WorldWideScience

Sample records for board passenger ships

  1. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  2. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  3. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships and...... passenger ferries for possible improvements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for seafarers from 1997, 2002 and 2007 and for passengers on Swedish ferries for the years 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012 from the Swedish Radio Medical were studied. Symptoms and diseases were classified according to the International...

  4. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, ...

  5. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty

  6. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  7. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime......BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is.......33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the...

  8. Toward Visual Autonomous Ship Board Landing of a VTOL UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, José Luis; Saripalli, Srikanth; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Pestana Puerta, Jesús; Fu, Changhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problem of landing a helicopter autonomously on a ship deck, using as the main sensor, an on-board colour camera. To create a test-bed, we first adequately simulate the movement of a ship landing platform on the Sea, for different Sea States, for different ships, randomly and realistically enough. We use a commercial parallel robot to get this movement. Once we had this, we developed an accurate and robust computer vision system to measure the pose of the helipad w...

  9. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO2 emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO2 per passenger-kilometre (g CO2 per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO2 per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO2 emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained.

  10. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Revol, Vincent G.N.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2010-05-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO{sub 2} emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO{sub 2} per passenger-kilometre (g CO{sub 2} per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO{sub 2} per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained. (author)

  11. Grounds and opportunities for the development of passenger and cargo shipping on the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Wojewódzka-Król

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the objectives defined in the White Paper should prompt us to consider the available opportunities for unlocking the lower Vistula’s potential for transportation, as the river could play an essential role in the context of the burgeoning Gdańsk and Gdynia seaports. In addition, on the basis of European experience, it could help reduce communication problems in the region and serve as an important tourist attraction. This article is an attempt at estimation of the demand for shipping along the lower Vistula, within the framework of which the minimum target is to restore the capacity of the 1980s: 3.5 to 4 million tons a year. With this end in mind, we should improve navigability and apply instruments for the support of inland navigation, in conformity with the transportation policy of the European Union. In respect of passenger services, the minimum target is to restore the capacity of the period between 1965 and 1985: 2 million passengers a year. A comprehensive and attractive range of services and extension of the tourist season are bound to increase this capacity. Current investments on the initiative of local self-governments – including marinas and tourist amenities – lead to improvement in navigation; they also stimulate the development of other modes of passenger transportation (urban transit and regional transit.

  12. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of cosmic radiation dose rates (from the neutron and the non-neutron components) on board passenger aircraft were performed using environmental packages with thermoluminescent TL and CR-39 etched track detectors. The packages were calibrated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field Facility and evaluated at the Inst. of Nuclear Physics in Krakow (TL + CR-39) and at the German Aerospace Centre in Cologne (CR-39). Detector packages were exposed on board passenger aircraft operated by LOT Polish Airlines, flown between February and May 2001. The values of effective dose rate determined, averaged over the measuring period, ranged between 2.9 and 4.4 μSv h-1. The results of environmental measurements agreed to within 10% with values calculated from the CARI-6 code. (authors)

  13. Women at Sea: modesty, privacy, and sexual misconduct of passengers and sailors aboard Islamic ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilieh, Hassan S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the attitude of Islamic law towards the carriage of women by water and how Muslim judicial authorities viewed their presence on ships. It discusses the conditions under which women were carried, accommodated and treated, in addition to their personal and social behavior in ships. To apply Islamic religious ethics and navigational regulations during maritime journeys, jurists instructed owners of ships, crews, and passengers how to act in the event of an immoral behavior on the part of both or either party. Women could protect themselves against temptation and sexual harassment by dressing modestly, behaving properly, and traveling with mahrams. Even though this work focuses on the Islamic Mediterranean, the article briefly describes the punishment of sexual misconduct as established in the thirteenth century C.E. in Islamic Malay. Lastly, it touches the Islamic legal position on the transportation of Muslims aboard Christian ships.

    Este artículo trata de la actitud de la ley islámica acerca del transporte marítimo de las mujeres y de cómo las autoridades jurídicas musulmanas consideraban su presencia en los barcos. Discute las condiciones bajo las cuales las mujeres eran acomodadas y tratadas en los barcos así como el comportamiento personal y social que se esperaba de ellas. Con el fin de aplicar la ética islámica y las normas marítimas, los juristas informaban a los armadores, tripulaciones y pasajeros de cómo actuar en el caso de comportamiento inmoral por alguna o varias de las partes. El trabajo se centra en el Mediterráneo Islámico, pero trata brevemente el castigo de la conducta

  14. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS...... chest contents were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crew members with chronic illnesses should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

  15. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  16. Microcomputer based ship-board gun control system.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Ahmet

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study was undertaken to design and implement a microcomputer based gun control and interactive display system which is suitable as a model of a shipboard Gun Fire Control System and Tactical-Situation display. The stand-alone system includes two plasma display scopes, a microcomputer, a cathode ray tube (CRT), an analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog (ADC/DAC) board and a servo unit. The scope of the effort includes, calculation ...

  17. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    Background: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim was to analyse the data from...... consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... paramedical assistance and the medicine chest content were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crewmembers with chronic diseases should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

  18. Secure vital indicators of air on board for passengers and crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. Запорожець

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The analysis of harmful physical and chemical factors, which can negatively affect vital body indices of passengers and crew of airplane in the different conditions of flight is outlined in the article. On the basis of analysis the sanitary hygienically requirements conditions aboard an airplane are defined which do not contradict norms  of flightworthiness of civil airplanes and guarantee safety of vital functions of crew and passengers.

  19. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  20. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-03-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.

  1. Applicability of the PEMS technique for simplified NO X monitoring on board ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.; Ekström, M.

