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Sample records for boars sus scrofa

  1. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

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    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  2. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

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    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  3. Exposure of extensively farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa) to selected pig pathogens in Greece.

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    Marinou, K A; Papatsiros, V G; Gkotsopoulos, E K; Odatzoglou, P K; Athanasiou, L V

    2015-06-01

    Increased density and distribution of wild boar populations are likely to promote interactions and transmission of certain pathogens, not only among wild boar but also from wild boar to livestock or humans and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence against seven selected pathogens in wild boar living in four different areas in Greece. In total, 359 serum samples were collected from extensively farmed wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) originating from four distinct geographical areas throughout Greece from April 2012 to August 2013. Samples were tested for antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, African swine fever virus (ASFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Prevalence was compared among the four regions using Fisher's exact test. Low overall seropositivities of 2.4% and 5.6% were detected for E. rhusiopathiae and PRRSV, respectively, higher ones for ADV (32.0%) and the highest (72.5% and 90.5%) for M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. All sera tested were found negative for antibodies directed against CSFV and ASFV. This is the first report of exposure of wild boars to selected pig pathogens in Greece. These results are indicative of the circulation of these pathogens in Greece with the exception of CSFV and ASFV and suggestive of the potential role of wild boars on their maintenance and transmission to their domestic counterparts and vice versa.

  4. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

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    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar ( Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  5. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Viana Correa da; Lui, Jeffrey Frederico; Band, Guilherme de Oliveira; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Grossi, Selma de Fátima; Sollero, Bruna Pena; Nunes, Cleujosí da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS ) within each population and inter population variability F IS , t...

  6. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

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    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  7. Do changes in soil properties after rooting by wild boars (Sus scrofa) affect understory vegetation in Swiss hardwood forests?

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    Sven Wirthner; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; James W. Kirchner; Anita C. Risch

    2012-01-01

    Recovering from small fragmented populations, wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) have considerably increased their numbers and their habitat range in many European countries during the past two decades. Although several studies have focused on the impact of wild boar rooting on selected vegetation properties, little is known about effects on entire forest ecosystems. The main...

  8. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Costa Vânia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999, low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9 and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.

  9. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  10. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  11. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

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    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    presented reduced growth rate, anorexia, lethargy, cough and dyspnea, especially after they were moved. High body temperature (40ºC in average was verified in some animals. Auscultation revealed moderate pulmonary crepitation and stertors. Pulmonary gross lesions were typical of lobular bronchopneumonia. Lung lesions were characterized by ventral-cranial consolidation in the majority of the cases. The color of affected pulmonary areas varied from diffuse dark red to mosaic pattern (dark red lobule intercalate by grayish lobule or diffusely grayish. The majority of the lungs had mucopurulent exsudate in the bronchial lumen that also drained from the parenchyma cut surface. Upon microscopy, the changes were characterized by purulent and histiocytic bronchopneumonia with necrotic foci. In some animals, there was BALT hyperplasia associated with perivascular and peribronchial plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration in most of these cases. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Immunohistochemistry evaluation demonstrated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and the DNA of bacteria was detected by PCR. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boars associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  12. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  13. Evaluation of different soil parameters and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] grassland damage

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    Žiga Laznik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the correlations between different soil parameters [presence of grubs, earthworms, pH, content of P2O5, K2O and organic matter (OM in soil] and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] damage to grasslands. The soil samples and damage assessments were performed at six locations in the Kočevje region, which is a densely wooded part of South East Slovenia. A significant positive correlation was discovered between the extent of damage due to wild boar rooting in grasslands and the number of grubs (r=0.73, the weight of grubs (r=0.69 and the content of P2O5 (r=0.87 in the soil. The quantity and weight of grubs in soil were significantly influenced by soil pH, the content of CaCl2 (r=0.71/0.72, P2O5 (r=0.90/0.91, and OM (r=0.74/0.77; while the quantity and weight of earthworms in soil were influenced by the content of K2O (r=0.81/-0.84. A moderate yet insignificant correlation (r=0.48/0.56 was discovered between the number and weight of earthworms in soil and the extent of grassland damage. Grubs represent a more important source of protein for wild boars than earthworms; consequently, reducing the quantity of grubs in soil could minimise the extent of damage caused by boars.

  14. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

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    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  15. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

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    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  16. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

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    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

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    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  18. The anatomic surgical arterial segmentation of the kidney in wild boar (Sus scrofa

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    Elizângela Falcão Vale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty pairs of kidneys of wild boar (Sus scrofa were studied from adult males, with permission from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment (Process nº 02001.003237/05, aiming to characterize the vasculature and anatomic surgical segmentation. The arteries of these kidneys were injected with red pigment and subsequently submitted to acid corrosion in order to identify the renal arterial vascular pattern, particularly its divisions and distribution. The results reveal the sectorial branches of the renal arteries, two in number (cranial and caudal; the sectorial arteries provide the segmentary branches to the dorsal and ventral portions of the kidney; in the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 2-6 in the cranial sector and 3-7 in the caudal sector. In the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 3-7 and 2-7 in the same respective sectors; the vascular arterial symmetry (25% between the right and left kidney in the animals is evident. There are 3 arterial anatomic surgical segments on both kidneys. On the basis of the distribution of the sectorial and segmentary arteries, it is possible to accomplish setorectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of the wild boar, with functional aspects such as species preservation and animal experimental modeling.

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

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    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy.

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    Montagnaro, Serena; Sasso, Simona; De Martino, Luisa; Longo, Mariangela; Iovane, Valentina; Ghiurmino, Gianbenedetto; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Nava, Donatella; Baldi, Loredana; Pagnini, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples were collected from wild boars (Sus scrofa) harvested during the 2005-2006 hunting season in Campania, southern Italy. Samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogan, Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), porcine reproductive and respiratory stress syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Of the 342 serum samples tested, 15 (4.4%) were seropositive to Brucella spp., nine (2.6%) were seropositive to L. interrogans, 66 (19.3%) were seropositive for Salmonella spp., 105 (30.7%) were seropositive for ADV, 27 (7.9%) were seropositive for PPV, and 129 (37.7%) were seropositive for PRRSV. All sera tested seronegative for SVDV and CSFV antibodies. These results, recorded for the first time in Campania, support the hypothesis that wild boar are reservoirs of certain infectious agents, but some infections in wild boars originate from their domestic counterparts.

  1. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in central and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgorski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Javor, Andras; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Latvia.

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    Deksne, Gunita; Kirjušina, Muza

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of undercooked pork products is considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans in several countries. In total, 803 pork samples and 606 wild boar meat samples were collected from different regions of Latvia during June 2010 and February 2011 were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using an in-house ELISA assay. Seroprevalence in wild boar (33.2%, P Latvia.

  3. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

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    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  4. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

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    Szilvia Kusza

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia. We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1 clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023 and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002. SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1 north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2 Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3 Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  5. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  6. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  7. Estabelecimento do processo espermatogênico em javalis ("Sus scrofa scrofa" criados em cativeiro Establishment of spermatogenic process in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa raised in captivity

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    Marcelo Diniz Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa investigar o desenvolvimento do parênquima testicular de javalis, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, avaliando a evolução do processo de luminação e dos tipos celulares nos túbulos seminíferos e as proporções volumétricas dos componentes do parênquima testicular associando-os à caracterização das fases de desenvolvimento testicular. Foram utilizados 39 javalis criados em cativeiro, de zero a 12 meses de idade. Após a orquiectomia unilateral fragmentos dos testículos foram incluídos em resina plástica e as lâminas foram preparadas para as análises histométricas. A atividade espermatogênica e o processo de vacuolização epitelial iniciaram a partir dos três meses de idade. A evolução celular do epitélio seminífero foi mais intensa a partir dos nove meses, quando o processo espermatogênico apresentava-se completo e os túbulos seminíferos possuíam lume amplo. Aos 12 meses de idade, a morfologia do processo espermatogênico foi semelhante ao relatado para animais sexualmente maduros e a proporção tubular no parênquima testicular enquadrou-se ao descrito para a maioria dos mamíferos. Conclui-se que os javalis podem ser classificados quanto à fase de desenvolvimento testicular como impúberes do nascimento aos dois meses; como pré-púbere entre três e oito meses; como púberes aos nove meses; como pós-púberes entre 10 e 12 meses; e aos 12 meses apresentam características de animais sexualmente maduros.This study aimed to investigate the development of testicular parenchyma of wild boars, from the birth to 12 months old, evaluating the evolution process of lumination and the cellular types in seminiferous tubules and the volumetric proportions of testicular parenchyma components, associating them to the characterization of testicular development phases. A total of 39 wild boars raised in captivity had been used, from zero to 12 months old. After unilateral orchiectomy, fragments

  8. Heavy metals in wild boar (Sus scrofa and related lesions

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    A. Zaccaroni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are toxic elements naturally present in the environment which can be bioconcentrated by plants and animals and incorporated into food cycles. Thus the use of wildlife species as monitors is a useful tool to assess environmental pollution. Because of its ethological characteristics, wild boar is highly probable to be exposed to pollution, mainly by heavy metals. These pollutants, when present at high enough concentrations, can induce histological lesion in various tissues. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the levels of five metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in wild boar, Sus scrofa, originating from an Apennine area of Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy, and to evaluate any possible correlation with histological lesions eventually observed. Samples of several organs (liver, heart, kidney, diaphragm, abductor muscle, masseter, eye, testis, brain, lung and spleen were collected from hunted animals during winter 2001. Levels of metals were determined on freeze dried tissues employing microwave wet digestion. Toxicological analysis were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and data expressed on a dry weight basis. Histopatological analyses were performed on fixed samples of the same tissue. Highest mean values were found in kidney for cadmium and copper (7 ± 1 ppm and 30 ± 2.6 ppm respectively and in liver for copper (21.16 ± 3.28 ppm, lead (2139 ± 680.6 ppb, iron (415.92 ± 24.41 ppm and zinc (94.76 ± 6.11 ppm. In all other tissues, mean concentrations of each metal were at low levels, and were comparable one another. A statistical difference was found for iron (p<0.05, copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 in kidney, in testis (p<0.01 for zinc and in liver for copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 as function of age cohorts. When sex was considered, a statistical difference was found for iron in eye, for copper in heart and for cadmium in heart and kidney. Histopatological analysis allowed

  9. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2009), s. 479-482 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/96/1059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Sus scrofa * serosurvey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2009

  10. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  11. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

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    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  12. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5–10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five...... domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide...... polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across...

  13. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  14. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

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    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  15. The European Distribution of Sus Scrofa. Model Outputs from the Project Described within the Poster – Where are All the Boars? An Attempt to Gain a Continental Perspective

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    Neil Stewart Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a host of a number of arthropod-vectored diseases and its numbers are on the rise in mainland Europe. The species potentially impacts ecosystems, humans and farming practices and so its distribution is of interest to policy makers in a number of fields beyond that of the primarily epidemiological goal of this study. Three statistical model outputs describing the distribution and abundance of the species Sus scrofa (Wild boar are included in this data package. The extent of this dataset covers continental Europe. These data were presented as a poster [1] at the conference Genes, Ecosystems and Risk of Infection (GERI 2015. The first of the three models provide a European map presenting the probability of presence of Sus scrofa, which can be used to describe the likely geographical distribution of the species. The second and third models provide indices to help describe the likely abundance across the continent. The two indices include “the proportion of suitable habitat where presence is estimated” and a simple classification of boar abundance across Europe using quantiles of existing abundance data and proxies.

  16. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  17. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 3-4 (2013), s. 504-508 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 022/2010/Z; Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 11/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Cryptosporidium suis * Eurasian wild boar * PCR * SSU Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  18. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites in wild boar (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Aynaloo protected area, East Azerbaijan province

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    Roghayeh Norouzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are a threat to the wildlife by endangering the health of wild animals and serving as a source of transmission of infectious agents to livestock and humans. Despite the distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus throughout the world, information on their parasitic infections is limited. Knowledge of the parasitic fauna of animals in protected areas may be used in protection of endangered species. The present study aimed to investigate the status of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in wild boar, wild goat and red deer in the Aynaloo protected area, Northwest of Kaleybar city, East Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, in spring 2015, 30 fecal samples of wild boar, 30 fecal samples of wild goat and 30 fecal samples of red deer were collected. The samples were processed using direct smear and Clayton lane floatation technique. Five species of helminths were detected from wild boar fecal samples consisting of Trichuris suis, Strongyloides suis, Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri. Among them,  one species (Strongyloides suis was reported for the first time in Iran. Protozoa were not detected in the fecal samples of the wild boar. Wild goats were infected with Oesophagostomum columbianum, Muellerius capillaris and Eimeria spp. Respiratory larva and Eimeria spp. were detected from red deer samples.

  19. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by trichinoscopy and, in case of negativity, by artificial digestion of 25 g muscles, in the 1976-2005 period, and by artificial digestion of 25-50 g muscles in the 2006-2013 period. Trichinella spp. larvae were identified at the species level by multiplex PCR. In the study period, the overall prevalence of infected wild boar was 2.5%. Trichinella britovi was the predominant (90%) species. The incidence of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar exhibited two different trends. From 1976 to 1987, the incidence of infected/hunted wild boar increased from 0.23% to 2.56%, then it decreased to 0.19 in 1994. Thereafter, the incidence fluctuated between 0.05% and 0.37%. A statistically significant (P Latvia increased by 4.9 times and the hunting bag by 9.7 times, with a stable incidence of Trichinella spp. in the population. It follows that the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae and of T. britovi, in particular, increased. The incidence trends of Trichinella spp. in wild boar could be related to the role played by the snow in reducing the thermal shock and muscle putrefaction which increases the survival of the larvae in muscle tissues of carrion in the 1976-1993 period; and, in the 1997-2013 period, to the increased biomass of Trichinella spp. due to the increased carnivore populations, which are the main reservoirs of these parasites.

  1. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serological survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for tularaemia and brucellosis in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Treml, F.; Juřicová, Zina; Huňady, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Janík, V.; Bill, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2-3 (2002), s. 60-66 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/1122; GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Sus scrofa * serosurvey * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.204, year: 2002 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/47-3-60.pdf

  3. Survey of [i]Toxoplasma gondii [/i]antibodies in meat juice of wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] in several districts of the Czech Republic

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    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The aims of the study were: 1 to detect antibodies against T[i]oxoplasma gondii[/i] from wild boar meat; 1 establish seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the wild boar population; 3 establish risk factors concerned in higher possible seroprevalence; 4 to estimate the usefulness of meat juice for detection of [i]T. gondii[/i] antibodies in wild boar. Material and methods. Diaphragm meat juice samples from 656 wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] were collected during the hunting seasons between September 2008 – October 2010 from 9 districts of the Czech Republic. The samples were stratified per age category into 2 groups: piglets (n = 279 and yearlings together with adults (n = 377. The in-house ELISA test was used for the detection of antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]from the meat juice samples. Results. Antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]were detected by in-house ELISA in 260 of 656 wild boars (40% with 26% prevalence in piglets (72/279 and 50% prevalence in yearlings and adults (188/377. The district total seroprevalences ranged between 32% – 59%, with a significantly higher prevalence in the district of Havlíčkův Brod (59%. Statistically significant differences (p-value < 0.05 were found between 2 age categories, and between 9 districts, with a significant variability in the district of Havlíčkův Brod. Seroprevalence correlated positively with farm density, but without any statistical significance. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  4. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  5. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  6. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  9. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  10. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  11. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat juice of wild boar (Sus scrofa in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  12. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, 2/4 (2012), 122-125 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Mšk(CZ) 6007665806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Eurasian wild boar * SSU * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  13. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  14. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a bioindicator of organochlorine compound contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of West Pomerania Province, NW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Marciniak, Andrzej; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Radosław; Ligocki, Marek; Prokulewicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence and determine the residue levels of DDT, lindane, endrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of wild boars from the area of West Pomerania, NW Poland; to determine the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) as a biomarker of biological response and to assess the toxicological risk for consumers of the wild boar offal. The presence of pesticide residues and PCBs was found in all examined liver samples. The highest concentration was observed for endrin, and then, the descending order was PCBs >DDTs >lindane >dl-PCBs. The mean hepatic concentrations of endrin, PCBs, DDTs and lindane were 117.28, 78.59, 67.95 and 7.24 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Among the dioxin-like PCB congeners, 118 and 156 were dominant in liver samples. The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) level calculated for dl-PCBs was 2.10 ± 1.11 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/g. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between the concentration of lindane, DDTs and PCBs (as a sum of indicator congeners) in the liver and in the activity of GST. However, GST activities showed no significant correlation with any of the dl-PCBs. In five boar liver samples, the levels of certain organochlorine compounds exceeded the maximum residue levels (MRLs). In one sample, the MRLs were exceeded simultaneously for PCBs, endrin and DDTs and in another one-for endrin and DDTs. In the remaining three samples, only PCB levels were exceeded.

  15. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  16. A statistical GIS-based analysis of Wild boar (Sus scrofa traffic collisions in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available vThis study was aimed at analysing the most relevant environmental variables involved in vehicle–wild boar road collisions in a Mediterranean area, starting from a territorial information system implemented in a GIS environment. Landscape structure indices and local qualitative and quantitative variables were correlated to identify the most frequent predisposing factors of collisions. Statistical tests of the considered parameters indicated a higher frequency of collisions in the evening hours of late summer and autumn (P<0.05 compared with daytime and night-time, localized nearness to attraction points (feeding or resting sites; P<0.001 and closeness to no-hunting areas (P<0.001. In addition, local road parameters (shape of road, visibility at road sides, etc. considerably increased the risk of collisions.

  17. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  18. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  19. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Taiwan Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) and its phylogenetic relationships with other pig breeds. Thirty-four forward and reverse primers were designed. Sequencing was performed in both directions.

  20. Evaluation of semen parameters of boars (Sus scrofa experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii/ Avaliação dos parâmetros seminais de cachaços (Sus scrofa experimentalmente infectados com Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the influence of T. gondii on semen parameters and spermatozoa morphology, eight boars were inoculated with T. gondii. Experimental groups consisted of: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocysts of P strain; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 tachyzoites of RH strain and GIII (n=2, control noninoculated. Evaluations of semen parameters (volume, motility, strength, concentration, study of spermatozoa morphology, serology (RIFI, parasitemia and hemograms were performed. For this purpose, blood and semen collection were carried out on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 and weekly until 84 days post-inoculation. Non hematimetrics alterations and clinical signs were observed on animals. Parasitemia was detected in an animal inoculated with oocysts, on the 7th day post inoculation (DPI and in a two pigs of GII (tachyzoites, on the 3rd and 49th DPI. Serology results revealed the presence of antibody anti-T. gondii on the animals inoculated with oocysts or tachyzoites since 7th DPI, with tittles of 256 and 64, reaching a maximal level of 4096 on days 11 and 9 post inoculation, respectively. The GIII (control was negative through out all experimental period. The semen parametersevaluated did not present any alteration due to toxoplasmosis. Significative differences (PCom o objetivo de investigar a influência do Toxoplasma gondii nos parâmetros seminais e na morfologia espermática de suínos, oito reprodutores foram inoculados com T. gondii, sendo constituídos os seguintes grupos experimentais: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocistos da cepa P, via oral; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 taquizoítos da cepa RH, via subcutânea e GIII (n=2, controle. Foram realizadas avaliações de parâmetros espermáticos (volume, motilidade, vigor, concentração, estudo da morfologia dos espermatozóides, exames sorológicos(RIFI, parasitemia e hemogramas. Para tanto, colheitas de sangue e sêmen foram realizadas nos dia -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 e semanalmente até 84 dias p

  1. Influence of human activities on the activity patterns of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, van N.; Ohashi, H.; Koike, S.; Kaji, K.

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing and population decline in Japan are causing agricultural field abandonment and providing new habitats for Japanese sika deer and wild boar. These species have expanded their distribution and increased in abundance across Japan and are causing increased agricultural damage. Effective

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  3. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa in Rio Grande do Sul Síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis (Sus scrofa de criações comerciais no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This report concerns an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in wild boars from commercial herds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The main clinical signs were progressive wasting, respiratory distress, diarrhea, and ocular discharges. Enhanced lymph nodes and spleens, ascites, hydrothorax, and non collapsed lungs were the principal gross lesions. Varying degrees of lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in lymph nodes, spleen, and intestines were the most significant microscopic changes. Although a total of 26 animals had showed clinical and pathological findings consistent with the disease, only in 11 of them it was possible to confirm a PMWS diagnosis through the association of specific lesions in lymphoid tissues with the presence of the viral antigen detected by immunohistochemistry. These findings were similar to those reported in the swine disease.Descreve-se a ocorrência da síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis de dois rebanhos comerciais no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os principais sinais observados foram definhamento progressivo, tosse, espirros, diarréia e descarga ocular. Linfonodos e baços aumentados, ascite, hidrotórax e pulmões não colapsados foram os principais achados macroscópicos. Infiltrados linfo-histiocitários de graus variáveis em linfonodos, baços e intestinos foram as lesões microscópicas mais relevantes. Embora 26 animais tenham apresentado achados clínicos e patológicos compatíveis com a enfermidade, apenas em 11 desses foi possível confirmar o diagnóstico através da associação de lesões histológicas específicas nos tecidos linfóides com a presença do antígeno viral, detectado pela técnica de imunoistoquímica. Tanto os achados clínicos como patológicos foram semelhantes aos descritos na doença suína.

  5. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  6. Pseudoscardovia radai sp. nov., A representative of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of a wild pig (Sus scrofa scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Havlík, J.; Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Benada, Oldřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2014), s. 2932-2938 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sus scrofa scrofa Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  7. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  8. First record of wild boar infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilska-Zając Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper describes identification of Trichinella species isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa in the most popular hunting region of the West Pomeranian Province of Poland.

  9. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility......Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  11. Pig-mentation: postmortem iris color change in the eyes of Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Elizabeth; Cox, Margaret; Quincey, David

    2008-05-01

    Experienced forensic pathologists and examiners may be familiar with the phenomenon of postmortem iris color change; however, only Knight, Simpson's forensic medicine, Arnold, London, 1997; Ref. 1 and Saukko and Knight, Knight's forensic pathology, 3rd ed., Arnold, London, 2004; Ref. 2 have referred to it in the literature, and to date, there have been no published scientific research studies on this taphonomic artifact. A controlled experiment was conducted of postmortem changes to isolated Sus scrofa eyes. The eyes (n = 137) were separated into three groups and each sample was observed for 3-day postmortem at a different temperature. In addition, a Sus scrofa head was obtained to observe postmortem changes of eyes in situ. All isolated blue eyes in the experiment, at room temperature and higher, changed to brown/black within 48 h. The in situ blue eye, at room temperature, turned brown/black within 72 h. If iris color consistently changes postmortem in humans, then this taphonomic artifact must be incorporated into victim identification protocol, including disaster victim identification software, and autopsy reports to prevent inaccurate victim identification and inappropriate exclusion from the identification process.

  12. Sus scrofa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organization and International Society for Animal Genetics. (FAO-ISAG), are ideal for such studies. There is ... lite loci recommended for diversity studies using primers supplied courtesy of Professor M. Rothschild .... tics (direct count, effective number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosities) for all of these at 14 ...

  13. Espansione del Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e danni alle coltivazioni in un'area delle Prealpi occidentali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brangi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wild boar (Sus scrofa spreading and crop damage in an area of western Prealps We analysed the agricultural damage reports from 1986 to 1996 to evidence the wild boar distribution in Biella province and the pattern of land occupancy. These reports were yearly divided and mapped for the single municipalities to obtain a picture of the range variations in the time. From the same reports we calculated three indexes of the importance of the Wild boar damages: the damaged surface for each municipality, its percentage value on the surface of each municipality and the occurrence of damages for each municipality. During the study period, we observed a dramatic increase of the number of municipalities affected by wild boar damages and of the species range. The yearly damaged surface grew over 25 times too. The Discriminant Function Analysis carried out between damaged and undamaged municipalities correctly classified 78,1% of total cases by three variables: mixed woods, pastures and dry crops, the second one being the most important. The Multiple Regression Analysis of the damages occurrence vs. habitat variables explained 77,3% of independent variable variance by five variables, which entered the model. The trend analysis, carried out by the seasonal regression, using the surface and the occurrence of damages, evidenced a marked seasonality of the damages and a stability trend, after an initial positive trend. Riassunto Per evidenziare la distribuzione del Cinghiale in provincia di Biella e le modalità d'occupazione del territorio nel corso degli anni, sono state utilizzate le denunce dei danni pervenute all Amministrazione provinciale dal 1986 al 1996. Queste sono state ripartite per comune e mappate anno per anno per fornire una rappresentazione delle variazioni di areale nel corso del tempo. Dalle stesse denunce di danni e per lo stesso arco di tempo sono stati calcolati tre indici

  14. The Osteometrical Characteristics of Mandibles of Sus Scrofa Population in the Czech Republic (České Budějovice) in Comparison with Sus Scrofa Population in Chile and Japan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Líšková, Zuzana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.

    3/13, č. 3 (2007), s. 42-51 ISSN 0909-6396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Sus Scrofa * osteometry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2007

  15. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p0.05) was observed between the treatments. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A comparative study of Sus scrofa M. longissimus dorsi with different changes in quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of Sus scrofa muscle tissue with different defects of quality was carried out. Such analysis methods as determination of water-binding capacity (WBC and pH values, microstructural studies, proteome methods, mass spectrometric methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and determine the concentration of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin were applied in current study. DFD meat was characterized by high pH (6.2 and WBC (93.18%, while PSE - low pH (5.5 and WBC (79.19%. pH and WBC values in NOR pork was medium and averaged 5.9 and 92.05%, respectively. Microstructural studies revealed that fiber in exudative pork was the least and averaged 39.7 µm, normal pork was characterized by diameter of muscle of 45.5 µm, while DFD pork ‑ 48.3 µm. Protein composition of Sus scrofa muscle tissues were also investigated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. 6 protein fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed as potential biomarkers of pork quality defects in meat and processes meat product. It also has been shown that PSE pork contains 8 characteristic peptides, NOR - 14, DFD - 18. Cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin content were measured in pork of different categories. The highest content of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin was noticed in PSE pork and averaged 82.16 ±3.30 ng.mL-1; 1.280 ±0.082 ng.mL-1; 3.973 ±0.506 ng.mL-1, respectively. Since the study was carried out on samples of meat 24 hours after slaughter, this work had the prospect to further study of meat with different defects of quality during long-term autolysis.

  18. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kowalczykiewicz

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  19. Intravenous Cobinamide, a Novel Cyanide Antidote, versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity and Apnea in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    and severe toxicity. Cobinamide was 5 times as potent as hydroxocobalamin. hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide, cyanide , poisoning , Vitamin B12a, Vit B12...treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity of severe hypotension and of cardiac arrest in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model Intravenous...cobinamide, a novel cyanide antidote, versus hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity and apnea in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  1. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  2. Determining the Cardiovascular Effect of Partial versus Complete REBOA in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-09

    the Cardiovascular Effect of Partial versus Complete REBOA in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Hemorrhagic Shock. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI...or sentience been identified as potential study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods...questions regarding applicability of REBOA in different positions for different therapeutic goals . This will, in turn, help to guide the practice of

  3. A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with CorMatrix Extracellular Matrix in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    degree of pain or distress experienced by study animals , or have animals of lower phylogenetic status or sentience been identified as potential study...60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please~ all information. Use...TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: N/A 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total # Approved # Used this FY Total #Used to Date Swine (Sus scrofa) 10 10 10 2

  4. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  5. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  6. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  8. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  9. Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Goeckner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA. The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment.

  10. Survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Guam, Marianna Islands, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Christopher A; DeNicola, Anthony; Dubey, J P; Hill, Dolores E; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission. From February-March 2015, blood, tissue and ectoparasite samples were collected from 47 wild pigs. Serologic testing found exposure to Brucella spp. (2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11%), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (13%), porcine circovirus type 2 (36%), pseudorabies virus (64%), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (93%), Lawsonia intracellularis (93%), and porcine parvovirus (94%). Eleven (24%) samples had low titers (1:100) to Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava (n=6), Icterohaemorrhagiae (n=6), Pomona (n=2), and Hardjo (n=1). Kidney samples from nine pigs with Leptospira antibodies were negative for Leptospira antigens. Numerous pigs had Metastrongylus lungworms and three had Stephanurus dentatus. Lice (Hematopinus suis) and ticks (Amblyomma breviscutatum) were also detected. No antibodies to Influenza A viruses were detected. In contrast to the previous domestic swine survey, we found evidence of numerous pathogens in wild pigs including new reports of pseudorabies virus, PRRS virus, Brucella, and Leptospira in pigs on Guam. These findings highlight that domestic swine-wild pig interactions should be prevented and precautions are needed when handling wild pigs to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultra structure of the denervated vocal muscle mechanically in hogs (sus scrofa domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão, Henrique Zaquia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is not clear in the ultra-structural manifestations of the vocal wrinkles after neural wound. Objective: To verify the alterations that occur in a vocal fold mechanically denervated. Method: In this prospective study, it were utilized 15 hogs of commercial race (Sus scrofa domesticates, with age of 4 to 12 weeks. The animals were distributed in three groups, chosen at random. Everybody was submitted to the denervation of the right vocal fold, with surgical removal of a segment with three centimeters of the recurring right laryngeal nerve. After 45, 90 and 180 days of the operations, it was proceeded the biopsy of the vocal muscles, it was prosecuted the samples for transmission electron microscopy and, for the ultra-structural study, utilized the transmission electron microscopy Philips, model EM208S. Results: The biopsied groups with 45 and 90 days after operation of mechanical denervation, presented disorganization miofibrilar, only vestigial lines Z in many samples, as well like altered mithochondrions presenting limited sizes, and matrix mithocondrial rarefied with rare mithocondrial cristae present. The biopsied group with 180 days after operation of denervation, presented regular sarcomeres, mithocondrions with sizes and regular number with correct positioning between the sarcomerical units. Conclusion: The finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggest to re enervation of the muscle being that the muscular mithochondrions were the most sensible structures to the denervated condition, successions by the cytoarchiteture of the miofibrilas; the finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggests to reinervation of the muscle in the period of approximately six months.

  12. How does supplementary feeding affect endoparasite infection in wild boar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oja, Ragne; Velstrom, Kaisa; Moks, Epp

    2017-01-01

    , as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population. For this, we collected wild boar faeces from forests...... contamination or indicate that supplementary feeding sites are suitable habitat for soil-dwelling nematodes. These results suggest that the effects of supplementary feeding on parasite prevalence in wild boar are mediated by the characteristics of parasite life cycles....

  13. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  14. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  15. Endovascular Perfusion Augmentation for Critical Care (EPACC) as a Resuscitative Adjunct in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Polytrauma Model of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    FUNDING SOURCE: Henry M. Jackson Foundation 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species : Total # Approved # Used this FY Total # Used to Date Sus scrofa 44 20...deeperunderstanding ofZone 1 versus Zone 3 aortic occlusion in the setting of hemorrhagic shock. From this data we havedeveloped a new treatment algorithm for...Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is an emerging technology to augment proximal blood pressure during the resuscitation of patients with non

  16. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  17. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  18. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-06-15

    The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Levantamento da fauna de Coleoptera que habita a carcaça de Sus scrofa L., em Curitiba, Paraná A study of the Coleoptera (Insecta fauna that inhabits Sus scrofa L. carcass in Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Makoto Mise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou levantar a fauna de Coleoptera associada à carcaça de Sus scrofa L.,1758, espécie utilizada como modelo em Entomologia Forense. O acréscimo ou a substituição seqüencial das espécies de insetos pode ser utilizado para estimar o intervalo post mortem (IPM. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Politécnico (UFPR, de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. A cada estação foi sacrificado um suíno de 15 kg no local, colocado em gaiola. A captura dos insetos foi realizada diariamente em bandeja posicionada abaixo da carcaça e em armadilha tipo Shannon modificada, e a cada 14 dias em cinco armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foram coletados 4.360 Coleoptera, pertencentes a 112 espécies de 26 famílias, 12 consideradas de importância forense. A coleta ativa realizada na bandeja foi responsável pela maior captura (2.023 espécimes, seguida pela armadilha Shannon modificada (2.016 espécimes e por último pelas do tipo pit-fall (324 espécimes. Staphylinidae foi mais coletada na bandeja e Shannon modificada, e Silphidae na armadilha pit-fall. Os principais hábitos encontrados foram predador/parasita (55%e onívoro (38,05%, com poucas espécies consideradas necrófagas (1,31%.This paper sought to assess the Coleoptera fauna associated with carcasses of Sus scrofa L., 1758, which is usually used as model in Forensic Entomology. The addition and sequential substitution of insect species could be used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI. The present study took place in Centro Politécnico (UFPR, between september 2005 to september 2006. A pig weighting 15 kg was sacrificed each season and put inside a cage. Sampling is made daily in a tray placed below the carcass and in a Shannon modified trap, and each 14 days in five pit-fall traps. 4,360 beetles were collected, belonging to 112 species of 26 families, 12 were considered of forensic potential. The active collecting made in the tray was responsible for the largest number of

  1. ESTUDIO DE LA ENTOMOFAUNA SUCESIONAL ASOCIADA A LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE UN CADÁVER DE CERDO DOMÉSTICO (Sus scrofa) EN CONDICIONES DE CAMPO

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ortega, Jorge; Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad de Nariño Cll. 26ª No 23-77, San Juan de Pasto, Nariño

    2008-01-01

    Durante los meses de julio a septiembre de 2003, se realizó la caracterización de la entomofauna de importancia forense presente en la descomposición de dos cerdos (Sus scrofa), utilizados como sujeto de muestreo y control respectivamente, en la granja experimental de la Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (sede Consacá, Nariño). Los primeros insectos colonizadores del cadáver fueron las familias Calliphoridae y Sarcophagidae (Diptera); de la primera se capturaron individuos pertenec...

