic scientific review was updated bibliographic information concerning the genetic, morphological, zootechnical and meat potential of creole pigs in Central and South America. It was found a population of 73 million Creoles pigs in Latin America, most under extensive, and semi extensive production systems. Since its European origin, adaptation to different ecosystems on the continent and the introduction of new breeds has led into a wide variety of creole pigs. Adaptation and introduction of breeds have led also in a rise of genetic variability of pigs benefiting the rusticity that involves a more efficient immune system. In the same way as omnivore the creole pig had a good adaptation to different diets, getting better advantage of fibrous and fatty food than commercial breeds. On the other hand, creole pigs showed an acceptable reproductive performance, distinguished by sexual precocity and high feasibility of weaning, nevertheless its growth was slow and lactation periods were long. Regarding to the quality of meat cuts , it has not been disadvantaged, if we take into account subjective criteria as well as tenderness and the nutritional value, characteristics that give higher economic value outstripping commercial pig meat.

  6. Growth pattern of the maxillary sinus in the miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, T; Klauke, T; Lee, S H; Schumacher, G

    2000-01-01

    The biological role of the paranasal sinuses is obscure, can be elucidated through a cross-sectional growth study of the maxillary sinus in miniature pigs. The maxillary sinus area was obtained from lateral cephalograms of left skull halves of 103 female miniature pigs of known ages, from newborn to 24 months. Out of several nonlinear models, the growth of the maxillary sinus was best described with the Gompertz model. The first derivative of the Gompertz curve revealed an increase in the growth rates of the maxillary sinus until 4 months, after which sinus growth slowed down. The eruption of the permanent molars did not seem to have a significant influence on this growth pattern. Furthermore, growth in maxillary sinus size in the miniature pig does not follow growth in skull size closely, which showed the highest growth rates in newborn animals. In addition, a correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between maxillary sinus area and different characteristics of the masticatory apparatus (including linear cranial dimensions, and the dry weight of the masseter and zygomatico-mandibularis muscles) were influenced greatly by skull size. These results suggest that the existence of pneumatic cavities within the mammalian skull is not satisfactorily explained solely by an architectural theory. Epigenetic factors are likely to influence the final shape of the maxillary sinus.

  7. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  8. Meiotic recombination analyses of individual chromosomes in male domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.

  9. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  10. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs.

  11. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  12. Implications of food patch distribution on social foraging in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Liat Romme; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of social animals can be influenced by the spatial distribution of resources. In domestic housing facilities growing pigs will often be fed from feeding sites confined to a small area, i.e. effectively a clumping of food resources. In the present experiment we investigated how f...

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cells from swine (Sus scrofa): why they may prove to be important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Michael; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Three recent papers, published almost simultaneously by different groups, have described the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the pig, a species whose size, anatomy and physiology render them attractive as clinical models for the human. The approach used in each case was to infect somatic cells with integrating retroviral vectors designed to express four reprogramming genes (POU5F1, SOX2, cMYC and KLF4). The cell lines generated met the standard criteria for pluripotency, including the ability to differentiate along multiple tissue lineages. In most respects, the porcine iPS cells more resembled human embryonic stem cells and human iPS cells than their murine equivalents. Provided such porcine iPS cells can be "personalized" to specific pigs and then coaxed to differentiate along specific lineages, it should be possible to use such animals to test transplantation therapies with iPS cells for safety and efficacy before the procedures are applied to human patients.

  14. ABO and RH1 blood group phenotyping in pigs (Sus scrofa) using microtyping cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Majado, M J; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation or transfusion with ABO disparity is a cause for rejection or for severe hemodynamic alterations. ABO groups in pigs are commonly an unknown variable, which has been previously assessed by means of hemagglutination tests or immunohistochemical procedures on tissues. Herein, we have reported a simple method using commercial microcards for human ABO typing. However, the reagents directly derived from human sera included in these cards can result in false determinations due to alpha-gal interference. The ABO groups of 19 wild-type pigs (Landrace x Large White) were assessed using 2 commercial cards: Human sera-based and monoclonal antibody-based cards. The human sera cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the AB group and 11 to the B group. The monoclonal antibody cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the A group and 11 to the O group. None of the pigs showed reactions to Rh1 antibodies. Because the B group has not been described in pigs, the reaction in human sera cards represented an interference with alpha-gal antigen, a molecule structurally similar to the B blood antigen. Thus, microtyping cards based on monoclonal antibodies provided simple, quick way to assess ABO groups in pigs used for xenotransplantation. ABO concordance should always be investigated for these types of procedures.

  15. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W. M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L B

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  16. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Kumar Srivastava; Nidhi Rajput; Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Himanshu R. Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world. Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was is...

  17. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's import

  18. Extracellular superoxide dismutase of boar seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalowka, M; Wysocki, P; Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2008-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzymatic component of the antioxidant defense system that protects spermatozoa by catalysing the dismutation of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Age and season effects on SOD activity in the seminal plasma were measured in boars at the onset of 8 months through a 35-month period. It was found that age-related changes in SOD activity in the seminal plasma were markedly higher in boars less than 2 years of age. However, it appeared that SOD activity was established at the early sexual maturity age (8-12 months). There were variations in SOD activity throughout the season, being significantly higher in spring and autumn than in summer. A secretory extracellular form of SOD (EC-SOD) was purified to homogeneity (350-fold) from boar seminal plasma, using a three-step purification protocol (affinity chromatography followed by ion exchange and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography). The molecular properties and specificity of SOD (molecular mass, isoelectric point, optimum pH, thermostability and susceptibility to inhibitors) confirmed that the purified enzyme is an extracellular form of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase occurring in boar seminal plasma. The results of this study indicate that EC-SOD is an important antioxidant enzyme of boar seminal plasma, which plays an important physiological role in counteracting oxidative stress in spermatozoa.

  19. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  20. Paul Schreber, sus psiquiatras y sus manicomios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Álvarez Martínez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El magistrado Dr. Paul Schreber (1842-1911 estuvo gravemente trastornado al menos tres veces a lo largo de su vida. En todas sus crisis recibió atención médica; también en todas ellas precisó ser ingresado sin oponer a tal recomendación, en principio, la menor resistencia. Vivió y padeció pues en sus propias carnes tanto las drogas sedantes más empleadas en aquellos años (entre otras: yoduro de potasio, morfina, hidrato de cloral, bromuro, sulfonal e hidrato de amilo, como las habitaciones y celdas destinadas a este tipo de pacientes en clínicas neurológicas y en manicomios estatales; aulló, vociferó y vagó por sus pasillos y patios, forcejeó con los enfermos y respiró la sórdida y ruidosa atmósfera de los asilos de hace cien años, a pesar incluso de ciertos privilegios que su posición y dinero le permitieron.

  1. Castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar: 8 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Østevik, Liv; Elmas, Colette; Rubio-Martinez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical techniques for castration of the Vietnamese pot-bellied boar and outcome are described. Vietnamese pot-bellied pig (VPBP) boars (n = 8) were admitted for castration. Data retrieved from medical records (2002–2011) for these pigs included signalment, history, reason for castration, perioperative management, surgical technique, and complications. Follow-up information was obtained from owners. A scrotal approach with closed technique was used for 6 boars with normally descended testes....

  2. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN WILD BOARS FROM CALABRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naccari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn organochlorine pesticides (POCs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs in some samples (heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle tissue and spleen of wild boars (utilized as “bioindicator” from various areas from Calabria. Quantitative determination of POCs and PCBs were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by a Varian Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy instrument. Our data have shown low residual levels of OCs, heavy metals and the absence of PCBs in all samples analyzed and therefore the boar meat products are not dangerous for the consumer. Moreover, results obtained deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Calabria, a region a low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries and the traditional agricultural activity.

  4. EFFECT OF SEASON ON BOAR SPERM MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan LIPENSKÝ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the year–season effect on semen production parameters in the fertile AI boars. The evaluation was especially focused on the morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (MAS incidence. It was microscopically evaluated after making fresh semen smears and staining on microscopic slides. MAS incidence 19.46 % was lower at first half-year than at second half-year 25.00 % (P<0.01. Spermatozoa with distal protoplasmic droplet were furthest participated in total MAS incidence. Its rate was the highest at fourth quarter in comparison with annual period (P<0.001. We found that season has the negative effect on sperm morphology and significantly affects boar sperm quality and subsequently AI dose quality.

  5. Lectin histochemistry of the boar bulbourethral glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Badia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes, for the first time, the glycosidic content of boar bulbourethral glands using lectin histochemistry. Fourteen horseradish peroxidase- or digoxigeninlabelled lectins with different carbohydrate specificities were used in samples obtained from 3 healthy Landrace boars. The results obtained indicate that endpiece and duct cells synthesize and secrete mainly O-glycoproteins with a- and b-D-N-acetylgalactosamine, b-D-galactose-b(1®3-D-Nacetylgalactosamine, D-N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. Glycoproteins secreted by bulbourethral glands have a role in the protection and lubrication of the urethra. In addition, they may be also involved in the regulation of the sperm metabolic activity and in the maintenance of the structural integrity of acrosomal and plasma membranes.

  6. Field data analysis of boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2011-09-01

    This contribution provides an overview of approaches to correlate sow fertility data with boar semen quality characteristics. Large data sets of fertility data and ejaculate data are more suitable to analyse effects of semen quality characteristics on field fertility. Variation in fertility in sows is large. The effect of semen factors is relatively small and therefore impossible to find in smaller data sets. Large data sets allow for statistical corrections on both sow- and boar-related parameters. Remaining sow fertility variation can then be assigned to semen quality parameters, which is of huge interest to AI (artificial insemination) companies. Previous studies of Varkens KI Nederland to find the contribution to field fertility of (i) the number of sperm cells in an insemination dose, (ii) the sperm motility and morphological defects and (iii) the age of semen at the moment of insemination are discussed in context of the possibility to apply such knowledge to select boars on the basis of their sperm parameters for AI purposes.

  7. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, de Bjorn; Geijs, Daan J.; Boer, de Hans; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert; Segerink, Loes I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A micr

  8. Classification of Boar Sperm Head Images using Learning Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Pasma, Piter; Pijl, Marten; Sánchez, Lidia; Petkov, Nicolai; Verleysen, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We apply Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in automated boar semen quality assessment. The classification of single boar sperm heads into healthy (normal) and non-normal ones is based on grey-scale microscopic images only. Sample data was classified by veterinary experts and is used for training a

  9. Application of antioxidants and centrifugation for cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yi, Kangle; Chen, Chao; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu

    2012-06-01

    Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred due to the high susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to damage during cryopreservation and the complicated process required for deep freezing. In recent years, the application of antioxidants during the cryopreservation of boar semen has been the subject of considerable research aimed at improving the quality of post-thaw semen. Centrifugation is necessary before using cryopreservation protocols for freezing boar spermatozoa. Studies of the effect of different centrifugation regimens on boar sperm recovery, yield and cryosurvival have made significant contributions. Therefore this review elucidates results of recent applications of various antioxidants and centrifugation regimens used in efforts to improve cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. This review is intended to enhance understanding of the roles of these antioxidants and centrifugation regimens with respect to mechanisms that increase resistance to cryodamage of boar spermatozoa. In addition, the discussion addresses the need for developing an objective evaluation of effectiveness and estimating the prospect of application of new techniques for the cryopreservation of boar semen and its use in artificial insemination.

  10. Perceptual masking of boar taint in Swedish fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Lindahl, Gunilla; Lundström, Kerstin; Chen, Gang; Byrne, Derek V

    2009-04-01

    Surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practiced to avoid development of boar taint in pork meat which can occur if entire male pigs are raised. Boar taint is commonly characterised as exhibiting the odour and flavour of urine and manure. This study involves sensory characterisation of the possibilities to mask boar taint in meat from entire male pigs by fermentation and smoking to maintain high sensory quality in meat products if castration is prohibited. Model and commercial type Swedish fermented sausage products based on low or high levels of boar tainted fat, three different starter cultures and two different levels of smoking were studied. In the model sausages, liquid smoke masked the perception of boar taint. In contrast, the smoking procedure of the commercial sausages was insufficient to totally mask the perception of boar taint. In both the model and commercial sausages, the aroma development from the starter cultures lowered the perception of boar taint but was insufficient for total perceptual masking. Due to the total masking effect of smoking in the model sausages, it was clear that smoke may present a potential solution to remove the perception of boar taint in fermented sausages if the smoking procedure is optimised.

  11. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (pboar sperm.

  12. Influence of Boar and Semen Parameters on Motility and Acrosome Integrity in Liquid Boar Semen Stored for Five Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehested E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Ninety ejaculates from a total of 76 AI boars were extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS. Boar identity, breed, weight of the ejaculate and sperm concentration were registered. Motility and acrosome integrity were assessed after storage at 16–18°C for 6, 30, 54, 78, and 102 h. Storage time had a significant influence on both motility (p

  13. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  14. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high-re......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  15. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K;

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  16. Effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Savić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of three breeds of boars: Swedish Landrace (n=34, Large White (n=38, and Duroc (n=32. Boar sexual activity was analysed based on the libido index and intensity of ejaculation. The libido index was calculated as the ratio between the duration of ejaculation and time of preparation until ejaculation. The intensity of ejaculation was the volume of ejaculate (mL secreted in the unit of time (min. The effect of photoperiod was analysed as the effect of duration of daylight (12 h within photoperiod intervals (increasing and decreasing. Impact assessment was carried out by applying the General Linear Model procedure. Libido and intensity of ejaculation varied under the impact of photoperiod and the breed of boars. With the increase in age, the boar libido weakened, while the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation increased. Boars manifested better libido when the daylight lasted longer than 12 h in both photoperiod intervals. Different from libido, the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation were highest when the daylight was shorter than 12 h, but only in the decreasing photoperiod interval. Swedish Landrace boars manifested best libido, while in the production of sperm the Duroc boars were inferior compared with Swedish Landrace and Large White. The phenotypic relationship among libido, ejaculate volume, and ejaculation intensity ranges from very low to high; however, the coefficients were positive, which indicates the possibility of simultaneous improvement of these traits.