    The performance of a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) as a technique for NO x monitoring on medium speed marine diesel engines has been evaluated for 16 similar engines on four different ships. The PEMS function tested measured O 2 concentration in the exhaust gas, engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure to calculate the NO x concentration. Emission measurements were carried out by means of a conventional continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) and the measured NO x concentrations were compared with those calculated by the PEMS function. For 11 of the 16 engines, the average error between measured and calculated NO x concentration was engines displayed correlation coefficients between measured and calculated NO x as 0.90 or higher. For two of the ships, the predicted NO x concentrations from all engines on board gave good agreement with those measured (2.6-4.7% and 2.6-8.0% average error). In other cases however, the performance of the PEMS function was poor e.g. the four engines of ship D showed average errors of 10.3-17.7%. Although similar engine models, fuel and load characteristics were compared in the tests, the specific NO x emissions at steady-state loads used varied from 12.6 up to 15.8 g k -1Wh corr. Although a single PEMS function may prove universal and adequate for calculating NO x emissions from similar engines on board the same ship, an engine specific PEMS function is recommended. The form of the PEMS function, i.e. using exhaust O 2 and engine load as inputs, is however likely to be applicable to most propeller-law diesel engines. Bearing in mind the performance criteria for using PEMS at land-based installations, the results from this study are promising. Viewed as a single data set of 56 h with 16 separate engine comparisons between CEMS and PEMS, the data set shows a relative accuracy of 14.5% i.e. within the 20% requirement of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In light of the

  2. Washing and Laundering on Board I.N. Ships with Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Rao

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of synthetic detergents for washing and laundering on board I.N. Ships using sea water. Soiled clothed were subjected to washing trials using various concentrations of detergents viz., Teepol and Lissapol N with sodium meta-silicate as builder. A sea water washing formula using Teepol as detergent and sodium meta-silicate as builder in equal proportions has been evolved by which fresh water can be economized to the extent of 66% when compared to ordinary soaps and fresh water.

  3. 46 CFR 77.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 77.40-1 Section 77.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND... point of access to the water's edge during each condition of loading and trim, with an adverse list...

  4. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were performed with various LiF-based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the 7LiF detectors used (various types of 7LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. (author)

  5. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  6. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  7. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  8. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14% responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19% authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24% reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity

  9. Designing the optimum watch keeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and more safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewmembers but ...

  10. Designing the optimum watchkeeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewme...

  11. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list: (1... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN...

  12. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the carrier provides to..., including mobility aids and other assistive devices stowed in the cabin (see also 382.91(c)). To...

  13. Analgtic Hierarchy Process based SWOT analysis on passenger ship safety%基于层次分析法的客运船舶安全管理SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海山

    2015-01-01

    In view of the lack of quantitative analysis in the analysis of passenger ships safety management,the paper combines the SWOT analysis with the analytic hierarchy process,establishes a relatively complete system framework incorperating both qualitative and quantitative aspects,analyzes the major factors affecting passenger ship safety,and proposes relevant safety control plans.%针对客运船舶安全管理分析中缺少定量分析的不足,将SWOT分析法和层次分析法结合起来,建立一个较为完整的定性与定量相结合的系统框架,分析影响客运船舶安全的重要因素,提出客运船舶安全监管方案.

  14. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  15. Design of Hydraulic System for the LTQ-2000Y Passenger Boarding Bridge%LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭会歌; 薛鹏; 杨军宁; 王永利

    2012-01-01

    阐述了旅客登机桥的作用及对液压系统的要求.介绍了LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥的液压系统的设计实践,包括油源系统、升降回路、行走回路、转向回路、调平回路、回转回路和应急回路的设计.归纳了该液压系统的主要特点:控制、操作方式多样;油源高效、节能;行走、制动可靠;升降同步、可控;调平自动、及时.这些特点在设备使用中得到了良好的体现.%The passenger boarding bridge's function and its requirement to the hydraulic system were expatiated. The design practices of the LTQ-2000Y passenger boarding bridge's hydraulic system were described, including the design of the oil source system, lifting loop, walking loop, steering loop, leveling loop, rotating loop and emergency loop. The main features of the hydraulic system were generalized; the control and operation modes were varied; oil source was efficient and energy-saving; walking and braking was reliable; up & down lifting was synchronized and controllable; leveling was automatically and timely. These features are well reflected when using the device.

  16. Investigation of Neutron Doses On board of Commercia; Passenger Aircraft Usány CR/39 and Thermoluminescence Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horwacik, P.; Bilski, P.; Olko, F.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    Delft : TUDelft, 2003. s. 71. [Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry /9./ Advances in Nuclear Particle Dosimetry for Radiation Protection and Medicine. 28.09.2003-03.10.2003, Delft] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : environmental measurements * personal dosimetry * passenger aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  17. Design of a one-chip board microcontrol unit for active vibration control of a naval ship mounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an experimental implementation of a user-tunable one-chip board microcontrol unit which is specifically designed for vibration control of the active mounting system for naval ships. The proposed mounting system consists of four active mounts supporting vibration-sensitive equipment. Each active mount constitutes a rubber element, an inertial mass and the piezostack actuator. It is designed for particular applications that require effective isolation performance against wide frequency ranges, such as naval ship equipment. After describing the configuration of the active mount, dynamic characteristics of the rubber element and the piezostack actuator are experimentally identified. Accordingly, the proposed mounting system is constructed and the governing equations of motion are formulated. In order to attenuate the unwanted vibrations transferred from the upper mass, a feedforward controller with fast Fourier algorithm is designed and experimentally realized using the one-chip microcontrol board which is specially made for this practical application. In order to evaluate the performance of the one-chip microcontrol unit, vibration control results of the proposed active mounting system are presented in the frequency domain. (technical note)

  18. On-board Dose Measurement and its Monte Carlo Analysis in a Low Level Waste Shipping Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-board dose measurements were made in a shipping vessel for low level radioactive wastes, the Seiei Maru. The measured values are much smaller than the regulation values both on the hatch covers and in the accommodation area. The dose equivalent rates on the hatch cover are analysed by using a continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MCNP 4B, with two kinds of calculational models. One is the detailed model with the geometry of containers and LLW drums, and an asymmetrical source distribution. The results of the detailed calculation approached the shape of the measured dose rate distribution graphs. The other is the simplified model that mixes source volume uniformly. The calculated values obtained with the simplified model are twice as large as those calculated with the detailed model. (author)

  19. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

  20. Passenger and Naturalization Lists: The New Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filby, P. William

    1983-01-01

    Reviews information sources designed to assist the genealogical researcher with the arrival of his/her ancestors: "A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists 1538-1825"; "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index"; "Philadelphia Naturalization Records." Examples provided include name entry, source citation, annotation, and subject entries. Nineteen…

  1. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner.... (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a crew and passenger list by paragraph (a) of...