  2. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  3. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, Sophie; Suin, Vanessa; Van der Stede, Yves; Lamoral, Sophie; Marche, Sylvie; Tignon, Marylène; Saiz, Juan Carlos; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Casaer, Jim; Brochier, Bernard; Van Gucht, Steven; Roels, Stefan; Vervaeke, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238) in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT), using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15). Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15) to high (>1/125) SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15). This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended. PMID:27087689

  4. Pre-birth sense of smell in the wild boar: the ontogeny of the olfactory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgione, Domenico; Trapanese, Martina; Buglione, Maria; Rippa, Daniela; Polese, Gianluca; Maresca, Viviana; Maselli, Valeria

    2017-08-01

    Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth). Using mRNA expression analysis of olfactory marker protein and neuropeptide Y, involved in the function of olfactory sensory neurons, we show early activation of the appropriate genes in the wild boar. We hypothesize olfactory pre-birth development in wild boar is highly adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

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    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2014), s. 761-767 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * pig farms * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  7. The challenge of detecting classical swine fever virus circulation in wild boar (Sus scrofa): Simulation of sampling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    with a justifiable effort. The simulation of increased sample sizes per sampling interval showed only a slightly better performance but would be unrealistic in practice, especially outside the main hunting season. Further studies on other approaches such as targeted or risk-based sampling for virus detection...... investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted...

  8. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  9. Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio

    2011-07-13

    A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products.

  10. Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera associados à decomposição de carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae em área de Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera associated to the decay process of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae carcasses in a Cerrado area of Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meneses de Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de dípteros sarcofagídeos adultos coletados em carcaça de porco Sus scrofa, em área de Cerrado, Distrito Federal, Brasil, sendo um estudo sobre a composição da fauna de Diptera na região. O trabalho de campo acompanhou o processo de decomposição da carcaça e foi realizado durante 45 dias. A partir de 4.626 indivíduos coletados foram identificadas 28 espécies, sendo 16 novos registros para a região estudada.This work presents a list of adult flesh flies collected from a pig carrion Sus scrofa, in a Cerrado area of Distrito Federal, Brazil, being a study on the composition of the dipteran fauna in the region. The field work followed the decay of the carrion and was conduced for 45 days. From 4,626 collected flesh flies, 28 species were identified, consisting in 16 new records for this region.

  11. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  12. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  13. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Escarbaduras, alteraciones al suelo y erosión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa es uno de los vertebrados exóticos más perjudiciales para las comunidades nativas de los sitios donde ha sido introducido, sobre todo en islas oceánicas. Los cerdos cimarrones habitan la Isla del Coco desde 1793 y su abundancia se estima en 400-500 individuos. Para cuantificar el impacto de los cerdos cimarrones estimé los efectos de la actividad de escarbadura y su influencia sobre la erosión natural en la Isla del Coco. Durante un año recorrí mensualmente 15 km en senderos calculando el área escarbada por transecto y recurrencia en el escarbado. Durante ocho meses comparé tasas de erosión con y sin escarbaderos. Calculé la tasa de escarbadura anual entre un 10 y un 20 % de la superficie total de la Isla del Coco. El área escarbada fue la única variable de las medidas que se correlacionó con la tasa de erosión del suelo. La tasa de erosión sin escarbaderos fue de 23.6 kg/ha/año y con escarbaderos 200.4 kg/ha/año (P Feral pigs (Sus scrofa are of the most damaging exotic vertebrates, specially on oceanic island native communities. Feral pigs inhabit Cocos Island since 1793 and there are around 400-500 individuals. In order to quantify the impacts of the feral pigs at Cocos Island, I calculated the effect of the rooting activity and its influence on the natural erosion. During one year I walked, monthly, 15 km on trails estimating rooted area by transect and rooting recurrence. During eight months I compared erosion rates with and without rootings. I estimated the annual rooting rate between 10 and 20 % of the total island surface. The rooted area was the only measured variable which correlated with the soil erosion rate. The erosion rate without rootings was 23.6 kg/ha/year and with rootings was 200.4 kg/ha/year (P < 0.01. The disturbances provoked by the rootings were not scattered homogeneously through the island. The rootings, together with the natural landslides, dominate the soil disturbance

  14. Parenteral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Reduces the Prevalence of Tuberculosis-Compatible Lesions in Farmed Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Delgado, I; Rodríguez, O; Boadella, M; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; Bezos, J; Juste, R; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, a wild boar (Sus scrofa) tuberculosis (TB) control programme was set up in a wild boar farm by means of intramuscular (IM) vaccination with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). The goal was to assess safety and efficacy of the parenterally administered IV in a large farm setting with natural M. bovis circulation. Based on preceding results under laboratory conditions, we hypothesized that vaccinated piglets would show smaller scores of TB-compatible lesions (TBCL) than unvaccinated controls. After vaccination, no adverse reactions were detected by visual inspection or at post-mortem examination (n = 668 and 97, respectively). Post-mortem data on TBCL were available for 97 vaccinated wild boar and 182 controls. The observed TBCL prevalence was 4.1% (95% CI = 0.2-8%) and 12.1% (95% CI = 7.1-17.1%) for vaccinated and control wild boar, respectively (P  0.05). The results show that IV administered intramuscularly to wild boar piglets is safe and protects vaccinated individuals (66% reduction in TBCL prevalence) against natural challenge in a low-prevalence setting. In a context of increasing TB prevalence in wild boar in Mediterranean habitats, vaccination achieved a progressive though slow decline in lesion prevalence since the onset of the vaccination scheme. Hence, vaccination might contribute, along with other tools, to TB control in wild boar and in pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ORIGENS, RAMIFICAÇÕES E DISTRIBUIÇÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS FACIAIS EM SUÍNOS (SUS SCROFA DOMESTICUS – LINNAEUS, 1758 DA LINHAGEM SADIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Aparecida Castilho Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, ramifications and distributions of the left and right facial arteries were studied in 30 stillborn pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus of the Sadia lineage, 17 males and 13 females, with the aim of increasing morphological knowledge of these structures in terms of their localization and distribution. The species was chosen for its well known commercial importance. The specimen had its artery system filled with stained solution of neoprene latex 601 A and afterwards fixed in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. It was observed that in 100% of the studied animals the facial arteries originated from the ventrolateral surface of the external carotid artery, rostrally to the lingual artery. The gland branches divided, supplying the mandibular, parotid, monostomática portion of the sublingual and part of the cervical thymus in muscular branches, irrigating the medial pterygoid, masseter, ventral aspect of the digastrics and cutaneous of the face muscles. Furthermore, the pharyngal branch irrigated the soft palate, tympanic bula and basihyoid, and the submentalis artery was directed towards the submental and the dorsal face of the digastrics muscles.

  17. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  18. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  19. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Animal Species: To_tal #Approved # Used this FY Total# Used to Date Sus scrota 16 16 16 2. PROTOCOL TYPE I CHARACTERISTICS: (Check all applicable ...Check applicable ) 4. PROTOCOL ST A TUS: *Request Protocol Closure: _ Inactive, protocol never initiated _ Prolonged Restraint _ Multiple...analysis was delayed from October 2016 to June 2017 when the final samples were run. There were two complications which required early euthanasia of

  20. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  1. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  2. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, R.; Do, D. N.

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of porcine meat which may occur in entire male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation. To avoid BT, castration of young piglets is performed but this strategy is under debate due to animal welfare concerns. The study aimed to reveal...... potential BT biomarkers for optimized breeding. Male pigs (n=48) with low, medium and high genetic merit of BT were selected and tissues from liver and testis were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by RNA-Seq. The reads were mapped to the Sus scrofa reference genome (Ensembl, ver. 79) which resulted...

  3. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  4. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wurster

    Full Text Available Feral pigs (Sus scrofa are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13C and δ(15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  5. Insectos asociados a fenómenos de descomposición cadavérica en cerdo blanco ( Sus scrofa en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ospina Fonseca

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objeto iniciar la investigación de los insectos asociados a fenómenos dedescomposición en una zona alta, específicamente en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundina-marca. Para lograrlo se usó como biomodelo cerdo blanco (Sus scrofa por su similitud conlos humanos, éste se sacrificó y se dejó al aire libre durante ocho meses. El proceso de des-composición se dividió en cinco fases: fresco (2 días, hinchado (13 días, descomposiciónactiva (15 días, descomposición avanzada (31 días y restos secos (160 días. Durante esteperiodo se recogieron 3.539 individuos, el 86.69% pertenecientes a Diptera y el 8.36% aColeoptera. Las familias más numerosas de Diptera fueron Muscidae (62.08% y Calliphoridae(14.44%, mientras que en Coleoptera fueron Silphidae (68.58% y Staphylinidae (14.86%.Se pudo observar la participación de los géneros Calliphora, Paralucilia y Chloroprocta, estosgéneros no aparecen en zonas bajas y podrían ser propios de zonas altas. No se presentarongrupos exclusivos para cada fase del proceso, aunque la presencia y abundancia de Diptera fuemayor al inicio de la descomposición, mientras que Coleoptera (exceptuando Silphidae fuemás abundante y activo al final del proceso. La lluvia ocasionó una "regresión" en la sucesiónde insectos. El presente trabajo no constituye una herramienta de carácter legal pero es elprimer trabajo sobre entomología forense realizado en la Sabana de Bogotá y es base paratrabajos posteriores en la zona.

  6. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency

  7. Trophic discrimination factors of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hair of corn fed wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Holá

    Full Text Available Stable isotope measurements are increasingly being used to gain insights into the nutritional ecology of many wildlife species and their role in ecosystem structure and function. Such studies require estimations of trophic discrimination factors (i.e. differences in the isotopic ratio between the consumer and its diet. Although trophic discrimination factors are tissue- and species-specific, researchers often rely on generalized, and fixed trophic discrimination factors that have not been experimentally derived. In this experimental study, captive wild boar (Sus scrofa were fed a controlled diet of corn (Zea mays, a popular and increasingly dominant food source for wild boar in the Czech Republic and elsewhere in Europe, and trophic discrimination factors for stable carbon (Δ13C and nitrogen (Δ15N isotopes were determined from hair samples. The mean Δ13C and Δ15N in wild boar hair were -2.3‰ and +3.5‰, respectively. Also, in order to facilitate future derivations of isotopic measurements along wild boar hair, we calculated the average hair growth rate to be 1.1 mm d(-1. Our results serve as a baseline for interpreting isotopic patterns of free-ranging wild boar in current European agricultural landscapes. However, future research is needed in order to provide a broader understanding of the processes underlying the variation in trophic discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen across of variety of diet types.

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in liver and muscle tissue from wild boar in Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, T; Falk, S; Failing, K; Berger, J; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ≤45 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤1,780 μg/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ≤7.4 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤28.6 μg/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P meat or liver.

  9. Supplemental feeding drives endoparasite infection in wild boar in Western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Mentaberre, Gregorio; López-Martín, José M; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    Wildlife population management is thought to destabilize existing host-parasite equilibriums in opposing directions, that is, it may increase parasite success or host resilience once infection takes place. This process is of special importance for species such as the wild boar (Sus scrofa) that are managed for game purposes throughout much of Europe. However, little is known about how this practices influcences either gastrointestinal or pulmonary parasitism in the wild boar. Twelve hunting estates were chosen in order to study the relationship of management measures (feeder density, wild boar abundance, the ratio of wild boar per feeder and the percentage of sclerophyllous vegetation) and host factors (age and sex) with gastrointestinal and pulmonary parasite aggregation, richness, infection probability and intensity of infection. Parasitological analyses from 300 wild boar gastrointestinal and 269 respiratory tracts were performed for this purpose. A set of general linear models with combinations of the explanatory variables was built and the model with the smallest Akaike Information Criterion was selected as the best. The feeder density increased gastrointestinal parasite traits (richness, infection probability and intensity of infection), probably due to the contamination of feeding sites with infective parasite forms. Pulmonary parasite traits, on the other hand, were only influenced by host sex and age class, and parasite aggregation was as expected for a wild population. Managers should be aware of the consequences on parasitism when implementing supplemental feeding in hunting estates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Secrets of Success in a Landscape of Fear: Urban Wild Boar Adjust Risk Perception and Tolerate Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas with a high level of human disturbance, wildlife has to adjust its behavior to deal with the so called “landscape of fear.” This can be studied in risk perception during movement in relation to specific habitat types, whereby individuals trade-off between foraging and disturbance. Due to its high behavioral plasticity and increasing occurrence in urban environments, wild boar (Sus scrofa is an excellent model organism to study adjustment to urbanization. With the help of GPS tracking, space use of 11 wild boar from Berlin's metropolitan region was analyzed: we aimed at understanding how animals adjust space use to deal with the landscape of fear in urban areas compared to rural areas. We compared use vs. availability with help of generalized linear mixed models. First, we studied landscape types selected by rural vs. urban wild boar, second, we analyzed distances of wild boar locations to each of the landscape types. Finally, we mapped the resulting habitat selection probability to predict hotspots of human-wildlife conflicts. A higher tolerance to disturbance in urban wild boar was shown by a one third shorter flight distance and by an increased re-use of areas close to the trap. Urban wild boar had a strong preference for natural landscapes such as swamp areas, green areas and deciduous forests, and areas with high primary productivity, as indicated by high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index values. The areas selected by urban wild boar were often located closely to roads and houses. The spatial distribution maps show that a large area of Berlin would be suitable for urban wild boar but not their rural conspecifics, with the most likely reason being a different perception of anthropogenic disturbance. Wild boar therefore showed considerable behavioral plasticity suitable to adjust to human-dominated environments in a potentially evolutionarily adaptive manner.

  11. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae) en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Composición de su dieta, estado reproductivo y genética

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-01-01

    Los cerdos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) provocan diferentes tipos de daños particularmente en islas oceánicas. En la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, fueron introducidos en 1793 y se reprodujeron exitosamente. Para reunir datos sobre la ecología de los cerdos cimarrones y conocer su impacto sobre algunas comunidades de la Isla del Coco, analicé su dieta, estado reproductivo, genética y los efectos de la depredación. Estudié la dieta por medio de análisis estomacales en una época seca y otra húmeda. Dete...

  12. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Factors influencing wild boar damage to agricultural crops in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, Marco; Meriggi, Alberto; Fozzi, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Crop damage by wildlife is a frequent source of human-wildlife conflict. Understanding which factors increase the risk of damage is crucial to the development of effective management strategies. The aims of this study were to provide a general description of agricultural damage caused by wild boar Sus scrofa meridionalis over a 7-year period in North-eastern Sardinia (Mediterranean Italy), and to formulate a predictive model of damage risk. We recorded a total of 221 cases of wild boar damage, with economic losses amounting to 483,982 Euros. Damage events mostly involved vineyards, meadows and oat fields, and were characterized by a peak incidence in summer and early autumn, and a minimum in spring. Damaged fields were characterized by an increasing presence of permanent crops, a decreasing presence of woodlands, maquis and urban areas, and a reduced distance from shelter areas (forests and shrublands). The analysis of spatiotemporal variation of boar-induced damage and the identification of factors that augment the risk of damage provides essential information for contributing to the development of a more effective plan for managing wild boar populations.

  14. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  16. Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins in domestic mammals. PMID

  17. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  18. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  19. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. © L. Witkowski et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  2. Consumer Attitude Toward the Issue of Selling Beef Mixed with Boar Meat (Sus sucrofa and the Intention to Purchase of Meat Consumers in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Guntoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to explain the relationship between cognitive, affective and conative combined into the attitude components with the intention to purchase against the issue of mixed beef and boar meatselling in Yogyakarta. The sample of location was at Beringharjo market in which the issues of selling beef and boar meat was established. The research used survey method with interview and questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been proven. The sample of respondents was 80 buyers selected by purposive sampling method. The data were statistically tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square and Phi analyses. The results showed that most of the attitude components i.e. cognitive, affective and conative were classified in favorable category implying that the respondents were responsive and active to look for the information regarding the issue. There was dependent relationship between attitude of the respondents toward the mixed beef and boar meat selling and the intention to purchase it with weak relationship (Phi coefficient of 0.354. It was concluded that consumers’ attitude on the issue of circulation of beefmix with boar meat was to behave more consciously about the truth of the issue and to be worried about the mixed meat. Key Words: consumer’s attitude, purchasing intention, meat consumer Animal Production 13(3:173-179 (2011

  3. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    genetic marker systems and the potentiality of newly developed markers across a range of European wild boar populations. Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA alleles are by large shared between wild and domestic stocks, and the most reliable indicator of introgression is commonly considered the presence....... However, despite the availability of multiple molecular markers, with different inheritance systems and undergoing different selective pressures, the analysis on the extent and impact of introgressive hybridization in Europe remains challenging. Here we show the outcome of the application of different...... gene flow. Unlike previously used Ychromosome markers, which seem to suffer low variation, new polymorphic Y-linked microsatellites represent a promising tool to disclose the paternal contribution to gene flow, but should be tested on a larger sample of domestic and wild Sus scrofa to identify actual...

  4. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    Sus scrofa is one of the most widespread mammal species and it is heavily managed throughout its range in both its domestic and wild form. The wild boar is one of the most relevant game species in Europe but it is also considered a pest as it can produce economically important crop damages....... Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  5. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E Virus as Biological Indicators of Contacts Between Domestic Pigs and Eurasian Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, S; Geue, L; Hinsching, A; Jenckel, M; Schlosser, J; Eiden, M; Pietschmann, J; Menge, C; Beer, M; Groschup, M; Jori, F; Etter, E; Blome, S

    2017-04-01

    Domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) share several important viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, direct and indirect contacts between domestic pigs and wild boar present a risk of pathogen spillover and can lead to long-term perpetuation of infection. Biological indicators could be a powerful tool to understand and characterize contacts between wild boar and domestic pigs. Here, faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) were explored as potential biological indicators under experimental conditions. The data gained in our pilot study suggest that faecal E. coli can be used as biological indicator of contact between wild boar and domestic pig. For HEV, faecal transmission was also confirmed. However, molecular studies on full-genome basis did not reveal markers that would allow tracing of transmission direction. Based on these promising results, future field studies will especially target the practicability of E. coli microbiome molecular typing as surrogate of contacts at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Wild boars as spore dispersal agents of ectomycorrhizal fungi: consequences for community composition at different habitat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne-Luzon, Stav; Avidan, Yael; Weber, Gil; Migael, Hen; Bruns, Thomas; Ovadia, Ofer; Shemesh, Hagai

    2017-04-01

    The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types. Using a greenhouse bioassay, we grew pine seedlings in two soil types: old-field and forest soils mixed with either natural or autoclaved wild boar feces. In both soils, we observed a community dominated by a few EM fungal species. Geopora (85 %) and Suillus (68 %) species dominated the forest and old-field soils, respectively. The addition of natural wild boar feces increased the abundance of Tuber species in both EM fungal communities. However, this effect was more pronounced in pots with old-field soil, leading to a more even community, equally dominated by both Tuber and Suillus species. In forest soil, Geopora maintained dominance, but decreased in abundance (67 %), due to the addition of Tuber species. Our findings indicate that wild boar feces can be an important source for EM inoculum, especially in habitats poor in EM fungi such as old-fields.

  8. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Composición de su dieta, estado reproductivo y genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cerdos cimarrones (Sus scrofa provocan diferentes tipos de daños particularmente en islas oceánicas. En la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, fueron introducidos en 1793 y se reprodujeron exitosamente. Para reunir datos sobre la ecología de los cerdos cimarrones y conocer su impacto sobre algunas comunidades de la Isla del Coco, analicé su dieta, estado reproductivo, genética y los efectos de la depredación. Estudié la dieta por medio de análisis estomacales en una época seca y otra húmeda. Determiné la variabilidad genética por análisis de PCR realizados sobre muestras de tejido provenientes de orejas de cerdos cimarrones de la Isla del Coco y cerdos domésticos del continente. Los cerdos fueron omnívoros y la categoría más importante de la dieta en ambas estaciones fue frutos. Los frutos fueron consumidos por más cerdos en la estación seca pero ocuparon mayor volumen en los estómagos en la estación húmeda. No detecté que los cerdos depredaran sobre especies animales endémicas ni que dispersaran semillas de especies exóticas. El 56 % de los cerdos cazados fueron machos y el 44 % hembras. El 46 % de las hembras en edad reproductiva estuvo preñada o lactante y el número medio de fetos por camada fue de 4.4. Confirmé un pico reproductivo en enero/febrero y no pude demostrar un pico reproductivo en junio/julio. El bajo número de fetos podría relacionarse con un estado de estrés poblacional. En general los resultados indican una reducida variabilidad genética para todos los parámetros evaluados en la población cimarrona aunque no tan baja como la esperada. Sugiero un mecanismo compensatorio donde la depresión por endocruzamiento reduce la consanguinidad y una especie susceptible a factores estocásticos, demográficos o ambientales se convierte en una especie adaptada y con capacidad de resilienciaFeral pigs (Sus scrofa cause different kinds of damage specially on oceanic islands. Pigs were introduced at Cocos Island

  9. Factors that Influence Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Red Deer and Wild Boar in an Epidemiological Risk Area for Tuberculosis of Game Species in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, S; Manteigas, A; Ribeiro, R; Otte, J; Fonseca, A Pina; Caetano, P; Abernethy, D; Boinas, F

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals. Eradication has proved elusive in those countries with intensive national programmes but with ongoing transmission between wildlife and cattle. In Portugal, a high-risk area for bTB was defined and specific measures implemented to assess and minimize the risk from wildlife. Data from the 2011 to 2014 hunting seasons for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were analysed with bovine demographic and bTB information to assess factors that determined the occurrence and distribution of bTB in both species. The likelihood of bTB-like lesions in wild boar was positively associated with density of red deer, wild boar and cattle, while for red deer, only their density and age were significant factors. The likelihood of Mycobacterium bovis isolation in wild boar was associated with density of cattle and red deer and also with the anatomical location of lesions, while for red deer, none of the variables tested were statistically significant. Our results suggest that, in the study area, the role of red deer and wild boar may be different from the one previously suggested by other authors for the Iberian Peninsula, as red deer may be the driving force behind M. bovis transmission to wild boar. These findings may assist the official services and game managing bodies for the management of hunting zones, what could also impact the success of the bTB eradication programme. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  11. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bosch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar (Sus scrofa populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data and cross-validation (40% of the data. The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.

  12. Determinación de anticuerpos contra patógenos virales y bacterianos seleccionados en la población de cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa de la Reserva Natural Bahía Samborombón, Argentina

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    B. Carpinetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa descienden de cruzamientos entre cerdos domésticos liberados durante la colonización con jabalíes salvajes euroasiáticos, liberados con propósitos cinegéticos. Son invasivos y su coexistencia con especies domésticas implica riesgos sanitarios. Argentina es considerada libre de fiebre aftosa (FA, peste porcina clásica (PPC y africana (PPA y síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. La enfermedad de Aujeszky (EA y la leptospirosis son endémicas en ciertas áreas del país. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de ciertas enfermedades zoonóticas y/o de importancia para la producción animal y la conservación de la biodiversidad en cerdos silvestres de la Bahía de Samborombón. Se capturaron 118 animales. Se tomaron muestras de suero, tonsilas, músculo, intestino delgado, linfonódulos, entre otras. Se estudió la presencia de anticuerpos contra Brucella spp., coronavirus respiratorio porcino, virus de la estomatitis vesicular, de la FA, de la gastroenteritis transmisible porcina (TGEV, de la PPC, PPA, EA, PRRS y Leptospira spp. Se realizaron análisis bacteriológicos para Mycobacterium spp. Los resultados ratificaron la ausencia de las enfermedades exóticas e indicaron que 36 % de los animales presentó anticuerpos contra Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona y 62,5 % contra el virus de la EA. Estos resultados remarcan la importancia del monitoreo de la interfase productiva/silvestre en función de la salud pública, producción animal y conservación de la biodiversidad.

  13. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortázar Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (

  14. Genomic Characteristics of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum Pig Isolates and Wild Boar Isolates Reveal the Unique Presence of a Putative Mobile Genetic Element with tetW for Pig Farm Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Tsuchida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic analysis was performed on seven strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, a Sus-associated Bifidobacterium. Three strains from the feces of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus and four strains from the rectal feces of free-range Japanese wild boars (S. s. scrofa were compared. The phylogenetic position of these isolates suggested by genomic analyses were not concordant with that suggested by 16S rRNA sequence. There was biased distribution of genes for virulence, phage, metabolism of aromatic compounds, iron acquisition, cell division, and DNA metabolism. In particular four wild boar isolates harbored fiber-degrading enzymes, such as endoglucanase, while two of the pig isolates obtained from those grown under an intensive feeding practice with routine use of antimicrobials, particularly tetracycline harbored a tetracycline resistance gene, which was further proved functional by disk diffusion test. The tetW gene is associated with a serine recombinase of an apparently non-bifidobacterial origin. The insertion site of the tetW cassette was precisely defined by analyzing the corresponding genomic regions in the other tetracycline-susceptible isolates. The cassette may have been transferred from some other bacteria in the pig gut.

  15. First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dán, Ádám; Drees, Kevin; Foster, Jeffrey T; Bányai, Krisztián; Marton, Szilvia; Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-07-11

    Brucella microti was first isolated from common vole (Microtus arvalis) in the Czech Republic in Central Europe in 2007. As B. microti is the only Brucella species known to live in soil, its distribution, ecology, zoonotic potential, and genomic organization is of particular interest. The present paper is the first to report the isolation of B. microti from a wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is also the first isolation of this bacterial species in Hungary. The B. microti isolate was cultured, after enrichment in Brucella-selective broth, from the submandibular lymph node of a female wild boar that was taken by hunters in Hungary near the Austrian border in September 2014. Histological and immunohistological examinations of the lymph node sections with B. abortus-, B. suis- and B. canis-specific sera gave negative results. The isolate did not require CO2 for growth, was oxidase, catalase, and urease positive, H2S negative, grew well in the presence of 20 μg/ml basic fuchsin and thionin, and had brownish pigmentation after three days of incubation. It gave strong positive agglutination with anti-A and anti-M but had a negative reaction with anti-R monospecific sera. The API 20 NE test identified it as Ochrobactrum anthropi with 99.9% identity, and it showed B. microti-specific banding pattern in the Bruce- and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR systems. Whole genome re-sequencing identified 30 SNPs in orthologous loci when compared to the B. microti reference genome available in GenBank, and the MLVA analysis yielded a unique profile. Given that the female wild boar did not develop any clinical disease, we hypothesize that this host species only harboured the bacterium, serving as a possible reservoir capable of maintaining and spreading this pathogen. The infectious source could have been either a rodent, a carcass that had been eaten or infection occurred via the boar rooting in soil. The low number of discovered SNPs suggests an unexpectedly high level of genetic homogeneity

  16. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  17. Comparison of three methods to evaluate wild boar diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, J.; Hrbek, J.; Drimaj, J.; Kudláček, T.; Kamler, J.; Plhal, R.; Heroldová, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 221-224 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Sus scrofa * food composition * diet analysis * stomach * faeces Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  18. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Main Porcine Infectious Pathogens in Wild Boars in Some Regions of Russia

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    BABORENKO, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing 107 serum samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa L., 1758 for thepresence of antibodies to six economically significant porcine infectious disease agents (porcinereproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV, swine influenza virus(SIV of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV, porcine transmissiblegastroenteritis virus (TGEV and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are presented in the paper. Wild boarwere sampled in seven regions of Russia for diagnostic purposes. The obtained results showed thepresence of antibodies to ADV in 32.5% of samples (83/27, to PPV – in 62% of samples (92/57, toMycoplasma hyopneumoniae – in 52% of samples (98/51. All samples were seronegative to PRRSvirus (107/0, TGEV (91/0 and SIV of H1N1 (89/0 and H3N2 (58/0 subtypes. The researchesdemonstrated the extensive circulation of porcine parvovirus, Aujeszky’s disease virus andMycoplasma hyopneumoniae among Wild boar in some regions of Russia.

  19. Avaliação imunofenotípica de subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de suínos neonatos (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina C.M. Tchamo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do uso do sangue do cordão umbilical como fonte potencial de células tronco hematopoiéticas e o uso do suíno doméstico (Sus scrofa como modelo para pesquisas biomédicas em medicina regenerativa, e por outro lado, visando dar um contributo sobre a quantificação das subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico, objetivou-se quantificar as células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ nas amostras de sangue de suínos neonatos. Analisaram-se as amostras do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de 48 leitões de linhagem Topigs, provenientes de porcas hígidas, inseminadas artificialmente e de parto natural. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico no momento do nascimento, por meio de venopunção da veia umbilical e seio venoso retro-oftálmico, respectivamente. As quantificações imunofenotípicas de células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ foram obtidas por citometria de fluxo. Os valores médios obtidos para as contagens das células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico apresentaram-se inferiores aos reportados para o sangue periférico de suínos adultos, sugerindo um componente imunológico imaturo. A proporção CD4+:CD8+ obtida no sangue do cordão umbilical (3,2±1,2% e no sangue periférico (3,2±1,7% ilustrou a predominância dos linfócitos TCD4+ com relação aos TCD8+. A quantidade relativa de células CD4+ e CD8+ no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico foi de 1,37±0,86% e 1,15±0,57%, respectivamente.

  20. DNA Detection Reveals Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Shedding Routes in Its Wildlife Reservoir the Eurasian Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasona, J A; Torres, M J; Aznar, J; Gortázar, C; Vicente, J

    2017-06-01

    Since the intensity and frequency of pathogen shedding by hosts determine the probability of infection through direct and indirect contact, the shedding characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in the key host reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), is crucial. We aimed (i) to describe the natural shedding routes of MTC in free-ranging wild boar by a new semi-automated PCR method and (ii) to determine the association of MTC shedding pattern with tuberculosis (TB) progression and individual factors. MTC shedding (by any of the possible routes) was detected in a total of 30.8% (±7.5) out of the sampled individuals with valid or interpretable test results (n = 39). The proportion of TB-positive shedders according to the route was 13.6% (±7.5) for oral swabs, 4.5% (±4.5) for nasal swabs, 4.5% (±4.4) for faecal swabs and 13.6% (±7.5) for individuals being positive to all swabs concomitantly. The probability of shedding mycobacteria (by any route) statistically associated with TB generalization, and the TB score was significantly higher in individuals testing positive to at least one route compared to negatives. Overall, a diversity of shedding routes in wild boar is possible, and it is remarkable that for the first time, the faecal shedding is confirmed for naturally infected wild boar. Our results are consistent with the role wild boar plays for TB maintenance in host communities and environments in Iberia and confirm that it is an important source of mycobacteria infection by different routes. Finally, we evidenced the use of a new PCR technique to detect MTC DNA in excretions can be practical and defined the target routes for sampling wild boar shedding in future studies, such as interventions to control TB in wild boar that can be measured in terms of impact on mycobacteria excretion and transmission (i.e. vaccination). © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  2. Questionnaire-Based Assessment of Wild Boar/Domestic Pig Interactions and Implications for Disease Risk Management in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars and domestic pigs belong to the same species (Sus scrofa. When sympatric populations of wild boars, feral pigs, and domestic pigs share the same environment, interactions between domestic and wild suids (IDWS are suspected to facilitate the spread and maintenance of several pig pathogens which can impact on public health and pig production. However, information on the nature and factors facilitating those IDWS are rarely described in the literature. In order to understand the occurrence, nature, and the factors facilitating IDWS, a total of 85 semi-structured interviews were implemented face to face among 25 strict farmers, 20 strict hunters, and 40 hunting farmers in the main traditional pig-farming regions of Corsica, where IDWS are suspected to be common and widespread. Different forms of IDWS were described: those linked with sexual attraction of wild boars by domestic sows (including sexual interactions and fights between wild and domestic boars were most frequently reported (by 61 and 44% of the respondents, respectively in the autumn months and early winter. Foraging around common food or water was equally frequent (reported by 60% of the respondents but spread all along the year except in winter. Spatially, IDWS were more frequent in higher altitude pastures were pig herds remain unattended during summer and autumn months with limited human presence. Abandonment of carcasses and carcass offal in the forest were equally frequent and efficient form of IDWS reported by 70% of the respondents. Certain traditional practices already implemented by hunters and farmers had the potential to mitigate IDWS in the local context. This study provided quantitative evidence of the nature of different IDWS in the context of extensive commercial outdoor pig farming in Corsica and identified their spatial and temporal trends. The identification of those trends is useful to target suitable times and locations to develop further ecological

  3. Quantitative trait loci mapping for fatty acid composition traits in perirenal and back fat using a Japanese wild boar x Large White intercross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, M; Hayashi, T; Tani, F; Niki, A; Mori, N; Fujishima-Kanaya, N; Komatsu, M; Aikawa, K; Awata, T; Mikawa, S

    2006-08-01

    Here, we analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fatty acid composition, one of the factors affecting fat quality, in a Japanese wild boar x Large White cross. We found 25 significant effects for 17 traits at 13 positions at the 5% genome-wise level, of which 16 effects for 12 traits at 10 positions were significant at the 1% level. QTL for saturated fatty acids (SFA) in back fat were mapped to swine (Sus scrofa) chromosomes (SSC) 1p, 9 and 15. QTL for unsaturated fatty acids in back fat were mapped to SSC1p, 1q, 4, 5, 9, 15 and 17. Using a regression model that fits back fat thickness as a covariate, two of the QTL for linoleic acid content on SSC4 and SSC17 were not significant, but one QTL for total SFA composition was detected on SSC5 with correction for back fat thickness. Wild boar alleles at six of seven QTL tended to increase SFAs and to decrease unsaturated fatty acids. QTL for fatty acid composition in perirenal fat were mapped on SSC2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14, 16 and X. QTL for melting point (in back fat samples) were mapped on SSC1, 2 and 15. Wild boar alleles in QTL on SSC1 and SSC15 were associated with elevated melting points whereas those on SSC2 were associated with lower melting point measurements.