  17. Protective effect of Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Min; Wang, Ting; Wen, Duan-Gai; Hou, Jian-Quan; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation brings sublethal damage to sperm, resulting in reduced fertile life of sperm. Rhodiola rosea polysaccharides (RPs) have antiviral, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In the present study, the cryoprotective effect of RPs on boar sperm quality parameters after frozen-thawed process was investigated. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with RPs added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mg/L and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were assessed. Addition of RPs significantly improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and decreased sperm malonaldehyde level (pboar sperm.

  18. Acrosin inhibitor detection along the boar epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Cozlová, Nina; Dorosh, Andriy; Šulc, Miroslav; Guyonnet, Benoit; Jonáková, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Epididymal sperm maturation represents a key step in the reproduction process. Spermatozoa are exposed to epididymal fluid components representing the natural environment essential for their post-testicular maturation. Changes in sperm membrane proteins are influenced by proteolytic, glycosylation and deglycosylation enzymes present in the epididymal fluid. Accordingly, the occurrence of inhibitors of these enzymes in the epididymis is very important for the regulation of sperm membrane protein processing. In the present study, we monitored acrosin inhibitor distribution in boar epididymal fluid and in spermatozoa from different segments of the organ. Using specific polyclonal antibody we registered increasing signal of the acrosin inhibitor (AI) from caput to cauda epididymis. Mass spectroscopy examination of the immunoprecipitated acrosin inhibitor (12 kDa) unequivocally identified sperm-associated acrosin inhibitor (SAAI) in the epididymal tissue. Lectin staining showed N-glycosylation in AI from boar epididymis. Protein detection of AI was supported by the results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR showing the presence of mRNA specifically coding for SAAI and similarly increasing throughout the epididymal duct, from its proximal to distal part. Additionally, the immunofluorescence technique showed the AI localization in the secretory tissue of caput, corpus and cauda epididymis, and in the acrosome region and midpiece of the sperm.

  19. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few ...

  20. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  1. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  2. New insights into transduction pathways that regulate boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Detailed molecular mechanisms mediating signal transduction cascades that regulate boar sperm function involving Ser/Thr and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins have been reviewed previously. Therefore, this review will focus in those kinase pathways identified recently (boar spermatozoa that regulate different functional spermatozoa processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cell energy sensor kinase that was first identified in mammalian spermatozoa in 2012, and since then it has emerged as an essential regulator of boar sperm function. Signaling pathways leading to AMPK activation in boar sperm are highlighted in this review (PKA, CaMKKα/β, and PKC as well as Ca(2+) and cAMP messengers as upstream regulators). Interestingly, stimuli considered as cell stress (hyperosmotic stress, inhibition of mitochondrial activity, absence of intracellular Ca(2+)) markedly activate AMPK in boar spermatozoa. Moreover, AMPK plays a remarkable and necessary regulatory role in mammalian sperm function, controlling essential boar sperm functional processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, organization and fluidity of plasma membrane, and outer acrosome membrane integrity. These mentioned processes are all required under fluctuating environment of spermatozoa when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. An applied role of AMPK in artificial insemination techniques is also suggested as during boar seminal doses preservation at 17 °C, physiological levels of AMPK activity markedly increase (maximum on Day 7) and result essential to maintain the aforementioned fundamental sperm processes. Moreover, regulation of sperm function exerted by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Src family kinase pathways is summarized.

  3. Morphology of the Testis and Epididymis of Large White Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gbadebo Olukole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The testis and epididymis of twenty five adult Large White boars were used to investigate the biometric and histomorphometric parameters of the testis and epididymis of the boars. The aim of the study was to provide information which could be useful in the comparative regional anatomy of the male reproductive organs of domestic animals and thus an improved assessment of breeding soundness and fertility potential in boars. The average weight of the animals was 71.3 ± 10.7 kg. The average weights of the right and left testes were 170 ± 0.7.60 g and 179±6.48g, respectively with no significant dif¬ference. The average weights of the right and left epididymis were 40.9 ± 6.81 g and 43.7 ± 8.55 g, respectively, with no significant difference. The relative testicular and epididymal weights were 0.49% and 0.12%, respectively. This study shows that the testis is about four times the size of the epididymis. The ductal diameter of the head, body and tail of the epididymis were 418 ± 22.6 µm, 432 ± 20.3 µm and 939 ± 50.6 µm, respectively. The mean relative volume of the germinal epithelium, interstitium and lumen of the seminiferous tubules of the boars rats were 68.4 ± 3.46%, 5.5 ± 0.66% and 78.0 ± 4.81%, respectively. It can be concluded that the morphology of the testis and epididymis of the Large White boar are similar to those of most mammals. This work provides information the testis and epididymis of the Large White boar which could be useful in the comparative regional anatomy of the male reproductive organs of domestic animals and thus an improved assessment of breeding soundness and fertility potential in boars.

  4. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  5. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation.

  6. The characteristics of the porcine (Sus scrofa) liver miRNAome with the use of next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Klaudia; Gurgul, Artur; Oczkowicz, Maria; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs, which play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of a target mRNA. Despite a significant improvement in the identification of miRNAs in a variety of species, the coverage of the porcine miRNAome is still scarce. To identify porcine miRNAs potentially regulating processes taking place in the liver, we applied next generation sequencing. As a result, we detected 206 distinct miRNAs, of which 68 represented potential novel miRNAs. Among these new miRNAs, there were miRNAs deriving from the opposite arm of a hairpin precursor of already known miRNAs. Moreover, we observed 3' and 5' length and sequence variants, probably constituting so called isomiRs, as well as differentially mapped precursor loci, alternative precursor sequences and clustering of miRNA encoding genes. On the basis of expression levels, reflected by the number of sequence reads, we identified the most abundant miRNAs followed by gene target prediction and pathway analysis. The enriched pathways were connected with cellular and metabolic processes, growth factors as well as enzymatic activity. The obtained results are the first ones to concern the porcine liver miRNAome. Consequently, they will increase the number of known porcine miRNAs and facilitate further research on gene regulation mechanisms as well as biological processes associated with the liver functioning in pigs.

  7. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF.

  8. [Genetic components and the uncertainty of the phenotypic realization of the mass of newborns in domestic pigs Sus scrofa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S V; Kniazev, S P; Ermolaev, V I

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the features of the genetic determination of a continuous quantitative trait, the mass of newborn offspring in populations of the domestic pig. We defined several components that determine the phenotypic trait, such as the maternal effect, complete dominance, interaction of the parental alleles in the genotype of the offspring, and the uncertainty of phenotypic realization of genotype. We found that a phenotypic trait of high genetic determinacy can also have a maximum range in phenotypic realization, in which case each genotype encountered in the population can realize within the entire range of possible phenotypes.

  9. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  10. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  11. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    interference from the impedance leads. The subcutaneous layer, tacked down to the external sheath of the linea alba to reduce dead space , was closed...2014 468 to paramedian implantation between the external and internal abdominal musculature, as typically is performed in our African green monkeys ...McMonagle JD, McGinley MJ, Evans J. 2007. The toxicity of soman in the African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). Toxicol Mech Methods 17:255–264

  12. Imprinting Analysis of RTL1 and DI03 Genes and Their Association with Carcass Traits in Pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zong-lin; CHENG Huan-chen; XIA Qing-you; JIANG Cao-de; DENG Chang-yan; LI Yue-min

    2009-01-01

    Imprinted genes play significant roles in the regulation of fetal growth,development,function of the placenta and postnatal behavior in mammals,but little is known in pigs.In order to investigate the imprinting status of porcine retro-transposon like 1 (RTL1) and type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D103) genes,DNA samples of the parents and F1 animals,generated with reciprocal crosses between Large White and Meishan breeds,were isolated,and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP).The results demonstrated that the RTL1 gene was paternally expressed in 10 tissues,such as the skeletal muscle,heart,spleen,liver,kidney,lung,stomach,fat,small intestine and brain,and DI03 gene exhibited paternal expression in the skeletal muscle,heart,spleen,lung,stomach,and brain,in 2-month-old pigs.The association of RTL1 and DIO3 with carcass traits was further analyzed in the F2 population of Large White × Meishan pigs.The statistical results showed that the RTL1 A1101G polymorphism (EU781029) was significantly associated with lean meat percentage (LMP) and fat meat percentage (FMP) (P<0.05),while the DIO3 A744C polymorphism (AY533208) was not significantly associated with any carcass traits.These results indicate that the imprinting status of RTL1 and DIO3 is well kept across the mammalian species,and porcine RTL1 may have important roles in muscle growth and fat deposition.

  13. Proteomic analysis of pig (Sus scrofa olfactory soluble proteome reveals O-GlcNAcylation of secreted odorant-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eNAGNAN-LE MEILLOUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination.

  14. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Conrad

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans.

  15. Seroprevalence and parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii in Mexican hairless pig (Sus scrofa) tissues from the Southeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib-Paredes, G F; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Hernández-Cortázar, I B; Guzman-Marín, E; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and determine the parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in the heart and tongue tissues and the semimembranosus/gracilis muscles in a population of Mexican hairless pig (MHP). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 MHP, 9-12 weeks of age, from 10 municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The prevalence was estimated by the detection of T. gondii IgG antibodies via an indirect ELISA assay. The parasite burden was also determined by testing genomic DNA from sampled tissues using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), which amplified a 62bp product from the B1 gene of T. gondii. The seroprevalence was 53% (43/81), ranging from 0 to 100% seropositivity rate depending on the municipalitie of origin. The qPCR allowed detection of T. gondii in 5.3% (9/168) of the tissue samples, with an average of 2.5±2.71 parasites per gram (0.17±0.18 parasite equivalent) for the leg muscle tissue, 0.26±0.39 (0.01±0.02 parasite equivalent) for the heart tissue and 0.31±0.37 (0.021±0.025 parasite equivalent) for the tongue tissue. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the proportion and parasite burden among the different types of tissues evaluated. As shown by the ELISA, a high seroprevalence of T. gondii exists in MHP from the Yucatán Peninsula. The parasite burden found in the tissues showed similar tropism; therefore, the consumption of these tissues involves the same risk of acquiring infection if not properly cooked.

  16. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    treatment of acute cyanide poisoning in adult beagle dogs . Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44(suppl 1):5-15. 15. Posner MA, Tobey RE, McElroy H...cobalamine and acute cyanide poisoning in dogs . Life Sci. 1965;4:1785-1789. 18. Borron SW, Baud FJ, Barriot P, et al. Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin... Cardiology , the European Resuscitation Council, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Institute of Critical Care Medicine, the Safar Center for

  17. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3 ± 0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0 ± 0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3 ± 1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  18. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.

  19. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    that immune cells (i.e., phagocytes) can move into this layer to respond to bacteria and/or other foreign bodies, which could penetrate the skin. The...mirror images) from the bisected skin biopsy were usually available on each slide. A coin was tossed to determine which section would be imaged. If...was aligned so that the epidermal surface of the skin was approximately perpendicular to the long axis of the image. A second coin was tossed to

  20. Association of Oxelytrum cayennense (Silphidae, Coleoptera with Pig Carcasses (Sus scrofa, Suidae in Terra Firme Areas in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Resumo. Aspectos da colonização do silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm em carcaças de porcos do tamanho de um homem adulto na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke são apresentados. Esta espécie colonizou as carcaças de porcos do estágio enfisematoso à esqueletização. Adultos foram observados eventualmente predando larvas de moscas a partir do segundo dia de intervalo pós-morte e suas larvas foram observadas a partir do quinto dia se alimentando em áreas esqueletizadas, provavelmente limpando os ossos dos tecidos moles remanescentes. O comportamento predatório dos adultos nas larvas de dípteros mais velhas podem impactar suas populações e complicar estimativas de intervalo pós-morte, uma vez que estas são freqüentemente usadas para esta estimativa. Além disso, adultos e larvas têm potencial uso como indicadores de intervalo pós-morte (IPM porque o adulto pode colonizar carcaças do segundo dia em diante e as larvas do quinto dia em diante.

  1. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an e

  2. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  3. Genetics Research and Advance on Development and Utilization of Wild Boars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunlong; LIU Di; LI Zhongqiu

    2011-01-01

    Wild boar is one of the most important beast resources. It plays an important role in the maintenance of biological diversity. The genetic resources of wild boar can not only protect the genetic resources, but also improve the formation of new breeds in pigs. This paper summarized the advance on the main biological characteristics of wild boars, evolutionary origin between wild boars and domesticated pigs, and development and utilization of wild boars aimed to provide further insight into wild boar's genetic research and its resource protection.

  4. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction.

  5. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Benoît

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalians gamete production takes place in the testis but when they exit this organ, although spermatozoa have acquired a specialized and distinct morphology, they are immotile and infertile. It is only after their travel in the epididymis that sperm gain their motility and fertility. Epididymis is a crescent shaped organ adjacent to the testis that can be divided in three gross morphological regions, head (caput, body (corpus and tail (cauda. It contains a long and unique convoluted tubule connected to the testis via the efferent ducts and finished by joining the vas deferens in its caudal part. Results In this study, the testis, the efferent ducts (vas efferens, VE, nine distinct successive epididymal segments and the deferent duct (vas deferens, VD of four adult boars of known fertility were isolated and their mRNA extracted. The gene expression of each of these samples was analyzed using a pig generic 9 K nylon microarray (AGENAE program; GEO accession number: GPL3729 spotted with 8931 clones derived from normalized cDNA banks from different pig tissues including testis and epididymis. Differentially expressed transcripts were obtained with moderated t-tests and F-tests and two data clustering algorithms based either on partitioning around medoid (top down PAM or hierarchical clustering (bottom up HCL were combined for class discovery and gene expression analysis. Tissue clustering defined seven transcriptomic units: testis, vas efferens and five epididymal transcriptomic units. Meanwhile transcripts formed only four clusters related to the tissues. We have then used a specific statistical method to sort out genes specifically over-expressed (markers in testis, VE or in each of the five transcriptomic units of the epididymis (including VD. The specific regional expression of some of these genes was further validated by PCR and Q-PCR. We also searched for specific pathways and functions using available gene ontology

  6. Zinc and magnesium in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arver, S; Eliasson, R

    1980-11-01

    Mean +/- s.e.m. concentrations (nmol/10(8) cells) of zinc and magnesium in bull spermatozoa were 30.6 +/- 6.6 and 119 +/- 28.8, respectively. Corresponding values for boar spermatozoa were 16.9 +/- 1.98 and 57.1 +/- 4.3. Bull spermatozoa washed twice in a standard buffered salt solution, pH 7.75, lost 72.6% of their zinc and 46.5% of their magnesium. Boar spermatozoa lost 40% of Zn and 18% of Mg, respectively. Addition of albumin (4% final concentration) to the washing solution did not increase the loss of ions from bull spermatozoa but increased the loss of zinc and magnesium from boar spermatozoa to 52% and 41%, respectively.