  2. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, or... and passenger list by paragraph (a) of this section shall see that the list is prepared prior...

  3. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  4. Icebreaking ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Antarctic Program will have a new ship for working in polar waters by early 1992. It will be the first U.S. ship with icebreaking capability dedicated to scientific research. The Polar Duke, currently leased by the National Science Foundation, which manages the program, is ice-strengthened but cannot break ice.NSF announced in February that an $83.8-million contract for construction and 10-year lease of the 900-m ship had been signed with Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., of Galliano, La. The design calls for a crew of 22, support for the research of 37 scientists for cruises as long as 75 days, a helicopter landing deck and housing and maintenance for two 4-passenger helicopters. The ship will have two propellers with three diesel engines driving each; the six engines can generate 11,070 horsepower. While it is not a true icebreaker, the ship will be able to break ice as thick as a meter at a speed of 3 knots

  5. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth...

  6. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial doma...

  7. The application of process integration to the optimisation of cruise ship energy systems: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Ahlgren, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    its integration with available sources of waste heat on board.In this study, the principles of process integration are applied to the energy system of a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The heat sources (waste heat from the main and auxiliary engines in form of exhaust gas, cylinder cooling...... energy available in the exhaust gas, which resulted in up to 900 kW of power being available for on board electric power demand.......In recent years, the shipping industry has faced an increasing number of challenges in terms of fluctuating fuel prices, stricter environmental regulations, and concerns about global warming. In this situation, passenger volumes on cruise ships have increased from around 4 million to 13 million...

  8. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  9. 基于xPC Target平台的实船训练系统%Ship on-board Training System Design Based on xPC Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李又一; 王海燕; 乔南

    2014-01-01

    Along with the Chinese dream to build a powerful blue country, marine industry has become a major focus of economic development, more and more people are concerned about it. The shipping and shipbuilding strength is the main indicator to determine the maritime power of a country, the technological content of the ship and the quality of the crew is the main factor to measure. This paper proposes a on board training system based on xPC Target, simulation training system is about to be embedded into the actual ship, allowing the crew both in the sea or in port can get training opportunities.%伴随着中国梦之构筑蓝色强国梦的提出,海洋产业成为经济发展的一大重点,越来越多的被人们关注。而航运实力和造船实力是判断一个国家是否海洋强国的重要指标,其中船员的素质和船舶的科技含量是衡量的主要因素。本文就此提出一种基于 xPC Target对船员进行培训的实船训练系统,即将仿真训练系统嵌入到实际的船舶中,使船员无论在海上还是港内都可以提供训练机会。

  10. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured. PMID:20870214

  11. Observation of Oceanic Internal Waves via Ship-Board X-Band Radar off the Massachusetts Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. G.; Lerczak, J.; Shearman, R.

    2008-12-01

    The propagation of nonlinear internal waves traveling on the oceanic pycnocline has been shown to transport large masses of water both vertically and horizontally, affecting the currents, isobars, and mixing, as well as the biology and geology of the region. As these waves pass through the coastal ocean, they generate bands of intense convergence and divergence normal to the direction of propagation of the wave. Associated with these bands of convergence and divergence are areas of relatively rough and smooth sea surface which are visible both to the naked eye and to an appropriately tuned radar system. During the summer of 2008, as part of an internal wave experiment in Massachusetts Bay- a region where large amplitude, on-shore propagating internal waves are predictably formed each tidal cycle- approximately 20 wave packets were observed and tracked via the ship's X-Band radar. Here we discuss the methods and results used in quantifying internal wave properties observed via the X-Band radar, including: wave speed, direction of propagation, and the correlation between radar intensity and amplitude observed from the ship's CTD and ADCP, and moored observations.

  12. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... requested to don life jackets and go to the appropriate embarkation station during the safety...

  13. 舰载信息化弹药数据链需求分析%Demands Analysis for Data Link Technology of Ship-board Information Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岷; 严平; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Network centric warfare is concrete manifestations of the concept of united combat. Combining "kill" factor into the C4 ISR system, the concept of C4 KISR updates the network eentric warfare theory. Core question of information ammunition is transmission and control of information. In order to improve efficiency of ship-board information ammunition in C4KISR combat, a function analysis of shell-board data link is given. A TDMA data link scheme including slot allocation model is proposed to satisfy the demand from information ammunition.%网络中心战是联合作战思想的具体体现,aKISR概念将杀伤(Km)融人到aISR系统中,是对网络中心战理论的进一步发展。信息化弹药的核心问题是信息的传输与控制。为充分发挥aKISR作战中舰载弹药的作战效能,对弹载数据链的功能需求进行了分析,提出了一种时分多址的数据链方案,给出了相应的时隙结构及时隙分配方案。

  14. Ship-board report on atmospheric CO2 concentrations recorded on continuous from Mediterranean sea to Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results obtained from continuous measurements performed during two cruises with hemispherical courses. In this way, it has been obtained the latitudinal trend of CO2 in continuity of space and time along two hemispheric courses in 1994-95 and 1996-97 from Europe to Antarctica. The results are compared with measurements from the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL) cooperative air sampling network. The fitting of data recorded on board with the historical data sets recorded at Palmer Station is also presented, highlighting the current annual increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations

  15. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for...