  4. Relationships between hair melanization, glutathione levels, and senescence in wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Negro, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of melanins, which are the most common animal pigments, is influenced by glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. At high GSH levels, pheomelanin (the lightest melanin form) is produced, whereas production of eumelanin (the darkest melanin form) does not require GSH. Oxidative damage typically increases with age, and age-related decreases in GSH have accordingly been found in diverse organisms. Therefore, there should be positive associations between the capacity to produce eumelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence, whereas there should be negative associations between the capacity to produce pheomelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence. We explored this hypothesis in a free-ranging population of wild boars Sus scrofa of different ages. As expected from the fact that pheomelanogenesis consumes GSH, levels of this antioxidant in muscle tended to be negatively related to pheomelanization and positively related to eumelanization in pelage, and the degree of pelage pheomelanization was positively related to oxidative damage as reflected by levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which is consistent with the hypothesis that pheomelanin synthesis has physiological costs. In our cross-sectional sample, GSH levels did not show senescence effects, and we did not detect senescence effects in pelage melanization. Prime body condition and low TBARS levels were also associated with hair graying, which is attributable to a loss of melanin produced by oxidative stress, thus raising the possibility that hair graying constitutes a signal of resistance to oxidative stress in wild boars. Our results suggest that the degree of melanization is linked to GSH levels in wild boars and that their antioxidant damage shows senescence effects.

  5. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  6. Transferable integrons of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the gut of a wild boar in the buffer zone of a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of integron-bearing Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) shot in the buffer zone of a national park. Five Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Serratia odorifera, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated. Four of these strains had class 2 integrase (intI2), and one harbored class 1 integrase (intI1). The integron-positive strains were multiresistant, i.e., resistant to at least three unrelated antibiotics. All of the integrons were transferred to E. coli J-53 (Rif(R)) in a conjugation assay. The results showed that a number of multiresistant, integron-containing bacterial strains of different genera may inhabit a single individual of a wild animal, allowing the possibility of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  7. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  8. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Annett; Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets.

  9. Genotype-Independent Transmission of Transgenic Fluorophore Protein by Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Taylor, Ulrike; Herrmann, Doris; Struckmann, Christina; Klein, Sabine; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Ehling, Christine; Rath, Detlef; Ivics, Zoltán; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we generated transposon-transgenic boars (Sus scrofa), which carry three monomeric copies of a fluorophore marker gene. Amazingly, a ubiquitous fluorophore expression in somatic, as well as in germ cells was found. Here, we characterized the prominent fluorophore load in mature spermatozoa of these animals. Sperm samples were analyzed for general fertility parameters, sorted according to X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm fractions, assessed for potential detrimental effects of the reporter, and used for inseminations into estrous sows. Independent of their genotype, all spermatozoa were uniformly fluorescent with a subcellular compartmentalization of the fluorophore protein in postacrosomal sheath, mid piece and tail. Transmission of the fluorophore protein to fertilized oocytes was shown by confocal microscopic analysis of zygotes. The monomeric copies of the transgene segregated during meiosis, rendering a certain fraction of the spermatozoa non-transgenic (about 10% based on analysis of 74 F1 offspring). The genotype-independent transmission of the fluorophore protein by spermatozoa to oocytes represents a non-genetic contribution to the mammalian embryo. PMID:22110672

  10. Cryopreservation of Piau-Breed Wild Boar Sperm: Assessment of Cooling Curves and Centrifugation Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, H H; Pinho, R O; Lima, Dma; Siqueira, J B; Santos, McR; Costa, E V; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, Sef; Guimarães, J D

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of different cooling curves and centrifugation regimes used in cryopreservation protocols on the post-thaw viability of Piau-breed wild boar (Sus scrofa) sperm using in vitro assessment tests. Two centrifugations (800 g for 10 min and 2400 g for 3 min) and two cooling curves (conventional cooling using nitrogen vapour - freezing 1 and automated cooling using a programmed freezing machine - freezing 2) were tested. Therefore, the treatments were divided into M3 - centrifugation at 2400 g for 3 min and freezing 2; M10 - centrifugation at 800 g for 10 min and freezing 2; R3 - centrifugation at 2400 g for 3 min and freezing 1; and R10 - centrifugation at 800 g for 10 min and freezing 1. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between treatments occurred post-thawing regarding the total sperm motility means recorded. The mean values of the different treatments were not different from each other regarding the supravital staining (SV), hypo-osmotic test (HO), sperm-egg binding assay or sperm morphology. This study showed that both the cooling curve and the centrifugation regime affected the quality of post-thaw sperm, and centrifugation for shorter times and cooling curves using automated cooling are the most suitable for minimizing sperm injury. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, P H D; Faccini, J L H; Herrera, H M; Tavares, L E R; Mourão, G M; Piranda, E M; Paes, R C S; Ribeiro, C C D U; Borghesan, T C; Piacenti, A K; Kinas, M A; Santos, C C; Ono, T M; Paiva, F

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population.

  12. Ocorrências da família Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Díptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae em Belém-PA, colonização da carcaça e sua relação com o tempo de morte do animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Daniela Raiol Bitar de Araujo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa verificar a ocorrência de Dípteros de interesse forense em uma carcaça de suíno, sua colonização e relação com o tempo de morte do animal, dando maior ênfase na família Sarcophagidae, por constituírem fauna constante e obrigatória de carcaça e por utilizarem esse substrato como sítio de procriação. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de mata, localizada nas dependências do Instituto de Pesquisa Museu Emílio Goeldi, em Belém-Pa. Foi utilizado como isca um suíno (Sus scrofa L. inteiro (com vísceras, de 14,5 Kg, recém abatido. Este foi exposto sob uma armadilha do tipo suspensa modificada, adequada à coletas de insetos adultos, sendo que também foram coletadas larvas e pupas, diretamente na carcaça. A ocorrência dos insetos adultos e de seus estágios larvais foi correlacionada com o tempo de morte do animal, a fim de possibilitar futuras inferências de tempo de morte com base na presença e dispersão destes insetos. O tempo de decomposição e a duração de cada estágio de decomposição foram registrados, tendo sido afetados provavelmente pelo tamanho da carcaça e pela estação do ano. Diferenças quanto ao padrão de sucessão não foram observadas

  13. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    Full Text Available Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,, percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1 differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2 differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3 the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage if those are easier to exploit and

  14. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  15. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S. S.; Chen, Y.; Moran, C.; Čepica, Stanislav; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 11 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  16. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 15

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuryl, J.; Pierzchala, M.; Hojný, Jiří; Reuner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 119-125 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome15 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  17. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S. S.; Chen, Y.; Moran, C.; Stratil, Antonín; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 38-44 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 5 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  18. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome X

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 144-151 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597; GA ČR GA523/99/0842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome X Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  19. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 13

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Russo, V.; Davoli, R.; Sternstein, I.; Brunsch, C.; Schröffelová, D.; Stratil, Antonín; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 103-110 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome13 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  20. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 18

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragos-Wendrich, M.; Stratil, Antonín; Hojný, Jiří; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 138-143 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome18 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  1. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Stratil, Antonín; Kopečný, Michal; Blažková, Pavla; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Davoli, R.; Fontanesi, L.; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 28-37 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA ČR GA523/00/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  2. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Stratil, Antonín; Hojný, J.; Pierzchala, M.; Kuryl, J.; Brunsch, C.; Sternstein, I.; Davoli, R.; Fontanesi, L.; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 74-81 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA523/96/0597; GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/99/0842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 9 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  3. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 95-102 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome12 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  4. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Stratil, Antonín; Kopečný, Michal; Schröffelová, D.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Hojný, J.; Čepica, Stanislav; Davoli, R.; Zambonelli, P.; Brunsch, C.; Sternstein, I.; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 45-55 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 6 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  5. Linkage and QTL maping for Sus scrofa chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beeckmann, P.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-10 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  6. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Stratil, Antonín; Čepica, Stanislav; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Fontanesi, L.; Cagnazzo, M.; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 56-65 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA514/94/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 7 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  7. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beeckmann, P.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 20-28 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 3 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  8. Porcine (Sus scrofa) Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    Myocardial Infarction Model Development.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col. Daren Danielson DEPARTMENT: 60MSGS/SGCH...invasively, a myocardial infarction that was isolated to the mid-anterior, left ventricular wall. In doing so, we were able to create an infarct that...be used to investigate new methodologies for treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in individuals afflicted with chronic ischemic

  9. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig ( Sus Scrofa ) | Chen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the genetic exchange between the Lanyu and other breeds is not frequent. There is also no evidence of genetic exchange or introgression caused by population migration. Therefore, we conclude that the Lanyu is an independent branch among the breeds. Key words: Complete genome, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic ...

  10. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, R.; Do, Duy Ngoc

    potential BT biomarkers for optimized breeding. Male pigs (n=48) with low, medium and high genetic merit of BT were selected and tissues from liver and testis were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by RNA-Seq. The reads were mapped to the Sus scrofa reference genome (Ensembl, ver. 79) which resulted...

  11. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  12. An assessment of the applicability of photo trapping to estimate wild boar population density in a forest environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plhal, R.; Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav; Adamec, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 237-246 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Sus scrofa * snow-track counting * photo-traps * feeding site Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  13. Colloid centrifugation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Wallgren, M

    2011-09-01

    Colloid centrifugation of boar semen has been reported sporadically for at least the last two decades, beginning with density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and progressing more recently to single layer centrifugation (SLC). Single layer centrifugation through a species-specific colloid has been shown to be effective in selecting the best spermatozoa (spermatozoa with good motility and normal morphology) from boar sperm samples. The method is easier to use and less time-consuming than DGC and has been scaled-up to allow whole ejaculates from other species, e.g. stallions, to be processed in a practical manner. The SLC technique is described, and various scale-up versions are presented. The potential applications for SLC in boar semen preservation are as follows: to improve sperm quality in artificial insemination (AI) doses for 'problem' boars; to increase the shelf-life of normal stored sperm samples, either by processing the fresh semen before preparing AI doses or by processing the stored semen dose to extract the best spermatozoa; to remove pathogens (viruses, bacteria), thus improving biosecurity of semen doses and potentially reducing the use of antibiotics; to improve cryosurvival by removing dead and dying spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation; to select spermatozoa for in vitro fertilization. These applications are discussed and practical examples are provided. Finally, a few thoughts about the economic value of the technique to the boar semen industry are presented. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Ractopamine hydrochloride improves growth performance and carcass composition in immunocastrated boars, intact boars, and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikard-Bell, C; Curtis, M A; van Barneveld, R J; Mullan, B P; Edwards, A C; Gannon, N J; Henman, D J; Hughes, P E; Dunshea, F R

    2009-11-01

    The beta-agonist ractopamine is a dietary ingredient that improves growth and increases the lean mass with little change in fat mass in gilts and barrows. Limited data in boars indicate that dietary ractopamine may increase lean tissue and decrease fat deposition, whereas there are no data for immunocastrated boars. The aims of this investigation were 1) to assess whether the growth performance of all sexes could be maintained over 31 d by using a step-up dietary ractopamine feeding program of 5 mg/kg of ractopamine for the first 14 d, then increasing the dose to 10 mg/kg for a further 17 d, and 2) to determine if dietary ractopamine would increase lean mass in all sexes and decrease fat mass in boars and immunocastrated boars. The study involved 286 pigs randomized and proportionally allocated by breed into 24 groups of 11 or 12 pigs at 17 wk of age, with equal groups of boars, immunocastrated boars, and gilts. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P = 0.005) ADFI during the first 2 wk, particularly in the intact and immunocastrated boars, with the reduction in ADFI being maintained in the immunocastrated boars after the increment in dietary ractopamine. Daily BW gain was not altered by dietary ractopamine during the first 2 wk, but was increased (P ractopamine. Dietary ractopamine decreased (P ractopamine. Carcass weight was increased (P ractopamine in all sexes, whereas back fat tended (P = 0.076) to be reduced in the immunocastrated boars. Dietary ractopamine increased (P = 0.018) lean tissue mass by 4.0, 4.8, and 6.5 kg in the intact boars, gilts, and immunocastrated boars, respectively. In the entire and immunocastrated boars, the increase in lean tissue was accompanied with a decrease (P = 0.004) in fat mass. There was little effect of dietary ractopamine on fat mass in gilts. However, carcass percent fat was decreased (P = 0.004) and percent lean increased (P = 0.006) in all sexes. Immunocastration caused a decrease in lean tissue mass and an increase in fat mass

  15. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sofiateixeira

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... This study aims to evaluate the quality of boar sperm that was refrigerated for 14 days at 17 ºC with three extenders. ... preferred method of storage for boar semen that is to be used for artificial insemination (AI) (Johnson et al.,. 2000). Pursel et ..... Boar sperm viability after freezing and thawing. Proc. 1st Int.

  16. BOAR EFFECT“ INFLUENCE ON GILTS ESTRUAL REACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stančić; Ivan Radović; Blagoje Stančić; Ognjen Stevančević; Milenko Stevančević

    2012-01-01

    Induction of synchronised estrus in prepubertal gilts by the sexually mature boar contact is a phenomenon known as “boar effect”. This effect is used for more efficient estrus detection in sexually mature (cyclic) gilts. The best results of application of “boar effect” are achieved if the stimulation is performed by direct contact between gilts and a sexually mature boar, at least two times a day every 12 hours. This paper presents the results of foreign and domestic authors on the “boar effe...

  17. Análise cromossômica e molecular do javali europeu Sus scrofa scrofa e do suíno doméstico Sus scrofa domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Lucano Gimenez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação teve como objetivos: analisar animais presentes em diferentes criações de javalis no estado de São Paulo, com o intuito de auxiliar a identificação de javalis "puros" assim como javalis híbridos provenientes do cruzamento com o suíno doméstico, para tanto foram utilizadas avaliação do fenótipo dos animais, análises citogenéticas e da técnica molecular de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.O estudo do número de cromossomos nas células diplóides em 104 animais destinados a análise citogenética e fenotípica, revelou polimorfismo de 2n=36, 37 e 38 cromossomos. Por meio da técnica de bandamento GTG foi possível identificação da translocação Robertsoniana entre os cromossomos 15 e 17 como responsável por esse polimorfismo. Todavia, somente com a análise citogenética isolada, não foi possível determinar se a origem desse polimorfismo é decorrente das hibridações com o suíno doméstico ou se são características inerentes ao javali. Contudo, quando associado a análise citogenética com as características fenotípicas, foi possível identificar a existência de hibridações. A análise citogenética nos animais submetidos a técnica de RAPD, revelou 2n=36 cromossomos nos 16 javalis assim como 2n=38 cromossomos nos 11 suínos e, por meio dessa técnica, foram possíveis agrupamentos, separando o suíno doméstico, javali e um possível híbrido revelando-se uma técnica com potencial no auxílio da identificação de híbridos.

  18. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis.

  19. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  20. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's

  1. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vitovec, J.; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, J.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 191, 3-4 (2013), s. 218-227 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Taxonomy * Morphology * Molecular analyses * Transmission studies * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  2. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  3. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A; Fèvre, Eric M

    2013-03-07

    In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m(2) (range 2,937-32,759 m(2)) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m(2) (range 246-3,289 m(2)) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium.

  4. Hybridization levels in European Sus scrofa, comparison between genetic and survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    separation between WB and DP, with a limited number of hybrids in both populations. The introgression level varies considerably among populations, from non-detectable to very high. Perceived presence of hybrids, based on phenotypic characteristics or historic data, is usually higher and widespread than...

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in jejunum of Sus scrofa with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Hu, Liang; Gong, Desheng; Lu, Hanlin; Xuan, Yue; Wang, Ru; Wu, De; Chen, Daiwen; Zhang, Keying; Gao, Fei; Che, Lianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may elicit a series of postnatal body developmental and metabolic diseases due to their impaired growth and development in the mammalian embryo/fetus during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR may lead to abnormally regulated DNA methylation in the intestine, causing intestinal dysfunctions. We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology to study the jejunum tissues from four newborn IUGR piglets and their normal body weight (NBW) littermates. The results revealed extensively regional DNA methylation changes between IUGR/NBW pairs from different gilts, affecting dozens of genes. Hiseq-based bisulfite sequencing PCR (Hiseq-BSP) was used for validations of 19 genes with epigenetic abnormality, confirming three genes (AIFM1, MTMR1, and TWIST2) in extra samples. Furthermore, integrated analysis of these 19 genes with proteome data indicated that there were three main genes (BCAP31, IRAK1, and AIFM1) interacting with important immunity- or metabolism-related proteins, which could explain the potential intestinal dysfunctions of IUGR piglets. We conclude that IUGR can lead to disparate DNA methylation in the intestine and these changes may affect several important biological processes such as cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immunity, which provides more clues linking IUGR and its long-term complications.

  6. Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three feral pig populations inhabiting contrasting environments along the north easterncoast of Australia have been investigated with respect to population structure, individual condition andreproduction. The population on Prince of Wales Island contains a large proportion of juvenile andsub-adult pigs but lacks pigs in the higher age classes. Individuals also breed at an earlier age thananimals of the mainland populations. Pig populations on Cape York Peninsula show a largerproportion of older animals and feral pigs living in rainforest habitats show a low proportion ofanimals in very young and very old age classes. Pigs from the lowland rainforest population are inbetter condition than those of the other populations for most of the year, reflecting the availability offood all year round in this environment. Differences in the population structure of the threepopulations are discussed with respect to fecundity and several mortality factors such as predation anddiseases/parasites.

  7. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF SUS SCROFA TISSUE EXTRACTS PROTEIN-PEPTIDE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina R.. Vasilevskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of four methods for quantifying the protein-peptide complexes content in extracts obtained from animal raw materials, as well as the low- and highmolecular weight extract fractions: the direct spectrophotometric determination at wavelengths of 260 and 280 nm with subsequent calculation by the Kalckar formula; the biuret reaction by the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method; the method with Bradford reagent and the standard Lowry method. Experimental data analysis demonstrates that in case of the extract that contains protein-peptidic complexes in different molecular weights range, the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method shows the highest quality of protein concentration determination; while studying highmolecular weight fraction (more than 30 kDa, it is possible to obtain more information by combining the spectrophotometric method and the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method. Low-molecular weight fractions (less than 30 kD should be investigated by complex methods including the spectrophotometric method, Lowry and Bradford methods. These methods make it possible to presumably estimate protein molecules size ranges (by amount of peptide bonds, and also to determine hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids presence.

  9. Ethnic -Zootechnic characterization and meat potential of Sus scrofa “creole Pig” in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Linares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic scientific review was updated bibliographic information concerning the genetic, morphological, zootechnical and meat potential of creole pigs in Central and South America. It was found a population of 73 million Creoles pigs in Latin America, most under extensive, and semi extensive production systems. Since its European origin, adaptation to different ecosystems on the continent and the introduction of new breeds has led into a wide variety of creole pigs. Adaptation and introduction of breeds have led also in a rise of genetic variability of pigs benefiting the rusticity that involves a more efficient immune system. In the same way as omnivore the creole pig had a good adaptation to different diets, getting better advantage of fibrous and fatty food than commercial breeds. On the other hand, creole pigs showed an acceptable reproductive performance, distinguished by sexual precocity and high feasibility of weaning, nevertheless its growth was slow and lactation periods were long. Regarding to the quality of meat cuts , it has not been disadvantaged, if we take into account subjective criteria as well as tenderness and the nutritional value, characteristics that give higher economic value outstripping commercial pig meat.

  10. Ethnic -Zootechnic characterization and meat potential of Sus scrofa “creole Pig” in Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Virginia; Linares, Luis; Mendoza, Gilmar

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente revisión científica fue sistematizar información bibliográfica actualizada, concerniente a los aspectos genéticos, morfológicos, zootécnicos y potencial carnicero de los cerdos criollos de Latinoamérica encontró una población de 73 millones de cerdos criollos en Latinoamérica, la mayoría de ellos criados bajo sistemas de producción extensivos, semiextensivos y agro pastoriles. Dado su origen europeo, la adaptación a los diferentes ecosistemas del continente y la int...

  11. Creation of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Objectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in mini pigs using polystyrenemicrospheres to infarct a portion of the...underwent myocardial infarctions without misadventure. Infusion of polystyrene beads into a diagonal branch of the LAD resulted In a repeatable and...controlled myocardial Infarction.Conclusion: The method reported here provided consistent and repeatable myocardial infarcts with minimal morbidity.

  12. Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Keiter; John C. Kilgo; Mark A. Vukovich; Fred L. Cunningham; James C. Beasley

    2017-01-01

    Context. Wild pigs are an invasive species linked to numerous negative impacts on natural and anthropogenic ecosystems in many regions of the world. Robust estimates of juvenile wild pig survival are needed to improve population dynamics models to facilitate management of this economically and ecologically...

  13. On the rewarding nature of appetitive feeding behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa): Do domesticated pigs contrafreeload?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Tilly, S.L.; Baars, A.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Contrafreeloading is the phenomenon that animals prefer to work for food even though free food is available nearby. In this study, we investigated whether pigs express contrafreeloading in a test situation where the searching. finding and consuming of food items resembles a natural foraging

  14. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  15. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium.

  17. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15–40 dpi). Anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15–75 dpi; high levels of anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  18. Boar taint detection using parasitoid biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for a non-stinging wasp to be used as a biosensor in the pig industry, we trained wasps to 3 individual chemicals associated with boar taint. Training consisted of presenting the odors to hungry wasps while they were feeding on sugar. This associates the chemical with a fo...

  19. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Boar Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacyno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was studied in 5 Pietrain boars at age 1.5 - 2.0 years. The boars received 500 mg of L-carnitine per day for 5 weeks. During this period, their ejaculates were collected once a week and evaluated for quality. The control ejaculates had been collected before the application of L-carnitine. It was found that the addition of L-carnitine to the boars' feed had a positive effect on the quality of boar semen. The total ejaculate volume and sperm-rich fraction volume increased by 11% and 10%, respectively; the total ejaculate sperm count increased by 11.5% (P P < 0.01. Sperm concentration and motility, as well as normal acrosome sperm percentage, did not increase considerably. The positive effect of L-carnitine on boar semen quality was observable as early as after one week of its application.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN WILD BOARS FROM CALABRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naccari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn organochlorine pesticides (POCs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs in some samples (heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle tissue and spleen of wild boars (utilized as “bioindicator” from various areas from Calabria. Quantitative determination of POCs and PCBs were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by a Varian Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy instrument. Our data have shown low residual levels of OCs, heavy metals and the absence of PCBs in all samples analyzed and therefore the boar meat products are not dangerous for the consumer. Moreover, results obtained deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Calabria, a region a low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries and the traditional agricultural activity.

  1. Characterization of proteins from boar prostate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 283-290 ISSN 8755-8920. [International Congress of Reproductive Immunology /8./. Opatija, 02.07.2001-06.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA ČR GP303/02/P069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar prostate * beta-microseminoprotein * serotransferrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2002

  2. Acrosin inhibitor detecting along the boar epididymis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Cozlová, Nina; Dorosh, Andriy; Šulc, Miroslav; Guyonet, B.; Jonáková, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, Jan 2016 (2016), s. 733-739 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA14-05547S Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Boar epididymis * Sperm atozoa Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.671, year: 2016

  3. Olfactory evaluation of boar taint: effect of factors measured at slaughter and link with boar taint compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, E; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Janssens, S; Buys, N; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Aluwé, M

    2017-11-01

    There is a commitment by the European pig sector to ban surgical castration of male piglets in the European Union in 2018. One alternative to castration is to raise entire male pigs, with an increased risk of boar taint. A field study was performed to: (1) evaluate inter- and intra-farm variation in boar taint prevalence, (2) investigate factors measured at slaughter influencing boar taint and (3) evaluate the relationship between sensorial scoring by a trained panel and the concentration of boar taint components. From 34 farms, neck fat samples were collected from all entire male pigs in at least two slaughter batches per farm (78 batches; 9167 animals). In addition to olfactory boar taint analysis, data were also collected on fresh skin lesions (score 0 to 3) at the slaughter line, slaughter weight, lean meat percentage, duration of transport, time spent in lairage, total delivery duration, day length, shortening of days and outdoor mean temperature. Using the hot iron method, neck fat samples were scored (eight-point scale) for boar taint. Average boar taint prevalence (score ≥3) was 5.6±2.5% and the mean difference between the maximum and minimum prevalence per farm was 4.3±3.2%. Androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole concentrations were measured for a subset (n=254) of the samples. According to binomial univariate mixed models, entire male pigs with a higher skin lesion score had higher odds of having boar taint (P=0.031), as did fatter entire male pigs (Pmeat percentage (P<0.001) and outdoor mean temperature (P=0.005) remained as only significant factors. Based on our results, we can conclude that these statistically significant at least partially influence the prevalence of boar taint. According to the binomial univariate mixed models SKA concentration in liquid fat seems a better predictor for boar taint than AND. There were no significant synergetic effects between boar taint compounds.

  4. The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Abstract. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. The research material consisted of 31 boars: Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace (PL), and Duroc × Pietrain (D × P), aged 8 to 24 months. The analysed material consisted of ...

  5. Effects of supplemental seminal plasma on cryopreserved boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To analyse the effects of supplemental autologous seminal plasma on boar semen quality before freezing and after thawing, thirty ejaculates were collected from six Pietrain boars. The main factors of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments were Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), seminal plasma before freezing, and ...

  6. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  7. Crossreactivity of boar sperm monoclonal antibodies with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monoclonal antibodies against the head (H mabs) and tail (Tmabs) of boar spermatozoa were produced. Spermatozoa from boar, stallion, bull, human, ram, goat and rabbit were independently incubated with the monoclonal antibodies and later stained by immunofluorescence method. There were positive reactions of the ...

  8. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate variability in the ejaculation rate and libido of boars under various genetic and non-genetic influences. A total of 7171 semen samples were collected from Swedish Landrace, Large White and Duroc boars reared under commercial production conditions. Time spent in ...

  9. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  10. The influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of boar breed and season on semen parameters. The research material consisted of 31 boars: Polish Large White (PLW), Polish Landrace (PL), and Duroc × Pietrain (D × P), aged 8 to 24 months. The analysed material consisted of 1390 ejaculates, collected ...

  11. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You

    2015-08-29

    Aug 29, 2015 ... Time spent in preparing or collecting, constituted the period from the entry of boars into the room for collecting semen to onset of ejaculation. Ejaculation rate was defined as the volume of sperm extracted (mL) per unit of time (min). The index of boar libido was defined as the relationship between productive ...

  12. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen | Teixeira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the quality of boar sperm that was refrigerated for 14 days at 17 ºC with three extenders. For this study, samples from four boars were collected twice a week using the gloved-hand technique. After collection, only ejaculates showing total motility of 75% or greater were submitted to the refrigeration ...

  13. Application of antioxidants and centrifugation for cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yi, Kangle; Chen, Chao; Hou, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu

    2012-06-01

    Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred due to the high susceptibility of boar spermatozoa to damage during cryopreservation and the complicated process required for deep freezing. In recent years, the application of antioxidants during the cryopreservation of boar semen has been the subject of considerable research aimed at improving the quality of post-thaw semen. Centrifugation is necessary before using cryopreservation protocols for freezing boar spermatozoa. Studies of the effect of different centrifugation regimens on boar sperm recovery, yield and cryosurvival have made significant contributions. Therefore this review elucidates results of recent applications of various antioxidants and centrifugation regimens used in efforts to improve cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. This review is intended to enhance understanding of the roles of these antioxidants and centrifugation regimens with respect to mechanisms that increase resistance to cryodamage of boar spermatozoa. In addition, the discussion addresses the need for developing an objective evaluation of effectiveness and estimating the prospect of application of new techniques for the cryopreservation of boar semen and its use in artificial insemination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  15. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high...

  16. Familial Hepatitis E Outbreak Linked to Wild Boar Meat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Juarez, A; Frias, M; Martinez-Peinado, A; Risalde, M A; Rodriguez-Cano, D; Camacho, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Cuenca-Lopez, F; Gomez-Villamandos, J C; Rivero, A

    2017-11-01

    An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated. In all-family members (n = 8), HEV-RNA was amplified. Two wild boar meat slices consumed was analysed, showing the presence of HEV. The virus isolated was consistent with genotype 3, revealing 100% homology between family members and meat. Additionally, we tested nine wild boar hunted in the same hunting area. All of them were RNA-HEV positive, isolating the same HEV genotype 3 viral strain. We demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis zoonotic transmission of HEV by wild boar meat consumption. The prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar found in our study suggests that this species is an important route of transmission to human. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Savić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of photoperiod on sexual activity of three breeds of boars: Swedish Landrace (n=34, Large White (n=38, and Duroc (n=32. Boar sexual activity was analysed based on the libido index and intensity of ejaculation. The libido index was calculated as the ratio between the duration of ejaculation and time of preparation until ejaculation. The intensity of ejaculation was the volume of ejaculate (mL secreted in the unit of time (min. The effect of photoperiod was analysed as the effect of duration of daylight (12 h within photoperiod intervals (increasing and decreasing. Impact assessment was carried out by applying the General Linear Model procedure. Libido and intensity of ejaculation varied under the impact of photoperiod and the breed of boars. With the increase in age, the boar libido weakened, while the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation increased. Boars manifested better libido when the daylight lasted longer than 12 h in both photoperiod intervals. Different from libido, the volume of ejaculate and intensity of ejaculation were highest when the daylight was shorter than 12 h, but only in the decreasing photoperiod interval. Swedish Landrace boars manifested best libido, while in the production of sperm the Duroc boars were inferior compared with Swedish Landrace and Large White. The phenotypic relationship among libido, ejaculate volume, and ejaculation intensity ranges from very low to high; however, the coefficients were positive, which indicates the possibility of simultaneous improvement of these traits.

  18. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2004-01-01

    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV cytogenetic quality of boars. By analyzing a series of 25 animals judged normal by their fertility statistics and a series of seven animals with known reciprocal translocations, a model...... for identifying sperm cells from cytogenetically aberrant animals was proposed. This model was applied to a series of 50 uncharacterized animals. The model successfully identified a mosaic or chimaeric carrier of an aberrant X chromosome. However, implementation of this technique for screening purposes would...

  19. [Classical swine fever in wild boars in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M A; Thür, B; Vanzetti, T; Schleiss, W; Schmidt, J; Griot, C

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, wild boars with classical swine fever (CSF) symptoms were detected in the southern part (Canton Ticino) of Switzerland. CSF virus was isolated from the submitted samples and RT-PCR followed by direct nucleotide sequencing of the 5' non-translated region showed that this virus was identical to the isolate previously recognized in wild boars from the area of Varese (Italy). In most animals, antibodies to CSF virus were detected as well. An immediate measurement was taken by limiting the movement of pigs and identifying both risk and surveillance zones. In order not to disturb potentially infected wild boars within their habitat a complete hunting prohibition for 2 months was enforced. The different possibilities of the control of CSF outbreaks in wild boars are discussed.

  20. Analysis of intravital assessment results in purebred and crossbred boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Milewska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 1879 purebred boars: Duroc (D, Hampshire (H and Pietrain (Pn as well as their two-crossbreds (D x H, H x D, Pn x H, H x Pn, Pn x D, D x Pn were analysed after a living assessment completed between 1995–1998 within the area of activity of the Animal Breeding Station in Olsztyn. The standardi- zed daily gains in body weight ranged between 594 g (H and 628 g (Pn x D. The thinnest backfat layer was observed in Pietrain boars and their crossbred boars. The height of loin eye was the best for boars Pn and for all crossbred animals. The lean content in the body of the assessed boars ranged from 56.2% (H to 60.0% (Pn. The highest value of selection index was found for Pn boars (124 points and crossbred boars Pn x D and Pn x H, the lowest index value was observed for purebred H boars (109 points. The correlation coefficient between the index and daily gains range from 0.69 (P ≤ 0.01 (H to 0.91 (P ≤ 0.01 (H x D, between the index and the height of loin eye range from 0.57 (P ≤ 0.01 (H to 0.75 (P ≤ 0.01 (Pn and between the index and the lean content range from 0.13 (P ≤ 0.05 (H to 0.71 (P ≤ 0.01 (Pn.