  7. Impact of genetic selection on management of boar replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J A B; Buhr, M M

    2005-01-15

    Boars in an artificial insemination centre have been selected for their superior genetic potential, with 'superior' being defined as having traits the customer wants transmitted to his herd. The ability to meet the customers' needs depends on the heritability of the trait, the geneticist's success in devising a selection scheme for the trait in balance with other economically important traits, and the boar's ability to produce sperm that can fertilise oocytes. Genetic evaluation research over the past 20 years has greatly increased the number of traits for which a boar can be selected: currently in the Canadian national program, these include age at 100 kg, backfat at 100 kg, feed efficiency, lean yield and litter size. In the near future, traits that are very likely to be added to this selection list include piglet survival, marbling, loin eye area and structure traits. In Canada, sires are ranked on two estimated breeding value (EBV) indices; one, focused on development of terminal sire lines, is based on the growth and yield traits and another, primarily focused on maternal line development, de-emphasises these traits and incorporates litter size. Boars that are in Canadian AI centres because of their excellent growth traits are typically in the top 5-10% of the national population for terminal sire line index, but they may be only average or substandard for litter size. Conversely, boars selected to be in the top 5-10% for conveying such reproductive traits as litter size may only be in the top 33% for growth traits. The more offspring from a superior boar in either of these indices, the faster the population average for the trait improves. The original sire gets knocked out of the elite group, is culled and replaced by a higher ranked young boar from the now improved general population. Although genetic superiority should govern an AI centre's selection and culling of boars, decision-making in real life is seldom that simple. Selection criteria may be

  8. The use of a motorway wildlife overpass by large mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.; Worm, P.B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied how mammals used a wildlife overpass across a motorway in central Netherlands using track counts in 1989, 1994 and 1995. Throughout the study the overpass was used most frequently by red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and, less often, by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), r

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N.; Porrero, M.C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  11. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubin, C.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Barrio, del J.M.G.; Maqbol, K.; Sayyab, S.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that under

  12. Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure in boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszewska Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.

  13. SUS – 20 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Aguilera Campos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A RBMFC não poderia deixar de fazer alusão ao aniversário de 20 anos da promulgação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Este momento tem sido motivo de reflexão por todos aqueles que acompanham e militam, como nós, na sua construção. Em primeiro lugar cremos ter mais motivos a comemorar do que a lamentar. Em nosso campo de atuação, a Atenção Primária à Saúde e a Medicina de Família e Comunidade, alcançaram-se resultados extraordinários nestas duas décadas assim como estão lançadas para o futuro bases para o seu completo desenvolvimento. A ênfase dada à política de universalização com eqüidade irá requerer de todos os profissionais de saúde um crescente e renovado compromisso. Este esforço persistente deve ser destacado como um dos grandes ganhos em nossa sociedade que se reafirma e se aprimora como democrática. Por outro lado isto não se realizará sem esforços e investimentos em ciência e tecnologia, formação de recursos humanos e melhoria da qualidade em todas as suas dimensões, técnica e administrativa. Não se pode ignorar porém que resultados serão alcançados a médio e longo prazos e que só o trabalho árduo e permanente é capaz de realizar as mudanças almejadas. Assim a continuidade das políticas de Estado como a municipalização, a estabilidade dos mecanismos de financiamento, a capacitação de recursos humanos, a prioridade às ações de promoção e prevenção são aquelas que resultarão em melhores resultados em termos de indicadores de saúde. Não há como negar que algumas das questões consideradas problemáticas para o cidadão e usuário do Sistema Único de Saúde retornam diversas vezes à pauta sem que haja uma clareza de como serão resolvidas pelos gestores, profissionais e a sociedade brasileira em geral. É importante persistir com a decisão política por um modelo que garanta a territorialidade da assistência e que esta seja contínua, com vínculo, tal como

  14. Wild boar hunters profile in Shimane prefecture, western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda, G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars have been expanding their range and seriously damage agricultural crops all over Japan. Such situation is obvious in Shimane Prefecture, western end of Honshu Island, where most of its territory is mountainous. Populaton control is strongly expected by farmers and administration. However, the number of hunters has been drastically decreasing since the 1970’s. To maintain and increase hunters, we must investigate their activities and attitudes to clarify the problems. Questionnaires were conducted in 2001 on 310 hunters who renewed their hunting license at local office. The response rate was 80.0%. Wild boar hunters accounted for 61.6%, and the others were mostly bird hunters (32.5%. The objective of wild boar hunting was predominantly nuisance control, and very few hunted for money despite of its high commercial value. Most of them were farmers (35.8% and/or farm village dwellers (53.6%, and used the leg snare (61.4%. Despite the stable number of hunters, the number of hunters using guns is decreasing. Hunters do not to appear to be interested in maintaining the local hunting society. Leisure is the most pursued objective rather nuisance control. Therefore, actions should be taken to stimulate hunting as a leisure activity thus maintaining an important tool for wild boar management.

  15. Storage of sexed boar spermatozoa: Limits and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinaci, M; Perteghella, S; Chlapanidas, T; Galeati, G; Vigo, D; Tamanini, C; Bucci, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great potential application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine, the technology is not practiced in the pig industry because of technical factors and species-specific issues. The susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to stresses induced by the sorting procedure, the relative slowness of the sex-sorting process together with the high sperm numbers required for routine artificial insemination in pig are some of the main factors limiting the commercial application of this technology in pigs. This review briefly describes the damage to spermatozoa during sex sorting, focusing on an additional limiting factor: increased susceptibility of sexed boar spermatozoa to injuries induced by liquid storage and cryopreservation that, in turn, impairs sperm quality leading to unsatisfactory results in vivo. Strategies to extend the lifespan of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa and to improve their fertilizing ability after liquid storage or cryopreservation need to be implemented before this technology can be used in pig farms. In this regard, encapsulation in barium alginate membranes could be a promising technique to optimize the in vivo use of sexed boar spermatozoa, by protecting, targeting, and controlling the release of sperm into the female genital tract.

  16. LVQ acrosome integrity assessment of boar sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Biehl, Michael; Sánchez, Lidia; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    We consider images of boar spermatozoa obtained with an optical phase-contrast microscope. Our goal is to automatically classify single sperm cells as acrosome-intact (class 1) or acrosome-reacted (class 2). Such classification is important for the estimation of the fertilization potential of a sper

  17. Acrosin activity is a good predictor of boar sperm freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether acrosin activity could predict boar sperm freezability. For this purpose, we characterized the changes in sperm quality and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure of sperm samples from 30 Pietrain boars by analyzing four critical steps: step 1 (extended sperm at 15 °C), step 2 (cooled sperm at 5 °C), step 3 (30 minutes postthaw), and step 4 (240 minutes postthaw). Freezability ejaculate groups were set on the basis of sperm motility and membrane integrity after freeze-thawing. Results obtained highlighted the low predictive value in terms of freezability of sperm motility and kinematics and sperm membrane integrity, as no differences between good and poor freezability ejaculates were seen before cryopreservation. Significant differences (P sperm kinetic parameters, and after thawing for sperm motility and membrane integrity. In contrast, acrosin activity appeared as an indicator of boar sperm freezability because the differences (P sperm kinematics, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium content, acrosome integrity, and acrosin activity throughout the cryopreservation procedure were indicative of a significant damage in spermatozoa during the cooling step in both ejaculate groups. In conclusion, the main finding of our study is that acrosin activity can be used as a reliable predictor of boar sperm freezability because it differs significantly between good and poor freezability ejaculates yet before freeze-thawing procedures took place, i.e., in the refrigeration step at 15 °C.

  18. LVQ acrosome integrity assessment of boar sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Biehl, Michael; Sánchez, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    We consider images of boar spermatozoa obtained with an optical phase-contrast microscope. Our goal is to automatically classify single sperm cells as acrosome-intact (class 1) or acrosome-reacted (class 2). Such classification is important for the estimation of the fertilization potential of a sper

  19. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  20. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  1. Anticholesteremic property of Lactobacillus acidophilus yogurt fed to mature boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A D; Peo, E R; Shahani, K M; Lewis, A J; Whalen, P J; Amer, M A

    1989-04-01

    Three strains of Lactobacilus acidophilus (LA) were isolated from the feces of mature boars that were not being fed antibiotics from the Nebraska Gene Pool (NGP). All three LA isolates were screened in vitro for anticholesteremic and antimicrobial activities. One strain, LA16, caused the greatest reduction in cholesterol and inhibited both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli the most. LA16 was used to produce 16, 18.9-liter quantities of acidophilus yogurt (AY), over a period of 8 wk, for use as a feed ingredient in diets for the NGP boars. Colony forming units (cfu), pH, protein, energy, Ca and P were consistent across all 16 batches of yogurt. All of the 18 boars were fed a high-cholesterol diet for a period of 56 d at a rate of 2.268 kg/(hd.d) to furnish 6.661 g/(hd.d) of cholesterol. Nine of the boars then were fed 1.81 kg/(hd.d) of a second diet that was supplemented with .454 kg/(hd.d) of AY. The other nine boars were fed the original diet. Cholesterol intake was the same for the two dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected weekly from the brachial-jugular region and the sera were analyzed for lipids. Acidophilus yogurt reduced serum cholesterol (P less than .01) and low density lipoproteins (P less than .08), but it had no effect on serum triglycerides (P greater than .23) or on high density lipoproteins (P greater than .11).

  2. Boar and season effects on some parameters of semen fertilizing potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the more accurate fertile potential of sperm, it seems that the conventional parameters of boar semen quality (the ejaculate volume, sperm concentra­tion, progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and of those with intact acrosomal mor­phology are insufficient. Since recently, there have been numerous studies proving that protein concentration in sperm plasma has high positive correlation with boar fertile po­tential. The research objective was to determine the effect of boars as well as the season on the variation of protein content in the sperm plasma. For the research there were used spermal fractions of 2 boars with high (V-boar and 2 boars with low (N-boar protein con­tent in spermal plasma. The ejaculates of boars were taken once a week, for a month, during one year (4 × 12 = 48 ejaculates per boar. For protein analysis in the spermal plas­ma, the samples were prepared by centrifugation. The ejaculate volume, protein concen­tration and progressive motility varied considerably (p 0.01 protein content in sperm plasma (V-boars: 4 to 4.5% in warm and cold season; N-boars: 2.3 do 2.6% in warm and 2.3 to 2.5% in cold season. The obtained results showed that measurement of protein con­tent in boar sperm plasma could be a useful method for their ranking, based on fertile po­tential of fresh semen.

  3. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice.

  4. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of

  5. Antibiotic resistances of intestinal lactobacilli isolated from wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Viviana; Bayer, Katharina; Kern, Corinna; Goelß, Florian; Fibi, Silvia; Wegl, Gertrude

    2014-01-10

    Acquired antibiotic resistances have been reported in lactobacilli of various animal and food sources, but there are no data from wild boar. The objective was a preliminary examination of the antibiotic resistance prevalence of intrinsically vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli isolated from wild boar intestines and analysis of the genetic determinants implicated. Out of three wild boars, 121 lactobacilli were recovered and grouped according to their whole cell protein patterns. Initial phenotypic screening revealed that all were susceptible to erythromycin (2 μg/ml), but 30 were resistant to tetracycline (32 μg/ml). Based on Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR clustering, 64 strains were selected as representative genotypes for identification and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified four species: (i) L. mucosae (n=57), (ii) L. reuteri (n=47), (iii) L. fermentum (n=12), and (iv) L. murinus (n=5). Most heterofermentative strains displayed low MICs for ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CHL), streptomycin (STR), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), erythromycin (ERY), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), and clindamycin (CLI). Atypical MICs were found mainly in L. mucosae and L. reuteri for TET, KAN, STR, AMP and CHL, but except the TET MICs of L. mucosae mostly at low level. L. murinus strains revealed atypical MICs for aminoglycosides, and/or CHL, AMP, CLI. PCR screening detected tet(W) in 12 and tet(M) in one of heterofermentative strains, as well as the aph(3')-III kanamycin gene in L. murinus. This is the first report showing acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in intestinal lactobacilli of wild boar origin.

  6. Boar sperm thawing practices: the number of straws does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, I; Torner, E; Yeste, M; Bonet, S

    2012-04-15

    The number of straws thawed has been largely neglected in reports of boar sperm cryopreservation. Whereas previous studies confirm the effect of sperm concentration on function and survival of thawed boar spermatozoa, it is still unknown whether, for a same concentration, total number of sperm in the thawing solution affects its mechanics. The present trial sought to define good boar sperm thawing practices by checking if a minimal number of straws as well as the percentage of air volume in the thawing tube should be stated or not to decrease variability from one trial to another. In a first assay, three tubes with different numbers of thawed straws were compared in terms of motility and membrane integrity: control (C, four straws), T1.1 (two straws), and T1.2 (one straw). In a second parallel assay, the sperm motility was evaluated when one straw was thawed in a tube containing 86.67% of air volume (T2.1), and when the tube contained sperm in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) was 1:3 (v:v) and quality parameters were assessed 4 h after thawing. Results showed the number of straws does affect motility parameters but not the membrane integrity, whereas less air volume in the tube nonsignificantly minimizes data deviation among replicates. In conclusion, it is recommended the use of four straws at 1:3 (v:v) to maintain motility records in boar sperm thawing practices as well as to be provided with vials that fit the sperm volume.