  16. The international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive waste on board ships (INF Code) - An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    came to the same conclusion that existing standards are stringent and adequate and any environmental impact would be negligible. These 'complementary' measures were discussed at length in numerous committees of the IMO and in 1998 a specific requirement for ship-board emergency plans and notification to the nearest coastal in the event of an incident were added to the INF code. The INF code came into force as a mandatory instrument on 1 January 2001. The INF Code, as such, has presented no problems to us at British Nuclear Fuels Ltd as we have been operating through our subsidiary, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited, purpose built ships since 1979. The design resulted from consultation with experts and incorporated the Japanese regulations, with extra equipment added in line with technological developments and operating experience. These are sub-divided into a large number of compartments, which form a double hull around the cargo spaces and the duplication of essential systems and equipment which are in excess of what was to become the INF3 standard 14 years later. (author)

  17. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker;

    2013-01-01

    Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that error...

  18. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Apparatus to decompose and annihilate wet refuses bionically; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Namagomi no bio bunkai shometsuki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, S.

    1996-07-25

    A bionic refuse disposing and annihilating apparatus for wet refuses produced on board a ship was developed, and introduced in this paper. This apparatus uses a system that biomass as a decomposing medium is maintained dry in a disposal tank, and wet refuses are decomposed and annihilated by the biomass working only with water contained in the wet refuses themselves. The system uses a decomposing medium composed of a mixture of different kinds of organic matters mixed with various nutrients, and automatically controls absorption and exhalation of decomposing water without using a heater. Almost all of wet refuses decomposes and annihilates in twelve hours after having been charged in their original forms. The decomposing medium can be used continuously for six months to a year. Because of complete annihilation by the bionic effect, no residue is created. This system uses a normal-temperature decomposing and annihilating bionic technology, whose minimum temperature required for decomposition and annihilation is 10{degree}C or higher, and the highest permissible temperature is 75{degree}C. Dry and cool environment at about 20{degree}C is most suitable. Deodorizing function of the biomass itself as the decomposing medium suppresses odor generation. 3 figs.

  19. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  20. 46 CFR 26.03-9 - Voyage plans for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger list before taking an uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons on a Great Lake, an... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plans for uninspected passenger vessels of at... UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 26.03-9 Voyage plans for uninspected...

  1. 77 FR 27832 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Governing Board --Protection of vital shipping lanes --External relations: --Relations with the...

  2. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  3. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  4. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying dangerous cargo shall have on board a bill of lading, manifest, or shipping document giving the name...

  5. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking into......, especially with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This...... disutility may be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning...

  6. Motion induced passenger dislocations in life raft and life boat configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Andersen ,O.; Reinke, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project SafeCrafts, dealing with the safe abandoning of ships, the dislocation of passengers aboard life boats and rafts has been considered to be a risk regarding passenger survival at sea. To get an idea about the risks and the affecting factors involved, we studied the effects

  7. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods of...

  8. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

  9. Operational Measures For Energy Efficiency In Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Emin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify potential solutions to improve energy efficiency of the existing ships. To have an Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) on board has become mandatory for all ships starting from 1 January 2013. Increasing fuel prices and growing environmental concerns are driving the shipping industry to be more efficient. Therefore it is necessary to develop energy efficient operational measures.

  10. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  11. Multi-criteria Scantling Optimisation of Cruise Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Caprace, Jean-David; Bair, Frédéric; Rigo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool for the optimisation of the scantlings of a ship is extended by considering production cost, weight and moment of iner tia in the objective function. A multi-criteria optimisation of a passenger ship is conducted to illustrate the analysis process. Pareto frontiers are obtained and results are verified with Bureau Veritas rules.

  12. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  13. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  14. 76 FR 82027 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... against noise on board ships; --Provisions for the reduction of noise from commercial shipping and...

  15. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  16. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Passenger Traffic in a National Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Enciso, Javier; Vargas, Juan; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of a country's air transport infrastructure plays a major role in the economic development of nations. Due to the increasing use of air transportation in today's world, flights' boarding times have become a concern for both airlines and airports, thus the importance of knowing beforehand how changes in flights demand parameters and physical airport layout will affect passengers flow and boarding times. This paper presents a pedestrian modeling study in which a national airpo...

  18. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

  19. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  20. Child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  1. Cruise Shipping in the Adriatic-Ionian Region and its Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Žlak, Boštjan; Stojaković, Maja; Zanne, Marina; Twrdy, Elen

    2016-01-01

    Continuing – and constant - growth in world maritime traffic, and the increasing number of cruise ships in the Adriatic-Ionian region, was the motive for this study. Maritime passenger transport represents important part of tourism. This paper deals with maritime passenger transport, more specifically, maritime cruise traffic. Based on the data gathered through the EA SEA-WAY project, we have prepared an overview of the state of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic-Ionian region, identified...

  2. Manning of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manning of nuclear propelled merchant ships bases on two principles: safe management of the vessel from the starting port to the place of destination, including cargo handling; qualification for operating a nuclear plant. The German Atomic Law requires the proof of sufficient qualifications of the personnel running land-based power stations. These requirements are applied analogously at the technical crews of nuclear powered ships. After dealing with the differences of plant operation on board ship and land-based plants the education of technical crews will be discussed. At the example of NS OTTO HAHN, the manning, education of the key positions, and responsibility of the ship's management are presented. For reasons of comparison the crews of NS SAVANNAH and NS MUTSU are opposed to this. A hint will be given on the new developments in the manning field of conventional ships, and at least a view into the future will be given under the aspect of progressive studies on the questions of manning future ships, and the work carried out by IMCO for a code of nuclear powered merchant ships

  3. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  4. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  5. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database: Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  6. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  7. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger dat

  8. Sea Food, Sea Sick: Dining in the Cruise Ship Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneau, Brienne

    2009-01-01

    From its humble beginnings as a transportation enterprise in the nineteenth century, the modern cruise ship industry now serves millions of passengers each year. A significant proportion of the activity conducted by cruise ship personnel includes the preparation, service and preservation of food items. Therefore, sanitation policies and practices are of utmost importance aboard these vessels. Because of the potential for the spread of communicable food-borne diseases, the Centers for Disea...