  1. Association of GH Gene Polymorphism with Semen Parameters of Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kmieć

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between polymorphism of the Growth Hormone gene and semen characters were analyzed. The DNA for the purpose of examination was isolated from the peripheral blood of 173 boars. In the boar herd under study the frequency of allele occurrence for the GH/MspI was as follows: allele GHA - 0.79 and allele GHB - 0.21. As far as the GH/HaeII polymorphism is concerned, the relevant frequency was as follows: allele GHA - 0.53 and allele GHB - 0.47, respectively. The relationship between the GH genotypes and semen characteristic traits were analyzed. The study showed that boars with GHBGHB genotype of both polymorphous loci of the GH gene produced ejaculates of larger volume, higher percentage, number of normozosperms in the ejaculate and number of insemination as compared to GHA GHA and GHAGHB boars. Our current findings suggested that polymorphism of the GH/MspI and GH/HaeII might have potential effect for reproductive performance traits of boars.

  2. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Benoît

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalians gamete production takes place in the testis but when they exit this organ, although spermatozoa have acquired a specialized and distinct morphology, they are immotile and infertile. It is only after their travel in the epididymis that sperm gain their motility and fertility. Epididymis is a crescent shaped organ adjacent to the testis that can be divided in three gross morphological regions, head (caput, body (corpus and tail (cauda. It contains a long and unique convoluted tubule connected to the testis via the efferent ducts and finished by joining the vas deferens in its caudal part. Results In this study, the testis, the efferent ducts (vas efferens, VE, nine distinct successive epididymal segments and the deferent duct (vas deferens, VD of four adult boars of known fertility were isolated and their mRNA extracted. The gene expression of each of these samples was analyzed using a pig generic 9 K nylon microarray (AGENAE program; GEO accession number: GPL3729 spotted with 8931 clones derived from normalized cDNA banks from different pig tissues including testis and epididymis. Differentially expressed transcripts were obtained with moderated t-tests and F-tests and two data clustering algorithms based either on partitioning around medoid (top down PAM or hierarchical clustering (bottom up HCL were combined for class discovery and gene expression analysis. Tissue clustering defined seven transcriptomic units: testis, vas efferens and five epididymal transcriptomic units. Meanwhile transcripts formed only four clusters related to the tissues. We have then used a specific statistical method to sort out genes specifically over-expressed (markers in testis, VE or in each of the five transcriptomic units of the epididymis (including VD. The specific regional expression of some of these genes was further validated by PCR and Q-PCR. We also searched for specific pathways and functions using available gene ontology

  3. Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.

    [fr]
    En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
    [es]
    Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve

  4. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  5. Meat quality characteristics of DurocxYorkshire, DurocxYorkshirexwild boar and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, pH value, fatty acids profile, cholesterol content, color and sensory analysis of pork meat from Duroc x Yorkshire (D x Y, Duroc x Yorkshire x wild boar (D x Y x WB crossbreeds and wild boars (WB was investigated. Samples for all tests were taken from m. longissimus dorsi. Chemical composition and pH value were tested by ISO methods. Fatty acid and cholesterol determination was performed by gas chromatography technique with external standard method. Color was determined instrumentally using the thristimulus colourimeter. The overall sensoric quality (appearance, texture and smell of samples of raw meat was evaluated. In evaluation of results the scoring system was used. In chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and pH values statistically significant difference was noted (p<0,05 between each of the examined groups. Also, among all the examined groups statistically significant difference (p<0,05 was found for fatty acids and cholesterol content. Measurment of the color of meat from all three groups showed that the L*, a * b *, Chroma and Hue angle were also statistically significantly different (p<0,01.

  6. Effect of liquid storage on sorted boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinaci, M; Vallorani, C; Bucci, D; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Seren, E; Galeati, G

    2010-09-15

    A routine use of boar sexed semen is far from being a reality due to many limiting factors among which is the long sorting time necessary to obtain the adequate number of sexed spermatozoa for artificial insemination and the high susceptibility to damages induced by cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modification induced by 24-26 h storage on sorted boar spermatozoa on the basis of their viability, acrosome status, Hsp70 presence, and in vitro fertilizing ability. The percentage of viable cells, according to SYBR green/PI staining, was negatively affected (P fertilization, these parameters were negatively (P fertility and function of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa, the mechanisms by which sorting and liquid storage cause these injures require further study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  8. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, Steven; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, Nadine; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-01-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker ca...

  9. New insights into transduction pathways that regulate boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado de Llera, A; Martin-Hidalgo, D; Gil, M C; Garcia-Marin, L J; Bragado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Detailed molecular mechanisms mediating signal transduction cascades that regulate boar sperm function involving Ser/Thr and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins have been reviewed previously. Therefore, this review will focus in those kinase pathways identified recently (functional spermatozoa processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cell energy sensor kinase that was first identified in mammalian spermatozoa in 2012, and since then it has emerged as an essential regulator of boar sperm function. Signaling pathways leading to AMPK activation in boar sperm are highlighted in this review (PKA, CaMKKα/β, and PKC as well as Ca(2+) and cAMP messengers as upstream regulators). Interestingly, stimuli considered as cell stress (hyperosmotic stress, inhibition of mitochondrial activity, absence of intracellular Ca(2+)) markedly activate AMPK in boar spermatozoa. Moreover, AMPK plays a remarkable and necessary regulatory role in mammalian sperm function, controlling essential boar sperm functional processes such as motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, organization and fluidity of plasma membrane, and outer acrosome membrane integrity. These mentioned processes are all required under fluctuating environment of spermatozoa when transiting through the female reproductive tract to achieve fertilization. An applied role of AMPK in artificial insemination techniques is also suggested as during boar seminal doses preservation at 17 °C, physiological levels of AMPK activity markedly increase (maximum on Day 7) and result essential to maintain the aforementioned fundamental sperm processes. Moreover, regulation of sperm function exerted by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Src family kinase pathways is summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn; Wäckers, Felix; Haugen, John-Erik

    2012-10-01

    Surgical castration has been long used to prevent consumers from experiencing taint in meat from male pigs, which is a large problem in the pig husbandry industry. Due to obvious animal welfare issues, the EU now wants an alternative for castration, suggesting an urgent need for novel methods of boar taint detection. As boar taint is only a problem when taint chemicals exceed a well-defined threshold, detection methods should be concentration-specific. The wasp, Microplitis croceipes' ability to learn and respond to particular concentrations of the boar taint compounds, skatole, androstenone, and indole was tested. Also tested was the wasps' ability to discriminate between known concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in real boar fat samples at room temperature. Wasps were trained using associative learning by providing food-deprived wasps with sucrose-water in the presence of specific odor concentrations. Trained wasps' responses were tested to a range of concentrations of 3 compounds. Wasps showed unidirectional generalization of learned concentration responses, whereby the direction of concentration generalization was shown to be chemical-dependent. Through both positive (sucrose) and negative feeding experiences (water only) with varying compound concentrations, the wasps can also be conditioned to respond to concentrations exceeding a defined threshold, and they were successful in reporting low, medium, and high concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in boar fat at room temperature. The need for threshold detection rather than simple detection of absence/presence applies to many food quality issues, including the detection of spoilage or pest damage in crops or stored foods. An inexpensive and reliable means of detecting boar tainted pork at slaughter to avoid tainted meat on the market and dissatisfied consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  11. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  12. Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure in boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszewska Dorota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.

  13. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  14. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  15. Accelerating Coagulation in Traumatic Injuries Using Inorganic Polyphosphate-Coated Silica Nanoparticles in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : 9 male and 4 female pigs weighing 65±8 kg were anesthetized and instrumented . After abdominal...nanoparticles (PLNP) will decrease blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented and randomized to receive...study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods been identified to reduce the number of live

  16. The Effect of Hypothermia on Prolonged Distal Aortic Balloon Occlusion in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    normothermia followed by 4 hours of zone III REBOA, resuscitation with shed blood, and 3 hours of critical care . Physiologic parameters were continuously ...REBOA.Methods: 12 swine were anesthetized, instrumented , then underwent 15 blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to hypothermia or...ng/mL [14,181-24,779]; p 0.01). Fascial compartment pressures were significantly lower during critical care in the hypothermia group (p = 0.03

  17. Association of Oxelytrum cayennense (Silphidae, Coleoptera with Pig Carcasses (Sus scrofa, Suidae in Terra Firme Areas in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Resumo. Aspectos da colonização do silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm em carcaças de porcos do tamanho de um homem adulto na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke são apresentados. Esta espécie colonizou as carcaças de porcos do estágio enfisematoso à esqueletização. Adultos foram observados eventualmente predando larvas de moscas a partir do segundo dia de intervalo pós-morte e suas larvas foram observadas a partir do quinto dia se alimentando em áreas esqueletizadas, provavelmente limpando os ossos dos tecidos moles remanescentes. O comportamento predatório dos adultos nas larvas de dípteros mais velhas podem impactar suas populações e complicar estimativas de intervalo pós-morte, uma vez que estas são freqüentemente usadas para esta estimativa. Além disso, adultos e larvas têm potencial uso como indicadores de intervalo pós-morte (IPM porque o adulto pode colonizar carcaças do segundo dia em diante e as larvas do quinto dia em diante.

  18. A Pilot Study of Peritoneal Perfusion with a Novel Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carrier in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    peritoneum for gas exchange and lung replacement. Ten Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, instrumented, and laparotomized...Inflow and outflow tubing were be placed in the abdomen, and connected to a heart- lung bypass circuit, and the abdomen closed. Animals were then...the endotracheal tube was clamped, ceasing gas exchange in the lung . Arterial blood gases and time to death were then recorded. No differences were

  19. Proteomic analysis of pig (Sus scrofa olfactory soluble proteome reveals O-GlcNAcylation of secreted odorant-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eNAGNAN-LE MEILLOUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination.

  20. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.

  1. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ultraviolet rays.” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 5, 1966. 533–542. Gentilhomme, E. and Y. Neveux. “Epidermal Physiology.” In P...papillary dermis, homing and maturation of cells responsible for the immune barrier, protection against ultraviolet 4 Distribution A: Approved for public...Optical Radiation ROI – Region of interest, as in an area selected in an image by a computer program for analysis Steiner Stain – A stain used in histology UV – Ultraviolet , a region in the electromagnetic spectrum

  2. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  3. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Indianapolis, IN) twice daily immediately after runs were cleaned. Enrichment consisted of a mixture of fruits and vegetables 3 times weekly...any clinical signs and were otherwise SPF for an exhaustive list of viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens . Minipigs were fasted for at...EEG lead wires was kinked, resulting in loss of the outer covering with exposed wire. In this animal, the com- promised EEG lead appeared to be

  4. Classification of Culturable Bifidobacterial Population from Colonic Samples of Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Based on Three Molecular Genetic Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Killer, Jiří; Mekadim, Ch.; Geigerová, M.; Rada, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 11 (2017), s. 1324-1331 ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : digestive tract * gut microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2016

  5. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus and swine (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paul F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB, and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly] were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  6. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-03

    Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  7. A Pilot Study of Open Venous Revascularization using Expandable PTFE Stent Grafts in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    expandable stent-grafts that are designed to expand within a vessel to cover an injury or open a blockage. Methods: 3 Yorkshire cross swine were...expandable PTFE stent graft was deployed into the vessel in an open direct fashion . The swine were awoken and allowed to ambulate. At 72 hours, conduit

  8. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cucchi

    Full Text Available Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG and Xinzhai (XZ sites (Henan Province. To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps. From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  9. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  10. Bifidobacterium apri sp nov., a thermophilic actinobacterium isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Killer, Jiří; Salmonová, H.; Geigerová, M.; Švejstil, R.; Švec, P.; Sedláček, I.; Rada, V.; Benada, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2017), s. 2349-2356 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * wild pigs * thermophilic bifidobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  11. Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus scrofa) Model with Extracellular Matrix and Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Use additional pages If necessary.) PROTOCOL #: FDG20140039A DATE: 13 August 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a...model developed in protocols FDG20120019A and FDG20130043A, we were able to successfully create myocardial infarctions in pigs with a high survival rate...applications.) ObJectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in miniplgs using polystyrene microspheres to Infarct a

  12. Swine (Sus scrofa) as a Model of Postinfarction Mitral Regurgitation and Techniques to Accommodate Its Effects during Surgical Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Eric L; Shi, Weiwei; Duara, Rajnish; Melone, Todd A; Kalra, Kanika; Strong, Ashley; Girish, Apoorva; McIver, Bryant V; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. Because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. Lack of a reproducible animal model of MR after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. Thus, most devices that are deemed safe in healthy animals have shown poor results in human efficacy studies, hampering progress in this area of research. Here we report our experience with a swine model of postinfarction MR, describe techniques to induce regurgitation and perform open-heart surgery in these diseased animals, and discuss our outcomes, complications, and solutions.

  13. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (Pcyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and 12 with both. What this study adds to our knowledge Hydroxocobalamin alone reversed shock caused by cyanide poisoning . Sodium thiosulfate alone...loss of life that might be associated with the relatively uncontrolled absorption through an inhalational model of cyanide poisoning . We addressed this...al. Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation–associated cyanide poisoning : 8 years of experience in the Paris Fire Brigade

  15. First molecular identification and phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a symptomatic sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies.

  16. The use of a motorway wildlife overpass by large mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.; Worm, P.B.

    2001-01-01

    We studied how mammals used a wildlife overpass across a motorway in central Netherlands using track counts in 1989, 1994 and 1995. Throughout the study the overpass was used most frequently by red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and, less often, by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus),

  17. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals.

  18. Effects of season and regulated photoperiod on the reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to litter sizes of 11.6 and 12.4 whereas in late summer services, regulated photoperiod had improved the litter size of the ... Summer infertility continues to reduce the overall reproductive performance and economic efficiency in pig herds in South ...... the social group of the European wild boar (Sus scrofa). J. Reprod. Fertil.

  19. Head (H) And Tail (T) Monoclonal Antibodies of Boar Spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen collected from three boars were pooled and the sperm cells separated from the semen, washed, sonicated and mixed with equal volume of Freund's adjuvant. The mixture of sperm with complete Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize five mice of the BALB/C strain intraperitoneally on Day O. The sonicated sperm ...

  20. The influence of hemi orchidectomy on reproductive efficiency of boars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APR

    Abstract. Large White boars (n = 120) were assigned to hemi-orchidectomy at 60, 100, 140 or 300 days of age or as intact controls throughout the 450 day observation period to evaluate the effects of unilateral testicular hypertrophy on libido (reaction time - RT), ejaculation rate (EJACS) and sperm quality in hemi-.

  1. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells. B.M. van den Berg*. Barex Biochemical Products, Seb. Centenweg 45, 1602ML Enkhuizen, The Netherlands. Abstract. The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric.

  2. LVQ acrosome integrity assessment of boar sperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Biehl, Michael; Sánchez, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    We consider images of boar spermatozoa obtained with an optical phase-contrast microscope. Our goal is to automatically classify single sperm cells as acrosome-intact (class 1) or acrosome-reacted (class 2). Such classification is important for the estimation of the fertilization potential of a

  3. The effects of three extenders on refrigerated boar semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sofiateixeira

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... Ambrogi, M., Ballester, J., Saravia, F., Caballero, I., Johannisson, A., Wallgren, M., Andersson, M. &. Rodriguez-Martinez, H., 2006. Effect of storage in short and long term commercial semen extenders on the motility, plasma membrane and chromatin integrity of boar spermatozoa. Int. J. Androl. 29,. 543-552.

  4. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  5. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...

  6. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyses the detachment of phosphate residues from different substrates. Its activity has been demonstrated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from porcine and other mammalian species; anyway, the role of AP in male reproduction has not been clarified yet and the aim of this study was to determine AP function in boar sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). AP activity was assayed in seminal plasma and in uncapacitated and in vitro capacitated (IVC) spermatozoa; in addition, capacitation was studied in presence of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL). The effect of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL) on several sperm parameters after IVC (viability, acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA, capacitation status with CTC staining, tyrosine phosphorylation) and on fertilizing ability during IVF were also evaluated. High AP activity was detected in seminal plasma, in particular in sperm-rich fraction; a lower activity was detected in uncapacitated spermatozoa while a significant decrease was evidenced after IVC. Viability was not changed by AP supplementation of the capacitating medium, whereas acrosome integrity and capacitation status were significantly affected by 1.2 and 2.5 doses, with a dose-dependent decrease in acrosome-reacted cells as well as in CTC B pattern displaying cells. As for sperm head protein phosphorylation, a decrease in relative fluorescence was detected in AP 2.5 group, if compared with capacitated one. After IVF, a dose-dependent decrease in penetrated oocytes was recorded, with an increase in monospermic zygote rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AP activity decreases under capacitating condition and that addition of AP to spermatozoa during capacitation results in a depression of the capacitating process and IVF. We can infer that AP plays a role in keeping spermatozoa quiescent until they are ejaculated and in modulating the acquisition of the fertilizing ability. © 2013 American Society of

  7. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  8. The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, D G; Barnett, J L; Hemsworth, P H; Jongman, E

    1995-12-01

    Nine boars were used to evaluate effects of breeding facility design and sexual activity on plasma cortisol concentrations . In one breeding facility (conventional), boars were housed individually in small pens, and female pigs were mated in those boar pens. In another breeding facility (Detection-Mating Area [DMA] system), boars were housed individually in stalls, and female pigs were mated in a specific mating pen adjacent to the front of stalls where boars were housed. After 51 d of housing treatment, a catheter was surgically implanted in the cephalic vein for collection of blood samples. Daytime profiles (hourly collections from 0900 to 1700) of cortisol did not differ among boars in the two treatment groups. Cortisol was greater (P cortisol in boars, but breeding facility did not affect the ACTH-induced changes in cortisol concentrations. There was a treatment x time interaction (P cortisol after sexual stimulation, and the magnitude and duration of increase in cortisol were greater (P Cortisol was greater (P cortisol concentration in boars seems to be a normal biological response to sexual activity. However, magnitude and duration of the increase in cortisol may be influenced by breeding facility design and mating procedure. There is no evidence, based on physiological data, that housing boars in stalls in the DMA system has any adverse effects on their welfare.

  9. How much does it cost to look like a pig in a wild boar group?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batocchio, Daniele; Iacolina, Laura; Canu, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild species is known to widely occur and it is reported to be oneof the major causes of the current biodiversity crisis. Despite this, poor attention has been deserved tothe behavioural ecology of hybrids, in particular in relation to their social behaviour. We...... carried out acamera trap study to assess whether phenotypically anomalous colouration in wild boar, i.e. potentiallyintrogressed with domestic pigs, affected the hierarchical structure of wild boar social groups. Chromat-ically anomalous wild boars (CAWs) were detected in 32 out of 531 wild boar videos...

  10. The effect of the MC4R gene on boar taint compounds, sexual maturity and behaviour in growing-finishing boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Aluwé, M; Janssens, S; Wauters, J; Vanhaecke, L; Buys, N; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Societal pressure to ban surgical castration of male piglets is rising due to animal welfare concerns, thus other methods to prevent boar taint need to be explored. Genetic selection against boar taint appears to be a long-term sustainable alternative. However, as boar taint is linked to reproductive hormones, it is important to consider possible negative side effects such as delayed sexual maturity or changes in behaviour. We reported earlier that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) marker can be used to reduce boar taint levels in fat of boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether MC4R marker-assisted selection for lower boar taint prevalence affects plasma levels of boar taint compounds and testosterone; sexual maturity; behaviour; skin lesions; and lameness in boars and gilts. Using an intervention study with a 2×2 design, 264 boars and gilts differing on position 893 of the MC4R gene (AA v. GG) were compared. The MC4R polymorphism did not affect the plasma concentration of either androstenone or testosterone at different time points, whereas the concentration of skatole was significantly lower (P=0.003) and the concentration of indole tended to be lower (P=0.074) in GG compared with AA boars. A higher percentage of gilts of the GG genotype were in puberty at slaughter age compared with AA gilts (Pslaughter, boars and gilts of the GG genotype showed more playing behaviour (P=0.015) and less passive and feeding behaviour (P=0.003). They showed more skin lesions on their back and caudal area (P=0.022), and tended to show more skin lesions on their head and anterior area (P=0.093) compared with AA animals. In conclusion, the polymorphism in the MC4R gene can be used as a marker without negative effects on reproduction characteristics in boars and gilts. Genetic selection towards a lower prevalence of boar taint will lead to more active pigs with more skin lesions. Management strategies may therefore be necessary to reduce skin lesions in the

  11. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement......Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...... with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...

  12. Evaluations of boar gonad development, spermatogenesis with regard to semen characteristics, libido and serum testosterone levels based on large White Duroc x Chinese Erhualian crossbred boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, D; Xing, Y; Lin, M; Wu, Y; Li, K; Li, W; Yang, S; Guo, T; Ren, J; Ma, J; Lan, L; Huang, L

    2009-12-01

    Chinese Erhualian pigs are known for prolificacy with distinct reproductive traits compared with Western commercial breeds. In this study, a four-generation intercross resource population was constructed using White Duroc boars and Chinese Erhualian sows as founder animals, and a total of 14 male reproductive traits were recorded in 411 F2/F3 boars including the testis and epididymis weights, the seminiferous tubular diameter and spermatogenesis at 60, 90 and 300 days of age, semen characteristics, serum testosterone concentration and libido level at 300 days of age. The White Duroc-Erhualian boars showed remarkable segregations in the traits measured except for the seminiferous tubular diameter and had high ratio (13.9%) of the abnormality of spermatogenesis, providing a good experimental population for detecting quantitative trait loci affecting these male reproductive traits. Furthermore, the correlations among nine male reproductive traits at 300 days of age indicated that the testis weight and the body weight were strongly correlated with the sperm production, supporting the two traits as important parameters for boar selection to increase sperm production and ultimately improve boar fertility. The libido level in the White Duroc-Erhualian boars that was evaluated by a new and easily recorded scoring system showed a significant correlation with serum testosterone concentration. Yet, both libido and serum testosterone concentration were not correlated with the sperm production. Results of this study provided new information on the male reproductive physiology and genetics in Chinese Erhualian and White Duroc boars.

  13. Preliminary characterization of multiple hyaluronidase forms in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibulková, Eva; Maňásková, Pavla; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2007), s. 1047-1054 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0895; GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : hyaluronidase * boar sperm * seminal plasma * epididymis * seminal vesicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  14. Proteinase inhibitors in aggregated forms of boar seminal plasma proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Maňásková, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2003), s. 99-107 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : proteinase inhibitors, aggregated forms, boar seminal plasma proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2003

  15. Blood parameters of boars fed diets supplemented with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two cross-bred (Large White X Landrace) male weanling pigs aged 8-9 weeks and weighing between 7.37 and 7.62kg (averaging 7.49 + 0.36kg individually) were used to assess the haematological profile of boars fed varied dietary copper. Four experimental diets were formulated: control (diet 1) with no inclusion of ...

  16. Expression and localization of acrosin inhibitor in boar reproductive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidová, Nina; Jonáková, Věra; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 2 (2009), s. 303-311 ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/1285; GA MŠk 1M06011; GA ČR GD523/08/H064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acrosin inhibitor * Reproductive tract * Spermatozoa * Boar Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2009

  17. Elimination of apoptotic boar spermatozoa using magnetic activated cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Mrkun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine which could be used to remove apoptotic cells from semen preparations. Magnetic-activated cell sorting using annexin V-conjugated microbeads which bind to phosphatidylserine could be used to enhance semen quality. Twelve boar semen samples after 3 days of liquid storage at 16­­–17 °C were subjected to magnetic-activated cell sorting. Bound and unbound fractions and control samples were subjected to flow cytometry following the staining of spermatozoa with Annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 and propidium iodide. Four subpopulations were obtained: live, early apoptotic live, late apoptotic, early necrotic dead and late necrotic dead. The frequency of early apoptotic and late necrotic spermatozoa was significantly higher (P P P P < 0.05 lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa was observed in both fractions compared to control (67.2 ± 17.0%. Boar spermatozoa were separated by the above method for the first time, however, the results showed this method to be inappropriate for boar semen separation under the tested conditions.

  18. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows. D.O. Umesiobi. Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology,. Free State, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. Abstract. Twenty Large White boars and 60 sows were used in ...

  19. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hanne M; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-02-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using a univariate model with sex as a fixed effect and a bivariate model with ADG in boars and gilts as separate traits using both a classical animal model (CM) and a SGM. With the univariate model, the heritability for ADG was 0.22 ± 0.01 for the CM, while the estimate of the total heritable variance (T 2 ) was 0.23 ± 0.01 with the SGM. With the bivariate model, the genetic variance for SGE was higher for boars (13.8 ± 5.8) than for gilts (9.3 ± 3.9). For the bivariate model, T 2 was 0.32 ± 0.02 for boars and 0.27 ± 0.01 for gilts. Estimates of the genetic correlations between DGE (0.88 ± 0.02) and SGE (0.30 ± 0.30) for boars versus gilts indicated that ADG in boars and gilts are different traits. Moreover, the estimate of the genetic correlation between DGE and SGE indicated presence of genetic effects of competition among gilts but not among boars. Compared to a CM, the univariate SGM improved predictive ability significantly only for gilts and the bivariate SGM improved predictive ability significantly for both boars and gilts. We found significant genetic variances of SGE for ADG. The covariance between DGE and SGE was much more negative for gilts than for boars when applying the bivariate model. Because the estimate of the genetic correlation for ADG between gilts and boars differed significantly from 1 and the predictive ability for boars and gilts

  1. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  2. Cryopreservation of boar sperm induces differential microRNAs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Dai, Dinghui; Chang, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Guangbin; Peng, Zhanghua; Zeng, Changjun

    2017-06-01

    Lower conception rates and litter sizes limit the wide use of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm, due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms that cause cryodamage and cryoinjury to sperm during cryopreservation. CryoMiRs, a family of freeze-related microRNAs (miRNAs), are associated with freeze tolerance, and regulate metabolism in mammalian hibernators and insects. Thus, we speculate that miRNAs maybe involved in the regulation of the freeze-thaw process and may affect boar sperm function. In this study, we studied the differential expression of 46 miRNAs that have roles in spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and sperm quality in response to cryopreservation (with or without 3% glycerol). The results indicated that, in response to cryopreservation with 3% glycerol, 14 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated, but only two miRNAs (miR-22 and miR-450b-5p) were significantly down-regulated, relative to fresh sperm. Preservation with 3% glycerol caused up-regulation of 17 miRNAs, but only caused down-regulation of one miRNA (miR-24), relative to sperm cryopreserved without glycerol. Functional annotations of these differentially expressed miRNAs indicated that these miRNAs and their targets are mainly associated with metabolic and cellular processes. Therefore, our findings show that cryopreservation results in changes in miRNA expression, and suggest that the anti-freeze mechanisms of boar sperm need to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  4. The Dynamic of Main Indices of Spermiogram at Boars, in Function on Some Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherasim Nacu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Breeding boars used for semen production. This is conditioned by many factors. The research aim was to assess the some indices of spermogram (volume, mobility, concentration, total sperm / ejaculate at 21 boars, the breeds Large White, Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain in relation with some factors of influence: the race, age, individual and harvesting season. The age of boars was between 8 months and 30 months. The rhythm of harvesting was following: one harvesting followed by the five days break. Depending on the breed, were differences for volume (183,5± 4,88 ml at Pietrain boars and 256±5,3 ml at Landrace boars and for concentration (309,7±6,0 millions/ml at Duroc boars and 430,7±9,3 millions/ml at Pietrain boars. In function on the season, semen volume varied insignificant between summer (minimum values: 188.4 ± 5.6 ml and winter (maximum values: 222.1 ± 6.6 ml. The spermatozoon concentration was insignificantly influenced by the season (371.6 ± 11.7 million/ml - summer; 399.4 ± 12.6 million/ ml – autumn. The greatest differences for all indices of semen analysis were in function on individual. The results show that the indices analyzed are strongly influenced by internal environmental factors (breed, individual and are less conditioned by environmental factors such as the season.

  5. [Effect of experimental classical swine fever (CSF) infection on libido and ejaculate parameters in boars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, A; Fritzemeier, J; Flögel-Niesmann, G; Mönnig, V; Hollen-Horst, M; Meinecke, B

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of an experimental infection with the classical swine fever (CSF) virus on libido and ejaculate parameters of adult boars. Four boars 10 month old were infected with a CSF field isolate (Visbek/Han95). Semen was collected every second day after infection and daily during the pyrexic phase. The only clinical signs in the boars were an increase in body temperature, but never above 39.9 degrees C and a temporally reduction of food intake. The libido was always good, so semen collection was performed in three boars without difficulty and the semen quality was always in the range of the minimum requirements for sperm that is used for artificial insemination. Although one boar had a good libido only a sperm free ejaculate could be collected on one day. The results show that a CSF virus infection of adult boars hardly causes any clinical symptoms and that sperm can be obtained despite fever. Insemination boars may thus be of special epidemiological relevance for the dissemination of the CSF virus.

  6. Camera traps and activity signs to estimate wild boar density and derive abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Giovanna; Coats, Julia; Lambert, Mark Simon; Pietravalle, Stephane; Gill, Robin; Cowan, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Populations of wild boar and feral pigs are increasing worldwide, in parallel with their significant environmental and economic impact. Reliable methods of monitoring trends and estimating abundance are needed to measure the effects of interventions on population size. The main aims of this study, carried out in five English woodlands were: (i) to compare wild boar abundance indices obtained from camera trap surveys and from activity signs; and (ii) to assess the precision of density estimates in relation to different densities of camera traps. For each woodland, we calculated a passive activity index (PAI) based on camera trap surveys, rooting activity and wild boar trails on transects, and estimated absolute densities based on camera trap surveys. PAIs obtained using different methods showed similar patterns. We found significant between-year differences in abundance of wild boar using PAIs based on camera trap surveys and on trails on transects, but not on signs of rooting on transects. The density of wild boar from camera trap surveys varied between 0.7 and 7 animals/km 2 . Increasing the density of camera traps above nine per km 2 did not increase the precision of the estimate of wild boar density. PAIs based on number of wild boar trails and on camera trap data appear to be more sensitive to changes in population size than PAIs based on signs of rooting. For wild boar densities similar to those recorded in this study, nine camera traps per km 2 are sufficient to estimate the mean density of wild boar. © 2017 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. First report of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Li; Zou, Yang; Gao, Yun-Hang; Nie, Lan-Bi; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Du, Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-06-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affects the global pig industry with significant economic losses. It is yet to know whether wild boars in China were infected with M. hyopneumoniae. The present study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors of M. hyopneumoniae infection in farmed wild boars in China. A total of 882 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars in Jilin City, Siping City and Baishan City in Jilin Province, northeastern China from April 2015 to February 2016, and were examined by the double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-eight out of 882 (8.8%) serum samples were M. hyopneumoniae-seropositive. Among region groups, wild boars from Jilin city (11.7%, 33/281) had the highest seropositivity, followed by Siping city (11%, 29/263) and Baishan city (4.7%, 16/338), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0031). The M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in the female wild boars (9.0%, 75/831) was higher than that in the male wild boars (5.9%, 3/51) (P = 0.4429). The results of this investigation showed that farmed wild boars were susceptible to M. hyopneumoniae. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the geographical area and M. hyopneumoniae infection, which may be related to the regional environment. This is the first report of M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provided baseline information for further studies and control of M. hyopneumoniae infection in wild boars in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrufa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita Risch; Sven Wirthner; Matt Busse; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO2 emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how...

  9. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne M.; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using......Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ...

  10. Social genetic effects for growth in pigs differ between boars and gilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne M.; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) in pigs is affected by the so-called social (or indirect) genetic effects (SGE). However, SGE may differ between sexes because boars grow faster than gilts and their social behaviours differ. We hypothesized that direct genetic effects (DGE) and SGE for ADG in pigs differ...... between boars and gilts and that accounting for these differences will improve the predictive ability of a social genetic effects model (SGM). Our data consisted of ADG from 30 to 94 kg for 32,212 uncastrated males (boars) and 48,252 gilts that were raised in sex-specific pens. Data were analyzed using...

  11. El folklore y sus paradojas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HONORIO M. VELASCO MAILLO

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los rasgos más sobresalientes de la historia del folklore en España y otras naciones europeas son sus paradojas. Propuesto primero como ciencia ha llegado a ser claramente rechazado por posteriores ambientes científicos. Tendría interés hacer una historia social del folklore. Este artículo sugiere que tales paradojas y contradicciones están relacionadas con el paradigma científico que asumieron sus promotores, el evolucionismo cultural y con un concepto idealizado de "pueblo", que ayudaron a construir presentando colecciones de materiales. También analiza las diferentes funciones sociales que ha cumplido el discurso folklórico.

  12. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  13. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takao; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhi Hong; Habe, Shigehisa; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2017-08-18

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs' experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken.