  7. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (Pbehaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without negative effects on reproduction characteristics in boars and gilts. Genetic selection towards a lower prevalence of boar taint will lead to more active pigs with more skin lesions. Management strategies may therefore be necessary to reduce skin lesions in the selected animals.

  8. Seasonal variation in sperm characteristics of boars in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Petrocelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, natural photoperiod, and room temperature at the housing facility on boar semen characteristics in Uruguay (34º66'S; 56º29'W. For this purpose, 117 ejaculates, obtained from eight adult males collected through 12 consecutive months, were assessed for sperm viability, DNA integrity, abnormalities (total, primary, and secondary, ejaculate volume, and sperm concentration. Viability, total and primary abnormalities, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by season. Sperm viability, volume, and sperm concentration were affected by natural photoperiod. In general, autumn and the decreasing photoperiod had a negative impact on most of the semen characteristics, except for volume. Housing temperature did not affect semen characteristics. In boars living in temperate climates, semen quality is negatively affected during autumn and is related to photoperiod changes; however, the effects of temperature changes in housingdo not affect these seminal characteristics. In this scenario, seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow fertilization. Consequently, semen quality control especially during autumn is imperative for the best boar selection to be used for insemination purposes. Seasonal differences in semen quality may have a negative effect on sow reproductive performance. This issue will be addressed in a future investigation.

  9. Trichinellosis in farmed wild boar: meat inspection findings and seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukura A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A reflection of highly prevalent endemic wildlife trichinellosis is seen in wild boar farming in Finland. During the last five years, 0.7 % (15/2265 of wild boars undergoing official meat inspection have been determined to be Trichinella-positive. These findings originate from six different farms. In Finland, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis have been discovered in meat inspection of wild boars. ELISA showed 11 out of 9 9 serum samples (11 % as having specific antibodies for T. spiralis crude antigen. Positive samples were from three out of the thirteen farms from which the sera were available. Most of the positive serum samples (8/11 originated from a farm where trichinellosis was also revealed in meat inspection, the other two seropositive farms were without previous Trichinella records. Over the last few decades, no reports have been made of human trichinellosis acquired in Finland. This indicates both efficient meat inspection as well as public awareness of high-risk foodstuff.

  10. Milk supplements in a glycerol free trehalose freezing extender enhanced cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmali Athurupana

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: 2% skim milk can be used as supplements for a glycerol-free trehalose and egg yolk-based extender to improve post-thaw survival of boar spermatozoa, whereas 2% coconut milk has an effect to protect boar spermatozoa from acrosome damage.

  11. 7 CFR 59.203 - Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars. 59.203... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.203 Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars. (a) Prior day report. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of...

  12. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    in the Austrian and Japanese samples and is thus unlikely to be an original feature of wild boars. In contrast, it was present at high frequency (0.35) among the Swedish wild boars, probably representing a founder effect. Five MBL1 haplotypes were resolved. Only two of these were present among the Japanese wild...

  13. Detection of boar sperm plasma membrane protein using Rhodamine 640; implications for cryobiology and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodamine 640 (R640) was used to detect changes in boar sperm plasma membrane protein (PMP) during cryopreservation; a poorly understood phenomenon. The protocol was adapted for boar sperm so that semen samples (n = 17) could be analyzed for PMP (R640 positive) and plasma membrane integrity (PMI; Y...

  14. Effects of commercial selenium products on glutathione peroxidase activity and semen quality in stud boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine how dietary supplementation of inorganic and organic selenium affects selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood and sperm of sexually mature stud boars. Twenty-four boars of the Large White, Landrace, Pietrain, and Duroc breeds of opt...

  15. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF.

  16. Detection of antibodies against classical swine fever virus in fecal samples from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang won; Sunwoo, Sun young; Hyun, Bang hoon; Lyoo, Young S

    2012-12-28

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a contagious viral disease that affects pigs. Wild boars can play an important epidemiological role in CSF outbreaks. In the past decades, studies conducted in many countries have reported that the CSF virus (CSFV) may persist in wild boar populations. The existence of CSFV in the free-ranging wild boar populations was indirectly confirmed by determining the prevalence of antibodies against CSFV in the serum of hunted wild boars. However, analyzing sero-prevalence in hunted wild boars to study the risk of CSF outbreaks is difficult due to insufficient number of samples, limitation of hunting area and biased age distribution of hunted wild boars. To improve this survey method, we collected feces of wild boars from their habitat and tested them using CSFV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and CSF virus neutralization (VN) test. In this study, ELISA was found to be highly sensitive for detecting antibodies against CSFV in fecal samples. Most of doubtful or positive results obtained in CSFV ELISA were confirmed by VN tests. Despite the high coincidence rate of antibody-positive samples between CSFV ELISA and VN test, the possibility of false positive reaction should be considered. In the regional distribution, a fact that antibody-positive fecal and serum samples were found in geographically close area was shown. Hence, presence of antibodies in fecal samples may provide vital information regarding the risk of CSF outbreaks in wild boar groups in geographical proximity.

  17. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ded Lukas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sperm must undergo a series of controlled molecular processes in the female reproductive tract called capacitation before they are capable of penetrating and fertilizing the egg. Capacitation, as a complex biological process, is influenced by many molecular factors, among which steroidal hormone estrogens play their role. Estrogens, present in a high concentration in the female reproductive tract are generally considered as primarily female hormones. However, there is increasing evidence of their important impact on male reproductive parameters. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of three natural estrogens such as estrone (E1, 17beta-estradiol (E2 and estriol (E3 as well as the synthetical one, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2 on boar sperm capacitation in vitro. Methods Boar sperm were capacitated in vitro in presence of estrogens. Capacitation progress in control and experimental samples was analyzed by flow cytometry with the anti-acrosin monoclonal antibody (ACR.2 at selected times of incubation. Sperm samples were analyzed at 120 min of capacitation by CTC (chlortetracycline assay, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry with anti-acrosin ACR.2 antibody. Furthermore, sperm samples and capacitating media were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, ELISA with the ACR.2 antibody, and the acrosin activity assay after induced acrosomal reaction (AR. Results Estrogens stimulate sperm capacitation of boar sperm collected from different individuals. The stimulatory effect depends on capacitation time and is highly influenced by differences in the response to estrogens such as E2 by individual animals. Individual estrogens have relatively same effect on capacitation progress. In the boar samples with high estrogen responsiveness, estrogens stimulate the capacitation progress in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, estrogens significantly increase the number of acrosome-reacted sperm after zona

  18. El azar y sus problemas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Estamos en la Francia del siglo XVII. Su sociedad gira en torno a una vigorosa monarquía. Allí viven grandes pensadores y literatos: Descartes, Fermat, Pascal, Moliere, Racine, etc. Los juegos de dados, cartas y tableros con fichas son los entretenimientos más frecuentes. Pero, los juegos, cada vez más complicados, y las apuestas cada vez más elevadas crean la necesidad de calcular sus probabilidades de manera racional.

  19. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    understanding of the complex regulation of the trait and for the purpose of identifying markers that can be used to improve the gain of breeding. The beneficial SNPs to be used in breeding would have the combinational effects of reducing levels of boar taint without affecting fertility of the animals. The aim...... of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. RESULTS: An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint...... and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms.

  1. The biological traits of the large red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scrofa: Temporal and ontogenetic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić-Skoko, Sanja; Stagličić, Nika; Kraljević, Miro; Pallaoro, Armin; Dulčić, Jakov

    2015-01-01

    Large red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scrofa, is a prevalent, important and highly valued commercial species throughout the rocky coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, there is a surprising scarcity of biological and ecological information for this species. As artisanal fisheries have a very long tradition in the whole Mediterranean, a considerable impact of continuous fishing pressure is expected on this valuable rockfish. To elucidate some biological parameters that indicate the status of S. scrofa in the Adriatic Sea and to show which consequences high fishery effort may have on its age, growth and reproduction, sampling was carried out in the middle Adriatic using trammel nets. Temporal trends in body size/weight of S. scrofa were also assessed using long-term data including specimens caught from 1960 to 2010. Temporal trends of S. scrofa in the middle Adriatic indicated significant decreases of 19% in length and 43% in total weight over time. In contrast, official landings for the last five years showed an increase of 13%. However, this increasing trend most likely reflects the continuous change in national policies for reporting the catches. Both catch data and landings statistics showed peak in catch per unit effort during summer which coincides with spawning period of S. scrofa. Length at first sexual maturity was observed at 29.0 cm for females and 24.9 cm for males. All specimens larger than 32 cm were mature. Age analysis revealed 15 age classes with a 25 year old female as the oldest specimen. However, age classes 3+ and 4+ were predominant in the total catch. The growth rate is relatively high during the first four years of life and afterwards it considerably slows down, with females growing at slightly slower rate and attaining slightly larger sizes than males. Given the identified biological implications that confirm our assumptions of inherent vulnerabilities and negative effects arising from continued artisanal fisheries practice

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: pig [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pig Sus scrofa domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Sus_scrofa_domestic...a_L.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NL.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_S.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NS.pn...g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+dom...estica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=

  3. Hydroxyflutamide alters the characteristics of live boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycka, Marta; Kotwicka, Malgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Skibinska, Izabela; Kotula-Balak, Malgorzata; Bilinska, Barbara

    2014-10-15

    Our previous study revealed that in vitro incubation of boar ejaculates with hydroxyflutamide (OH-Flu) causes changes in sperm plasma membrane integrity and its stability and sperm mitochondrial oxidative capability. To broaden the knowledge of cellular physiology of spermatozoa, we investigated direct effects of OH-Flu administered for 2 and 24 hours at concentrations of 5, 50, and 100 μg/mL, on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide anion production using JC-1 dye and MitoSOX Red fluorescent probe, respectively. We further measured phosphatidylserine membrane translocation (PST) from the inner to the outer layer of the sperm plasma membrane using an annexin-V binding assay. To provide new information of direct effects of OH-Flu on cell signaling pathway, we measured sperm intracellular calcium ion dynamics using Fluo-3. Finally, we assessed sperm motility using a computer-assisted spermatozoa analysis system. Motile sperm were highlighted using the "C-Ruch" computer program for detailed analysis of the straight line velocity distribution. For each functional test, boar spermatozoa were examined and analyzed by flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy. The results revealed a significant decrease (Psperm mitochondrial membrane potential and a concomitant increase (Psperm motility. Hydroxyflutamide significantly decreased (Psperm subpopulation percentage after 15 minutes and reduced the straight line velocity distribution (Psperm intracellular calcium ion concentration. Altogether, the altered in vitro characteristics of live boar spermatozoa provide new insight into direct effects of OH-Flu on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide anion production, translocation of membrane phosphatidylserine, free calcium ion dynamics, and sperm motility.

  4. PROSTAGLANDIN F2α SUPPLEMENTED SEMEN IMPROVES LANDRACE BOARS SPERM MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA IONESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improveswhen PGF2α (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2α /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars fromone large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched withPGF2α (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semencollected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. Thehighest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculatesfrom Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regardingmotility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semenwas higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen(81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. Theejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the onescollected from boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from thefirst group (with PGF2α supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.

  5. Effects of Three Different Diluents on Quality of Boar Semen Stored at 17℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Shan; Zhang Xiao-gang; Han Cong; Wei Shuai-yi; Xie Dong-qi; Du Ren-rang; Hu Jian-hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different diluents on the quality of the boar semen stored at 17℃, and assess the relationship between sperm motility and the relative levels of enzymes, three commercial diluents (DiluentⅠ, DiluentⅡand DiluentⅢ) and three boar breed semens (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) were utilized. The sperm motility, effective survival time, survival index, catalase (CAT), the total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant interaction effects between diluents and breeds on the boar sperm motility (P0.05). All of the parameters varied significantly with the increase of the storage time (P<0.001). The survival time increased 12.9% in Yorkshire boar semen diluted with DiluentⅢ than with DiluentⅡ, while the survival time increased 6.6% in Landrace boar semen diluted with DiluentⅡ than with DiluentⅢ. Both CAT and T-AOC levels were significantly positive correlated with sperm motility in all the three boar breeds (P<0.001), while MDA levels were significantly negative correlated with sperm motility (P<0.001). These results indicated that DiluentⅢ and DiluentⅡwere the optimal commercial diluents for Yorkshire and Landrace boar semen stored at 17℃, respectively.

  6. Current knowledge on boar sperm metabolism: Comparison with other mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    A practical consequence of the specific pig reproductive cycle is that the main functional features that distinguish boar spermatozoa cannot be extrapolated to other species. This prevents an overall picture that explains mammalian sperm function from being assumed. Furthermore, the extraordinary complexity of the molecular mechanisms implied in the control and modulation of mature boar sperm functions makes it impossible to provide a complete description of these mechanisms in the limited space of this chapter. Taking this into account, this chapter centers on the description of three highly important specific aspects of boar sperm function. The first aspect is the mechanisms by which boar sperm cells uptake extracellular energy sources. The second aspect is the necessity of mammalian sperm to use other hexoses than glucose as feasible energy sources. The third aspect would be an analysis of the roles that mitochondria could play in the regulation of the overall boar sperm function. As a whole, this revision intends to be an overall picture of regulatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of proper energy levels of boar sperm and their relationship with the control of the overall boar sperm function.

  7. PROSTAGLANDIN F2α SUPPLEMENTED SEMEN IMPROVES LANDRACE BOARS SPERM MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA SGURĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improves when PGF2α (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2α /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars from one large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched with PGF2α (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semen collected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. The highest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculates from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regarding motility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen was higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen (81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. The ejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the ones collected from boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from the first group (with PGF2α supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even 100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.