  9. A study on exhaust gas emissions from ships in Turkish Straits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turkish Straits, i.e. Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanellen), which connect Black Sea and Aegean Sea, have a continuously increasing maritime traffic. Especially, the maritime traffic on Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait) that connects the continents of Europe and Asia is too complex due to geographical conditions. The maritime traffic in the Turkish Straits includes the ships, which are in use in domestic transport, the transit passing ships with various aims and fishing, sport or strolling ships. In this paper, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions NOx, CO, CO2, VOC, PM exhausted from ships such as transit vessels, which are passing both Bosphorus and Dardanellen, and passenger ships used in domestic transport on the Bosphorus are calculated. In order to do this the general characteristics, the main engine systems, the fuel types, cruising times and speeds of all vessels are taken into consideration. The calculated NOx emissions on the Bosphorus are 2720t from domestic passenger ships and 4357t from transit ships. In this case it is clear that the transit ships cause more than half of the total amount of emissions from ships on the Bosphorus. The amount of nitrogen oxide emissions from domestic passenger ships used for public transport in Istanbul Strait is equal to approx. 4% of nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles in Istanbul. Finally, the future emissions from ships in Turkish Straits are discussed. (Author)

  10. Shipping Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  11. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from...

  12. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  13. 46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the tropics shall, in general, be fitted with a mechanical ventilation system. ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. 72... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and...

  14. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  15. 46 CFR 35.01-10 - Shipping papers-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers-TB/ALL. 35.01-10 Section 35.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-10 Shipping papers—TB/ALL. Each loaded tank vessel shall have on board a bill of...

  16. Evaluation of Differentiation Strategy in Shipping Enterprises with Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxevanou, Anthi Z.; Ferfeli, Maria V.; Damianos, Sakas P.

    2009-08-01

    The present inquiring study aims at investigating the circumstances that prevail in the European Shipping Enterprises with special reference to the Greek ones. This investigation is held in order to explore the potential implementation of strategies so as to create a unique competitive advantage [1]. The Shipping sector is composed of enterprises that are mainly activated in the following three areas: the passenger, the commercial and the naval. The main target is to create a dynamic simulation model which, with reference to the STAIR strategic model, will evaluate the strategic differential choice that some of the shipping enterprises have.

  17. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bielić, Toni; Ivanišević, Dalibor; Gundić, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introduci...

  18. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  19. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  20. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  1. Regulations for the use of radioactive sources on board Norwegian drilling platforms and other mobile drilling units, laid down by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate on 13 January 1986 pursuant to the Act of 9 June 1903 No 7 relating to public control of the seaworthiness of ships etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under these Regulations, which entered into force on 15 February 1986, permits are required from the Maritime Directorate for the transport, storage and use of radioactive sources. When the radioactive source is carried by ship to the platforms, the operation is governed by the Regulations of 30 November 1979 on carriage by ships of special or dangerous cargo. The transport containers must comply with IAEA safety requirements. The storage room for the radioactive equipment must be marked with an appropriate warning sign and the distances between the room and other areas must comply with the relevant provisions of the IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Personnel must be trained for work with radioactive sources and must wear dosimeters during this work. In addition, protective measures must be taken to prevent any harmful effects from radiation to such personnel and to the general crew on board the platform. (NEA)

  2. Passenger flows prediction in major transportation hubs

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerova, O. O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linea...

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  4. INDICATORS APPLIED TO HIGHLIGHT THE VALORIZATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN SHIPPING

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP NISTOR; CATALIN POPA; IMRE RECZEY

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the shipping companies reconsidered their position regarding the importance of human capital because of the new trend in shipbuilding in conjunction with the enforcement of tighter regulations in shipping. Increasing profit of shipping companies was the result of valorization of human capital on board ships through acquirement of new skills and knowledge in accordance with technologies implemented on the new ships by training and development. Thus, identification of indicator...

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Collision Damages with Application to ro-Ro Passenger Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1997-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in Ro-ro passenger vessel traffic, rational criteria for prediction and evaluation of collision accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as the inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present report outlines a method...... for evaluation of the probability of a Ro-Ro passenger vessel on a given route being struck by another ship. Given a collision has taken place the spatial distribution of the collision damages is calculated. Results are presented in terms of probability distributions, for indentation depth, length and...

  6. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  7. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use for...

  8. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  9. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zone of limited suspension for domestic... and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This... except upon a clear showing of abuse of market power that the Board does not expect to be...

  10. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...

  11. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  12. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  13. An epidemiological study of rates of illness in passengers and crew at a busy Caribbean cruise port

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Cathy Ann; Morris, Euclid; Unwin, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Background The Caribbean has one of the largest cruise ship industries in the world, with close to 20 million visitors per year. The potential for communicable disease outbreaks on vessels and the transmission by ship between countries is high. Barbados has one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean. Our aim was to describe and analyse the epidemiology of illnesses experienced by passengers and crew arriving at the Bridgetown Port, Barbados between 2009 and 2013. Methods Data on the illnesses ...

  14. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies.

  15. Medical doctors as the captain of a ship: an analysis of medical students’ book reports on Joseph Conrad’s “Lord Jim”

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Hwang; Seung Jae Lee; Seong Yeon Kim; Se Won Hwang; Ae Yang Kim

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol) and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad’s novel “Lord Jim.” The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad’s “Lord Jim...

  16. Vibration issues in passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał BURDZIK; Konieczny, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  17. Vibration issues in passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  18. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  19. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...... concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea...

  20. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports

  1. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  2. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA)

  3. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carrying not more than 12 passengers. 177.315 Section 177.315 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12... than 12 passengers that do not meet the standards in §§ 177.300 or 177.310 may be approved by...