  14. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for the parasite infection because of their stronger reactivity against P. westermani antigen than against antigens of other species of Paragonimus. A spatial analysis showed that all of the P. westermani infections were found in Kinki and Chugoku Districts. In this area, dogs’ experience of being fed with raw boar meat showed high odds ratio (3.35) to the sero-positivity in the screening ELISA, and the frequency of such experiences was significantly higher in sero-positive dogs. While clear relationship was not obtained between predation of boars by dogs during hunting and their sero-positivity. Therefore, it is suggested that human activity of feeding with wild boar meat is the risk factor for P. westermani infection in boar-hunting dogs. Considering that hunting dogs could play as a major definitive host and maintain the present distribution of P. westermani in Western Japan, control measures for the infection in hunting dogs, such as prohibition of raw meat feeding and regular deworming, should be undertaken. PMID:28717056

  15. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  16. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals...... served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were...

  17. Boar taint - the effects of selected candidate genes associated with androstenone and skatole levels - a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zadinová, K.; Stupka, R.; Stratil, Antonín; Čítek, J.; Vehovský, K.; Urbanová, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-128 ISSN 0860-4037 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : boar teint * and rostenone * skatole Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.725, year: 2016

  18. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák; Károly Bodnár; Edit Mikóné Jónás; János Gundel; András Jávor

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was t...

  19. Hormonal and behavioral correlates of emotional states in sexually trained boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Malven, P V; Singleton, W L; Weesner, G D

    1999-12-01

    Physiological and behavioral traits of sexually mature boars were compared between episodes of copulation and sexual frustration in order to determine reliable indicators of the differences in emotional states. Ten boars, approximately 6 mo of age, were trained to mount a stationary artificial sow (ArtSow) and to ejaculate when digital pressure was applied to the extended penis. This method of semen collection is the typical procedure of the industry. All 10 boars used in this study were fully trained to this procedure before the onset of the study. Each boar was subjected to trials in which one of the following two treatments was applied. In the control (CTRL) treatment, boars were treated the same as during their training (i.e., allowed to complete ejaculation). In the frustration (FRUS) treatment, boars were allowed to mount the ArtSow, but because no manual pressure was applied to the extended penis, ejaculation never occurred. Blood was collected via indwelling catheters before onset of the trial, during exposure to the ArtSow, and after returning to their home pen. Concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, and beta-endorphin were quantified. Behavior of the boars was recorded during exposure to the ArtSow and for 30 min after return to their home pen. Relative to preexposure levels, serum cortisol increased (Pcortisol did not allow us to distinguish between the excitement of copulation and the negative affect associated with sexual frustration, whereas increases in serum beta-endorphin and motor activity seemed to be indicators of the negative emotional state of sexual frustration in trained boars.

  20. Variation in mitochondrial DNA of Vietnamese pigs: Relationships with Asian domestic pigs and Ryukyu wild boars

    OpenAIRE

    HONGO, Hitomi; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; WATANOBE, Takuma; SHIGEHARA, Nobuo; ANEZAKI, Tomoko; LONG, Vu The; BINH, Dang Vu; TIEN, Nguyen Trong; NAM, Nguyen Huu; 一美, 本郷

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (574 bp) of 30 Vietnamese pigs (large and small) were examined and compared with those of 61 haplotypes from wild boars and domestic pigs from various locations in Asia. The large Vietnamese pigs had genetic links to Ryukyu wild boars in southern Japan. The small Vietnamese pigs were closely related to other East Asian domestic pigs. These results indicate that Vietnamese pigs are genetically diverse and may be descendents of wild and domestic pigs from oth...

  1. Evaluation of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol toxicity on boar sperm DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, Ioannis A; Lymberopoulos, Aristoteles G; Khalifa, Tarek A A; Boscos, Constanten M; Saratsi, Aikaterini; Alexopoulos, Costas

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on motility and nuclear chromatin integrity (NCI) of boar spermatozoa. Mycotoxins were tested, at levels ranging from 10 to 30 microg ml(-1) of diluted semen. Four boars were used for semen collection (eight replicates per boar, four per mycotoxin). After the addition of zen or alpha-zen, semen samples were incubated for 4 h at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 96% humidified air. Motility and NCI were assessed at 0 and 4 h of incubation. No significant differences were noticed in motility among the experimental groups (P > 0.05) for all tested boars. Chromatin instability was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in spermatozoa of only one boar treated with zen and alpha-zen independently of the dose. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, zen and alpha-zen did not affect the motility of boar sperm, whereas the effects of these toxins on sperm NCI were individual-dependent. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  2. Hepatitis E Virus in Sylvatic and Captive Wild Boar from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Oliveira, R M S; Coelho, C; Vieira-Pinto, M; Nascimento, M S J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent today considered a major Public Health issue in industrialized countries. HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine, being today considered important reservoirs for human disease. Unlike in swine, only scarce data are available on the circulation of HEV in wild boar. This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of HEV in livers from sylvatic wild boar hunted in Portugal and destined for consumption. Additionally, the detection of HEV in stools of a confined wild boar population also destined for consumption is also described. A total of 80 liver samples collected during the hunting season of 2011/2012 and 40 stools collected in February 2012 from a wild boar breeding farm in Portugal were tested by a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR assay targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1. Twenty livers (25.0%) and 4 stools (10%) were positive for HEV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains clustered with sequences classified as HEV genotype 3 subgenotype e. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence and molecular analysis of HEV in sylvatic and captive wild boar destined for human consumption in Portugal. This report demonstrates for the first time the circulation of HEV in wildlife reservoirs of Portugal adding knowledge to the epidemiology of HEV in wild boar populations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Expression patterns and role of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in boar spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Jin Hoi; Park, Chankyu; Song, Hyuk

    2018-03-15

    The signaling of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the cellular proliferation, survival, and migration of various cell types. Although SDF-1/CXCR4 has been implicated in the maintenance of the spermatogonial population during mouse testis development, their expression patterns and functions in boar testis remain unclear. In the present study, the expression pattern of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined during pre-pubertal and post-pubertal stage boar testes and in vitro cultured porcine spermatogonial stem cells (pSSCs). The role of these proteins in colony formation in cultured pSSCs was also investigated. Interestingly, SDF-1 expression was observed in PGP 9.5-positve spermatogonia in all developing stages of boar testis; however, CXCR4 expression was only detected in spermatogonia from 5-day-old boar testis. In addition, SDF-1 and CXCR4 expression was observed in cultured pSSCs from 5-day-old boar testes, and inhibition of the CXCR4 receptor signaling pathway by AMD3100 significantly decreased the colony formation of pSSCs. These results suggest that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are useful markers for detecting stage-specific spermatogonia in boar testis. Our results reveal the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in pSSC in vitro culture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Kondracki, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We examined the sexual development and insemination capability of boars representing five breeds used at Polish sow insemination stations. The speed of attaining full breeding maturity by the boars and their insemination usefulness was assessed based on the results of experiments analysing age-related changes in the physical characteristics of the ejaculates. Directly after sampling, the ejaculates were analysed for the following physical parameters: ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa per ejaculate. The total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculates and the number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate were calculated using SYSTEM SUL v. 6.1 software. The sexual development of boars continues during insemination use, leading to improved ejaculatory performance. The physical parameters of the ejaculate change along with the age of the boar. The Duroc and Hampshire boars represent a pattern of sexual development that is different from that of the PLW, PL and Pietrain males, with an evident earlier termination of growth. The American boars (Duroc and Hampshire) acquire top ejaculatory performance approximately 6 months earlier.

  5. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV. In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6% of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7% of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9% of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation.

  6. Immunological castration temporarily reduces testis size and function without long-term effects on libido and sperm quality in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugar, D W; Rhoads, M L; Clark-Deener, S G; Callahan, S R; Revercomb, A K; Prusa, K J; Estienne, M J

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive characteristics in boars. A total of 72 boars were used in a randomized design with three treatments: single immunization (SI) (10 weeks of age) or double immunization (DI) (10 and 15 weeks of age) with Improvest® and intact controls (no Improvest®; CNT) (n=24/group). At 10, 15, 20, 25 and 40 weeks of age, blood was collected and serum harvested to evaluate testosterone concentrations. Testosterone concentrations were less for DI boars compared with CNT boars and SI boars at 20 and 25 weeks (PLibido was assessed at 32, 36, 47, 60 and 63 weeks of age and semen collected at 60 weeks of age was analyzed for indicators of quality. There were no effects of treatment (P=0.41) or treatment by week (P=0.71) on libido. Semen volume, gel weight and total number of sperm cells, determined in a subset of boars (n=3/treatment), were not different among treatments. Sperm concentration was greater for DI than SI (P=0.01), and tended to be greater for DI compared with CNT (P=0.10). Sperm motility tended to be greater for DI boars compared with CNT boars (P=0.066). In conclusion, our results show that there are no long-term effects of immunocastration on reproductive characteristics in boars.

  7. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild...... boar. Nine scenarios were run to elucidate the effect of: (a) presence of wild boar (yes/no), (b) locations for the index case (domestic pig herd/wild-boar group),...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead and cadmium in red deer and wild boar from different hunting grounds in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzic, Nina, E-mail: bilandzic@veinst.hr [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sedak, Marija [Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vrataric, Darija; Peric, Tomislav [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management Veterinary Directorat, Ulica grada Vukovara 78, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Simic, Branimir [Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The concentration and relations of Cd and Pb as environmental risk factors were studied by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver, kidney and muscle of free ranging wild boar (n = 94) and red deer (n = 45) from hunting grounds in four counties of north-east Croatia. In all four counties, the levels of Cd found in the kidney of red deer ranged from 2.28 to 5.91 mg/kg, and in wild boar from 3.47 to 21.10 mg/kg. The mean renal concentration of Cd was significantly higher in wild boar than in red deer from all four study areas. The mean hepatic (0.11 to 0.49 mg/kg, respectively) and muscle (0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) Cd concentrations were similar in both species. The mean renal Cd concentration in wild boar and red deer exceeded 1 mg/kg in all four counties, ranging from 67.0% to 91.4% and from 45.5% to 69.2%, respectively. Also, the hepatic Cd/renal Cd ratio was lower than 1 in all animals. In all four counties, renal Pb concentration ranged from 0.058 to 3.77 mg/kg in red deer and from 0.056 to 11.60 mg/kg in wild boar. Hepatic Pb concentration was similar in both species (0.061 to 0.202 mg/kg in wild boar and 0.077 to 0.108 mg/kg in red deer). Because of the high Cd level in the organs of wild boar and red deer, further research is needed to identify the source of contamination in order to preserve the health of animals and humans.

  10. Involvement of glucocorticoids in testicular involution after active immunization of boars against GnRH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Claus, R

    2004-02-01

    Active GnRH immunization of boars inhibits LH and testicular steroids but the consequences for spermatogenesis are unknown. Six boars were immunized three times against GnRH at 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Another six boars served as controls. Plasma LH and FSH were determined at 28 and 31 weeks. Testosterone and cortisol were determined before killing the pigs at 32 weeks. Tissue samples were taken for histology and fluid from the seminiferous tubuli for steroid determination. Individual germ cells were counted in histological sections. The glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), mitosis of spermatogonia and apoptosis were characterized by immunocytochemistry. Immunization reduced LH and testosterone to base levels whereas FSH was not changed. Testis weight was reduced by 64% due to a loss of Leydig cell cytoplasm (90.3%) and a decrease of tubule diameters (60.6%). Except for A-spermatogonia, all other spermatogenic cells were reduced by about 60%. Mitosis was reduced in immunized boars. Expression of GCRs was limited to spermatogonia and differed between immunized boars (8% of spermatogonia) and controls (2%). In the controls, androgen concentrations in tubular fluid were tenfold higher compared with immunized boars. Cortisol concentrations were of the order of 40 nmol/l both in the tubular fluid and blood plasma. These concentrations did not differ between groups. Apoptosis occurred only in spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes and was twofold higher in immunized boars compared with controls. Thus the availability of glucocorticoids in the tubuli and the expression of GCRs initiate apoptosis, which in turn reduces sperm yield. Testosterone is known to be an inhibitor of GCR expression, thus increasing the efficiency of spermatogenesis.

  11. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneau, M.; Kempster, A.J.; Claus, R.; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Diestre, A.; Tornberg, E.; Walstra, P.; Chevillon, P.; Weiler, U.; Cook, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    An international study, involving 11 participants in 7 European countries, was conducted to provide scientific evidence for an objective measurement of boar taint in entire male pigs and its possible variation between countries. The specific objectives were to determine the respective contributions

  12. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different feeding systems on the ingredients of wild boar meat, and the accidental analogy with the ingredients of pork. There was no difference in protein content. The value of miristic acid (C14:0 in the samples of extensively and intensively fed group was more favourable than that of pork. Pork contains more MUFA (palmitoleic acid – C16:1. The semi-intensively fed wild boar’s meat and pork contained linoleic acid (C18:3 n3 almost on the same level. The greatest difference was detected in the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6. The samples from all wild boar groups contained more of this fatty acid than it was published about domestic pigs. Out of the microelements, the iodine and zinc had higher value in wild boar meat than in pork.

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-06

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aquaporins 7 and 11 in boar spermatozoa: detection, localisation and relationship with sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Vilagran, Ingrid; Morató, Roser; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane water channels that allow transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Although water permeability is known to play a critical role in mammalian cells, including spermatozoa, little is known about their localisation in boar spermatozoa. Two aquaporins, AQP7 and AQP11, in boar spermatozoa were identified by western blotting and localised through immunocytochemistry analyses. Western blot results showed that boar spermatozoa expressed AQP7 (25kDa) and AQP11 (50kDa). Immunocytochemistry analyses demonstrated that AQP7 was localised in the connecting piece of boar spermatozoa, while AQP11 was found in the head and mid-piece and diffuse labelling was also seen along the tail. Despite differences in AQP7 and AQP11 content between boar ejaculates, these differences were not found to be correlated with sperm quality in the case of AQP7. Conversely, AQP11 content showed a significant correlation (Pspermatozoa express AQP7 and AQP11, and the amounts of AQP11 but not those of AQP7 are correlated with sperm motility and membrane integrity.

  16. Effect of Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin C and E on Boar Ejaculate Quality at Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiment was to test effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E to reduce the impact of heat stress at boars. In the experiment, boars of Duroc breed were tested. The first control group (n = 10 was not supplemented with antioxidants. The second experimental group (n = 10 was supplemented with antioxidants in the following quantities of 0.5 mg of selenium (seleno-methionine, 100 mg of zinc (zinc-methionine, 70 mg of vitamin E (alpha‑tocopherol and 350 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid per kilogram of their feed. The experiment was carried out for 120 days and took place in summer (June to September. During the experiment, average and maximum daily temperatures, where boars were stabled, were monitored. Average daily temperature ranged from 12 to 28 °C. Maximum temperature during the day was from 13 to 32 °C. The evaluation of the semen quality has revealed increased number of abnormal spermatozoa in the control group of boars by 39 % (P < 0.05. There were observed no significant changes at other monitored parameters (ejaculate volume, total count of produced sperm, motility and sperm concentration. The results show that the addition of selenium, zinc, vitamin C and E may reduce the effect of heat stress to some extent at breeding boars.

  17. A comparison of mycotoxin adsorbents and their effects on some selected parameters of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Tvrdoň

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of two mycotoxin adsorbents with different mechanisms of action were followed in 180 purebred and terminal combination boars reared in artificial insemination stations. The following parameters of boar sperm quality were investigated: volume in millilitres, concentration and motility, and numbers of pathological spermatozoa. When processing the boar semen, the dilution ration and numbers of AI doses were recorded. Compared were two preparations: in case of Preparation 1 the number of evaluated ejaculates was 1,037 while in case of Preparation 2 altogether 1,109 ejaculates were evaluated. Boars receiving diets with Preparation 1 produced more voluminous ejaculates (by 4.1 ml and their concentration of spermatozoa was also higher (by 39 thous./ml; P ≤ 0.001. Dilution parameters were better as well and numbers produced of AI doses were also higher. In case of Preparation 2 the motility of spermatozoa was a higher while the numbers of sperms were lower. The obtained results demonstrated that a suitable adsorbent can show a positive effect on both quantitative and qualitative parameters of boar sperm.

  18. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  19. Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated with Feral Swine in Edwards Plateau and Gulf Prairies and Marshes Ecoregions of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Population dynamics in wild boar (Sus scrofa): ecology, elasticity of growth rate and implications for the management of pulsed resource consumers. J. App...ecological effects of invaders. Biol. Invas. 1: 3-19. Pimental, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic ...International Conference on Eradication of Island Invasives. Auckland , New Zealand: IUCN. pp. 274-296. Schwan, T. G., K. K. Kime, M. E. Schrumpf, J. E

  20. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica e nutritiva de carnes exóticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sfaciotte, Ricardo Antonio Pilegi; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Vignoto, Vanessa Karla Capoia; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Cardozo, Rejane Machado; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Munhoz, Patrícia Marques; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Pinto, Adriana Aparecida; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Wosiacki, Sheila Rezler; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Ferraro, Gisela Cristiane; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Barbosa, Maria José Baptista; Universidade Estadual de Maringá

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum-packed and frozen of ostrich (Struthio camelus), alligator (Caiman latirostris) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat samples were obtained in an authorized commercial store in Maringá/Paraná. Of each kind meat were analyzed 6 samples, where were studied counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria psichrophilic, coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp., and protein and fat analysis. The results of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged between <1.0 a 3.6 log CFU/g, bein...

  1. INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN BIOACTIVE PREPARATIONS ON THE DURATION OF BOAR SEMEN PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. HAREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiences were held on the boar sperm. There were studied the bioactive substances with the role of antioxidizer made at the Institute of Genetic of Science Academy of Republic of Moldova. The bioactive substances (GL-2 were used as a structure dilution GHTS what is used for boars sperm dilution with the concentration of 0,1 – 1%. The experimental researches showed that the studied substances were not toxic for sperm used in the structure of GHTS dilution with the concentration of 0,1-1 whit gave the possibility to increase the period of boar sperm stoking till 168 hours, keeping the sperms mobility at the level of standard of artificial insemination.

  2. HORMONAL PROFILE AND NONSPECIFIC RESISTANCE IN BOAR UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Grabovskyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to determination of hormonal profile and nonspecific resistance in boars blood before slaughter after using of biologically active substances — animal origin antistressors andimmunostimulators. The purpose of research — determination of changes of insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol content in boars blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances of spleen extract. Object and research methods. The spleen extract has been additionally entered to the boars feed at 5 days before slaughter as an antistressors and immunostimulators in pre-slaughter period. The experiment was conducted on 15 boars with standard diet. Three groups of boars six months of age (5 boars each were formed for research. The pig’s spleen extract was obtained with ultrasound application (Iresearch group were using as a biologically active substances to the feed boars in pre-slaughter period. The extracts were applied to dry feed by aerosol method (70 % alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per kg body weight. The boars of II research group in the same way received to the feed of 70 % ethanol solution in the same volume. The boars of control group received only dry feed economy. Theboars slaughter was held on day 13 hours a.m. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0. Results and discussion. The ACTH and cortisol level in the boars’ blood plasma of experimental and control groups significantly increased after transportation (before the slaughter compared with the indexes before transportation to meat plant. The ACTH concentration in the boars’ blood plasma of І experimental group, which was added to the basic diet spleen extract, was 10 % lower than in the control group boars compared with indicators before and after transportation

  3. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium; Untersuchungen zur Radiocaesiumbelastung von saechsischem Schwarzwild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  4. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-09-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in pigs is not a routine technique; its use is restricted to specific cases, such as preservation of valuable genetic material (germplasm banks), safety strategies in case of natural disasters, long-distance transport of sperm, and in combination with sex-sorting. Cryoinjuries resulting from freeze-thawing protocols are a major concern with regard to the fertilization capacity of the treated sperm, which is lower than that of liquid-stored semen. Here, we provide an overview of artificial insemination using cryopreserved sperm, and summarize the factors that influence cryopreservation success before, during, and after freeze-thaw (i.e., sperm selection before starting the cryopreservation process, holding time, use of cryoprotectants, and rates of freezing and thawing) and that are driving the identification of biomarkers to predict sensitivity to cryodamage. Three different artificial insemination techniques (conventional or intracervical; intrauterine; and deep intrauterine) are also discussed with regards to their relevance when using frozen-thawed semen. Finally, we review the use of additives to freezing and thawing media, given reports that they may maintain and improve the quality and fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed sperm. In sum, artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm can provide reasonable fertility outcomes, if freezable ejaculates, specific additives, and appropriate insemination techniques are used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Serological surveillance for Tahyna virus (California encephalitis orthobunyavirus, Peribunyaviridae) neutralizing antibodies in wild ungulates in Austria, Hungary and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J V; Haider, R; Porea, D; Oslobanu, L E; Forgách, P; Nowotny, N

    2018-03-08

    A serosurvey for Tahyna virus (TAHV), a mosquito-borne California encephalitis orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae) endemic to Europe, was performed to estimate the activity of TAHV on a broad geographic scale. Sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected from Austria, Hungary and Romania. Samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against TAHV using a virus microneutralization assay. The results demonstrate that TAHV transmission to mammals is widespread in Europe, particularly in the wild boar population where the mean rate of seroconversion is 15.2%. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  8. Effects of pituitary-specific overexpression of FSHα/β on reproductive traits in transgenic boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a gonadotropin synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland. FSH stimulates follicle development and maturation in females. It also plays an important role in spermatogenesis in males, including humans and mice. However, the effects of FSH on male pigs are largely unknown. In this study, we generated transgenic pigs to investigate the effects of FSHα/β overexpression on reproductive traits in boars. Results After five transgenic F0 founders were crossed with wide-type pigs, 193 F1 animals were obtained. Of these, 96 were confirmed as transgenic. FSHα and FSHβ mRNAs were detected only in pituitary tissue. Transgenic boars exhibited significantly higher levels of FSHα and FSHβ mRNA, serum FSH, and serum testosterone, compared to full-sib non-transgenic boars. Significant increases in testis weight, vas deferens diameter, seminiferous tubule diameter, and the number of Leydig cells were observed, suggesting that the exogenous FSHα/β affects reproductive traits. Finally, transgenic and non-transgenic boars had similar growth performance and biochemical profiles. Conclusions Pituitary-specific overexpression of FSHα/β genes is likely to impact reproductive traits positively, as indicated by enhancements in serum testosterone level, testis weight, the development of vas deferens, seminiferous tubules, and Leydig cells in transgenic boars. A high level of serum FSH induces secretion of serum testosterone, possibly by boosting the number of Leydig cells, which presumably increases the libido and the frequency of sexual activity in transgenic boars. Our study provides a preliminary foundation for the genetic improvement of reproductive traits in male pigs.

  9. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P libido or sperm fertilizing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of atypical porcine pestivirus in semen from commercial boar studs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, I R H; Arruda, P H; Visek, C A; Victoria, J G; Patterson, A R; Krull, A C; Schwartz, K J; de Oliveira, L G; Arruda, B L

    2018-04-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 10 6  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  12. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Infrarenal Aortic Balloon Occlusion on Weaning from Supraceliac Aortic Balloon Occlusion in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    all animals , and continued for six hours. Half of the animals were randomly assigned to Zone-3 REBOA for an additional 45 minutes following Zone-1...concentration or resuscitation requirements.Conclusion: In an animal model of hemorrhagic shock and Zone-1 REBOA, subsequent Zone-3 aortic occlusion did not add

  14. Effects of a Taser: Conducted Energy Weapon on the Circulating Red-Blood-Cell Population and Other Factors in Sus scrofa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-30

    our study favoring either young or old RBCs being released from the spleen is unknown. Since alkalosis (rather than acidosis) tends to result in...204. 70. Waśkiewicz Z, Kłapcińska B, Sadowska-Krępa E, Czuba M, Kempa K, Kimsa E, Gerasimuk D. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon...cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic effects of a long duration electronic control device exposure in human volunteers. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2010;6

  15. Technique Refinement and Validation of Variable Aortic Occlusion via Extracorporeal Flow Circuit in a Pig Model (Sus scrofa) of Uncontrolled Hemorrhage with Subsequent Resuscitation and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-24

    animals and minimized the ischemic insult to distal vascular beds, thus preserving organ viability as evidenced by early return of urine output and...changes (PI/CI/AI/TC/lnstructor) since the last IACUC approval of protocol, or annual review ? x_ Yes No Ifyes, complete the following sections (Additions

  16. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  17. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  18. Data from: Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  19. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P.

    1966-06-01

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [fr

  20. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  2. Annotation Of Novel And Conserved MicroRNA Genes In The Build 10 Sus scrofa Reference Genome And Determination Of Their Expression Levels In Ten Different Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nielsen, Mathilde; Hedegaard, Jakob

    The DNA template used in the pig genome sequencing project was provided by a Duroc pig named TJ Tabasco. In an effort to annotate microRNA (miRNA) genes in the reference genome we have conducted deep sequencing to determine the miRNA transcriptomes in ten different tissues isolated from Pinky...... against miRBase, we identified more than 600 conserved known miRNA/miRNA*, which is a significant increase relative to the 211 porcine miRNA/miRNA* deposited in the current version of miRBase. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcript profiles provided important information on the relative abundance...... and tissue-specificity of miRNA expression. In addition, we are currently analyzing our data using miRDeep for de novo discovery and annotation of the pig genome with both conserved and novel miRNAs. So far this analysis revealed the identity and genomic position of 535 miRNA genes of which 97 were novel...

  3. Estimativa do número de cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo em suínos (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Palmeira Sarmento

    2009-01-01

    Os estudos relacionados ao coração têm sido realizados ao longo dos anos de forma bastante comum, tendo em vista a grande importância que este órgão tem na medicina. Problemas relacionados ao mesmo são uma das principais causas de mortes e internações no Brasil e no mundo, por causa disso, avanços no que diz respeito a inovações tecnológicas e novas metodologias de estudo tem sido propostas cada vez com mais freqüência, e, o suíno tem se mostrado um modelo bastante útil, pois apresenta divers...

  4. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica-Neuronal Tracing Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zalecki

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs.The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6 and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6. Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle. After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV - 7.5cm starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs.Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance.

  5. Pituitary-adrenal activation in pre-parturient pigs (Sus scrofa) is associated with behavioural restriction due to lack of space rather than nesting substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, S.; Calvert, S.K.; Stevenson, J.; Leeuwen, van N.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that pre-parturient primiparous pigs (gilts) housed in behaviourally restrictive farrowing crates without straw redirect their nest-building behaviour to non-manipulable substrates such as the bars of the crate. These gilts also show elevated plasma adrenocorticotropic

  6. Development and Validation of a Simplified Renal Replacement Therapy Suitable for Prolonged Field Care in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Animal ___ Medical Readiness ___ Prolonged Restraint ___ Training: non-Live Animal ___ Health Promotion ___ Multiple Survival Surgery...Military Health System Research Symposium 2018, FL. 11. PROTOCOL OBJECTIVES: (Were the protocol objectives met, and how will the outcome or training...dialysis catheter (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT) was introduced into the right external jugular vein. Bilateral nephrectomies were performed

  7. Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Mrázek, Jakub; Bunešová, V.; Havlík, J.; Koppová, Ingrid; Benada, Oldřich; Rada, V.; Kopečný, Jan; Vlková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2013), 11-16 ISSN 0723-2020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacteriaceae * Digestive tract * Multilocus sequence analysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.310, year: 2013

  8. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Ut:IVI:I... I 11:111VI:> Hydroxocobalamin, hypotension, cyanide , poisoning , intraosseous, Vitamin B 12a, Vitamin B 12 I 1:). :>CI...U I111 T L.L~:>:>II...Il l Ll:. ~IIIU :>Utili I Ll: :>a. I...UIIIII1~1... I IIIVIVItll:l1 lntraosseous hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced...between 2 groups of swine in acute cyanide toxicity and treated with IV HOC or 10 HOC. We also compared blood cyanide , lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine levels

  9. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    shown that cobinamide successfully reverses cyanide poisoning in an animal model. Moreover, cobinamide can be administered via the IM route making it an...toxicity and ease with which it can be produced. Several potential antidotes have been proposed for hydrogen sulfide poisoning , but none have been...completely successful. Our studies indicate that cobinamide can successfully reverse hydrogen sulfide poisoning in an animal model. We have also

  10. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  11. A comparison of proximal tibia, distal femur, and proximal humerus infusion rates using the EZ-IO intraosseous device on the adult swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairet, Julio; Bebarta, Vikhyat; Lairet, Kimberly; Kacprowicz, Robert; Lawler, Christopher; Pitotti, Rebecca; Bush, Anneke; King, James

    2013-01-01

    We sought to compare the flow rates of the proximal tibia, the distal femur, and the proximal humerus using high pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) through an intraosseous (IO) infusion needle in an adult swine model. We performed a prospective interventional study in 11 swine. After placement of central vein and arterial lines, blood was removed via the central line until the animal's mean arterial pressure decreased 25% from the recorded baseline. We inserted a 25-mm IO needle into the proximal tibia and 45-mm needles into the distal femur and proximal humerus. All extremities were utilized in each study animal. We infused normal saline at each site for 10 minutes with a pressure bag inflated to the highest achievable pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) as measured at the infusion site with a calibrated portable inline pressure gauge. We measured the volume of normal saline remaining and we calculated infusion rates for each site. We then compared infusion flow rates between the three locations. Statistical analysis and comparison of the infusion rates of all three study arms were as performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The average weight of the swine was 71 kg (range 64-84 kg). Successful placement of the IO needle was confirmed at all three sites. The mean infusion flow rate was 213 mL/min (standard deviation [SD] 53.2 mL/min) for the proximal humerus, 138 mL/min (SD 65.3 mL/min) for the distal femur, and 103 mL/min (SD 48.1 mL/min) for the proximal tibia (p IO placement, with a potential for higher flow rates than the proximal tibia and distal femur when resuscitating a patient.

  12. Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in pig fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758 from the lineage Pen Ar Lan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Antônio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve was studied in 31 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan, being 22 males and 9 females, after being fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. In these animals, the lumbar vertebrae ranged from 5 to 7, with a predominance of 6, something which contributed to variations in the origin of this nerve. The sciatic nerve originated in 80.64% of the antimeres from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve (L5; in 96.77 % of L6; in 6.45% of L7; in 100% of S1; and in 64.51% of S2. The composition of this nerve took place in 45.16% of the animals due to the union of L5, L6, S1 and S2; in 32.25% of L5, L6 and S1; in 12.90% of L6, S1 and S2; in 6.45% of L6, L7 and S1; and in 3.22% L5, S1 and S2. There was symmetry in the origin of the sciatic nerve in all specimens under study. This nerve sent branches to the superficial gluteal, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles in all specimens, and, in a lesser frequency, to the twins, quadratus femoris, adductors, as well as the middle, accessory, and deep gluteal muscles. In 74.19% of the sample, a branch communicating to the pudendal nerve was observed.

  13. Serological and molecular investigation of the prevalence of Aujeszky's disease in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the subregions of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2013-08-30

    The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  15. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  16. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...... in the Austrian and Japanese samples and is thus unlikely to be an original feature of wild boars. In contrast, it was present at high frequency (0.35) among the Swedish wild boars, probably representing a founder effect. Five MBL1 haplotypes were resolved. Only two of these were present among the Japanese wild...

  17. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...... indicate that polymorphisms in CYP2E1, CYP21, CYP2D6, CYP2C49, NGFIB and CTNND1 might be used to reduce levels of boar taint without affecting levels of testosterone, estrone sulphate, 17beta-estradiol or length of bulbo urethralis gland. Udgivelsesdato: July...

  18. Strategic use of anti-GnRH vaccine allowing selection of breeding boars without adverse effects on reproductive or production performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Claudio; Ollila, Anna; Andersson, Magnus; Heinonen, Mari; Voutila, Liisa; Serenius, Timo; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Boar stations raise only entire male pigs for selection as reproductive boars, but the majority of them will fail the selection process, ending at slaughter with a high risk of boar tainted meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Improvac given to 16-week old boars had a negative effect on their subsequent sperm numbers and motility in 16 artificial insemination boars. We also aimed to generate more knowledge on incidence of boar taint at slaughter among Finnish pigs, compare production performances as average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass and meat quality (lean meat percentage, back fat, pH, color, androstenone, and skatole) of immunocastrated boars (n = 248) with those of entire boars (n = 268). Moreover, we aimed also to explore whether a fat biopsy taken at 16 weeks of age could already reveal the presence of boar taint compounds and be predictive of boar taint development at slaughter age. We found that 32% of entire boars (Figen Landrace, Figen Large White, and their crossbreed) slaughtered at an age of 25 weeks presented levels of androstenone and/or skatole above the threshold for boar taint in their meat. These boars (control) had higher androstenone and skatole levels in the back fat samples at slaughter (0.77 ± 0.55 and 0.09 ± 0.06 μg/g, respectively, mean ± standard deviation) than those in the immuno group (0.20 ± 0.25 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g, respectively, P artificial insemination. We found no difference in the levels of testosterone, anti-GnRH antibodies titers, testicle morphology, and sperm numbers and motility between the boars vaccinated once, at 16 weeks of age, with anti-GnRH vaccine and the control boars (no vaccination). There were no differences in average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, and back fat between the immunocastrated boars and entire boars. Meat from immunocastrated boars had a higher pH and better color than meat from entire boars (P meat quality

  19. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  20. Cryopreservation of boar semen in mini- and maxi-straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; de Braganca, M M; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1990-10-01

    Split ejaculates from four boars were frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini- (0.25 ml) and maxi- (5 ml) plastic straws with an extender at either acidic (6.3) or alkaline (7.4) pH. Glycerol (3%) was used as cryoprotectant. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermocouples placed in the straws. Post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity were evaluated; the latter using phase contrast microscopy, eosin-nigrosin stain and electron microscopy. Post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws than in maxi-straws. For the mini-straws, the motility was better when semen was exposed to an acidic environment during freezing, but this beneficial effect of the low extracellular pH was not evident when maxi-straws were thawed. The motility of the spermatozoa diminished significantly during the thermoresistance test (0 h and 2 h time) at 37 degrees C in a similar way for both straws and extracellular pH's. The freezing procedure, no matter the extracellular pH, did not cause major acrosomal damages, but significantly more normal apical ridges were present in the mini-straws than in the maxi-straws. This in vitro evaluation indicated that the freezing method employed was better for mini- than for maxi-straws since the freezing of the 5 ml volumes was not homogeneous, due to the large section area between the surface and the core of the straw.