  8. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe.

  9. Serological Follow-up of Tuberculosis in a Wild Boar Population in Contact with Infected Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, B; Napp, S; Velarde, R; Lavín, S; Cervera, Z; Singh, M; Allepuz, A; Mentaberre, G

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing concern in several European countries over the role that tuberculosis (TB)-infected wild boar may play in the progress of bovine TB eradication campaigns. In 2004, as a consequence of the detection of a TB focus in wild boar from a National Game Reserve (NGR) located in southern Catalonia, a surveillance programme based on post-mortem inspection for detection of macroscopic TB-like lesions (TBLL) was initiated in the affected area. The source of infection for wild boar was linked to a tuberculous cattle herd located in the same area. Besides, the results of the surveillance programme in wild boar were used for the validation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) IgG antibodies. Using this ELISA, a seven-year serological study of MTBC in wild boar from the NGR was conducted in 173 animals (93 adults, 44 juveniles-yearlings and 36 piglets) culled between 2004 and 2010. ELISA results and presence of TBLL showed excellent agreement for adult and juvenile wild boar (Kappa index = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.95). Of the thirty-eight adults, yearlings and juveniles classified as positives by the ELISA, 34 (89%) showed TBLL at necropsy. In contrast, none of the ELISA-positive wild boar piglets (n = 20) showed TBLL, suggesting the detection of early antibody responses to the infection. Overall, this study contributes to the knowledge of wild boar humoral responses to MTBC. The results also highlight the usefulness of this serological test for wild boar TB surveillance.

  10. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HAREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactivesubstances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of ScienceAcademy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as astructure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with theconcentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studiedsubstances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with theconcentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar spermstoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard ofartificial insemination.

  11. Methods for Improving In Vitro and In Vivo Boar Sperm Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, H

    2015-07-01

    Fertility of boar spermatozoa is changed after ejaculation in vivo and in vitro. During processing for in vitro fertilization (IVF), although spermatozoa are induced capacitation, resulting in a high penetration rate, persistent obstacle of polyspermic penetration is still observed with a high incidence. For artificial insemination (AI), we still need a large number of spermatozoa and lose a majority of those in the female reproductive tract. Fertility of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa is still injured through freezing and thawing process. In the present brief review, factors affecting fertility of boar sperm during IVF, AI and cryopreservation are discussed in the context of discovering methodologies to improve it.

  12. Evaluation of possible mitigation measures to prevent introduction and spread of African swine fever virus through wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific report has been prepared in response to a request for urgent scientific and technical assistance under Art 31 of Regulation (EC No 178/2002, in relation to possible mitigation measures to prevent introduction and spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV. It was requested to assess the feasibility to drastically reduce the wild boar population by hunting or by the use of traps, and to assess if prevention of movement of wild boars by feeding or by artificial physical barriers reduces the risk of spread of ASFV. No evidence was found in scientific literature proving that wild boar populations can be drastically reduced by hunting or trapping in Europe. The main reasons are the adaptive behaviour of wild boar, compensatory growth of the population and the possible influx of wild boar from adjacent areas. Thus, drastic hunting is not a tool to reduce the risk for introduction and spread of ASFV in wild boar populations. Furthermore, wild boar density thresholds for introduction, spread and persistence of ASFV in the wild boar populations are currently impossible to establish, due to the uncertainty regarding the extent of the spread and maintenance of ASFV, the biases in population datasets, the complex population structures and dynamics. Furthermore, attempts to drastically reduce wild boar populations may even increase transmission and facilitate progressive geographical spread of ASFV, since intensive hunting pressure on wild boar populations leads to dispersion of groups and individuals. Artificial feeding of wild boar might increase the risk of ASFV spread. Fencing can restrict wild boar movements, however further knowledge of the ASF epidemiology and spatial distribution of wild boar is required to identify the areas where fencing could be used as one possible element of a control programme and to assess the feasibility of its implementation.

  13. Virulence factors and bacteriocins in faecal enterococci of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Patricia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Costa, Daniela; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    The production of antimicrobial, haemolytic and gelatinase activities was tested in 67 enterococci (39 E. faecium, 24 E. hirae, 2 E. faecalis, and 2 Enterococcus spp.), recovered from faecal samples of wild boars. In addition, the presence of genes encoding bacteriocin and virulence factors was also analysed by PCR and sequencing. Production of antimicrobial activity was checked in all enterococci against 9 indicator bacteria and it was detected in 11 E. faecium isolates (16.5%); eight and two of them harboured the genes encoding enterocin A + enterocin B and enterocin L50A/B, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of our enterococci harboured different combinations of genes of the cyl operon, but none of them contained the complete cyl L(L)L(S)ABM operon, necessary for cytolysin expression. The presence of gel E gene, associated with the fsr ABC locus, was identified in 4 E. faecium and two E. faecalis isolates, exhibiting all of them gelatinase activity. beta -hemolytic activity was not found in our isolates. Both cpd and ace genes, encoding respectively the accessory colonisation factor and pheromone, were detected in two E. faecalis isolates, and the hyl gene, encoding hyalorunidase, in two E. faecium isolates, one of them gelatinase-positive. Genes encoding bacteriocins and virulence factors are widely disseminated among faecal enterococci of wild boars and more studies should be carried out to know the global distribution of these determinants in enterococci of different ecosystems.

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  15. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B M

    2015-01-01

    The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI) Stations is limited.

  16. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80......: profit margin. The results showed that treatment in the finishing period had a negative effect on the profit margin. According to the least square means estimates, boars that were treated parenterally had a reduction in the profit margin of 2.24 €. This corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin...... of 17%. Boars treated orally had a reduction of 0.88 €, which corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin of 7%. Pathological findings, breed and weight at 4 weeks were also significantly associated with the profit margin. The effect of pathological findings was influenced by breed and caused...

  17. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  18. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I.H.; Mark, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    ). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars......, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score......, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models...

  19. Validation of the polysemen admixture on viability and acrosomal morphology of boar spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuewu IP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen were collected using artificial vagina (AV, from 5 large white boars aged 2-2.5 years twice a week for 16 weeks in each of the two seasons, early rainy (ER and late rainy (LR seasons, to determine the effects of multiple semen pool admixture on the viability and acrosomal morphology. The semen qualities studied were sperm motility, live sperm and sperm concentration, while the acrosomal parameters includes normal apical ridge (NAR, damaged apical ridge (DAR, missing apical ridge (MAR and loose apical ridge (LAC. There were no significant (P>0.05 seasonal effects. Three-boar semen admixture gave the highest percentage NAR, motility, live sperm concentration and least DAR and LAC, although these were not significantly (P>0.05 different from the 2-boar semen admixture. The result of this study suggests that 3-boar semen admixture is most suitable for use in artificial insemination program.

  20. Reduced curvilinear velocity of boar sperm on substrates with increased hydrophobicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mears, M.; Kennelly, T.M.; Geoghegan, M.; Howse, J.R.; Tarmey, D.S.; Pacey, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The curvilinear velocity (VCL) of boar spermatozoa between standard microscopy glassware decreases when the slides are coated with the hydrophobic polymer polystyrene (PS) compared with the less hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating. Sperm from three boars were observed and analyzed using particle tracking software. The VCL did not differ significantly between coatings of different thickness, indicating no penetration of the sperm into the coating and that only the surface laye...

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway regulates sperm viability but not capacitation on boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, I M; Bragado, M J; Gil, M C; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gonzalez-Fernandez, L; Tapia, J A; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2007-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) plays an important role in cell survival in somatic cells and recent data pointed out a role for this kinase in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction (AR). This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of PI3-K pathway on porcine spermatozoa capacitation, AR, and viability using two unrelated PI3-K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin. In boar spermatozoa, we have identified the presence of PDK1, PKB/Akt, and PTEN, three of the main key components of the PI3-K pathway. Incubation of boar sperm in a capacitating medium (TCM) caused a significant increase in the percentage of capacitated (25 +/- 2 to 34 +/- 1% P sperm in basal medium (TBM). Inhibition of PI3-K did affect neither the capacitation status nor AR nor protein p32 tyrosine phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa incubated in TBM or TCM. Boar sperm viability in TBM was significantly decreased by 40 and 20% after pretreatment with LY294002 or wortmannin, respectively. Similar results were observed after incubation of boar spermatozoa in TCM. Treatment of boar spermatozoa with the analog of cAMP, 8Br-cAMP significantly prevented the reduction on sperm viability. Our results provide evidence for an important role of the PI3-K pathway in the regulation of boar sperm viability and suggests that other signaling pathways different from PI3-K must be activated downstream of cAMP to contribute to regulation of sperm viability. Finally, in our conditions the PI3-K pathway seems not related with boar sperm capacitation or AR.

  2. Sequence-based characterization of five SLA loci in Asian wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W Y; Choi, N R; Seo, D W; Lim, H T; Ho, C S; Lee, J H

    2014-10-01

    Two swine leucocyte antigen (SLA) class I (SLA-1 and SLA-2) and three class II (DRB1, DQB1 and DQA) genes were investigated for their diversity in Asian wild boars using a sequence-based typing method. A total of 15 alleles were detected at these loci, with eleven being novel. The findings provide one of the first glimpses of the SLA allelic diversity and architecture in the wild boar populations.

  3. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p boar was also effective (p boar spermatozoa can be predicted effectively by including traditional and novel laboratory assays that consider functions of spermatozoa.

  4. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (Psperm membrane integrity and fluidity and sperm motility. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  5. Hepatitis E Virus in Sylvatic and Captive Wild Boar from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Oliveira, R M S; Coelho, C; Vieira-Pinto, M; Nascimento, M S J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent today considered a major Public Health issue in industrialized countries. HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine, being today considered important reservoirs for human disease. Unlike in swine, only scarce data are available on the circulation of HEV in wild boar. This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of HEV in livers from sylvatic wild boar hunted in Portugal and destined for consumption. Additionally, the detection of HEV in stools of a confined wild boar population also destined for consumption is also described. A total of 80 liver samples collected during the hunting season of 2011/2012 and 40 stools collected in February 2012 from a wild boar breeding farm in Portugal were tested by a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR assay targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1. Twenty livers (25.0%) and 4 stools (10%) were positive for HEV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains clustered with sequences classified as HEV genotype 3 subgenotype e. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence and molecular analysis of HEV in sylvatic and captive wild boar destined for human consumption in Portugal. This report demonstrates for the first time the circulation of HEV in wildlife reservoirs of Portugal adding knowledge to the epidemiology of HEV in wild boar populations.

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation with amino acids on boar sperm quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Jun; Wu, De; Xu, Sheng-Yu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Zheng-Feng; Che, Lian-Qiang; Wu, Cai-Mei; Xu, Xue-Yu; Lin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids on sperm quality and fertility rates after insemination with boar semen. Twelve Yorkshire boars were paired by age and allocated to one of two dietary treatments composed of total lysine levels of 0.64% (T1) and 0.96% (T2), with the lysine: methionine: threonine: tryptophan: valine ratio in the diets set to 100:27:73:19:69 through the addition of synthetic amino acids. Semen was collected twice weekly (phase 1, 1-12 wk); every other day (phase 2, 13-16 wk); twice weekly (phase 3, 17-26 wk); and daily (phase 4, 27-28 wk). Semen was collected from boars during phase 3 and used to inseminate 64 multiparous sows. Our results showed that sperm concentration and total sperm cells were greater in boars in T2 than in boars in T1 in phases 2 and 4 (Pamino acid concentrations in seminal plasma increased in T2 boars (Pamino acids improves sperm quality, and subsequently increases fertilization capacity and the number of live piglets.

  7. El historiador y sus retos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López Civeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Para quienes ejercemos el oficio de historiadores constituye una labor cotidiana el manejo de diversas fuentes históricas como las bibliográficas, las publicaciones periódicas y, especialmente, los documentos de archivo a los que se les atribuye una función probatoria fundamental. Actualmente es notable la ampliación y diversidad de las fuentes para el trabajo histórico cuya validez es aceptada, entre las que han alcanzado un lugar de privilegio en tiempos recientes las orales, lo que implica la aplicación de técnicas adecuadas a su naturaleza. Sin embargo, ¿cuántas veces nos hemos preguntado cuáles son los fundamentos teóricos de este oficio? Sin dudas, la historia requiere del trabajo empírico para el estudio de un proceso, coyuntura o acontecimiento específico, es decir, la investigación histórica concreta tiene sus requerimientos en la indagación de lo factual, pero esto resulta insuficiente si no partimos de conocer las características y bases teóricas del área del saber a la que nos dedicamos.

  8. Trapping as an alternative method of eradicating classical swine fever in a wild boar population in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, T; Kamenov, P; Stefanov, D; Depner, K

    2011-12-01

    Between August and November 2009, eight cases of classical swine fever (CSF) occurred in young wild boar in a 25-km2 oak forest3 km south of the river Danube in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria. The wild boar population within the affected area was estimated to be 156 animals, or approximately six boar per km2. To control and eradicate the disease, and in addition to vaccination and hunting, trapping was used to reduce the boar population to below two animals per km2. In total, 124 wild boar were removed from the infected area within three months. Of these, 119 were trapped. In this paper, the authors present trapping as a successful tool to eradicate CSF from an area where hunting and vaccination alone might not be sufficient. Up to seven wild boar could be trapped in a single trap. Furthermore, the spread of CSF virus to the local domestic pig population and to wild boar in neighbouring areas was prevented. By decreasing the wild boar population to fewer than two animals per km2, it was assumed that the virus would no longer circulate and the disease would fade out. In fact, no further CSF cases were diagnosed afterwards. Under Bulgarian and similar conditions, trapping seems to be a more reliable method than hunting for reducing a wild boar population within a short period of time. Furthermore, trapping may be used alone or in combination with hunting, depending on the situation.