  4. A shared " passengers & goods " city logistics system

    OpenAIRE

    Trentini, Anna; Masson, Renaud; Lehuédé, Fabien; Malhéné, Nicolas; Péton, Olivier; Tlahig, Houda

    2012-01-01

    Many strategic planning models have been developed to help decision making in city logistics. Such models do not take into account, or very few, the flow of passengers because the considered unit does not have the same nature (a person is active and a good is passive). However, it seems fundamental to gather the goods and the passengers in one model when their respective transports interact with each other. In this context, we suggest assessing a shared passengers & goods city logistics syste...

  5. Literature review on the tele medical advice for ships (TMAS) 2005-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canals, M. Luisa; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Eliseo Prisno-III, Don;

    Background: The presentation will provide a review of the international scientific literature on telemedical assistance for ships (TMAS) during the latest 10 years. Materials and Methods: The literature search was done in collaboration in the three geographical IMHA-research groups by using Pub......Med and the respective national scientific journals. The search terms used: "telemedicine AND maritime, seafarers, ships, shipping, fishermen, fisherman, fishing, passengers". Results: All the abstracts (n= 54) were entered in the Zotero database and distributed in 5 categories: TMAS cross...... that other interesting articles can be found. Conclusions: The cross-sectional studies show that cardio-vascular disease and injuries form the main parts of the radio medical advice in the merchant, the fishing and the passenger/cruise ships segments. Even if the national TMAS centres have highly...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  7. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  8. Analysis of Psychosocial Environment and Its Management Onboard A Merchant Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar, Adikesavan

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the health, safety and psychosocial work environment and its management on board a merchant ship – M.T.Orchids. On field study is done onboard the merchant ship in order to understand the existing practices onboard the ship using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, observation and documentary analysis as research techniques. The study specifically looks at analyzing the gaps between the documented procedures and the actual followed procedures onboard the ship. Thi...

  9. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now only six non-military ships have been built or are under construction. The operation and experience with the NS OTTO HAHN, which is of value for future large-scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion, is discussed. In many countries studies and plans are being made for further nuclear merchant ships. The types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: nuclear ship technology; economy of nuclear ship propulsion; and legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology has been based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant, entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proved by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in FRG. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proved by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions, e.g. in connection with port entry permission, are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land-based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long-distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account. (author)

  10. Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Off-board Radar Active Decoy Jamming Anti-ship Missile%舷外雷达有源诱饵干扰反舰导弹仿真建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖中安; 王彩英

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing the jamming mechanism of off-board radar active decoy, this paper performs math modeling to its key parameters such as deploying distance, deploying angle, etc. , simulates and analyzes the best values of key parameters, the purpose is seeking for the best meth- od to exert the jamming efficiency of off-board active decoy,which gives the base for the battlefield usage and army training of off-board active decoy.%通过分析舷外雷达有源诱饵的干扰机理,对其布放距离、布放角度等关键参数进行数学建模,并仿真分析关键参数的最佳值,来寻求最佳方法发挥舷外有源诱饵的干扰效能,为舷外有源诱饵的战场使用和部队训练打下了基础。

  11. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger briefing. 91.519 Section 91.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... be supplemented by printed cards for the use of each passenger containing— (1) A diagram of,...

  12. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... accident scene, and from the ability of the railroad personnel to minimize health and safety risks through... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... See 69 FR 69244 and 69245, November 26, 2004. The ANPRM requested comment on whether and how to... guidelines for comment. See 71 FR 38563, July 7, 2006. We received more than 175 comments on the 2006 draft... include onboard accessible routes connecting passenger decks and passenger amenities within...

  14. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

  15. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  16. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  17. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  18. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    to estimate the actual passenger delays. The combination of the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software is described, demonstrating the possibility of predicting future passenger delays. The described passenger regularity model is run daily to calculate the passenger delays of the......Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...

  19. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  20. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  1. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  2. Nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional and nuclear merchant ships are compared with a view to economics. Still, one should keep in mind that for quite a time, nuclear merchant ships will remain improbable - not the least for environmental reasons. For the time beyond the year 2000, it is expectet that nuclear fission will be replaced by fusion energy. This form of energy cannot be directly used for ship propulsion, but it may indirectly give new impetus to merchant ship operation via coastal fusion plants for the production of synthetic fuels. (UA)

  3. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  4. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation) and a...

  5. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...

  6. The application of process integration to the optimisation of cruise ship energy systems: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Francesco; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Ahlgren, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the shipping industry has faced an increasing number of challenges in terms of fluctuating fuel prices, stricter environmental regulations, and concerns about global warming. In this situation, passenger volumes on cruise ships have increased from around 4 million to 13 million from 1990 to 2008 and keep growing today. A small cruise ship can emit about 85 tons of CO2 per day, and require around 27 tons of fuel per day. To keep up with market demand, while reducing their impa...

  7. Health physics experience with the nuclear merchant ship 'Otto Hahn'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological situation on board NS OTTO HAHN after nine years of operation is reviewed. Values are presented for radioactivity in water and air circuits of the reactor and for dose rates in the controlled area, and the living quarters of the ship. The personnel doses during normal operation and maintenance periods are given. Special experimental series in γ-spectroscopy allowed to analyze the radionuclides in the reactor component circuits. Some ship typical health physics problems and advantages are mentioned

  8. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  9. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  10. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  11. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives the status of the development of a ship-hydrodynamic model for real-time ship-wave calculation and ship-structure and ship-ship interaction in a full mission marine simulator. The hydrodynamic model is based on potential flow theory, linear or non-linear free surface boundary...

  12. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  13. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First the...... paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software....... The paper demonstrates the possibility of predicting future passenger delays by calculating the expected passenger regularity of the entire Copenhagen suburban network. The results obtained with the passenger regularity model used together with the simulation software are very similar to the daily...

  14. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are...... just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  15. Nuclear ships and their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation

  16. Characterization of fleet emissions from ships through multi-individual determination of size-resolved particle emissions in a coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias; Hallquist, Åsa M.