  1. Discovery of Predictive Biomarkers for Litter Size in Boar Spermatozoa*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Conventional semen analysis has been used for prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. Although this tool is essential for providing initial quantitative information about semen, it remains a subject of debate. Therefore, development of new methods for the prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility should be seriously considered for animal species of economic importance as well as for humans. In the present study, we applied a comprehensive proteomic approach to identify global protein biomarkers in boar spermatozoa in order to increase the precision of male fertility prognoses and diagnoses. We determined that l-amino acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (MDH2), cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1B, lysozyme-like protein 4, and calmodulin (CALM) were significantly and abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa. We also found that equatorin, spermadhesin AWN, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), Ras-related protein Rab-2A (RAB2A), spermadhesin AQN-3, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2 (NDUFS2) were significantly and abundantly expressed in low-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). Moreover, RAB2A, TPI, and NDUFS2 were negatively correlated with litter size, whereas CALM and MDH2 were positively correlated. This study provides novel biomarkers for the prediction of male fertility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows significantly increased litter size using male fertility biomarkers in a field trial. Moreover, these protein markers may provide new developmental tools for the selection of superior sires as well as for the prognosis and diagnosis of male fertility. PMID:25693803

  2. Infection with Paragonimus westermani of boar-hunting dogs in Western Japan maintained via artificial feeding with wild boar meat by hunters

    OpenAIRE

    IRIE, Takao; YAMAGUCHI, Yohei; DOANH, Pham Ngoc; GUO, Zhi Hong; HABE, Shigehisa; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani was investigated in Western Japan. Blood and rectal feces were collected from 441 dogs in the three districts (205 in Kinki, 131 in Chugoku and 105 in Shikoku District). In a screening ELISA for serum antibody against P. westermani antigen, 195 dogs (44.2%) showed positive reaction. In the 195 dogs, 8 dogs were found excreting P. westermani eggs after molecular analysis of fecal eggs, and additional 7 were identified serologically for...

  3. Pattern of protein retention in growing boars of different breeds, and estimation of maximum protein retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering th...

  4. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Cong-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing-thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.

  5. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI) despite many advantages that cryopreservation provides. Compared to fresh semen, the fertility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is more variable but usually less. Predicting the fertility of individual ejaculates for s...

  6. Interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Zasiadczyk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS, with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Semen samples, extended in Kortowo 3 (K3 extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% LPFo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees C. Additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees C were stored in K3 extender supplemented with LPFo for 3h at 16 degrees C. In each boar, the fluorescent enhancement of ANS was observed in K3-extended semen supplemented with LPFo, prior to storage. Following storage, there was a significant increase in LPFo-ANS fluorescence, particularly in the sperm membrane overlying the head and midpiece regions. There were significant differences among the boars with respect to the sperm populations defined by the LPFo-ANS fluorescence. Sperm viability was not significantly affected during the storage period. Furthermore, the proportions of spermatozoa defined by the different patterns of LPFo-ANS fluorescence were low and remained unchanged after storage of cold shock-treated spermatozoa with 2% or 5% LPFo, suggesting irreversible damage to the sperm membrane architecture. These findings indicate that the ANS fluorescent probe could be used to shed more light on the nature of the interactions between LPFo and sperm membrane following semen preservation. Such valuable information could contribute to the development of an optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

  7. High hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in forestry workers and in wild boars in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Audrey; Chaussade, Hélène; Rigaud, Emma; Rodriguez, Josefa; Berthault, Camille; Boué, Franck; Tognon, Mauro; Touzé, Antoine; Garcia-Bonnet, Nathalie; Choutet, Patrick; Coursaget, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a fecally and orally transmitted human pathogen of worldwide distribution. In industrial countries, HEV is observed in an increasing number of autochthonous cases and is considered to be an emerging pathogen. A growing body of evidence suggests that HEV is a zoonotic disease, and pig handlers and pig veterinarians have been reported to be high-risk groups for HEV infection. The aims of the present study were to establish the prevalence of anti-HEV in wild boars in France and to identify whether forestry workers are at a higher risk of HEV infection. Three different anti-HEV tests were used to compare their effectiveness in detecting anti-HEV in the general population. The most sensitive test was then used to investigate HEV seroprevalence in 593 forestry workers and 421 wild boars. Anti-HEV was detected in 31% of the forestry workers and 14% of the wild boars. Detection of anti-HEV in humans was correlated with age, geographical location, and occupational activity and in wild boars was correlated with geographical location. HEV infection is frequent in woodcutters in France, and it varies geographically. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the transmission route and the exact virus reservoirs.

  8. Investigations on breeding boars to contribute to a functional feeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, B.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial insemination (A.I.) is a rapid growing industrial activity. In 1987 about 45 % of the Dutch breeding sows were fertilized by means of Artificial Insemination. One of the factors influencing the efficiency of an A.I. Centre is reproductive output of the breeding boars. A good

  9. Effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychová, S; Opletal, L; Macáková, K; Lustyková, A; Rozkot, M; Lipenský, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (PHE) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. Ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. There were no differences in semen quality between groups. Animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. The feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with PHE, which was prepared from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides. Duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. Samples of ejaculate were collected weekly. Libido was evaluated according to a scale of 0-5 points. Semen volume, sperm motility, percentage of viable spermatozoa, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, daily sperm production and sperm survival were assessed. Amounts of mineral components and free amino acids were analysed in seminal plasma. Significant differences were found in these parameters: libido (4.05 ± 0.22 vs 3.48 ± 0.78; p libido was increased by 20% in comparison with the beginning of the experiment. Results of this study showed positive effect of PHE on libido and some parameters of boar semen quality. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Isolation of total ribonucleic acid from fresh and frozen-thawed boar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNA) from raw fresh semen and frozen-thawed boar semen, using a protocol comprising the conventional TRIzol assay and a membrane-based technique, the PureLink RNA mini kit. Bioanalyzer profile revealed that the sperm RNA size ...

  11. Overview of the current measuring results on radioactive contamination of wild boars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the reasons for the continuously high contamination of wild boars when the soil is of low contamination, a study was initiated and sample of wild boars were analysed. From 2132 wild boars samples examined in the year 2001 in the Palatine forest, 9.4 % had more than 600 Bq/kg radiocesium (not allowed to be marketed). Wild boars take up radiocesium via their fodder. Elaphomyces granulatus play a special role, because their fruit body growing underground is a preferred delicacy. With a peak value of about 122 000 Bq/kg in the year 2002, elaphomyces granulatus in the Bavarian forest were contaminated by one order of magnitude higher than edible mushrooms. Also large thick forest areas are of great significance: the more animals move to agricultural areas on search for food and feed low contaminated fodder, the less is the radiocesium content in their muscle flesh. Breeding animals fed exclusively with agricultural products have only very low contamination levels which can be compared with that of beef, pork or chicken. (N.C.)

  12. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I.H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models...

  13. Enhanced fertility prediction of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa using novel sperm function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, B W; McNamara, K A; Purdy, P H; Krisher, R L; Knox, R V; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Miller, D J

    2015-05-01

    Due to reduced fertility, cryopreserved semen is seldom used for commercial porcine artificial insemination (AI). Predicting the fertility of individual frozen ejaculates for selection of higher quality semen prior to AI would increase overall success. Our objective was to test novel and traditional laboratory analyses to identify characteristics of cryopreserved spermatozoa that are related to boar fertility. Traditional post-thaw analyses of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity were performed on each ejaculate. In vitro fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst development were also determined. Finally, spermatozoa-oviduct binding and competitive zona-binding assays were applied to assess sperm adhesion to these two matrices. Fertility of the same ejaculates subjected to laboratory assays was determined for each boar by multi-sire AI and defined as (i) the mean percentage of the litter sired and (ii) the mean number of piglets sired in each litter. Means of each laboratory evaluation were calculated for each boar and those values were applied to multiple linear regression analyses to determine which sperm traits could collectively estimate fertility in the simplest model. The regression model to predict the percent of litter sired by each boar was highly effective (p functions of spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Classification of boar spermatozoid head images using a model intracellular density distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, Lidia; Petkov, Nicolai; Alegre, Enrique; Sanfeliu, A; Cortes, ML

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel classification method to identify boar spermatozoid heads which present an intracellular intensity distribution similar to a model. From semen sample images, head images are isolated and normalized. We define a model intensity distribution averaging a set of head images assumed as

  15. Metilcelulosa: sus aplicaciones farmacéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia Villanueva, Cristián; Sapag Hagar, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar las propiedades más importantes de la metilcelulosa (MC) y explicar de qué manera éstas son determinadas por sus características físicas y químicas. Además, se discuten algunas de sus aplicaciones más importantes en formulaciones farmacéuticas.

  16. Immunoglobulin changes in boars exposed to administration of levamisole and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilandžić Nina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of levamisole (LEV on immunoglobulin concentration in the serum of boars exposed to 3-day stress induced by exogenous ACTH. Boars were assigned to 4 groups (n=7. The first group received LEV for 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW, the second group received ACTH (10 μg/kg BW for 3 days and the third group received LEV for 3 consecutive days and ACTH for the following 3 days (2.5 mg/kg BW; ACTH 10 μg/kg BW. The control group received saline solution during the 6 days. Concentrations of cortisol, total protein, globulin, albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM were determined during treatments and on the 16th day post-administration. Cortisol concentration was increased in both ACTH treated groups during all three days of administration and the day after the last ACTH treatment (p<0.05. ACTH increased total protein levels during the stress period and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group total protein levels were elevated only on day 1 and 2 of ACTH injection (p<0.05 and after the end of treatment on day 11 and 22 (p<0.05. LEV stimulated the increase of protein concentrations compared to control values after LEV treatment, on days 5, 14, 18 and 22 (p<0.05. Serum albumins were not affected by LEV or ACTH treatment. Globulin concentrations were increased throughout and on the 16th day after administration of ACTH in the ACTH and LEV+ACTH groups (p<0.05. Globulin concentrations did not differ between LEV and control groups of boars. ACTH treatment elevated serum IgG concentration during the stress period (p<0.05 and over the next 16 days (p<0.05. However, in the LEV+ACTH group of boars, IgG levels were elevated on days 1 and 3 after ACTH injection (p<0.05 and days 1 and 5 in the post-treatment period (p<0.05. LEV had no impact on IgG levels compared to the control boars. However, increased IgA concentrations in boars treated with LEV were determined on day 2 (p<0.05 and day 11 (p

  17. Dietary l-arginine supplementation improves semen quality and libido of boars under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Li, Y S; Li, Z J; Lu, H X; Zhu, P Q; Li, C M

    2017-12-04

    l-Arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for spermatogenesis and plays versatile roles in animal health and can be utilized as a potential agent to improve reproductive performance of boars under high ambient temperature. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary l-arginine could alleviate heat stress-induced infertility in boars. In all, 20 boars (PIC 1040; 248.59±3.84 kg BW and 407.65±6.40 days of age) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (group 0.0%, basal diet; group 0.6%, 0.8% or 1.0%, basal diet added with 0.6%, 0.8% or 1.0% l-arginine (wt:wt), respectively.) The four diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of appropriate amounts of l-alanine. Boars were pre-fed the corresponding experimental diet for 42 days. Then, the semen characteristics and libido were accessed for 6 weeks during the hot summer period (25.5° to 33.0°C). Results show that dietary l-arginine remarkably improved sperm motility, normality, total sperm number and effective total sperm number. Also, dietary l-arginine improved semen antioxidant capacity, such as decrease of malondialdehyde and 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content in sperm (Pl-arginine-supplemented group which also accompany with higher ATP content than the 0.0% group. The boars fed 0.8% l-arginine show increased levels of estradiol-17β and testosterone and exhibit improved libido performance than boars in the 0.0% group. Adding dietary l-arginine linearly increased (P=0.002) nitric oxide content (as l-arginine increased). The scrotal surface temperature in the 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% group were decreased by 0.9°C, 0.9°C and 0.4°C, respectively, compared with the 0.0% group. l-Arginine levels caused linear effect on semen quality and antioxidant capacity, also caused quadratic effect on libido performance. During the hot summer months, the predicted optimal l-arginine levels for best semen quality and antioxidant capacity was 0.8% to 1.0% and for best libido performance was 0.8%. It can

  18. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. In search of epigenetic marks in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed boars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Bruggmann

    Full Text Available In search of transmittable epigenetic marks we investigated gene expression in testes and sperm cells of differentially fed F0 boars from a three generation pig feeding experiment that showed phenotypic differences in the F2 generation. RNA samples from 8 testes of boars that received either a diet enriched in methylating micronutrients or a control diet were analyzed by microarray analysis. We found moderate differential expression between testes of differentially fed boars with a high FDR of 0.82 indicating that most of the differentially expressed genes were false positives. Nevertheless, we performed a pathway analysis and found disparate pathway maps of development_A2B receptor: action via G-protein alpha s, cell adhesion_Tight junctions and cell adhesion_Endothelial cell contacts by junctional mechanisms which show inconclusive relation to epigenetic inheritance. Four RNA samples from sperm cells of these differentially fed boars were analyzed by RNA-Seq methodology. We found no differential gene expression in sperm cells of the two groups (adjusted P-value>0.05. Nevertheless, we also explored gene expression in sperm by a pathway analysis showing that genes were enriched for the pathway maps of bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis (CF airways, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis p.3 and cell cycle_Initiation of mitosis. Again, these pathway maps are miscellaneous without an obvious relationship to epigenetic inheritance. It is concluded that the methylating micronutrients moderately if at all affects RNA expression in testes of differentially fed boars. Furthermore, gene expression in sperm cells is not significantly affected by extensive supplementation of methylating micronutrients and thus RNA molecules could not be established as the epigenetic mark in this feeding experiment.

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  2. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on puberty attainment of replacement gilts raised in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on age at first observed estrus of the replacement gilts raised in Thailand. In total, 766 gilts were measured for body weight and backfat thickness prior to insemination. Body weight was further calculated for growth rate. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by back pressure test with an existence of mature boars with high libido. The first date of boar exposure and that of first observed estrus were individually recorded. Due to growth rate, they were classified into three groups: high (>700 g/day), moderate (600-700 g/day), and low (gilts were grouped into two categories: early (gilts expressed first observed estrus, averagely, at age 205.1 ± 34.1 days, had a growth rate of 615.5 ± 57.6 g/day, and first contact with boars at 160.7 ± 19.9 days of age. The gilts with low growth rate expressed first estrus later than those with moderate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 198.0 ± 3.2 days, P = 0.033) and high growth rate (208.6 ± 2.0 vs 193.9 ± 6.7 days, P = 0.005) groups. Together with the influence of boar exposure, the gilts contacted boar earlier with high growth rate showed first estrus at age 180.3 ± 10.1 days, whereas those with later boar contact with low growth rate showed first estrus at age 197.9 ± 3.2 days. In summary, the replacement gilts should have high growth rate and contact boar early to attain puberty faster and possess decent subsequent reproductive performance.

  4. DETECTION OF Toxoplasma gondii CYSTS FROM WILD BOAR MUSCLES: DOES IT REPRESENT A RISK FOR READY TO EAT FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Terio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection is a parasitological antropozoonoses widely distributed in the world. Toxoplasmosis is mainly followed by serious disease in fetuses and immunocompromised people. Wild boars represent an important source for this parasite and evisceration, handling and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors. The study confirms the presence of potentially infectious cysts in wild boars muscles, detected by histological and biomolecular methods.

  5. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  6. Does the infection with endoparasites influence the effect of oral vaccination against classical swine fever in wild boar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ondrejková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild suids and could cause important economic losses. It is the most dangerous infectious disease of the wild boar that can cause severe death in densely populated areas. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of endoparasites on the oral vaccination against classical swine fever in wild boar. The study compared classical swine fever antibody titres in wild boar treated and untreated with antiparasitics. Fourteen six-month-old wild boar piglets were tested via direct ELISA to detect specific antibodies in blood serum after vaccination. Before the vaccination, one group of piglets was administered antiparasitic therapy; the other group of animals remained untreated. Twenty-eight days post vaccination, piglets from the first group (free of parasites showed significantly (P = 0.0015 higher concentrations of specific antibodies than the infected animals. Obtained results proved that parasitic infections substantially influence the efficacy of oral vaccination against classical swine fever and may support the ability of the virus to produce infectious diseases and its transmission in the wild boar population. For that reason, antiparasitic therapy of wild boar populations before their vaccination is highly recommended in order to increase the vaccine’s efficacy.

  7. African swine fever virus infection in Classical swine fever subclinically infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Muñoz-González, Sara; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Fraile, Lorenzo; de la Riva, Paloma Martínez; Rodríguez, Fernando; Domínguez, Javier; Ganges, Llilianne

    2017-08-01

    Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to generate CSFV-specific immune responses in animals. These animals also showed a type I interferon blockade in the absence of clinical signs. In this study, we assessed the infection generated in 7-week-old CSFV PI wild boars after infection with the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The wild boars were divided in two groups and were infected with ASFV. Group A comprised boars who were CSFV PI in a subclinical form and Group B comprised pestivirus-free wild boars. Some relevant parameters related to CSFV replication and the immune response of CSFV PI animals were studied. Additionally, serum soluble factors such as IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and sCD163 were analysed before and after ASFV infection to assess their role in disease progression. After ASFV infection, only the CSFV PI wild boars showed progressive acute haemorrhagic disease; however, the survival rates following ASFV infection was similar in both experimental groups. Notwithstanding, the CSFV RNA load of CSFV PI animals remained unaltered over the study; likewise, the ASFV DNA load detected after infection was similar between groups. Interestingly, systemic type I FN-α and IL-10 levels in sera were almost undetectable in CSFV PI animals, yet detectable in Group B, while detectable levels of IFN-γ were found in both groups. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in myelomonocytic cells (CD172a + ) and a decrease in CD4 + T cells in the PBMCs from CSFV PI animals after ASFV infection. Our results showed that the immune response plays a role in the progression of disease in CSFV subclinically infected wild boars after ASFV infection, and the immune response comprised the systemic type I interferon blockade. ASFV does not produce any interference with CSFV replication, or vice

  8. Neoliberalismo e intervencionismo: sus fuentes y razones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Kalmanovitz

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reseña sobre el papel del intervencionismo estatal en la conducción de la economía y de la pugna con el neoliberalismo, se hace una revisión de los modelos económicos aplicados a lo largo del siglo y se muestran sus rasgos principales, sus problemas y sus paradojas. A partir de alfí, se examina lo sucedido en América Latina, para dar cuenta de las particularidades del caso colombiano, cuyo modelo en esta década muestra una distancia grande del modelo neoliberal, mientras sus problemas lo acercan a los dilemas y sin salidas del intervencionismo, en un contexto que requeriría otras fórmulas para hacer posible la paz. Frente a ello, se examinan las posiciones y propuestas de los economistas, vistas bajo la aguda polarización entre intervencionismo y neoliberalismo, pero en circunstancias críticas que alejan los logros en torno a la modernización, la estabilidad de precios, la sólida fundamentación macroeconómica y la democratización política.

  9. In vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm characteristics and acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro effects of three different concentrations (125, 187.5 and 250 microM in diluted semen) of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on boar sperm. Semen parameters such as motility, viability and spontaneous acrosome reaction were evaluated. From the results it was shown that both zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm characteristics significantly (p < 0.05), except for alpha-zen at the low concentration which did not decrease the percentage of live reacted spermatozoa significantly. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen are directly toxic when they affect boar semen in vitro and consequently decrease the fertilization ability of the sperm. The higher the concentration of mycotoxin tested, the greater the decline of sperm parameters noticed. The influence of mycotoxins was found to be time- and dose-dependent.

  10. Reduced curvilinear velocity of boar sperm on substrates with increased hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Matthew; Kennelly, Thomas M; Howse, Jonathan R; Tarmey, Drew S; Geoghegan, Mark; Pacey, Allan A

    2014-03-15

    The curvilinear velocity (VCL) of boar spermatozoa between standard microscopy glassware decreases when the slides are coated with the hydrophobic polymer polystyrene (PS) compared with the less hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coating. Sperm from three boars were observed and analyzed using particle tracking software. The VCL did not differ significantly between coatings of different thickness, indicating no penetration of the sperm into the coating and that only the surface layer of the polymer film interacts with the sperm and buffer medium. The VCL of sperm between PS-coated surfaces was significantly reduced compared with PMMA surfaces (P velocity of sperm using the interaction properties of inert polymer coatings could lead to new sperm selection procedures for clinical use or the development of model systems to better understand sperm-surface interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Boar sperm storage capacity of BTS and Androhep Plus: viability, motility, capacitation, and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Charlotte; Beaulieu, Martin; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; Guillemette, Christine; Bailey, Janice L

    2004-09-01

    Androhep Plus, a long-term extender (up to 7 days) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), a short-term extender (up to 3 days), are commonly used for liquid storage of porcine semen. To test the hypothesis that modifications in sperm viability, motility, chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence patterns, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation occur during semen storage in extenders, we compared these end points at different periods of storage in either Androhep Plus or BTS. Sperm from five boars were assessed daily over 12 days of storage (n = 5 ejaculates from different boars). Viability was not different (P BTS (P BTS. A tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of Mr 21,000 appeared after 10 days in sperm incubated in BTS, and was identified as a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, modifications in viability, motility, CTC fluorescence patterns, and sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation were apparent during sperm storage in extenders; these may affect the fertilizing capacity of the semen.

  12. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80...... a reduction in the range from 0.54 to 2.41 € (corresponding to a reduction in the profit margin ranging from 4 to 20%). The results were robust to changes in price of a 30 kilogram piglet and, relatively robust in regard to changes in the feed price. However, price per kilogram carcass weight appeared...... to influence the economic effect of oral and parenteral treatment and pathological findings on the profit margin. The effect of oral and parenteral treatments was also sensitive to changes in medicine prices....

  13. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...... containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids....... The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18...

  14. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress.

  15. Immunization against recombinant GnRH-I alters testicular structure in an experimental boar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunsheng; Liu, Ya; Su, Shiping; Pu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaorong; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare testicular tissue in immunized and control boars. Eighteen male piglets, aged 12 weeks, were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer peptide (MBP-GnRH-I6). Blood samples were taken at 12, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of age. Serum concentrations of testosterone and GnRH-I antibodies were determined by radioimmunoassay. The pigs were sacrificed 6 weeks after the second immunization. Testicular weight and size were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histological examination. The results demonstrated that active immunization against MBP-GnRH-I6 increased serum GnRH-I antibody levels (P immunized pigs, and a significant reduction (P immunized boars.

  16. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saccharide-mediated interactions of boar sperm surface proteins with components of the porcine oviduct

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Prelovská, L.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2006), s. 112-125 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP303/04/P070; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/0895; GA MZd(CZ) NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * saccharide-mediated events * sperm oviductal reservoir Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2006

  18. Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma homologous with boar spermadhesins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, Marek; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2001), s. 131-144 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : human seminal plasma * heparin -binding proteins * boar spermadhesins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2001

  19. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total {gamma} irradiation; Donnees histologiques sur le porc (sus scrofa), utilisables en radiobiologie. 1. histologie normale de certains appareils. 2. etude des lesions consecutives a une irradiation {gamma} totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [French] Le porc domestique est devenu depuis peu un animal de laboratoire, dont les caracteristiques anatomiques et physiologiques paraissent fort appreciees pour certaines etudes de radiobiologie. Dans ce rapport les auteurs font part des recherches qu'ils ont effectuees (notamment dans le domaine de l'histologie) sur des porcs domestiques de differentes races, de maniere a constituer un document capable de venir en aide aux utilisateurs eventuels. La deuxieme partie de leur travail traite de lesions anatomiques et histologiques, consecutives a des expositions totales aux rayonnements gamma du cobalt 60 a des doses voisines de 285 rads. (auteurs)

  20. Occurrence of Hymenoptera on Sus scrofa carcasses during summer and winter seasons in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Hymenoptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa durante as estações de inverno e verão do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance has been given to nest construction and larval food transport to the nest as a precondition for the eusociality of insects. Most adult hymenopterans feed on liquids, although bees and a few wasps may also feed on pollen. Carrion represents an additional source of protein for some species and they will scavenge for dead animals in the wild. This paper aims at analyzing Hymenoptera visitors on a pig carcass during the process of decomposition, in the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006 in Brazil, and comparing the results with other studies in the Neotropical region. To our knowledge, this is the first study which described the occurence of Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista and Scaptotrigona depilis on decomposing carcasses in southeastern Brazil. It also raises the hypothesis of possible applications of Hymenoptera to achieve more precise PMI estimations, apart from other insects already known as having great importance in such estimates.Considerável importância tem sido dada às construções de ninhos e transporte de alimento larval para o ninho como uma pré-condição para a eusociabilidade dos insetos. Muitos adultos de himenópteros alimentam-se em líquidos, embora as abelhas e poucas vespas podem também se alimentarem de pólen. Carcaças representam uma fonte adicional de proteína para algumas espécies e elas foram uma vez observadas se alimentando de animais mortos na natureza. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar Hymenoptera visitantes em carcaças de porcos durante o verão de 2005 e inverno de 2006 no Brasil, ao longo dos estágios de decomposição, comparando com resultados de outros estudos na região Neotropical. Pelo nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro estudo que descreveu a ocorrência de Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista e Scaptotrigona depilis em carcaças em decomposição no sudeste do Brasil. Isso também aumenta a hipótese na possibilidade de aplicação de Hymenoptera em auxiliar a estimar o IPM de maneira mais precisa, sem levar em conta insetos que já possuem grande importância forense.

  1. Epidemiology and control of an outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, M; Stärk, K D C; Vanzetti, T; Salman, M D; Thor, B; Schleiss, W; Griot, C

    2002-01-26

    An outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boar in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton of Ticino) was investigated after the implementation of control measures in a defined infected area (the risk zone), and in a surrounding surveillance zone (the non-risk zone). After the disease had been detected, hunting was not allowed in the risk zone for over six months, during which the disease was left to run its course, but hunting was continued in the non-risk zone for one month. After seven months, a hunting strategy targeted at young animals was implemented in both zones. Between May 1998 and January 2000,1294 wild boar were shot or found dead, and diagnostic and biological data were collected and analysed. Only one animal from the non-risk zone was found to be seropositive for antibodies to the virus, whereas 179 of 528 wild boar from the risk zone were virus positive and 162 were seropositive. The proportion of virus-positive animals decreased from 62.7 per cent to zero over one year. During the first hunting season, seropositive animals were found in all age groups, but 12 months later only animals more than one year old had antibodies against the virus.

  2. Bionic Design for Reducing Adhesive Resistance of the Ridger Inspired by a Boar's Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiao; Yan, Yunpeng; Chirende, Benard; Wu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhaoliang

    2017-01-01

    The main feature of the boar's head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar's head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar's head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted. Based on the fitted curves, five kinds of bionic ridgers were designed. The penetrating resistances of the bionic ridgers and traditional ridger were tested at different speeds in an indoor soil bin. The test results showed that bionic ridger B had the best penetrating resistance reduction ratio of 16.67% at 4.2 km/h velocity. In order to further evaluate the performance of the best bionic ridger (bionic ridger B), both the bionic ridger and traditional ridger were tested in a field under the same working conditions. The field results indicate that the bionic ridger reduces penetrating resistance by 6.91% compared to the traditional ridger, and the test results validate that the bionic ridger has an effect on reducing penetrating resistance. PMID:28757796

  3. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  4. [Descriptive summary of the classical swine fever control in wild boar in Germany since 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Christoph; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Blome, Sandra; Fröhlich, Andreas; Blicke, Julia; Jahn, Birgit; Teuffert, Jürgen; Kramers, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar repeatedly appeared in different federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1995, from which it has been successfully eradicated sometimes fast, sometimes in a more time taking way using oral immunization as a main element of control. Since 2005 the cases focused solely on North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. In the present study, therefore, the situation of CSF in wild boar has been closely investigated concerning the period 2005 to 2012 in these two regions. It is noteworthy that in this period two different variants of the virus subtype 2.3 occurred in two regionally defined areas of the "Eifel" and "Westerwald" as well as in the "Pfalz". The two Federal States have undertaken extensive oral vaccination campaigns and surveillance activities, which enabled an assessment of the existing virus prevalence and serological prevalence in the different regions. After an initial high serological prevalence, caused probably by interaction of infection and vaccination, the serological levels stabilized seasonally adjusted in a range from 50 to 60% in almost all areas. The vaccination campaigns have been maintained by both Federal States over a period of at least 2.5 years after virus has been detected for the last time. In consequence Germany as a whole has been recognized for the first time to be officially free from CSF in wild boar. By genotyping of virus isolates it has been demonstrated that the virus changed over time and played a role in the outbreak area "Westerwald".

  5. Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 isolated from hunted wild boars in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrali, C F; Cucco, L; Manuali, E; Sebastiani, C; Farneti, S; Ercoli, L; Pezzotti, G

    2014-06-25

    Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 was isolated from rectal contents of two wild boars hunted in Italy within a regional wildlife management program. No outbreak of yersiniosis was reported in this area in the same period and no lesions were found by the veterinarian at post-mortem inspection. Nevertheless, after histological examination, granulomatous lesions were detected in submandibular lymph nodes of one of the two wild boars. Microbiological and bio molecular characterization of the isolates revealed a melibiose-negative, biotype 2, wbyK+O:3 genotype, carrying inv, yop (yopH and yopB), virF, and R-HPI. Strains showing the same profile, matching to the criteria of genetic group 5, have been recently reported in fatal cases of yersiniosis in cynomolgus macaques and in farmed deer and atypical O:3 serotype has been suggested as a pathogenic subtype of O:3. This is the third report of an atypical O:3 Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, the first outside the American continent and the first one not associated to fatal yersiniosis. Wild boars could be a possible reservoir of this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cationic synthetic peptides: assessment of their antimicrobial potency in liquid preserved boar semen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Speck

    Full Text Available Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E. We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains.

  7. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eRossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop

  8. Boar genotype as a factor shaping age-related changes in semen parameters and reproduction longevity simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Damian; Jankowska-Mąkosa, Anna; Duziński, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of the boar genotypes used in AI stations with an indication of their production capacity, including age and a precise analysis of their culling time and reason. The study included 334 boars: 81 Polish Large White (PLW), 108 Polish Landrace (PL), 49 Pietrain (P), 56 Duroc × Pietrain (D × P) and 40 Hampshire × Pietrain (H × P). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, number of motile spermatozoa, and number of insemination doses were analyzed. Quadratic regression was used to illustrate the selected sperm parameters at specific ages. Among all the studied boars the lowest motilities of spermatozoa were identified in white breeds PLW and PL, and the difference between motility extremes was 3.53% (P ≤ 0.01). The highest number of insemination doses were produced from D × P crossbreed boars: about 0.7 portions more compared to PL, 1.13 to PLW, 1.18 to H × P and 1.8 to P (all differences P ≤ 0.01). It has been shown in the case of ejaculate volume that for PLW and H × P boars the culling moment was far too early in terms of production capacity and differences were, respectively, 16.35 ml for PLW and 12.61 ml for H × P. Based on the developed regression equations, the earliest maximum number of motile sperm (73.82 × 10 9 ) was obtained by H × P crossbreed boars as early as at age 24 months. The highest values for this parameter were achieved, however, by other D × P crossbreed boars: 74.30 × 10 9  at the later age of 32 months. A consequence of the high number of motile sperm in young H × P boars was that the theoretical maximum value of the number of AI doses was produced as early as the 14th month (25.59 portions). Curves of similar shape were obtained for PL and D × P boars; the difference in maximal values was 0.54 portions in favor of crossbreeds, at a later age of 7 months. It was noted that for PLW and D × P boars the highest number

  9. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is effective in reducing disease and PCV2 shedding in semen of boars concurrently infected with PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the amount of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) shed in semen will be increased in boars experimentally coinfected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and if PCV2 vaccination of the boars prior to PCV2 exposure will result in reduced PCV2 viremia and...