  9. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  10. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A B; Velander, I H; Mark, T; Ostersen, T; Hansen, C; Kadarmideen, H N

    2013-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models. Skatole and androstenone concentrations were moderate to highly heritable (i.e., 0.33 and 0.59, respectively). The genetic correlation between the two compounds was moderate (0.40). Genetic variance of sperm production per ejaculate increased during the productive life of the boar, resulting in heritability estimates increasing from 0.18 to 0.31. Genetic correlations between sperm production per ejaculate at different ages were high and generally larger than 0.8, indicating that later genetic merit can be predicted from records at an early age. The heritability (based on service-sire genetic component) of both total number of piglets born and survival to d 5 were 0.02, and the correlation between these effects and the additive genetic effect on boar taint ranged from 0.05 to -0

  11. Implications of the pH and temperature of diluted, cooled boar semen on fresh and frozen-thawed sperm motility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boar semen is typically collected, diluted and cooled for AI use over numerous days, or frozen immediately after shipping to capable laboratories. The storage temperature and pH of the diluted, cooled boar semen could potentially influence the fertility of boar sperm. Therefore, the purpose of thi...

  12. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50°C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55°C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1 h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3 h of hydrolysis at 45°C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process.

  13. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  14. Study of influenza A virus in wild boars living in a major duck wintering site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Grandhomme, Viviane; Simon, Gaëlle; Herve, Séverine; Blanchon, Thomas; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; van der Werf, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    Wild birds, which are reservoirs of influenza viruses, are believed to be the original source of new influenza viruses-including highly pathogenic ones-that can be transmitted to domestic animals as well as humans and represent a potential epizootic and/or pandemic threat. Despite increasing knowledge on influenza A virus dynamics in wild birds, the viral circulation in wild boars remains largely unknown. This is of particular interest since pigs can be infected with both human and avian viruses; upon co-infection, they can act as a mixing vessel through reassortment, a mechanism that resulted in the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 virus in 2009. The Camargue (Southern France) appears as an ideal study area to investigate inter-species transmission of influenza A viruses from wild birds and possibly humans to wild boars. Indeed, the important local wild boar population shares wetland use with humans and the largest concentration of wintering ducks in France, that are both susceptible to infection by influenza A viruses. Additionally, wild boars occasionally prey on ducks. We conducted a virological and serological survey on wild boars in the Camargue (Southern France) between September 2009 and November 2010. No influenza A virus was detected in the collected nasal swabs (n=315) and no influenza specific antibodies were observed in the serological samples (n=20). As the study was mainly focused on viral excretion, which is limited in time, we cannot exclude that low or occasional influenza A virus circulation took place during the study period. Although, wild boars did not seem to be a key element in the dynamics of influenza A virus circulation in the Camargue, wild boar influenza A virus infections should be more widely studied to determine if the pattern observed here represents the normal situation or an exceptional one.

  15. Effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2014-11-30

    Bacteriospermia in boar ejaculates is a frequent finding that compromises the sperm quality and, consequently, causes economic losses in swine industry. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on boar sperm quality over a storing period of 11 days at 15-17 ° C. Ten commercial seminal doses coming from post-pubertal and healthy boars were artificially inoculated with different infective concentrations of P. aeruginosa, ranging from 2 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(4)cfu/mL. Negative controls were non-inoculated doses. Sperm quality, assessed as sperm motility (CASA), sperm viability, acrosome integrity and pH, as well as the bacterial growth, were checked after 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11 days of storage at 15-17 ° C. Results obtained showed significant decreases in the percentages of total and progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and acrosome integrity in the greatest infective concentrations (2 × 10(7) and 2 × 10(8)cfu/mL), when compared to the negative control. In contrast, there was no effect on seminal pH throughout the experiment. Results indicate the presence of P. aeruginosa in boar semen, apart from being a potential source for the spread of infectious diseases and harmful impact on sows, negatively affects the longevity and fertilizing ability of boar sperm when present in high concentrations. Thus, P. aeruginosa causes deleterious effects on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 15-17 ° C, thus strict hygienic measures must be implemented in boar studs to minimize bacterial concentration of semen doses.

  16. Effects of Enterobacter cloacae on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Bussalleu, Eva; Garcia-Bonavila, Estela; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of fresh and extended boar sperm often occurs in farms and artificial insemination (AI) centres during semen collection, processing and storage. The presence of bacteria produces detrimental effects on boar sperm quality, which may cause economic losses in reproductive centres. The present study has evaluated for the first time how the presence of Enterobacter cloacae affects the preservation of boar spermatozoa in liquid storage at 15-17 °C for an 11-day period. With this purpose, extended semen samples from seven healthy post-pubertal boars were artificially contaminated with different sperm:bacterium ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:5 and 1:10) of E. cloacae. The 1:0 ratio (non-inoculated) served as a negative control. The most infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10) significantly damaged sperm motility and membrane integrity, increased sperm agglutination, and decreased the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa. In contrast, the negative impact that the lowest bacterial concentration (2:1) had on boar sperm quality was clearly lower. In addition, other parameters such as pH were also more affected at the highest infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10), despite no damage being observed on sperm morphology. In conclusion, the present work shows that damage inflicted by the presence of E. cloacae in boar sperm during liquid storage at 15-17 °C compromises the longevity and fertilising ability of seminal doses when bacterial concentration is higher than a 1:1 ratio. Further research is warranted to address by which mechanism E. cloacae impairs boar sperm quality.

  17. Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on sperm capacitation and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Lilian; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have reported the detrimental effects that bacteriospermia causes on boar sperm quality, but little is known about its effects on IVC. Considering that, the present study sought to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different indicators of capacitation status (sperm viability, membrane lipid disorder, sperm motility kinematics, and protein phosphorylation of boar spermatozoa) after IVC. Flow cytometry and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed that the presence of P aeruginosa in boar sperm samples, mostly at concentrations greater than 10(6) CFU/mL, is associated with a significant (P sperm membrane integrity and sperm with low membrane lipid disorder, and also with a reduction in sperm motility kinetic parameters when compared with results obtained from the control sample, which presented the typical motility pattern of capacitated-like boar spermatozoa. Moreover, Western blot results also showed significant (P boar sperm, being the most relevant. Indeed, after 3 hours of IVC, phosphotyrosine levels of p32 in the control sample were 3.13 ± 0.81, whereas in the tubes with 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/mL were 1.05 ± 0.20 and 0.36 ± 0.07, respectively. Therefore, the present study provides novel data regarding the effects of bacterial contamination on boar sperm, suggesting that the presence of P aeruginosa affects the fertilizing ability of boar sperm by altering its ability to accomplish IVC.

  18. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, I-M; Sandholm, K; Ekdahl, K N; Okumura, N; Uenishi, H; Guldbrandtsen, B; Essler, S E; Knoll, A; Heegaard, P M H; Edfors, I; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2013-04-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G949T in the mannose-binding lectin ( MBL ) 1 gene has been associated with low MBL-A concentration in serum and detected at different frequencies in various European pig populations. However, the origin of this SNP is not known. Part of the MBL1 gene was sequenced in 12 wild boar/Large White crossbred pigs from the second backcross (BC 2 ) generation in a family material originating from two wild boar x Large White intercrosses. Also, MBL-A serum concentration was measured in the entire BC 2 generation (n = 45). Furthermore, the genotypes of 68 wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1 . The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between 0.7 and 1.6 μg mL(-1) and the remaining pigs at levels around 13 μg mL(-1) . There was a co-variation between the presence of the T allele and low MBL-A concentration in serum. The genotyping of the wild boars revealed differences between populations. The T allele of G949T was not detected in the Austrian and Japanese samples and is thus unlikely to be an original feature of wild boars. In contrast, it was present at high frequency (0.35) among the Swedish wild boars, probably representing a founder effect. Five MBL1 haplotypes were resolved. Only two of these were present among the Japanese wild boars compared to four in each of the European populations. This difference may reflect differences in selection pressure and population history.

  19. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  20. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of spermatogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect and impact of two different PCV2 vaccines on boar semen quality and quantity. Healthy normospermic Large White boars in three groups of 12 each were vaccinated with either Circovac, Ingelvac CircoFLEX, or received NaCl. Eight ejaculates were collected starting 1 week after vaccination and assessed for quantitative traits. In general, sperm quantity and quality parameters did not change due to the vaccination (P > 0.05). Only DNA integrity between the Circovac and control group was P vaccination, fever period, and impaired sperm quality could be observed. The results indicate that both vaccines did not have a major impact on sperm quality or quantity. Therefore, vaccination of boars against PCV2 seems to be feasible. However, one boar treated with the oil-based vaccine showed a temporarily impaired semen quality after elevated body temperature after vaccination. Thus, possible systemic reactions and the subsequent impact on sperm quality should be taken into account when choosing a PCV2 vaccine for boars.

  1. Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Mentaberre

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.

  2. Monitoring of African swine fever in the wild boar population of the most recent endemic area of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, L; Boadella, M; Martínez-López, B; Gallardo, C; Gortazar, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2012-12-01

    Wild boars are natural hosts for African swine fever (ASF). The ASF virus (ASFV) can persist for long periods in the environment, such as in ticks and contaminated products, which may be sources of infection for wild boar populations. African swine fever was eradicated in domestic pig populations in Spain in 1995, after 35 years of significant effort. To determine whether ASFV can persist in wild boar hosts after it has been eradicated from domestic pigs and to study the role of wild boar in helping ASFV persist in the environment, we checked for the presence of ASFV in wild boars in Doñana National Park, one of the largest natural habitats of wild boar in Spain and one of the last areas where ASF was endemic prior its eradication. Samples from 158 animals collected between 2006 and 2010 were analysed using serological and nucleic acid-based diagnostic techniques recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). None of the samples was found to be positive. These results confirm the absence of disease in wildlife in what was once one of the areas most affected by ASF in Spain, and they suggest that wild boars play a limited role in ASFV persistence. These results confirm that ASFV cannot persist in isolated wild boar populations for long periods of time without the interaction of other factors such as re-infection by contact with domestic pigs or by feeding on contaminated swill.

  3. Differences in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole levels in plasma and fat between pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars in response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, I C; Lervik, S; Tajet, H; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Andresen, Ø

    2010-10-01

    The concentrations of the boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole in plasma and fat, together with those of testosterone in plasma, were investigated in pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars following stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Higher initial levels of androstenone and testosterone were found in Duroc than Landrace boars. Duroc boars, which were approximately ten days older than the Landrace boars, also showed a more advanced stage of spermatogenesis than Landrace boars. While Landrace boars had the highest skatole levels. Following stimulation with hCG the relative increases in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole concentrations were highest in Landrace boars. The level of androstenone in fat three days after hCG stimulation exceeded 1 microg/g fat in all stimulated boars. The decreases in plasma levels of androstenone and testosterone on Days 2 and 3 after hCG stimulation were more pronounced in Landrace than Duroc boars. However, unlike the plasma androstenone and testosterone levels, the plasma concentrations of skatole did not decrease on Days 2 and 3 following stimulation, but remained elevated on Day 3. These results indicate that the lower levels of testicular steroids in Landrace boars compared with Duroc boars was not due to a lower production capacity, but more likely to a faster disappearance of steroids in Landrace boars. In the present study, age, live weight, and testicular development did not significantly contribute to the variation in fat androstenone. The present data and previous reports on candidate genes related to androstenone biosynthesis and metabolism suggests that future selection against factors associated with boar taint remains a possible solution for the problem of boar taint in the swine industry.

  4. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parois, S P; Prunier, A; Mercat, M J; Merlot, E; Larzul, C

    2015-08-01

    Breeding intact boars is a promising alternative to surgical castration of piglets. Genetic selection should enable farmers to solve problems due to boar taint and aggressiveness while taking into account potential consequences on other traits of interest. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic relations between sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness. About 1,600 Pietrain (purebred) or Pietrain × Large White (crossbred) boars were raised in a testing station. Blood samples were collected at about 105 kg BW for measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and indicators of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein [CRP], pig major acute-phase protein [pigMAP], and blood formula). Animals were slaughtered 9 d later and measured for boar taint compounds present in fat (androstenone and skatole) and skin lesions on carcass, an indicator of aggressiveness. For both genetic types, heritability was moderate for sex hormones (from 0.17 to 0.29) and skatole (0.24 for purebred and 0.37 for crossbred) and high for androstenone (0.63 and 0.70 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Genetic correlations between sex hormones and boar taint compounds were moderate to high (from 0.31 to 0.95). Heritability was moderate for CRP (0.24 and 0.46 for purebred and crossbred, respectively) and very low for pigMAP (0.06 and 0.05 for purebred and crossbred, respectively. Numbers of leukocytes had moderate to high heritabilities according to the genetic type (from 0.21 to 0.52). Heritability of skin lesions was moderate for both genetic types (0.31). Genetic correlations were negative between sex hormones and inflammatory measures (from -0.46 to -0.05), positive between testosterone and number of lesions (0.43 and 0.53 for purebred and crossbred, respectively), and low between androstenone and lesions (-0.06 and -0.17 for purebred and crossbred, respectively). Overall, both breeds of pigs had very similar estimations of heritabilities, but estimates of

  5. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in the ovaries of pigs (Sus scrofa) with high and low litter sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Yin, Z J; Feng, Y F; Zhang, X D; Wu, T; Ding, Y Y; Ye, P F; Fu, K; Zhang, M Q

    2016-10-01

    Litter size affects profitability in the swine industry. Mammalian ovaries play important roles during reproduction, including ovulation and hormone secretion, which are tightly regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we investigated the effects of specific miRNAs on porcine litter size. We compared the ovarian miRNAs of Yorkshire pigs with high (YH) and low (YL) litter sizes using Solexa sequencing technology. We identified 327 and 320 miRNAs in the ovaries of YH and YL pigs respectively. A total of 297 miRNAs were co-expressed; 30 and 23 miRNAs respectively were specifically expressed in the two libraries. A total of 83 novel miRNAs were predicted; 37 specific miRNAs were obtained, of which 21 miRNAs were upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in YH compared with YL. Additionally, 19 628 and 19 250 target genes were predicted in the two libraries respectively. The results revealed that specific miRNAs (i.e., miR-224, miR-99a, let-7c, miR-181c, miR-214 and miR-21) may affect porcine litter size. The results of this study will help in gaining understanding of the role of miRNAs in porcine litter size regulation.