    2015-07-01

    Shipping is becoming a major source of particulate air pollution in coastal cities. Here we describe the use of a stationary measurement site to characterize nanoparticle emissions (5.6-560 nm) from a large ship fleet (154 ships) in a harbor region of an emission control area (ECA) under real-world dilution conditions. Emission factors (EFs) are described with respect to particle number (PN), mass (PM), size and volatility. Automatic Identification System data were used to obtain information on ship class, direction, speed and acceleration. Cargo and passenger ships had similar average EFs: 2.79 ± 0.19 vs. 2.35 ± 0.20 × 1016 # (kg fuel)-1 and 2550 ± 170 vs. 2200 ± 130 mg (kg fuel)-1 respectively. The number size distributions for cargo and passenger ships were unimodal, peaking at ∼40 nm. Tug-boats and pilots emitted smaller particles with lower EFPN and EFPM. For emissions of non-volatile particles from cargo and passenger ships EFPM increased with decreasing speed and acceleration while the EFPN decreased. The size distributions of the non-volatile particles for all ships contained a large mode at ∼10 nm. This peak is believed to be formed during plume aging. A detailed understanding of size-resolved particle emissions from individual ships will be important in designing appropriate emission regulations for coastal areas.

  17. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state...

  18. OF THE CUSTOMER VALUE OF PASSENGERS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalinsky, O.

    2013-01-01

    The customer's service value is creating at interaction between service provider and client. The customer service value determinants are influent to the client’s behavior. Studies of passenger transportation customer value usually are limited to the identification of the reaction to the quality of transport services and the money expenses for the purchasing of a ticket. Passenger transportation service at the long-distance trips is characterized by considerable complexity and divergence of th...

  19. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

    2015-01-01

    People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

  20. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  2. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  3. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  4. Ship accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  5. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  6. [The hospital ship Jutlandia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, M

    1996-01-01

    The Danish contribution to the United Nations action during the Korean War (1950-52) was the hospital ship "Jutlandia". The motorvessel Jutlandia - 8.500 tons - was built by the Nakskov Shipyard in 1934, and was rebuilt in three months at the same shipyard to a modern hospital ship with 300 beds, 3 operating theatres, a dental clinic, an x-ray department etc. The crew and the hospital staff consisted approximately each of 100 persons. Jutlandia sailed for Korea on Jan. 23. 1951 and the expedition ended in Copenhagen on Oct. 16. 1953. On the first two cruises the ship was stationed at Pusan. During the first period mostly as an "evacuation sick-bay" and during the second period the ship was opened for Korean military and civil patients, and extensive help was given to the local population on shore. While in Denmark between the second and third cruise a helicopter deck was installed and the operating theatre for neuro-surgery was changed to an opthalmic clinic. This time the ship was stationed at the Bay of Ichon so close to the front, that the wounded could be admitted directly from the advanced dressing stations. On the return journeys to Europe patients were sailed to their home countries. Commodore Kai Hammerich was in charge of the expedition and captain Christen Kondrup was in charge of the ship, throughout the whole expedition. PMID:11625136

  7. Development of waste and effluents management on board in the seismic ship operating in Brazilian seas; Desenvolvimento do programa de gestao de residuos solidos e efluentes a bordo de um navio de sismica operando em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Mauricio Duppre de [Okeanos Consultoria e Meio Ambiente Ltda. (Brazil); Derntl, Jose Renato; Pereira, Edisio; Ribeiro, Camila Castroviejo da Silva [GEOCOOP Cooperativa de Trabalho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George Andre; Oliveira, Joao Luiz Martinez de [CGG do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Cristina Maschio de [Nautilus Cooperativa de Trabalho (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the results regarding CGG's Waste and Effluents Management Program between February 2003 and April 2004 on M/V CGG HARMATTAN. It main objective is to trace all waste and effluents since its generation until its final disposal. To implement this program CGG has two environmental technicians on board, whose are responsible for supervising the program, as well as educating, training, and optimizing waste and effluents segregation. Furthermore, the company also employs a consultant team to logistic management on shore; whose are responsible for executing, transferring, transporting and yours final disposing. Results show a monthly generation of 7.428 Kg and 97.3 m3 in average for waste and effluents respectively. Data indicates waste generation peaks during port calls. Waste tracing has improved along the year, allowing better control and resulting in value decreasing for port calls. Effluents are constantly generated in the same amount with monthly average of 50.2 m3 for bilge water, 41 m3 for sewage and 6.1 m3 for sludge. The percentage of non-recyclable waste sent to cleaner technology (co-processing and re-use) has been increasing along the year, replacing industrial landfill and incinerator use. Latest numbers already show the first results concerning it (2.2% re-used and 24,5% co-processed of total produced solid garbage). Re -used numbers are resulted from pioneer partnership between CGG and fishermen communities, for their original activity. The reached results and environmental indicators show that program efficiency has been evolving, considering logistic, economic, social and environmental aspects, constantly optimized with measures to increase control. (author)

  8. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined to...... energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6 % of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show that for...

  9. 49 CFR 27.72 - Boarding assistance for aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5) The agreement shall ensure that all lifts and other... available means to which the passenger consents, except hand-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boarding assistance for aircraft. 27.72 Section...

  10. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  11. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  12. Robot mother ship design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  13. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  14. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  15. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  16. High Precision Control of Ship-Mounted Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Soltani; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    The telecommunication on a modern merchandise ship is maintained by means of satellite communication. The task of the tracking system is to position the on-board antenna toward a chosen satellite. The control system is capable of rejecting the external disturbances which affect on the under...

  17. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  18. First-year performance assessment of SWATH Research Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Larry; Hebert, David; Measures, Chris; Slowey, Niall; Whitledge, Terry; Reimers, Clare; Benner, Ron; Coburn, Joe

    The first small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) design ship in the U.S. academic research vessel fleet, the R/V Kilo Moana (Figure 1), entered service in September 2002. The ship, whose home port is in Honolulu, has been operating with diverse groups of oceanographers on board. Before the ship became operational, the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System Fleet Improvement Committee (UNOLS- FIC) decided that it was important to gather fair and representative impressions of the vessel's performance from the first scientists on board. Science mission requirements developed over the past year by UNOLS have all indicated that sea-keeping is a very high priority: oceano graphers wanted to work comfortably at higher sea states. Just about the only way to achieve this is by using the SWATH design rather than the mono-hull.