  10. Altavoces y Sus Características.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Ortiz, Juan Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de aprendizaje aborda la definición de los altavoces desde el campo electroacústico relacionando su principio de funcionamiento mecánico eléctrico y sus características mas importantes como lo son su tipo, respuesta en frecuencia, impedancia, sensibilidad y patrón polar. Contenido realizado por el docente de la Escuela de Ciencias Básicas Tecnología e Ingeniería Ing. Juan G. Cabrera O.

  11. The dependence of the growth rate and meat content of young boars on semen parameters and conception rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, D; Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Duziński, K

    2017-05-01

    Boars have a decisive impact on the progress in pig production, however, there is no recent information about the optimal growth parameters during the rearing period for modern breed later used in artificial insemination (AI) stations. Therefore, the objective of the research was to conduct semen parameter and conception rate analyses on the basis of growth rate and meat content assessments made during the rearing of AI boars of different genotypes. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2014 and included 184 boars in five breed combinations: 46 Polish Large White, 50 Polish Landrace, 27 Pietrain, 36 Duroc×Pietrain and 25 Hampshire×Pietrain. Boars were qualified by daily gains and meat content assessment (between 170 and 210 days of life). A total number of 38 272 ejaculates were examined (semen volume (ml), spermatozoa concentration (×106 ml-1), total number of spermatozoa (×109) and number of insemination doses from one ejaculate (n)). The fertility was determined by the conception rate (%). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and conception rate (PMeat content affected semen volume, number of insemination doses and conception rate (Pmeat content helps AI stations to increase the efficiency and economic profitability, and the number of insemination doses to increase by up to 300 doses/boar within a year. The analyses of growth parameters may help increase the efficiency and economic viability of AI stations.

  12. Time trends (1986-2003) of radiocesium transfer to roe deer and wild boar in two Austrian forest regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebl, F. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Radiation Safety and Applications, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: friederike.strebl@arcs.ac.at; Tataruch, F. [Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr.1, A 1160 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-11-15

    Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Until 1995 average {sup 137}Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in both investigation sites. While {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factor (T{sub ag}) values show a significant decreasing trend in roe deer (ecological half-time 8.6 and 7.2 years, respectively), T{sub ag}-values in wild boar are highly variable, but rather increasing values are observed over the last years. T{sub ag}-values for roe deer are between 0.04 and 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} fresh weight (1987-2003); values for wild boar are between 0.008 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1988) and 0.046 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (1996) fresh weight. Seasonal trends for both species are in good agreement with observations from German forests: increased mushroom ingestion leads to higher {sup 137}Cs T{sub ag}-values for roe deer in the second half of the year (August-December) compared to the first half (January-July). T{sub ag}-values for wild boar are highest in the first half of the year.

  13. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  14. Effect of naloxone treatment on luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations in boars with high and low libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, Mark J; Harper, Allen F; Speight, Susan M; Crawford, Russell J; Barb, C Richard

    2009-11-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of the opioid peptide receptor antagonist, naloxone on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone in boars characterized as having high (n=8) or low libido (n=8) based on the willingness to mount an artificial sow and allow semen collection. On the day of the experiment, blood was sampled every 15 min for 4 h before and 4 h after i.v. injection of naloxone (1 mg/kg body weight). After naloxone treatment, a libido status by time interaction was detected and concentrations of LH within 15 min after treatment were greater (plibido boars than for Low-libido boars. Concentrations of testosterone were highly variable amongst boars and there were no effects of libido status (p=0.66) or libido status by time (p=0.66). There was, however, an effect of time (pboars displaying a high level of sexual motivation.

  15. Time-dependency of the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany); International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya str. 23, 220070 Minsk (Belarus); Zibold, Gregor [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany); Klemt, Eckehard [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, Doggenriedstr., 88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: klemt@hs-weingarten.de

    2009-11-15

    Following the Chernobyl accident, {sup 137}Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg{sup -1}. While the long term {sup 137}Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ('Landkreis') Ravensburg. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg{sup -1} and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in wild boar organism. T{sub ag} values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} during 2000-2008.

  16. Time-dependency of the 137Cs contamination of wild boar from a region in Southern Germany in the years 1998 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semizhon, Tatiana; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Zibold, Gregor; Klemt, Eckehard

    2009-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, 137 Cs contamination levels of wild boar in some districts of Southern Germany are still exceeding thousands of Bq kg -1 . While the long term 137 Cs concentration in forest plants, mushrooms, and roe deer meat has decreased significantly, for wild boar it has remained constant during the last decade. Between 1998 and 2008, we analysed the muscle meat of 656 wild boars shot in the district ('Landkreis') Ravensburg. The 137 Cs activity concentration showed considerable variability from less than 5 up to 8266 Bq kg -1 and it followed a seasonal pattern, which is attributed to changes in dietary habits, fodder availability, meteorological conditions and specific behaviour of 137 Cs in wild boar organism. T ag values for wild boars from the district Ravensburg varied from 0.008 to 0.062 m 2 kg -1 during 2000-2008.

  17. Boar seminal plasma inhibits cryo-capacitation of frozen-thawed ram sperm and improves fertility following intracervical insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Zhong, Rongzhen; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhou, Daowei

    2018-01-01

    Cryopreservation has numerous deleterious effects on sperm structure and function, which can be reduced by adding seminal plasma (SP), either autologous or heterologous. The objective was to determine effects of adding boar SP to the freezing extender on sperm quality, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Semen was collected from eight Small-tail Han rams and extended in a glucose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with 0, 20, 40, or 60% porcine SP (from Large white boars). Compared to all other groups, 40% boar SP increased sperm viability and motility (P intracervical AI (47.5 vs 33.3%; P < 0.05), apparently due to inhibition of cryo-capacitation, although pregnancy rate for intravaginal AI was not affected (31.6 vs 30.0%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage in different European boar studs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Kuster, C; Schäfer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2018-03-01

    The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of the novel candidate genes and variants in boar liver tissues with divergent skatole levels using RNA deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is the unpleasant odour of meat derived from non-castrated male pigs, caused by the accumulation of androstenone and skatole in fat. Skatole is a tryptophan metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria in gut and catabolised in liver. Since boar taint affects consumer's preference, the aim of this study was to perform transcriptome profiling in liver of boars with divergent skatole levels in backfat by using RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each liver sample ranged from 11.8 to 39.0 million. Approximately 448 genes were differentially regulated (p-adjusted 1.5. Differentially regulated genes in the high skatole liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as small molecule biochemistry, protein synthesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pathway analysis identified the remodeling of epithelial adherens junction and TCA cycle as the most dominant pathways which may play important roles in skatole metabolism. Differential gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in ATP synthesis, cytochrome P450, keratin, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and solute carrier family. Additionally, polymorphism and association analysis revealed that mutations in ATP5B, KRT8, PGM1, SLC22A7 and IDH1 genes could be potential markers for skatole levels in boars. Furthermore, expression analysis of exon usage of three genes (ATP5B, KRT8 and PGM1 revealed significant differential expression of exons of these genes in different skatole levels. These polymorphisms and exon expression differences may have impacts on the gene activity ultimately leading to skatole variation and could be used as genetic marker for boar taint related traits. However, further validation is required to confirm the effect of these genetic markers in other pig populations in order to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  20. Effect of natural betaine on estimates of semen quality in mature AI boars during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, F A; Stewart, K R; Schinckel, A P; Barnes, W; Boyd, R D; Wilcock, P; Woodliff, J

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supplemental dietary betaine at three concentrations (0.0%, 0.63% and 1.26%) on semen characteristics, quality and quality after storage on boars. The trial was conducted between 22 July and 1 October 2014 in a boar stud located in Oklahoma. Boars were blocked by age within genetic line and randomly allotted to receive 0% (CON, n (line T)=22, n (line L)=10), 0.63% (BET-0.63%, n (line T)=21, n (line L)=6) or 1.26% (BET-1.26%, n (line T)=23, n (line L)=7). The diets containing betaine were fed over 10 weeks, to ensure supplemental betaine product (96% betaine) daily intakes of 16.34 and 32.68g, for the BET-0.63% and BET-1.26% diets, respectively. Serum homocysteine concentrations were less for animals with betaine treatments (P=0.016). Rectal temperatures of the boars were unaffected by betaine diets. Betaine tended to increase total sperm in the ejaculates when collectively compared with data of the control animals (P=0.093). Sperm morphology analysis indicated there was a greater percent of sperm with distal midpiece reflex (P=0.009) and tail (P=0.035) abnormalities in boars fed the BET-1.26% than boars fed the BET-0.63% diet. Betaine concentration in the seminal plasma was greater in boars with betaine treatments, with animals being fed the 0.63% and 1.26% diets having 59.2% and 54.5% greater betaine concentrations in seminal plasma as compared with boars of the control group (P=0.046). In conclusion, betaine supplementation at 0.63% and 1.26% tended to increase sperm concentration in the ejaculates by 6% and 13%, respectively, with no negative impacts on semen quality when 0.63% of betaine was included in the diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 250-kilogram Duroc boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Li, J L; Wei, H K; Zhou, Y F; Tan, J J; Sun, H Q; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2016-11-01

    A 2-period field trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding regimen on weight gain, semen characteristics, libido, and lameness in 170- to 200-kg (period 1) and 200- to 250-kg (period 2) boars. Sixty-one Duroc boars were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments and 15 g/d fish oil was also provided for each experimental boar, to maintain the n-6:n-3 intake ratio at approximately 6.1:1. The energy intakes of the 3 treatment groups were controlled by basing the feed intake on a corn-soybean meal-based diet (3.11 Mcal/kg of ME) to create: 1) low energy intake group (L, = 20, 7.3 Mcal/d of ME), 2) medium energy intake group (M, = 20, 7.7 Mcal/d of ME), and 3) high energy intake group (H, = 21, 8.3 Mcal/d of ME) in period 1. Feed intake was then increased to 7.6, 8.2, and 8.6 Mcal/d of ME for the 3 groups, respectively, in period 2. During the 28-wk experimental period, boar weight gain, testis volume, semen characteristics, libido, toe measurements, claw lesions, and lameness were examined, and the number of boars culled in each group was recorded to calculate the culling rate. Although there were no differences in testis volume, sperm concentration, and motility, the percentage of abnormal sperm, the percentage of claw lesions, and claw lesion scores differed among treatments ( > 0.05), and ADG was significantly increased with the increase of energy intake between the 2 periods ( 0.05). Nonetheless, the H boars took more time to mount the collection dummy and produce an ejaculate and, in particular, showed a greater percentage of lameness than the L and M boars ( < 0.05). Therefore, the medium energy intake regimen (energy intakes of 7.7 and 8.2 Mcal/d of ME with ADG of 454.5 and 375.3 g/d in 2 periods, respectively) improved the total sperm number and functional sperm number, and meanwhile decreased the occurrence of lameness in 170- to 250-kg Duroc boars.

  2. La Eutonía-Sus Principios

    OpenAIRE

    Rovella, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende dar cuenta de la Eutonía como práctica corporal dando cuenta de sus objetivos y principios La Eutonía fue creada por Gerda Alexander.El término, del griego, Eu: bueno, óptimo-Tonus: tensión; expresa la idea de una tonicidad armoniosamente equilibrada en adaptación constante al estado o actividad del momento. Es una disciplina basada en la experiencia del propio cuerpo, que conduce a la persona hacia una toma de conciencia de si misma y propone un aprendizaje para ...

  3. TELECENTROS COMUNITARIOS MANIZALES VISTOS POR SUS USUARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUlio César Meza Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un ejercicio de evaluación de los Telecentros Comunitarios de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas, Colombia, con el fin de identificar la percepción que sobre ellos tienen sus usuarios. Para ello se encuestan a 597 usuarios que han cursado alguna de las capacitaciones ofrecidas por Manizales Vive Digital, que reflejan la alta aceptación del programa y su efecto positivo sobre el proceso de inclusión digital en la ciudad.

  4. Cryopreservation of boar semen. II: Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau on boar semen frozen in mini- and maxi-straws and plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwanga, C O; Einarsson, S; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    1991-01-01

    The post-thaw motility and the acrosome integrity of semen from 4 boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine, in mini (0.25 ml) and maxi (5 ml) plastic straws and in 10 x 5 cm Teflon FEP-plastic bags (0.12 mm thick, 5 ml), were compared. The freezing of the semen was monitored by way of thermo-couples placed in the straws and the bags. Three freezing programmes were used, namely A: from +5 degrees C, at a rate of 3 degrees C/min, to -6 degrees C, held for 1 min at -6 degrees C, and followed by a cooling rate of 20 degrees C/min to -100 degrees C; B: a similar curve except that there was no holding time at -6 degrees C and that the cooling rate was 30 degrees C/min, and C: from +5 degrees C to -100 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 35 degrees C/min, followed by storage in liquid N2. Despite the freezing curve assayed, both the mini-straws and the bags depicted much shorter freezing point plateaus as compared to the maxi-straws. Post-thaw sperm motility as well as the amount of normal apical ridges were equally significantly higher when semen was frozen in mini-straws or in bags than in maxi-straws. Significant differences in these post-thawing parameters were obtained between the freezing curves used. The stepwise freezing procedure A appeared as the best alternative for boar semen, considering this in vitro evaluation.

  5. AMP-Activated Kinase AMPK Is Expressed in Boar Spermatozoa and Regulates Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado de Llera, Ana; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Gil, María C.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spermatozoa required for fertilization are dependent on the energy status and metabolism. AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, acts a sensor and regulator of cell metabolism. As AMPK studies have been focused on somatic cells, our aim was to investigate the expression of AMPK protein in spermatozoa and its possible role in regulating motility. Spermatozoa from boar ejaculates were isolated and incubated under different conditions (38,5°C or 17°C, basal medium TBM or medium with Ca2+ and bicarbonate TCM, time from 1–24 hours) in presence or absence of AMPK inhibitor, compound C (CC, 30 µM). Western blotting reveals that AMPK is expressed in boar spermatozoa at relatively higher levels than in somatic cells. AMPK phosphorylation (activation) in spermatozoa is temperature-dependent, as it is undetectable at semen preservation temperature (17°C) and increases at 38,5°C in a time-dependent manner. AMPK phosphorylation is independent of the presence of Ca2+ and/or bicarbonate in the medium. We confirm that CC effectively blocks AMPK phosphorylation in boar spermatozoa. Analysis of spermatozoa motility by CASA shows that CC treatment either in TBM or in TCM causes a significant reduction of any spermatozoa motility parameter in a time-dependent manner. Thus, AMPK inhibition significantly decreases the percentages of motile and rapid spermatozoa, significantly reduces spermatozoa velocities VAP, VCL and affects other motility parameters and coefficients. CC treatment does not cause additional side effects in spermatozoa that might lead to a lower viability even at 24 h incubation. Our results show that AMPK is expressed in spermatozoa at high levels and is phosphorylated under physiological conditions. Moreover, our study suggests that AMPK regulates a relevant function of spermatozoa, motility, which is essential for their ultimate role of fertilization. PMID:22719961

  6. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schulze

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard, was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC, whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  7. Effects of coffee husk as floor covering on the behavior of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Teles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the influence of coffee husks as floor covering on the aspects of animal welfare such as behavioral characteristics, body surface temperature, and salivary cortisol levels of stabled boars. Sixteen boars were housed in individual stalls; eight were maintained in a conventional system with a concrete floor and eight were maintained on a concrete floor lined with coffee husks. The experimental period was 60 days. All animals were filmed two days prior to the start of the experiment, on both the 7th and 60th days after exposure to coffee husks, and finally two days after the removal of the material. During this period, the number of times that the animals ate, drank, stood, sat, lay down, and dug was recorded. Furthermore, both body surface temperature and salivary cortisol levels were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The use of coffee husks did not influence body surface temperature. Salivary cortisol levels increased during the experimental period only in the animals maintained on coffee husks. In the morning, the coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals sat and increased the number of times that they lay down. In the afternoon, the use of coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals stood, sat, or dug and increased the number of times that the animals lay down. Although coffee husks do not change the behavior of the animals in an expressive way, they should not be used as floor covering for boars.

  8. Boar semen bacterial contamination in Italy and antibiotic efficacy in a modified extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bresciani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to identify microbial flora in boar semen under field conditions in northern Italy, to investigate antibiotic resistance and sensitivity of isolated bacteria, and to evaluate elimination of bacteria after storage in two types of extenders added with different antibiotics (amikacin vs gentamicin. A total of 60 boars were collected in 13 pig farms. Bacteriological and mycological investigations were performed immediately on raw semen samples, then at 48 and 120 h of storage on semen diluted randomly in a new short-term modified extender (ME-S or in a commercial one (CRONOSTM. Bacterial contamination was found in 63% of raw semen samples and different bacterial species were isolated: E.coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis and aureus, Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli was the most isolated contaminant (53%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found only in one semen sample. The analysis of variance of factors affecting contamination levels was significant for the farm of origin (P<0.05 and not significant for the breed. Antibiotic resistance of these bacteria was assessed using different antibiotics. Significant differences (P<0.05 between observed and expected frequencies of bacterial isolates resistant or not to the antibiotics contained in the extenders were found. At 48 h of storage a reduction of aerobic contamination was found after ME-S dilution by 85.3% and after CRONOSTM by 63.8%. This paper proved the presence of pathogenic bacteria in semen. We thus believe it is highly advisable to perform periodic microbiological screening of boar semen in the swine industry to avoid the use of low sperm quality.

  9. Cluster analysis reveals a binary effect of storage on boar sperm motility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-06-01

    Storage of liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa is associated with a loss of fertilising ability of the preserved spermatozoa, which standard semen parameters barely reflect. Monitoring responses to molecular effectors of sperm function (e.g. bicarbonate) has proven to be a more sensitive approach to investigating storage effects. Bicarbonate not only initiates capacitation in spermatozoa, but also induces motility activation. This occurs at ejaculation, but also happens throughout passage through the oviduct. In the present study we tested whether the specific response of boar sperm subpopulations to bicarbonate, as assessed by motility activation, is altered with the duration of storage in vitro. Three ejaculates from each of seven boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution and stored at 17°C. Only minor changes in the parameters of diluted semen were revealed over a period of 72h storage. For assessment of bicarbonate responses, subsamples of diluted spermatozoa were centrifuged through a discontinuous Percoll gradient after 12, 24 and 72h storage. Subsequently, spermatozoa were incubated in two Ca2+-free variants of Tyrode's medium either without (TyrControl) or with (TyrBic) 15mM bicarbonate, and computer-aided sperm analysis motility measurements were made. Cluster analysis of imaging data from motile spermatozoa revealed the presence of five major sperm subpopulations with distinct motility characteristics, differing between TyrBic and TyrControl at any given time (Pfunction in both media, bicarbonate induced an increase in a 'fast linear' cohort of spermatozoa in TyrBic regardless of storage (66.4% at 12h and 63.9% at 72h). These results imply a binary pattern in response of sperm motility function descriptors to storage: although the quantitative descriptor (percentage of motile spermatozoa) declines in washed semen samples, the qualitative descriptor (percentage of spermatozoa stimulated into fast linear motion by bicarbonate) is sustained

  10. Estudio sobre el mercado laboral yerbatero, sus protagonistas, y sus luchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Jordán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica acerca del libro “Cosechando yerba mate. Estructuras sociales de un mercado agrario en el Nordeste argentino” (2012 de Victor Rau. Dicho estudio analiza el mercado laboral agrario yerbatero, recuperando su historicidad en la región, atendiendo a las estructuras sociales que han condicionando su funcionamiento, como las variables que permitieron la reconfiguración de la estructura del mercado actual, sobretodo a partir de los años ’90. Para ello, se enfoca en los asalariados agrícolas, sus condiciones de venta de fuerza de trabajo, y sus acciones colectiva de protesta.

  11. Genomics and systems biology of boar taint and meat quality in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Kogelman, Lisette JA; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    to enable optimized breeding strategies as alternative to castration. Male pigs with different genetic merit of BT were selected and tissue from liver and testes were subjected to transcriptomic profiling by stranded paired end RNA-Seq which produced ~30 mio. reads per sample. The reads were subjected......Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of cooked porcine meat which may occur in entire male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation in the adipose tissue. To avoid BT, surgical castration of young piglets is performed but castration is undesirable due to animal welfare concerns...

  12. Genetic trends of conformation traits and genetic correlations to osteochondrosis in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasmundstad, T; Gjerlaug-Enger, E; Grindflek, E; Vangen, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the heritabilities and genetic correlations between traits from a linear exterior assessment system and osteochondrosis (OC) measured by computed tomography (CT), and in addition, to study the genetic trend in a population where the conformation traits have been included in the breeding goal. The data material consisted of phenotypes from a total of 4571 Norsvin Landrace test boars. At the end of the test period, all boars were subjected to a detailed exterior assessment system. Within 10 days of the assessment, the boars were CT scanned for measuring OC. The total score of osteochondrosis (OCT), used in this study, is the sum of phenotypes from the assessment on the medial and lateral condyles at the distal end of both the humerus and the femur of the right and the left leg of the boar based on images from CT. The exterior assessment traits included in the study were; 'front leg knee' (FKNE), 'front leg pasterns' (FPAS), 'front leg stance' (FSTA), 'front leg twisted pasterns' (FFLK), 'hind leg stance', 'hind leg pasterns' (HPAS), 'hind leg standing under' (HSTU), 'hind leg small inner toe', 'dipped back', 'arched back' (ARCH) and 'waddling hindquarters' (WADL). The estimation of (co)variance components and breeding values were performed using bivariate animal genetic models. Breeding values for HSTU, HPAS, FPAS, WADL and OCT traits were additional outputs from the same bivariate analyses. The lowest heritability was found for FFLK (h 2 FFLK=0.05), whereas FPAS was estimated to have the highest heritability (h 2 FPAS=0.36), and OCT demonstrating a heritability of 0.29. Significant genetic correlations were found between several traits; the strongest correlation was between FSTA and FFLK (0.94), which was followed by the correlation between FPAS and FKNE (0.69). The traits ARCH and FSTA had significant genetic correlations to OCT, whereas all other genetic correlations between OCT and the conformation traits were low and

  13. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused significant economic losses in industrialized pig production, and is still present in some European countries. Recent CSF outbreaks in Europe were mainly associated with strains of genogroup 2 (subgroup 2.3). Although there are extensive datasets regarding 2.......3 strains, there is very little information available on longer fragments or whole classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Furthermore, there are no detailed analyses of the molecular epidemiology of CSFV wild boar isolates available. Nevertheless, complete genome sequences are supportive...

  14. Semen characteristics and libido in boars treated repeatedly with PGF2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2004-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of repeated injections of PGF2alpha (Lutalyse; Pfizer) on semen and libido characteristics in terminal-line boars. Semen was collected once weekly from wk 0 to 15 and on four consecutive days during wk 16. Boars received an i.m. injection of 10 mg of PGF2alpha (n = 11) or 2 mL of vehicle (n = 11) immediately before entering the collection room. For the weekly collections, semen volume (220.3 +/- 3.2 mL; mean +/- SE), gel weight (38.7 +/- 0.7 g), total sperm cells (65.4 +/- 1.2 billion), motile sperm cells (67.4 +/- 0.6 %), and sperm velocity (125.9 +/- 1.2 microm/s), were affected by time (P 0.10). Sperm concentration (0.31 +/- 0.01 billion/mL) was not affected (P > 0.10) by time or treatment. The percentage of morphologically normal sperm cells, assessed at wk 16, did not differ (P = 0.39) between groups (80.8 +/- 1.0). Libido was evaluated from wk 0 to 16. There were no effects of treatment or time (P > 0.10) on the period from injection to the start of ejaculation (225.6 +/- 9.1 s). Duration of ejaculation was affected by treatment (P 0.10). The period from injection to the start of ejaculation tended to decrease (by 44%) during the intensive collection period in PGF2alpha-treated boars, but not in controls (treatment x time, P = 0.07). Regardless, the period from injection to the start of ejaculation did not differ (P = 0.63) between groups on d 4 of the intensive collection period. Duration of ejaculation was affected by treatment (P 0.10). Overall, there were no exceptional positive or negative effects of long-term treatment with PGF2alpha on semen characteristics and libido in boars.

  15. Influence of dietary amino acid level on chemical body composition and performance of growing-finishing boars of two sire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Caroline; Berk, Andreas; Müller, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    There is only little information available concerning the chemical body composition of growing-finishing boars. For that reason, a total of 26 entire male pigs (boars) of two different Piétrain sire lines were fed with different levels of dietary essential amino acids (EAA) and the influence of this treatment on performance and chemical body composition was evaluated. In addition, an initial group of eight boars (n = 4 per sire line) was slaughtered at approximately 21 kg live weight (LW). The other 26 boars were fed three different diets containing 11.5, 13.2 and 14.9 g lysine/kg during the grower period and 9.0, 10.4, 11.7 g lysine/kg during the finisher period, respectively. Other EAA were added in relation to lysine (Lys: Met + Cys: Thr: Trp: Val = 1: 0.60: 0.65: 0.18: 0.75). At a LW of approximately 122 kg these 26 boars (six groups with three to seven animals each) were also slaughtered. The effects of EAA level and sire line on fattening and slaughter performance was recorded, and body and weight gain composition were analysed. There were no significant effects of EAA level on performance or on chemical body composition. Boars sired with Piétrain line 1 demonstrated increased lean meat content and protein body content (p < 0.05) as compared to Piétrain line 2-sired boars.

  16. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows...... effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased...

  17. Cuatricentenario: "Alonso Berruguete y sus figuras"

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    Luis Navarro

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available El Amor y la Muerte, el Extasis y la Nada, gesto español de puro abolengo trágico. He aquí a Don Alonso Berruguete, escultor que nació en la villa de Paredes de Nava, provincia de Palencia, "por los años de 1480" y murió en Toledo el año de 1561. En el Casón del Retiro de Madrid sus silentes "creaturas" celebran con música de Victoria el cuatricentenario del maestro. Sobre el terciopelo verde y escarlata Adoraciones y Calvarios donde se retrata a lo vivo el pensamiento taumaturgo de la España terrible del siglo XVI.

  18. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals recent genetic introgression from domestic pigs into Northwest European wild boar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Hooft, van W.F.; Herrero-Medrano, J.; Lutz, W.; Alexandri, P.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Present-day genetic introgression from domestic pigs into European wild boar has been suggested in various studies. However, no hybrids have been identified beyond doubt mainly because available methods were unable to quantify the extent of introgression and rule out natural processes. Genetic

  19. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

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    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  20. [Occurrence and geographical distribution of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in wild boars of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) may cause acute hepatitis in humans. In industrialised countries, acute hepatitis E generally occurs only sporadically. However, in recent years an increase in the number of reported cases has been observed. Concerning autochthonous, non-travel-associated cases, a zoonotic transmission, particularly from the animal reservoirs of domestic pig and wild boar, and via undercooked meat is assumed. Meanwhile, HEV has been detected in domestic pig holdings as well as in wild boars in many regions of the world, including Europe and Germany. The samples from wild boars in the German investigations usually originated from different sub-regions with relatively small sample sizes per region--with no samples stemming from the territory of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. Therefore, in 2011 330 blood samples from wild boars were examined serologically for antibodies to HEV, genotype 3, in Saxony-Anhalt. An average seroprevalence of 33% and a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of positive samples with statistically significant clusters in the southwest and east of the state territory were found.

  1. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H

    2015-01-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....

  2. Detrimental Effects of Non-Functional Spermatozoa on the Freezability of Functional Spermatozoa from Boar Ejaculate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J.; Valverde, Anthony; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of non-functional spermatozoa on the cryopreservation success of functional boar spermatozoa was evaluated. Fifteen sperm-rich ejaculate fractions collected from five fertile boars were frozen with different proportions of induced non-functional sperm (0 –native semen sample-, 25, 50 and 75% non-functional spermatozoa). After thawing, the recovery of motile and viable spermatozoa was assessed, and the functional of the spermatozoa was evaluated from plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to capacitation conditions. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane was assessed by the indirect measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. The normalized (with respect to a native semen sample) sperm motility (assessed by CASA) and viability (cytometrically assessed after staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide and fluorescein-conjugated peanut agglutinin) decreased (pspermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing decreased, irrespective of the semen donor. However, the magnitude of the effect differed (pspermatozoa of semen samples with a high proportion of non-functional spermatozoa before freezing were also functionally different from those of samples with a low proportion of non-functional spermatozoa. These differences consisted of higher (pspermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing negatively influence the freezability of functional spermatozoa. PMID:22567165

  3. Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Briz, M; Pinart, E; Sancho, S; Garcia-Gil, N; Badia, E; Bassols, J; Pruneda, A; Bussalleu, E; Casas, I; Bonet, S

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of the addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), ranged from 12.5 to 200 microg/ml, on boar sperm capacitation status during a storage time (up to 3 days) at 15 degrees C in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). The raw extender was the negative control whereas different concentrations of caffeine (CAF), ranged from 0.25 to 8mM, served as positive controls. Sperm viability, motility, morphology, and osmotic resistance were also determined before and after assessing the treatments. Samples were obtained from 28 healthy and post-pubertal Piétrain boars and sperm parameters were tested immediately after the addition of treatments and after 1, 2 and 3 days of refrigeration at 15 degrees C. Sperm capacitation status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining and sperm viability by means of a multiple fluorochrome-staining test. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed using phase-contrast microscopy accompanied by a computer assisted sperm analysis system (CASA). Whereas HA delayed sperm capacitation, CAF increased the frequency of capacitated spermatozoa after 2 days of cooling. Moreover, HA did not modify other sperm parameters, such as sperm velocity, whereas CAF increased progressive motility during the first 2 days of cooling and then decreased. It can be concluded that the addition of HA at 50 and 100 microg/ml to the BTS extender may delay sperm capacitation after 3 days of cooling.

  4. Effects of centrifugation through three different discontinuous Percoll gradients on boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Vieira, L; García-Vázquez, F A; Avilés-López, K; López-Úbeda, R; Carvajal, J A; Gadea, J

    2011-08-01

    In this study, different combinations of 2-step, discontinuous gradient centrifugation were used, consisting of three different combinations of isotonic Percoll (45/60, 60/75 and 45/90%) that allowed us to select different sperm subpopulations from fertile and normozoospermic boars. Our objective in this study is to evaluate the effects of centrifugation through three different discontinuous Percoll gradients on sperm function parameters (motility, viability, morphology, acrosome status, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, ROS generation, tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium concentration) and the sperm penetrating capacity in an IVF system. All the Percoll treatments evaluated increased the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology, the proportion of un-damaged DNA, normal chromatin condensation, motion parameters measured by CASA and the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins compared to control group. Finally, the in vitro oocyte penetrating capacity of boar spermatozoa was significantly affected by Percoll centrifugation. All the Percoll treatments increased the penetration rates and mean number of sperm per penetrated oocyte. Despite the efficiency of all three of the sperm treatments tested in selecting spermatozoa with improved sperm parameters and capacity to penetrate oocytes in vitro, the optimum performance of this system was demonstrated after preselecting spermatozoa by centrifugation on a discontinuous 45/90 Percoll gradient. The P45/90 treatment leads to obtain a higher percentage of spermatozoa which develop properly the capacitation process as it was shown measuring tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingping Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Methods The V3–V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Results A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Conclusion Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman’s rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  6. First description of PVL-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in wild boar meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne pathogen due to the ability of enterotoxigenic strains to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is also an important pathogen for humans, causing severe and hard to treat diseases in hospitals and in the community due to its multiresistance against antimicrobials. In particular, strains harbouring genes encoding for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin are of concern from a public health perspective as they are usually capable of causing severe skin and soft tissue infections (sSSTIs) and occasionally necrotizing pneumonia which is associated with high mortality. This is the first report on the detection of MRSA with genes encoding for PVL in wild boar meat. Among the 28 MRSA isolated from wild boar meat in the course of a national monitoring programme in Germany, seven harboured PVL-encoding genes. Six of the isolates were identical according to the results of spa-, MLST-, microarray- and PFGE-typing. They could be assigned to the epidemic MRSA clone USA300. Epidemiological investigations revealed that people handling the food were the most likely common source of contamination with these MRSA. These findings call again for suitable hygienic measures at all processing steps of the food production chain. The results of the study underline that monitoring along the food chain is essential to closely characterise the total burden of MRSA for public health. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of climate on the seminal characteristics of boars in a region of humid tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Restrepo, Guillermo; Trujillo Aramburo, Luis Emilio; Buritica Henao, Maria Elizabet; Sierra Perez, Carlos Ignacio; Correa Londono, Guillermo; Gonzalez Boto, Oscar Domingo

    2004-01-01

    In a region of humid tropical forest, ten boars of from 12 to 24 months of age were selected to evaluate the effect of climatic variables measured on the day of semen collection and for each of preceding 45 days. On seminal characteristics, the variability of each characteristic was separated into an intra individual component and an interindividual component, using maximum likelihood estimators (PROC VARCOMP of SAS). In order to relate the seminal characteristics with the climatic variables, morphological abnormalities were grouped according to the affected spermatic region, into head. Midsection and main section abnormalities; the other characteristics were evaluated without any modification. Possible correlations between seminal characteristics and climatic variables were evaluated. In a total of 298 ejaculates collected weekly during a period of 30 weeks, except for total volume and morphological abnormalities. The seminal characteristics presented low or moderate intra and interindividual variation and were similar to those found in other latitudes, with a tendency to present greater seminal volumes and concentrations maximum temperature minimum temperature. Range among temperatures. Relative humidity and precipitation of the day of the semen collection and on each of the preceding 45 days had low effects on the seminal characteristics. It is possible that the boars in warm humid tropical areas develop a high level of adaptation that permits an adequate testicular thermoregulation that favors the spermatogenic function of the seminiferous tubules in a way that does not perceptibly affect production the seminal quality

  8. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyy, Valentin; Müller, Peter; Pomorski, Thomas G; Schulze, Martin; Schiller, Jürgen; Müller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols containing saturated (myristoyl, palmitoyl and stearoyl) fatty acyl residues. Glycerophosphatidylcholine and glycerophosphatidylethanolamine with alk(en)yl ether residues in the sn-1 position and unsaturated long chained fatty acyl residues in sn-2 position were identified as the most prominent polar lipids. The only glycoglycerolipid was sulfogalactosylglycerolipid carrying 16:0-alkyl- and 16:0-acyl chains. Using stable isotope-labelling, the metabolic incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids was analysed. Boar spermatozoa incorporated hexadecenoic (16:1), octadecenoic (18:1), octadecadienoic (18:2) and octadecatrienoic (18:3) acids primarily in the diacylglycerols and glycerophosphatidylcholines. In contrast, incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) was not detected. The analysis of molecular species composition subsequent to the incorporation of exogenous [(14)C]-octadecadienoic acid suggests two pathways for incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into glycerophosphatidylcholine: (1) de novo synthesis of glycerophosphatidylcholine via the CDP-choline pathway and (2) reacylation of lysophosphatidylcholine via an acyltransferase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of Porcine Hepatic Cytochrome P450 — Implication for Boar Taint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krøyer Rasmussen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP450 is the major family of enzymes involved in the metabolism of several xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Among substrates for CYP450 is the tryptophan metabolite skatole (3-methylindole, one of the major contributors to the off-odour associated with boar-tainted meat. The accumulation of skatole in pigs is highly dependent on the hepatic clearance by CYP450s. In recent years, the porcine CYP450 has attracted attention both in relation to meat quality and as a potential model for human CYP450. The molecular regulation of CYP450 mRNA expression is controlled by several nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are targets for numerous endogenously and exogenously produced agonists and antagonists. Moreover, CYP450 expression and activity are affected by factors such as age, gender and feeding. The regulation of porcine CYP450 has been suggested to have more similarities with human CYP450 than other animal models, including rodents. This article reviews the available data on porcine hepatic CYP450s and its implications for boar taint.