  6. Biologia i ecologia del senglar ("Sus scrofa" L., 1758) a dues poblacions del nordest ibèric. Aplicació a la gestió

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell Pagès, Carme

    1998-01-01

    El senglar és un dels mamífers més grans de Catalunya, és objecte d'una intensa activitat cinegètica i planteja importants reptes de gestió a causa de l'expansió demogràfica i geogràfica que manifesten les seves poblacions i pels problemes que comporten els danys a I'agricultura. Malgrat això no s'havia realitzat cap estudi aprofundit de la seva biologia en poblacions catalanes. En altres localitats de la Península Ibèrica es disposa en canvi de la informació elaborada en el marc de diverses ...

  7. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    methods – LICOX (PbO2), near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS), and microdialysis. We will use three devices to assess neurologic function after...antidotal treatment. These measures are near infrared spectroscopy, brain oxygen tension, and brain microdialysis. Hypothesis We hypothesize...cerebral near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) oxygenation, and inflammatory markers. Methods 24 swine (48-52 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and

  8. Annotation Of Novel And Conserved MicroRNA Genes In The Build 10 Sus scrofa Reference Genome And Determination Of Their Expression Levels In Ten Different Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nielsen, Mathilde; Hedegaard, Jakob

    The DNA template used in the pig genome sequencing project was provided by a Duroc pig named TJ Tabasco. In an effort to annotate microRNA (miRNA) genes in the reference genome we have conducted deep sequencing to determine the miRNA transcriptomes in ten different tissues isolated from Pinky......, a genetically identical clone of TJ Tabasco. The purpose was to generate miRNA sequences that are highly homologous to the reference genome sequence, which along with computational prediction will improve confidence in the genomic annotation of miRNA genes. Based on homology searches of the sequence data...

  9. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A

    2012-03-19

    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs.

  10. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups....

  11. Effects of a diet high in salt, fat, and sugar on telemetric blood pressure measurements in conscious, unrestrained adult Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both).

  12. Effects of a Taser: Conducted Energy Weapon on the Circulating Red-Blood-Cell Population and Other Factors in Sus scrofa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-30

    width, and hemoglobin) were measured with an automated hematology analyzer Micros 60 (Horiba ABX, Montpelier, France). Samples were refrigerated and...Koeller, U.S. Army, Attending Veterinarian , Bio-Effects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, 711th Human Performance Wing, U.S. Air Force Research...3. 21. Bell A. Morphologic evaluation of erythrocytes. In: Lotspeich- Steininger CA, Stiene-Martin EA, Koepke JA, editors. Clinical hematology

  13. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management.

  14. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  15. A Review of the Current Status of Relevant Zoonotic Pathogens in Wild Swine (Sus scrofa) Populations: Changes Modulating the Risk of Transmission to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, F

    2017-02-01

    Many wild swine populations in different parts of the World have experienced an unprecedented demographic explosion that may result in increased exposure of humans to wild swine zoonotic pathogens. Interactions between humans and wild swine leading to pathogen transmission could come from different ways, being hunters and game professionals the most exposed to acquiring infections from wild swine. However, increasing human settlements in semi-natural areas, outdoor activities, socio-economic changes and food habits may increase the rate of exposure to wild swine zoonotic pathogens and to potentially emerging pathogens from wild swine. Frequent and increasing contact rate between humans and wild swine points to an increasing chance of zoonotic pathogens arising from wild swine to be transmitted to humans. Whether this frequent contact could lead to new zoonotic pathogens emerging from wild swine to cause human epidemics or emerging disease outbreaks is difficult to predict, and assessment should be based on thorough epidemiologic surveillance. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge on wild swine global population dynamics trends and wild swine-zoonotic pathogen interactions should be addressed to correctly assess the potential role of wild swine in the emergence of diseases in humans. In this work, viruses such as hepatitis E virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus and Nipah virus, and bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. and Leptospira spp. have been identified as the most prone to be transmitted from wild swine to humans on the basis of geographic spread in wild swine populations worldwide, pathogen circulation rates in wild swine populations, wild swine population trends in endemic areas, susceptibility of humans to infection, transmissibility from wild swine to humans and existing evidence of wild swine-human transmission events.

  16. Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in pig fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758 from the lineage Pen Ar Lan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Antônio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve was studied in 31 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan, being 22 males and 9 females, after being fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. In these animals, the lumbar vertebrae ranged from 5 to 7, with a predominance of 6, something which contributed to variations in the origin of this nerve. The sciatic nerve originated in 80.64% of the antimeres from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve (L5; in 96.77 % of L6; in 6.45% of L7; in 100% of S1; and in 64.51% of S2. The composition of this nerve took place in 45.16% of the animals due to the union of L5, L6, S1 and S2; in 32.25% of L5, L6 and S1; in 12.90% of L6, S1 and S2; in 6.45% of L6, L7 and S1; and in 3.22% L5, S1 and S2. There was symmetry in the origin of the sciatic nerve in all specimens under study. This nerve sent branches to the superficial gluteal, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles in all specimens, and, in a lesser frequency, to the twins, quadratus femoris, adductors, as well as the middle, accessory, and deep gluteal muscles. In 74.19% of the sample, a branch communicating to the pudendal nerve was observed.

  17. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica-Neuronal Tracing Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zalecki

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs.The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6 and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6. Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle. After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV - 7.5cm starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs.Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance.

  18. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  19. Serological and molecular investigation of the prevalence of Aujeszky's disease in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the subregions of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2013-08-30

    The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil.

  20. Efficacy of Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin or Control for Treatment of Severe Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    been entered into our computer file. Please advise us (by phone or mail) that your presentation was given. At that time, we will need the date...Publications and Presentations Section will route the request form to clinical investigations. S02 ISG/JAC ( Ethics Review) and Public Affairs (S9 MOW/PA) for

  1. Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Wu, Huali; Yeatts, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    The use of water medications is a common practice in the US swine industry to treat and prevent infections in swine herds with minimal labor and without risk of needle breakage. There are concerns that FDA-approved withdrawal times (WDT) may be inadequate for several water medications when exporting pork products to countries where MRLs (maximum residue limits) are lower than US tolerance levels. In this study, withdrawal intervals (WDI) were estimated for pigs when dosed with tetracycline and sulfamethazine in water. The WDI were calculated using the FDA tolerance method (TLM) and a population-based pharmacokinetic method (PopPK). The estimated WDIs (14-16 days using TLM) were similar to the approved WDT of 15 days for sulfamethazine. However, the PopPK method extended WDIs for both sulfamethazine (19-20 days) and tetracycline (12 days) compared to the currently approved WDTs in the U.S. This study also identified potential differences in WDI between weanling and finisher pigs. In conclusion, the TLM may not always provide adequate WDT for foreign export markets especially when MRLs differ from tolerance levels approved for US markets. However, PopPK methods can provide conservative WDIs in situations with considerable variability in medication exposure such as with administration in water.

  2. Efecto de dos sistemas de simulación de monta durante la I. A. en el comportamiento reproductivo de las cerdas (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Los estímulos del verraco alrededor de la Inseminación Artificial (IA) pueden afectar el desempeño reproductivo de la cerda. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de alforjas de 25 kg sobre la grupa o un cinturón alrededor de la zona lumbar de las hembras simulando, respectivamente, la monta y presión de las extremidades delanteras del verraco durante la cópula, en el tiempo requerido para realizar la IA, tasa de parición y número de lechones nacidos vivos por cerda. Treinta...

  3. Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation When Directing the Area of maximal Compression by Transesophageal Echocardiography During Cardiac Arrest in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    at 20mins CPP was measured over the duration of the experiment ROSC was defined as a regular cardiac rhythm with SBP >60 for 1min...69.2) 0 (0.00) No ROSC 4 (30.8) 13 ( 100 ) * * * p=0.032 p=0.002 pɘ.001 Figure 1. CPP at baseline, during VF arrest, BLS, and ACLS

  4. First report of a Trichinella papuae infection in a wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an Australian island in the Torres Strait region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, L; Cookson, B; Jackson, L A; Gray, C; Traub, R J

    2012-04-30

    Multiple Trichinella species are reported from the Australasian region although mainland Australia has never confirmed an indigenous case of Trichinella infection in humans or animals. Wildlife surveys in high-risk regions are essential to truly determine the presence or absence of Trichinella, but in mainland Australia are largely lacking. In this study, a survey was conducted in wild pigs from mainland Australia's Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait region for the presence of Trichinella, given the proximity of a Trichinella papuae reservoir in nearby PNG. We report the detection of a Trichinella infection in a pig from an Australian island in the Torres Strait, a narrow waterway that separates the islands of New Guinea and continental Australia. The larvae were characterised as T. papuae (Kikori strain) by PCR and sequence analysis. No Trichinella parasites were found in any pigs from the Cape York Peninsula. These results highlight the link the Torres Strait may play in providing a passage for introduction of Trichinella parasites from the Australasian region to the Australian mainland.

  5. Positive effects of treatment of donor cells with aphidicolin on the preimplantation development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Chinese Bama mini-pig (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Yu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Wu, Cai-Feng; Gu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Liang; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Yi-Ni; Wu, Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan; Li, Yao; Chen, Xue-Jin; Zhang, De-Fu

    2012-02-01

    To optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures in mini-pigs, the present study was designed to examine the effects of donor cell types and aphidicolin (APC) treatment on in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), ear fibroblast cells (EFC) and cumulus cells (CC) derived from mini-pigs were treated with serum starvation only or serum starvation followed by treatment of 0.1 µg/mL APC. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their developmental competency. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed embryos derived from the OEC by APC treatment were significantly higher than the serum starvation (61.82% vs. 56.25%, 24.55% vs. 17.86%; P cell types. Therefore, our results suggest that treatment of CC with serum starvation plus APC prior to nuclear transfer is more suitable in SCNT of mini-pigs.

  6. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

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    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  7. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

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    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  8. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  9. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on function and fertility of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chunmei; Xia, Wei; Yang, Sheng; An, Lei; Li, Xihe; Wu, Zhonghong; Zhang, Jiaxing; Wang, Zhuqing; Tian, Jianhui

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of antioxidant supplementation on the quality of flow cytometrically-sorted boar spermatozoa. The effects of ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AA-2G) on the sex-sorting process were evaluated using a variety of concentrations. The effects of different antioxidants (AA-2G, l-glutathione, and vitamin E) on the viability and lifespan of boar spermatozoa were also compared during sorting. Furthermore, the effect of AA-2G on acrosome intactness, the capacitation ability of sorted boar spermatozoa and pregnancy efficiency after artificial insemination (AI) at different sorting-to-insemination intervals were examined. Greater (Psperm head lateral displacement (ALH)) of the sex-sorted boar spermatozoa were greater (Pboar spermatozoa in the AA-2G-supplemented group was less (Pboar spermatozoa for the AA-2G-supplemented group were 59.25%, while the control group remains no sufficient quality semen. This study demonstrates that AA-2G supplementation can improve the quality of flow cytometrically sorted boar spermatozoa and that the optimal concentration of AA-2G for sorting is 0.068 mg/mL.

  10. Suppression of boar taint in cryptorchid pigs using a vaccine against the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, A; Ampuero Kragten, S

    2013-12-01

    Thirteen unilaterally cryptorchid Large White pigs, which had been immunized at 4 and 8 weeks of age and a third time at 64 ± 4 kg body weight against the gonadotropin releasing hormone with the vaccine Improvac®, were slaughtered at the age of 170 ± 9 days at a body weight of 102 ± 12 kg. Twelve pigs tested negative in the olfactory test of the salivary gland; their descended testicles were small and their fat androstenone concentration was low compared to normally developed boars of a previous experiment which had been vaccinated twice with Improvac® according the manufacturer's recommendation. One cryptorchid boar, which tested positive in the olfactory test and whose testicular weight and fat androstenone concentration corresponded to values of unvaccinated boars of the same age, obviously had not responded to the vaccination. It is an open question if the vaccination protocol for normal boars is sufficient to prevent boar taint in the majority of cryptorchid pigs, too.

  11. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  12. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Palginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Palginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Palginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars.

  14. Antigenic characterization of classical swine fever virus YC11WB isolates from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Ji-Ae; Han, Song-Hee; Hyun, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Sun; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease that affects domestic pigs and wild boar, has serious economic implications. The present study examined the virulence and transmission of strain YC11WB (isolated from a wild boar in 2011) in breeding wild boar. Virulence in domestic pigs was also examined. Based on the severe clinical signs and high mortality observed among breeding wild boar, the pathogenicity of strain YC11WB resembled that of typical acute CSF. Surprisingly, in contrast to strain SW03 (isolated from breeding pigs in 2003), strain YC11WB also showed both acute and strong virulence in breeding pigs. None of three specific monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 7F83, and 6F65) raised against the B/C domain of the SW03 E2 protein bound to the B/C domain of strain YC11WB due to amino acid mutations ((720)K→R and (723)N→S) in the YC11WB E2 protein. Although strains YC11WB and SW03 belong to subgroup 2.1b, they showed different mortality rates in breeding pigs. Thus, if breeding pigs have not developed protective immunity against classical swine fever virus, they may be susceptible to YC11WB transmitted by wild boar, resulting in severe economic losses for the pig industry.

  15. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-06

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population.

  16. Analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars from the Bydgoszcz breeding region in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna MICHALSKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented paper was analysis of the performance test results of young pure breed boars coming from The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region (located in Poland in Kujawy-Pomorze Province. The research covered the results concerning 4190 young boars of following breeds: Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc and Pietrain. Young pure breed boars were performance tested in 2009 and 2010 in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region according to the actual methodology. Among young pure breed boars performance tested in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region in tested years animals of Hampshire breed had the higher growth rate. The pigs of Pietrain breed had the highest meat content. Regarding to the most important parameter of performance test, i.e. selection index in analyzed years 2009 and 2010 the best results had young boars of Hampshire then Pietrain, Duroc, PLW and PL.

  17. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  18. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HAREA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.

  19. X/XY/XYY mosaicism as a cause of subfertility in boars: a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, C R; Wood, D; Southwood, O I; Griffin, D K

    2003-02-01

    Sex chromosome abnormalities are common in mammals and humans and are often associated with subfertility. In this study a boar with normal sperm parameters was indicated to have reduced prolificacy from figures obtained for return rate, farrowing rate and total number of piglets born. G-banded cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood identified an abnormal mosaic sex chromosome constitution 39,XYY[74]/38,XY[23]/37,X[3]. Cytogenetic analysis of fibroblasts confirmed this mosaic karyotype with similar percentages of cell lines observed 39,XYY[76]/38,XY[19]/37,X[5]. External genitalia revealed a poorly developed scrotum with the right testicle being smaller than the left. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that this chromosome constitution has been reported in the pig. It is of particular interest that this karyotype is associated with reduced boar fertility, which could lead to potential economic losses if such a boar were selected for breeding purposes.

  20. Effects of soybean isoflavones on reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao-xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean isoflavones are structurally similar to mammalian estrogens and therefore may act as estrogen agonists or antagonists. However, it has not been determined if they have any negative effects on reproductive parameters in male livestock. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soybean isoflavones on male reproduction using Chinese mini-pig boars as a model. Fifty Xiang boars were randomly divided into five groups and fed diets containing 0, 125, 250, or 500 ppm soybean isoflavones or 0.5 ppm diethylstilbestrol for 60 days. Results Dietary supplementation with 250 ppm of soy isoflavones markedly increased the testis index (P P P P P P P P P P P Conclusions The results of this study indicate that consumption of soy isoflavones at dietary levels up to 250 ppm did not adversely affect reproductive parameters in Chinese mini-pig boars whereas higher levels of soy isoflavones may adversely affect male reproduction.

  1. Effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin on sperm viability and acrosome reaction in boar semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Seung; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Boo-Keun; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC) on boar sperm viability and spermatozoa cryosurvival during boar semen cryopreservation, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) was treated for comparing with CLC. Boar semen treated with CLC and MBCD before freezing process to monitor the effect on survival and capacitation status by flow cytometry with appropriate fluorescent probes. Sperm viability was higher in 1.5mg CLC-treated sperm (76.9±1.01%, Psperm before cryopreservation (58.7±1.31% and 60.3±0.31%, respectively). For CTC patterns, F-pattern was higher in CLC treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm, for B-pattern was higher in CLC-treated sperm than fresh sperm (Psperm) was lower in CLC-treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm (Pboar semen.

  2. Dynamics of the induced acrosome reaction in boar sperm evaluated by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Anders; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the dynamics of the in vitro induced acrosome reaction (AR) in boar sperm in response to medium composition, incubation time and ionophore concentration. The AR is a prerequisite for normal sperm fertilizing capability and can be studied in vitro following induction...... induced AR. A detailed description of the dynamics of sperm viability and acrosomal status of boar sperm following in vitro induction of the AR has to our knowledge not previously been conducted. In the present study, a triple color flow cytometric detection technique was used, which gave simultaneous...... information on sperm viability and acrosomal status. The ionophore induced AR was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, but could be easily induced in boar sperm without capacitation. Capacitation-associated plasma membrane phospholipid scrambling was assessed and a medium specific ability to induce these membrane...

  3. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  4. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

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    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  5. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks.

  6. The Boars from Altamira: Solving an Identity Crisis

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    Patricia C. Rice

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available Most scholars of prehistoric European cave art would regard correct species identification of depicted animals as the first step toward explaining the presence of animals in prehistoric imagery. Whether one is attempting explanation via quantitative or qualitative means, via inductive or deductive methods, knowing the relative proportions of animals depicted in single caves or in all caves is a logical starting point, since the vast majority of identifiable images in cave art are of animals. But inventories of animals in caves differ from expert to expert due to numbers of images involved, and because the lack of preservation or poor technical rendition make identification difficult in many cases. Using the most recent counts is no indication of accuracy. The reluctance of governments to allow surveys to be made by any but their own nationals has complicated the issue, with the results that most scholars must use the counts of others, inevitably reinforcing errors. The underlying message remains clear: we can explain only as accurately as our data allow. It is with this in mind that I question part of the recent reinterpretation of the Altamira ceiling by Leslie Freeman (1987. I do not question his goal of reinventorying the animal images; he is to be applauded for this venture. I do, however, question his conclusion that the three animals identified by Breuil in 1935 as 'wild boars' are bison (1987:81.

  7. Accessory sperm: a biomonitor of boar sperm fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardón, Florencia; Evert, Meike; Beyerbach, Martin; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-04-15

    The number of accessory sperm found in the zona pellucida of porcine embryos was correlated to their individual quality and to the embryo quality range found within a single sow. Our goal was to determine whether accessory sperm counts provide semen evaluation with additional, useful information. Accessory sperm count was highest when only normal embryos were found in a given sow and diminished if oocytes or degenerated embryos were present (P<0.01). Within a given sow, normal embryos had higher (P<0.05) accessory sperm counts than degenerated embryos, although not when oocytes were also present. Fertilization capacity of sperm is optimal when only normal embryos are found in a given sow; this capacity is indicated by high accessory sperm counts. A decrease in fertilization capacity is reflected in diminishing accessory sperm counts. The boar had a significant effect (P<0.01) on accessory sperm count, but not on the percentage of normal embryos; this suggests that accessory sperm may be more sensitive indicators of the fertilization capacity of sperm than the percentage of normal embryos. We conclude that accessory sperm count can be used for the detection of compensable defects in sperm and is a valid parameter for assessing sperm fertilization capacity.

  8. Comparative analysis of boar seminal plasma proteome from different freezability ejaculates and identification of Fibronectin 1 as sperm freezability marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilagran, I; Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Castillo, J; Oliva, R; Bonet, S

    2015-03-01

    Variation in boar sperm freezability (i.e. capacity to withstand cryopreservation) between ejaculates is a limitation largely reported in the literature. Prediction of sperm freezability and classification of boar ejaculates into good (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) before cryopreservation takes place may increase the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. While markers of boar sperm freezability have been found from sperm cell extracts, little attention has been paid to seminal plasma. On this basis, the present study compared the fresh seminal plasma proteome of 9 GFEs and 9 PFEs through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ejaculates were previously classified as GFE or PFE upon their sperm viability and progressive motility assessments at 30 and 240 min post thawing. From a total of 51 spots, four were found to significantly (p sperm quality parameters. Results confirmed that FN1 is a reliable marker of boar sperm freezability, because GFEs presented significantly (p boar sperm freezability marker. We can thus conclude that levels of FN1 in fresh seminal plasma from boar semen may be used as a sperm freezability marker, thereby facilitating the use of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.

  9. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  10. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    to study virus spread and evolutionary history in German wild boar. For the first time, the results of our study clearly argue for the possibility of a long-term persistence of genotype 2.3 CSFV strains in affected regions at an almost undetectable level, even after long-term oral vaccination campaigns...

  12. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing-Wang

    2015-08-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) were extracted from S. miltiorrhiza in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMP on the motility of boar sperm, including the antioxidant effect of SMP on boar sperm and the effect of SMP on the in vivo fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Fifty ejaculates from 5 Swagger boars were collected and diluted with an extender, which contained 3% glycerol (v/v) with five concentrations of SMP (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL). The semen was frozen in 0.25mL straws at 1.0×10(9) cells/mL. Sixty gilts were inseminated using fresh semen, frozen semen with 0.4mg/mL of SMP and frozen semen without SMP. The results indicate that the addition of SMP to the extender results in a higher percentage of motile sperm post-thaw (Pboar sperm from peroxidative damage and increase sperm motility and litter size during the process of freezing-thawing. The optimal concentration of SMP for the frozen extenders in this study was determined to be 0.4mg/mL.

  13. The influence of short-term exposure to tropical sunlight on boar seminal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbunike, G. N.; Dede, T. I.

    1980-06-01

    The seminal characteristics of 4 Large White boars exposed to direct tropical sunlight 45 min daily for three days were compared to those of their mates that were maintained under shade in the barn. During the period of exposure, both respiratory rate and rectal temperature increased significantly by 276.84 and 5.13% respectively in the exposed over the unexposed boars, thus indicating a high degree of hyperthermia. Although libido, as judged from the reaction time, was unaffected, the ejaculation time appeared to be longer for the stressed than unstressed animals. Gel mass, semen volume and pH appeared to be stable inspite of the treatment, unlike sperm motility and concentration which deteriorated. Also, the dehydrogenase activity of the semen was inferior in the stressed animals. Sperm output per ejaculate dropped drastically only in the week following exposure from 58.22 to 28.42 billion sperm as compared to corresponding values of 54.83 and 47.87 by the unexposed boars. Similarly, the frequency of sperm abnormality was higher in the stressed boars in this period after which the animals appeared to have recovered.

  14. Interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Zasiadczyk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS, with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Semen samples, extended in Kortowo 3 (K3 extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% LPFo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees C. Additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees C were stored in K3 extender supplemented with LPFo for 3h at 16 degrees C. In each boar, the fluorescent enhancement of ANS was observed in K3-extended semen supplemented with LPFo, prior to storage. Following storage, there was a significant increase in LPFo-ANS fluorescence, particularly in the sperm membrane overlying the head and midpiece regions. There were significant differences among the boars with respect to the sperm populations defined by the LPFo-ANS fluorescence. Sperm viability was not significantly affected during the storage period. Furthermore, the proportions of spermatozoa defined by the different patterns of LPFo-ANS fluorescence were low and remained unchanged after storage of cold shock-treated spermatozoa with 2% or 5% LPFo, suggesting irreversible damage to the sperm membrane architecture. These findings indicate that the ANS fluorescent probe could be used to shed more light on the nature of the interactions between LPFo and sperm membrane following semen preservation. Such valuable information could contribute to the development of an optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

  15. Mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species action in relation to boar motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow cytometric assays of viable boar sperm were developed to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidization of hydroethidine to ethidium), membrane lipid peroxidation (oxidation of lipophilic probe C11-BODIPY581/591), and mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (aggregation of mit...

  16. Fertility prediction of frozen boar sperm using novel and conventional analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozen-thawed boar sperm is seldom used for artificial insemination (AI) because fertility is lower than fresh or cooled semen. Despite the many advantages of AI including reduced pathogen exposure and ease of semen transport, cryo-induced damage to sperm usually results in decreased litter sizes a...

  17. Statistical Approach to Boar Semen Evaluation Using Intracellular Intensity Distribution of Head Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, L.; Petkov, N.; Alegre, E.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method for the classification of boar sperm heads based on their intracellular intensity distributions observed in microscopic images. The image pre-processing comprises segmentation of cell heads and normalization for brightness, contrast and size. Next, we define a model distribution

  18. Correlation of frequency of spermatozoa morphological alterations with sperm concentration in ejaculates of Polish Landrace boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondracki S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were performed on 448 ejaculates obtained from 41 Polish Landrace boars. Ejaculates collected from each boar at one-month intervals for approximately 10 months were analysed. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each boar and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope of preparations made from fresh ejaculates. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into three groups. An attempt was made in the present study to assess the correlation of ejaculate parameters, morphological sperm alteration incidence and morphometric sperm parameters with the sperm concentration in ejaculates of Polish Landrace boars. It should be stated that morphometric traits of spermatozoa are related to sperm concentration. The spermatozoa in concentrated ejaculates had smaller heads than the spermatozoa in the ejaculates with lower sperm concentrations. This can mean that the high fertility of males that produce highly concentrated semen does not only result from a high sperm concentration, but also from the fact that the spermatozoa in such ejaculates have smaller heads. The highest frequency of morphologically well-formed spermatozoa was identified in ejaculates with the sperm concentration ranging from 400 to 500 thousand/mm3.

  19. Mutation in the porcine SERPINA7 gene and its association with boar fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Dongren; REN Jun; XING Yuyun; MA Junwu; WU Yanbo; GUO Yuanmei; HUANG Lusheng

    2006-01-01

    The porcine SERPINA7 gene is considered as a positional candidate gene responsible for testis size for its location on X chromosome and its biologically critical role in the development of testis. A nonsynonymous polymorphism (His226Asn or C678A) in the ligand-binding domain of SERPINA7 has been identified, which alters SERPINA7' s affinity to thyroxine and is closely associated with testis size. In this study, a primer mutagenesis strategy was developed to genotype this polymorphism in Chinese indigenous pigs and some western commercial pigs. The C allele existed in all tested Chinese indigenous and wild pigs, while the A allele is specific for western commercial breeds, indicating the occurrence of the mutation is of western origin. The correlation of this polymorphism with different boar fertility traits was assessed using a White Duroc × Erhualian intercross which included 110 F2 mature boars. The results showed that the C678A polymorphism was closely associated with testis weight and epididymis weight( P<0.0001 and P = 0. 0016, respectively) with significant heavier testis weight and epididymis weight in boars carrying the A allele than boars with the C allele. A significant correlation was also observed between this polymorphism and total sperm in the ejaculate ( P<0.01 ) as well as semen volume ( P<0.05). No statistically significant association of the C678A polymorphism with sperm concentration and sperm motility was found.

  20. Automatic classification of the acrosome status of boar spermatozoa using digital image processing and LVQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alegre, Enrique; Biehl, Michael; Petkov, Nicolai; Sanchez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    We consider images of boar spermatozoa obtained with ail optical phase-contrast microscope. Our goal is to automatically classify single sperm cells as acrosome-intact (class 1) or acrosome-damaged (class 2). Such classification is important for the estimation of the fertilization potential of a spe