  10. Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Drag

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS were slaughtered at ~100 kg. Gene expression profiles were obtained by RNA-Seq, and genotype data were obtained by an Illumina 60K Porcine SNP chip. Following quality control and filtering, 10,545 and 12,731 genes from liver and testis were included in the eQTL analysis, together with 20,827 SNP variants. A total of 205 and 109 single-tissue eQTLs associated with 102 and 58 unique genes were identified in liver and testis, respectively. By employing a multivariate Bayesian hierarchical model, 26 eQTLs were identified as significant multi-tissue eQTLs. The highest densities of eQTLs were found on pig chromosomes SSC12, SSC1, SSC13, SSC9 and SSC14. Functional characterisation of eQTLs revealed functions within regulation of androgen and the intracellular steroid hormone receptor signalling pathway and of xenobiotic metabolism by cytochrome P450 system and cellular response to oestradiol. A QTL enrichment test revealed 89 QTL traits curated by the Animal Genome PigQTL database to be significantly overlapped by the genomic coordinates of cis-acting eQTLs. Finally, a subset of 35 cis-acting eQTLs overlapped with known boar taint QTL traits. These eQTLs could be useful in the development of a DNA test for boar taint but careful monitoring of other overlapping QTL traits should be performed to avoid any negative consequences of selection.

  11. Spatio-temporal Analysis of African Swine Fever in Sardinia (2012-2014): Trends in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Rodríguez, A; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; de la Torre, A

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boars that has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978. Several risk factors complicate the control of ASF in Sardinia: generally poor level of biosecurity, traditional breeding practices, illegal behaviour in movements and feeding of pigs, and sporadic occurrence of long-term carriers. A previous study describes the disease in Sardinia during 1978-2013. The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of ASF in Sardinia during 2012 to May 2014, comparing patterns of occurrence in domestic pigs and wild boar and identifying areas of local transmission. African swine fever notifications were studied considering seasonality, spatial autocorrelation, spatial point pattern and spatio-temporal clusters. Results showed differences in temporal and spatial pattern of wild boar and domestic pig notifications. The peak in wild boar notifications (October 2013 to February 2014) occurred six months after than in domestic pig (May to early summer 2013). Notifications of cases in both host species tended to be clustered, with a maximum significant distance of spatial association of 15 and 25 km in domestic pigs and wild boars, respectively. Five clusters for local ASF transmission were identified for domestic pigs, with a mean radius and duration of 4 km (3-9 km) and 38 days (6-55 days), respectively. Any wild boar clusters were found. The apparently secondary role of wild boar in ASF spread in Sardinia could be explained by certain socio-economic factors (illegal free-range pig breeding or the mingling of herds. The lack of effectiveness of previous surveillance and control programmes reveals the necessity of employing a new approach). Results present here provide better knowledge of the dynamics of ASF in Sardinia, which could be used in a more comprehensive risk analysis necessary to introduce a new approach in the eradication strategy. © 2015

  12. Detection and molecular analysis of Pseudorabies virus strains isolated from dogs and a wild boar in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Sozzi, Enrica; Grilli, Guido; Gibelli, Lucia Rita; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lelli, Davide; Chiari, Mario; Prati, Paola; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo

    2015-06-12

    Aujeszky's disease (AD) is one of the most economically important diseases of farmed pigs. Wild boars can act as reservoirs and might represent a potential threat for domestic animals, including dogs. The aim of this study was to report the results of an AD survey based on the Pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome detection in samples of dogs clinically suspected of AD and of wild boars collected during four consecutive hunting seasons in the period 2010-2014. Genomic characterization was based on the partial gC sequence of the Italian strains and the comparison with those from domestic pigs and European PRV strains circulating in wild boars. The Italian PRV strains were mainly distributed into three different clusters and revealed two interesting findings. First, there was a clear distinction between the viral strains that were isolated from dogs used for hunting and subsequently traced back to wild boars and the strains that were isolated from working dogs and subsequently found to be closely related to domestic pigs. Second, the Italian epidemiological situation was found to be different from those of European countries in that the Italian situation was characterized by the presence of both the typical Italian clades 1 and 2 and supported by new patterns of aa deletions/insertions. Italian clade 1 included strains from hunting dogs and two Italian wild boars, and Italian clade 2 grouped with recent strains from dogs that were unable to hunt and domestic pigs that were related to one old reference strain (S66) and not included elsewhere. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of PRV strains are therefore necessary to improve the understanding of the distribution of the PRV clusters and their evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative immunolocalization of heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70, -90 in boar, stallion, dog and cat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, S; Galeati, G; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Mari, G; Zambelli, D; Seren, E; Spinaci, M

    2008-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70 and -90 are important testis chaperones that fulfil several functions during sperm cell maturation. In post-meiotic cells, their expression may change or may be undetectable and in some species it may be evident in mature spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to verify whether Hsp60, -70 and -90 are present in the sperm, and to compare their localization in boar, stallion, cat and dog spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Hsp-60 immunoreactivity was detected in sperm midpiece in all the species examined. In stallion sperm, Hsp70 signal was localized in the sub-equatorial band, whereas immunoreactivity was evident on the neck of dog spermatozoa and on both neck and sub-equatorial region of cat spermatozoa. In agreement with our previous observations, a triangular fluorescent signal in the equatorial segment of fresh boar sperm was detected. Hsp90 immunoreactivity was present in different portions of sperm tail: in the midpiece of both boar and cat spermatozoa and in the neck and throughout the tail in dog and stallion spermatozoa, respectively. When capacitation and acrosome reaction were induced in boar, stallion and dog spermatozoa, no changes in both Hsp60 and -90 were recorded by either Western blot or immunofluorescence. After induction of acrosome reaction, a Hsp70 redistribution in boar spermatozoa and an increased percentage of stallion spermatozoa showing the post-acrosomal signal were observed although no changes were recorded by Western blot; in dog spermatozoa, no changes in Hsp70 were found by Western blot and immunofluorescence after capacitation and acrosome reaction.

  14. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi, One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rademaker

    Full Text Available The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  15. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  16. Lack of polymorphism at MC1R wild-type allele and evidence of domestic allele introgression across European wild boar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Iacolina, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Domestication promotes the emergence of novel phenotypic and behavioural traits in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors. We analysed variation at the melanocortin receptor I (MC1R) and nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) genes in European wild boar populations......, two loci which have been under strong artificial selection during domestication. These loci influence coat colour and number of vertebrae, respectively. A total of 145 wild boars were sampled throughout Europe, to evaluate frequency and spatial distribution of domestic alleles and patterns...... of hybridization between wild and domestic forms. Most of the wild boars (94%) were homozygous for the European wild-type (E+) MC1R allele. We did not observe any synonymous substitution in the European E+ allele, confirming its monomorphism even in areas known to be hotspots of wild boar genetic diversity...

  17. Epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland in 2006–2015 in view of wild boar population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flis Marian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

  18. Requirement for an intact cytoskeleton for volume regulation in boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunkina, A M; Hebel, M; Waberski, D; Weitze, K F; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2004-01-01

    Osmotically induced cell swelling triggers a chain of events leading to a net loss of major cell ions and water, resulting in cell volume recovery, a process known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In many cell types, there is an evidence that the cytoskeleton may play a role in the initial sensing and transduction of the signal of volume change. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an intact microfilament and microtubule network is required for volume response and RVD in boar sperm before and after capacitation treatment and whether addition of cytochalasin D and colchicine to the capacitation medium would affect volumetric behaviour. Capacitation is a series of cellular and molecular alterations that enable the spermatozoon to fertilize an oocyte. Cell volume measurements of washed sperm suspensions were performed electronically in Hepes-buffered saline solutions of 300 and 180 mosmol/kg. After exposure to hypoosmotic conditions, boar sperm showed initial swelling (up to 150% of initial volume within 5 min), which was subsequently partially reversed (to about 120-130% after 20 min). Treatment with cytochalasin D led to reduced initial swelling (1 micromol/l) and loss of RVD in washed sperm (1-10 micromol/l) and at the beginning of incubation under capacitating conditions (5 micromol/l). Short treatment with 500 micromol/l colchicine affected the volume regulatory ability in sperm under capacitating conditions but not in washed sperm. No significant differences in cell volume response were observed after subsequent addition of cytochalasin D and colchicine to the suspensions of sperm incubated for 3 h under capacitating conditions. However, the incubation under capacitating conditions in the presence of cytochalasin D led to improved volume regulation at the end of the incubation period (23%). The microfilament network appears to be important for volume regulation in washed boar spermatozoa while intact microtubules do not seem to be necessary for

  19. Beneficial effects of relaxin on motility characteristics of stored boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feugang, Jean M; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Juan C; Dillard, Darby S; Crenshaw, Mark A; Willard, Scott T; Ryan, Peter L

    2015-03-31

    Relaxin is detected in seminal plasma of many species and its association with sperm motility may be beneficial in some aspects of assisted reproduction. Here, we immunolocalized relaxin receptors and investigated the effects of exogenous relaxin on motility characteristics, viability, and cAMP content of boar spermatozoa after storage. Commercial doses of boar semen were obtained on the collection day (Day 0) and kept in shipping containers at room temperature for up to 4 days (Day 4). On Day 0, spermatozoa were fixed for immunofluorescence detection of relaxin receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 (Experiment 1). Semen aliquots were taken from the same dose at Day 0, Day 1, and Day 2 (Experiment 2a), and Day 2 and Day 4 (Experiment 2b) for analyses. Alive spermatozoa were purified and incubated (1 h-37°C) with 0, 50, or 100 ng relaxin/ml (Experiment 2a) and 0, 100, or 500 ng relaxin/ml (Experiment 2b). Afterward, aliquots of each treatment group were subjected to motility (Experiments 2), viability (Experiment 3) analyses, and cAMP quantification (Experiment 4). Data (3-4 independent replicates) were statistically analyzed (ANOVA followed by pairwise comparisons) and p values less or equal to 0.05 was set for significant difference. Both RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors were immunolocalized on the entire spermatozoon. Relaxin concentration of 100 ng/ml significantly improved the proportions of motile, progressive, and rapid spermatozoa up to Day 2. Only 500 ng relaxin/ml provided beneficial effects on Day 4. The viability of spermatozoa was not affected by relaxin (100 ng/ml) during storage, but the extent of mitochondria membrane damages was significantly decreased. Furthermore, relaxin did not affect the cAMP contents of spermatozoa during storage, in our conditions. Relaxin could be a valuable motility booster of stored- or aged-spermatozoa for assisted reproduction techniques. However, the related-intracellular signaling cascades of relaxin in boar spermatozoa remain

  20. Parasite to patient: A quantitative risk model for Trichinella spp. in pork and wild boar meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke; Havelaar, Arie; Takumi, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-16

    Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked pork meat may result in trichinellosis, a human disease due to nematodes of the genus Trichinella. In many countries worldwide, individual control of pig carcasses at meat inspection is mandatory but incurs high costs in relation to absence of positive carcasses from pigs reared under controlled housing. EU regulation 2015/1375 implements an alternative risk-based approach, in view of absence of positive findings in pigs under controlled housing conditions. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius guidelines for the control of Trichinella spp. in meat of suidae have been published (CAC, 2015) and used in conjunction with the OIE terrestrial Animal health code, to provide guidance to governments and industry on risk based control measures to prevent human exposure to Trichinella spp. and to facilitate international pork trade. To further support such a risk-based approach, we model the risk of human trichinellosis due to consumption of meat from infected pigs, raised under non-controlled housing and wild boar, using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methods. Our model quantifies the distribution of Trichinella muscle larve (ML) in swine, test sensitivity at carcass control, partitioning of edible pork parts, Trichinella ML distribution in edible muscle types, heat inactivation by cooking and portion sizes. The resulting exposure estimate is combined with a dose response model for Trichinella species to estimate the incidence of human illness after consumption of infected meat. Paramater estimation is based on experimental and observational datasets. In Poland, which served as example, we estimated an average incidence of 0.90 (95%CI: 0.00-3.68) trichinellosis cases per million persons per year (Mpy) due to consumption of pork from pigs that were reared under non-controlled housing, and 1.97 (95%CI: 0.82-4.00) cases per Mpy due to consumption of wild boar. The total estimated incidence of human trichinellosis attributed to

  1. Genomic selection in a pig population including information from slaughtered full sibs of boars within a sib-testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorè, A B; Buttazzoni, L; Gallo, M; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h 2=0.40, carcass traits, and h 2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h 2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the

  2. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs, wild boars, roe deer, red deer and moose in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spancerniene, Ugne; Grigas, Juozas; Buitkuviene, Jurate; Zymantiene, Judita; Juozaitiene, Vida; Stankeviciute, Milda; Razukevicius, Dainius; Zienius, Dainius; Stankevicius, Arunas

    2018-02-23

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV genotype 3 has been associated with domestic pigs and wild boar. Controversial data are available on the circulation of the virus in animals that are used for human consumption, and to date, no gold standard has yet been defined for the diagnosis of HEV-associated hepatitis. To investigate the current HEV infection status in Lithuanian pigs and wild ungulates, the presence of viral RNA was analyzed by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) in randomly selected samples, and the viral RNA was subsequently genotyped. In total, 32.98 and 22.55% of the domestic pig samples were HEV-positive using RT-nPCR targeting the ORF1 and ORF2 fragments, respectively. Among ungulates, 25.94% of the wild boar samples, 22.58% of the roe deer samples, 6.67% of the red deer samples and 7.69% of the moose samples were positive for HEV RNA using primers targeting the ORF1 fragment. Using primers targeting the ORF2 fragment of the HEV genome, viral RNA was only detected in 17.03% of the wild boar samples and 12.90% of the roe deer samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 348-nucleotide-long region of the HEV ORF2 showed that all obtained sequences detected in Lithuanian domestic pigs and wildlife belonged to genotype 3. In this study, the sequences identified from pigs, wild boars and roe deer clustered within the 3i subtype reference sequences from the GenBank database. The sequences obtained from pig farms located in two different counties of Lithuania were of the HEV 3f subtype. The wild boar sequences clustered within subtypes 3i and 3h, clearly indicating that wild boars can harbor additional subtypes of HEV. For the first time, the ORF2 nucleotide sequences obtained from roe deer proved that HEV subtype 3i can be found in a novel host. The results of the viral prevalence and phylogenetic analyses clearly demonstrated

  3. Immunoreactivity to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the enteric nervous system of the pig and wild boar stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharko-Siembida, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered peptide inducing strong anxiogenic-like effect. CART distribution and its role(s) at periphery are not well understood. Immunohistochemisty was utilized to investigate the distribution patterns of CART in the stomach of the pig and wild boar. Double immunohistochemisty was applied to elucidate whether CART-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal elements coexpress galanin, substance P (SP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). In the pig stomach, different proportions of CART-IR myenteric neurons were found in the antrum (42.3 ± 3.5%), corpus (18.0 ± 1.9%) and pylorus (33.2 ± 3.0%). CART-IR myeneric neurons were also found in the antrum, corpus and pylorus of the wild boar stomach (41.7 ± 3.2, 36.0 ± 2.2 and 35.8 ± 3.5%; respectively). In both species, none of gastric submucous neurons were CART-IR; however, CART-IR nerve fibres encircled submucous perikarya. In all portions of the pig and wild boar stomach, CART-IR nerve fibres were frequently found in the smooth muscle layer as well as in the lamina muscularis mucosae. In all regions of the pig and wild boar stomach, the expression of galanin and SP was found in CART-IR myenteric neurons and smooth muscle-supplying nerve fibres. CART/NPY coexpression was not found in the porcine stomach; however, in different regions of the wild boar stomach, subpopulations of CART-IR/NPY-IR myenteric neurons were noted. In conclusion, in this study, the existence and distribution patterns of CART in discrete regions of the pig and wild boar stomach were described in details. Colocalization studies revealed that in both animal species, a functional cooperation of CART with several neuropeptides is likely. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZĂHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of thecryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for arapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as spermconcentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtleabnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, itseems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interferewith the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known.Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motilityanalysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine OrangeTest and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences inspermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor

  5. SNP data in the detection of hybridization levels between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    Introgression of domestic genes into wild populations is considered to be a threat to biodiversity leading to loss of local adaptation and spread of human selected gene variants. Additionally, the contact between wild and domestic stocks can result in the transmission of infectious diseases. Thus......, a better understanding of hybridization patterns in Europe might have important implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local breeds, as well as for the contingency of infectious diseases. Here we present the results for the analysis of 235 wild boars (WB; from 22 areas......) and 149 domestic pigs (DP; 49 from 5 commercial lines and 100 from 9 local breeds) with the Porcine SNP60 Beadchip. Principal component analysis shows a clear separation between domestic and wild populations. The network analysis concordantly identifies two main clusters (corresponding to WB and DP) but...

  6. A NEW MODEL OF BOAR SEMEN EVALUATION AND THE IMPACT OF CRYOGENIC FACTOR ON SPERMATIC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. RUSU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of the cryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for a rapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as sperm concentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtle abnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, it seems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interfere with the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known. Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motility analysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine Orange Test and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences in spermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor.

  7. Changes in exposed membrane proteins during in vitro capacitation of boar sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.

    1990-01-01

    Exposed plasma membrane proteins were labeled with 125 I before and after incubation of boar sperm under capacitating conditions. Labeled protein profiles were compared to the ability of the sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster ova. Quantitatively, the labeled sperm membrane proteins were primarily low Mr prior to capacitation. The majority of the labeled seminal plasma protein was also low Mr. After capacitation, two new proteins (64,000 Mr and 78,000 Mr) were labeled. Sperm did not exhibit these exposed membrane proteins when incubated under noncapacitating conditions. Appearance of these proteins was not correlated to the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. Although the 64,000 Mr protein was not consistently observed, the relative labeling of the 78,000 Mr protein was highly correlated with the ability of sperm to fuse with zona-free hamster ova. The 78,000 Mr protein may be a sperm protein involved in fusion with the egg plasma membrane

  8. Resveratrol and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate addition to thawed boar sperm improves in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, B; Bucci, D; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Galeati, G

    2017-03-01

    Thawing is one of the most delicate process after semen cryopreservation as spermatozoa pass from a dormant metabolic stage to a sudden awakening in cellular metabolism. The rapid oxygen utilization leads to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species that can damage sperm cells, thus causing a significant decrease of fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Resveratrol (Res) is a natural grape-derived phytoalexin and Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis); both molecules are known to possess high levels of antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of different concentrations of Res (0.5, 1 or 2 mM; Experiment 1) or EGCG (25, 50 or 100 μM; Experiment 2) supplementation to thawing boar semen extender on sperm quality parameters (viability and acrosome integrity) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Semen after thawing and dilution with three volumes of Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), was immediately divided in control group without antioxidants addition (CTR) and either Res or EGCG groups. Sperm viability and acrosome integrity were evaluated in CTR, Res or EGCG groups after 1 h of incubation at 37 °C. The addition of different doses of Res or EGCG to thawing extender for 1 h did not induce any effect on boar sperm viability and acrosome integrity. However, both Res and EGCG treated samples exhibited a significantly higher penetration rate compared with CTR when used for IVF. In particular the treatment with all the EGCG concentrations increased the penetration rate (P fertilization efficiency as compared to control (EGCG 25 μM: 40.3 ± 8.2 vs 26.8 ± 9.5, P fertilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidoreductive capability of boar sperm mitochondria in fresh semen and during their preservation in BTS extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Udała, Jan; Błaszczyk, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kram, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of dilution and liquid-preservation of boar sperm on oxidoreductive capability of their mitochondria. The semen was diluted with BTS extender produced from water purified by destillation or by reverse osmosis. The spermatozoa were stored over a four-day period at 16-18 degrees C. The function of sperm mitochondria was assessed using the screening cytochemical test for NADH-dependent oxidoreductases (diaphorase/NADH, related to flavoprotein). Morphological assessment of cytochemical reaction was carried out using a light microscope. The intensity of the reaction was evaluated by means of a computer image analysing system (Quantimet 600S), measuring the integrated optical density (IOD) and mean optical density (MOD) of the reaction product (formazans) occurring in the sperm midpieces. In the non-diluted semen, intensive cytochemical reaction throughout the length of the sperm midpiece was observed. Furthermore, spermatozoa with the intensive reaction displayed the high optical density values. After dilution the semen with two variants of experimental extender, and as the conservation time expired, the cytochemical reaction was less intensive. Moreover, the absence of formazan deposits in various parts of the sperm midpiece was also noted. These morphological features corresponded to low values of optical density. These findings suggest that the dilution of semen and the time of sperm preservation may be critical factors that handicap energy metabolism of sperm mitochondria. The type of water used in preparing BTS extender does not have any significant effect on the oxidoreductive capability of sperm boar mitochondria.

  10. La noción de “seguridad humana”: sus virtudes y sus peligros

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alcázar, Javier

    2012-01-01

    El concepto de seguridad humana ha estado al centro de un amplio debate desde que el PNUD lo adoptara en su ‘‘Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano’’de 1994. Algunos han señalado sus ventajas como alternativa a concepciones más tradicionales de la seguridad, mientras que los críticos del concepto insisten en su ambigüedad y la posibilidad de que sea utilizado para justificar, incluso, acciones violentas en la línea del realismo político. En estas páginas, tras un balance de los pros y contras, se d...

  11. New host and the extend of the host range of warble fly Hypoderma diana (Diptera, Hypodermatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlásek Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Warble fly Hypoderma diana is known to be a parasite not only of roe deer and other species of Cervidae but also of non-specific hosts from among other orders of ungulates. First-instar larvae of Hypoderma diana, a specific parasite of Cervidae, have been found in a new non-specific host, i.e. the wild boar (Sus scrofa. This finding is further evidence of the exceptional adaptability of this species of subcutaneous warble fly of the family Hypodermatidae. It corroborates the validity of the proposition that the host range of a host-specific parasite can only be ext

  12. Food passage time through the alimentary tract of a brazilian teleost fish, Prochilodus scrofa (Steindachner, 1881 using radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lamounier Barbieri

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de passagem de alimentos através do trato digestivo do peixe detritívoro de água doce Prochilodus scrofa foi determinado com o uso de técnicas radiográficas e de sulfato de bário como meio de contraste. Os peixes foram mantidos em tanques com temperatura constante de 23ºC e receberam via oral, através de um cateter, uma mistura de 2,5 partes de ração peletizada moída e 1 parte de suspensão oral do meio de contraste (Celobar. As radiografias foram obtidas em intervalos de 3 horas. Imediatamente após a introdução da mistura, visualizou-se o preenchimento gástrico pelo contraste. Foi observado um esfíncter existente entre os estômagos cárdico e pilórico. Após 3 horas, 80 por cento do intestino proximal estava repleto. Após 6 horas, o contraste atingiu as porções proximal, média e distal do intestino. Após 9 horas, 70 por cento do intestino distal estava repleto, e após 12 horas, havia a marcação do segmento do reto (25 por cento da porção distal do intestino.

  13. Los directores aprendiendo de sus maestros

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    Manuel Ortega Muñoz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de investigación está enmarcado dentro de la línea de indagación Aprendizaje para la Gestión y versa sobre los principales aprendizajes que han adquirido los directivos de educación básica del estado de Durango, México, para el mejor ejercicio de su función. Desde un estudio de narrativa, se recopilaron historias de 16 directores de educación primaria estatal pertenecientes a la zona escolar 24 del sector educativo no. 1 de la Secretaría de Educación Pública. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante la herramienta de análisis de información cualitativa Atlas ti versión 7.5. Los hallazgos de la investigación muestran que los principales aprendizajes que los directivos de educación básica del estado de Durango, México han adquirido de sus maestros para el mejor ejercicio de su función son dos: a el trabajo en equipo, del cual se desprenden componentes como una eficaz y eficiente organización del trabajo, el trabajar siempre en colaboración y tener la mejor de las actitudes para trabajar; y b el liderazgo compartido, aspecto en que se perciben elementos como el óptimo manejo y resolución de conflictos, el liderazgo y la toma de decisiones en conjunto por parte del colectivo escolar. Abstract This research paper, framed within the line of inquiry Learning Management, deals with the main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico, for the best performance of their duties, from a study of narrative histories of 16 directors of state primary education outside the school zone 24 the education sector 1 of the Ministry of Education. The data analysis was performed using the computer statistical package you Atlas ti version 7.5. The research findings show that there are two main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico from their teachers for the better performance of their function: a teamwork

  14. First case of Trichinella nativa infection in wild boar in Central Europe-molecular characterization of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Różycki, Mirosław; Chmurzyńska, Ewa; Antolak, Ewelina; Próchniak, Marek; Grądziel-Krukowska, Katarzyna; Karamon, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zdybel, Jolanta; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The examination of wild boars gained in Poland shows for the first time occurrence of Trichinella nativa, freeze-resistant species of Trichinella in this host from the central Europe region. This finding is not only one of several cases of T. nativa invasion in wild boars all over the world but also one of the very few cases of T. nativa detected so far beyond the known boundary of occurrence of this species. The molecular characterization of discovered larvae based on analysis of partial genes: 5s rDNA-ISR and CO1 confirm the findings. Moreover, the analyzed DNA sequences of both genes present new haplotypes of T. nativa in comparison to that described previously.

  15. Laser bendability of SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composite and its constituent layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Seyedkashi, S. M.; Gollo, Mohammad Hoseinpour; Biao, Jin; Moon, Young Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Laminated composites are of great interest in different industries while having the advantages of all base metals. In this research, the laser bending of a three-layered SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composite is characterized both experimentally and numerically. This composite can be used in the microelectronics industry since it has the anti-corrosion and strength capability of stainless steel, and the electrical superiority of copper. The specimens are bent using a Ytterbium fiber laser irradiated on a straight path along the sheet width. The effects of bending parameters including the number of passes, scanning velocity, beam diameter, laser power and delay time between passes are examined for a three-layered laminated sheet, and compared with its constituent steel and copper layers. It is found that the thin copper mid-layer strongly affects the rate of bending per pass. Heat distribution and plastic strain along the thickness during the process are characterized by using the finite element method. The Cu mid-layer decreases the bending angle, but also postpones the onset of melting, and thus can be compensated by the application of higher laser powers. It is shown that the bending angle increases with an increase in laser power and delay time, and a decrease in laser velocity and beam diameter.

  16. Is there a relationship between the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-07-15

    In this study a radioisotope method, which is based on the quantitative measurements of tritiated-labeled actinomycin D ((3)H-AMD) incorporation into the sperm nuclei ((3)H-AMD incorporation assay), was used to assess the chromatin status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. This study also tested the hypothesis that frozen-thawed spermatozoa with altered chromatin were susceptible to DNA fragmentation measured with the neutral comet assay (NCA). Boar semen was diluted in lactose-hen egg yolk-glycerol extender (L-HEY) or lactose ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein fractions-glycerol extender (L-LPFo), packaged into aluminum tubes or plastic straws and frozen in a controlled programmable freezer. In Experiment 1, the chromatin status and DNA fragmentation were measured in fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the same ejaculates. There was a significant increase in sperm chromatin destabilization and DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed semen as compared with fresh semen. The proportions of spermatozoa labeled with (3)H-AMD were concurrent with elevated levels of sperm DNA fragmentation in K-3 extender, without cryoprotective substances, compared with L-HEY or L-LPFo extender. Regression analysis revealed that the results of the (3)H-AMD incorporation assay and NCA for frozen-thawed spermatozoa were correlated. Boars differed significantly in terms of post-thaw sperm DNA damage. In Experiment 2, the susceptibility of sperm chromatin to decondensation was assessed using a low concentration of heparin. Treatment of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with heparin revealed enhanced (3)H-AMD binding, suggesting nuclear chromatin decondensation. The deterioration in post-thaw sperm viability, such as motility, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity, was concurrent with increased chromatin instability and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to show that freezing-thawing procedure facilitated destabilization in the chromatin structure of boar spermatozoa, resulting in

  17. Effect of addition of coconut water (Cocos nucifera) to the freezing media on post-thaw viability of boar sperm.

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    Bottini-Luzardo, María; Centurión-Castro, Fernando; Alfaro-Gamboa, Militza; Aké-López, Ricardo; Herrera-Camacho, José

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment were to evaluate the addition of coconut water in natura to the freezing media, compare the effect of deionized water vs filtered water of coconut over the post-thaw seminal characteristics, and evaluate the effect of the deionized water and in natura coconut water on the seminal characteristics of boar sperm at different post-thaw times. Thirty-four ejaculates were used divided in three aliquots which received one of the following treatments (T): T1, LEY (bidistilled water, lactose, and egg yolk) and LEYGO (LEY + glycerol and Orvus ET paste); T2, LEY(A) (coconut deionized water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(A); and T3, LEY(B) (in natura coconut water, lactose, and egg yolk)-LEYGO(B). Samples of boar semen were frozen according to the Westendorf method, thawed at 38°C, and evaluated at three incubation times (0, 30, and 60 min). Seminal characteristics assessed were motility (Mot), acrosomal integrity (AInt), membrane integrity (MInt), and mitochondrial activity (MAct). T1 showed a higher percentage of viable sperm than T3 (Mot 36.5 vs 5.4 %, AInt 61.8 vs 41.2 %, MInt 50.4 vs 41.3 %, and MAct 56.9 vs 50.5 %). T2 kept a higher percentage of viable sperm at all incubation times. In natura coconut water showed a detrimental effect over the viability of the frozen-thawed boar semen. Deionized coconut water improved the boar semen viability post-thaw, outperforming results of in natura coconut water.

  18. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky's disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Aujeszky's disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), also named pseudorabies virus (PrV). The study aimed at determining the occurrence and spatio-temporal trend of specific antibodies to AD virus (ADV) among wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, a landlocked federal state situated in the western part of eastern Germany. To this end, a total of 7,209 blood samples were collected and tested from 2000 to 2011. An average seroprevalence of 6.8% was found for the entire observation period, whilst seroprevalence increased significantly between time periods January 2000-March 2009 (n = 3,605; prevalence = 4.5%) and March 2009-December 2011 (n = 3,604; prevalence = 9.1%). Spatial analysis revealed an extremely heterogenous distribution of seropositive samples with cluster formation [relative risk (RR) up to 41, P = 0.001] in the east. A comparison of spatial clusters between the aforementioned time intervals showed an expansion of the disease in the north to north-westerly direction. A test for spatial shift involving the entire territory of Saxony-Anhalt detected a spread of ADV infection in the latter direction (P = 0.079) at the average speed of 3.3 km/year. Detailed study of the distribution and spread of the disease among wild boar, including assessment of the speed of spatial spread, has not been done in the region before. Saxony-Anhalt has been officially recognised as being free of AD in domestic pigs since 1996. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalences in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt and other federal states in the east of Germany, no spill-over to domestic pigs have been reported. The currently implemented monitoring will be continued in conjunction with surveillance of classical swine fever (CSF) to further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt.

  20. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

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    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.