  19. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...... the elastic energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6% of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also...

  20. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions to...... measured torque on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter...... in results and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  1. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  2. Piracy in shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Mejia Jr., Maximo; Cariou, Pierre; wolff, François-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Piracy in its various forms has posed a threat to trade and shipping for millennia. In the 1970s, a steady rise in the number of attacks ushered in the present phenomenon of modern piracy and not many parts of the world's seas are free from piracy in one form or another today. This paper reviews the historical and geographical developments of piracy in shipping, with a discussion on contentious issues involved in defining piracy. Using data available on piracy acts collected from the IMB rela...

  3. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf MERK

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  4. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade the......The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...

  5. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  6. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  7. STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PASSENGER RAILWAY TRANSPORTATIONS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Tokmakova, I.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of the state of passenger railway transportations is conducted at the domestic transport market, strategic directions are exposed them subsequent development and way of providing of the effective functioning of railway passenger complex.

  8. Ship Design and Construction. An Integrated University Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated course in design and construction of merchant ships taught at the Department of Naval Architecture andOffshore Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark. During the course, the students make a preliminary design of a ship of selected type and also design...... its engine room. The teaching combines lectures with laboratory work at the drawing tables and computer terminals. During the summer holiday, sea time on board ships of the relevant types are offered. Experienced naval architects from shipyards and ship consultancies give lectures and instructions on...... special subjects in addition to the teaching provided by the university professors. The course is offered to and especially designed for students relatively early in their Master's programme....

  9. Emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses global emission of ship transport based on fuel consumption, military and civil fleet sizes and average engine statistics. Part 1 gives estimates for the years 1950 to 2001, part 2 displays scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. (uke)

  10. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  11. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  12. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  13. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  14. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  15. MODERNISATION OF PASSENGERS STOCK DEPOT AT THE REGIONAL DIVISION BRASOV

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines. Passenger transport organization should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations;...

  16. Ship and installation program optimal stationing of Naval ships

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, Devon K.

    2006-01-01

    .2 billion in savings. We also investigate the influence of using two different measures of pier capacity and incorporate 30 new ships and submarines to demonstrate SHIP's ability to station the proposed future force structure.

  17. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

    2008-01-01

    The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

  18. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    relationship with the NC team was established; scientists on board enjoyed being included in outreach activities. The two educators that participated had a memorable experience and thoroughly enjoyed the activities and opportunities on board. Both educators expressed that clear expectations from ONC prior to the cruise allowed them to establish themselves as part of the team and complete their intended activities and outputs. Those on shore interacting with the MEs and the cruise website provided favorable feedback about the program and wish to participate in the future. Lessons Learned: Increased promotion to teachers, teachers' associations, school districts, museums, aquariums and science centers would have increased the awareness of the S2SME program among educators. Greater promotion online prior to and during the cruise would have drawn even more visitors to the website. Furthermore, scheduling classrooms to participate in live video conferencing presentations in advance would have resulted in more students engaged. We aim to expand the S2SME Program across Canada. In particular, we hope to encourage educators living in regions removed from the ocean to participate on the ship and in live connections to-shore. Connecting educators and students coast-to-coast with the ocean in real-time will enhance their awareness and understanding of the marine ecosystem and its many processes.

  19. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135... Flight Operations § 135.117 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff each pilot in... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

  20. 14 CFR 125.327 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 125... § 125.327 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff, each pilot in command of an... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

  1. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... noise levels. (f) The oral briefing required by paragraph (a) of this section must be supplemented...

  3. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CITY PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, V.; Golub, D.

    2008-01-01

    The specific process of city passenger transportation is given. The aggregate of parameters of transportation process on subsystems has been analysed. The model of one-day operation of motor transport enterprise using the system approach and process simulating by stages has been built.

  4. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  5. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  6. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics are...

  7. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  8. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  9. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  10. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  11. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  12. Enhancing board effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Like any other job, board work is associated with specific competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to perform a job or task effectively. Boards are only as strong as their weakest member. Board education should focus on improving the knowledge and skills of the board and individual members and on overall board performance. Assessment of individual board member performance is designed to evaluate the trustee's knowledge of board roles and responsibilities and the expectations of board members. Board effectiveness is built through competency-based board member recruitment and selection; board member education and development; and evaluation of board, board member, and meeting performance. PMID:21291066

  13. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  14. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2009-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  15. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  16. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  17. Wound infections on board ship--prevention, pathogens, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Wounds are common in seafarers and they can easily become infected in the marine environment. Pre-sea tetanus immunization is essential. Without diagnostic facilities and only a limited range of antibiotics onboard, injury prevention and early treatment to reduce the likelihood of infection are important measures. Suturing clean cuts reduces healing time and risk of infection. Fresh, clean cuts, especially on the face or head, can be closed by adhesive tape or sutures, but if infection arises, then one or more sutures should be removed to enable drainage. Most wounds must be considered contaminated and should not be closed, just covered with sterile dressing after cleaning. Antibiotic treatment should be started immediately in seafarers with hand and puncture wounds. The primary treatment for a simple abscess is incision and drainage. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for abscesses if the infection spreads to the surrounding tissue (associated cellulitis), if there is lack of response to incision and drainage alone, or if the abscess is in an area difficult or dangerous to drain (e.g. face, palm, genitalia). Recommended therapy for cellulitis is 5-10 days of dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, or erythromycin, but if there is no improvement after 2-3 days, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) should be suspected. Bites and burn wounds require special attention. Since wound infections can deteriorate rapidly, a telemedicine advice service (TMAS) should be consulted during the early stages, and serial digital photographs of the affected area, transmitted by e-mail to TMAS, are often useful during treatment at sea. PMID:22258845

  18. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members, representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research. They are from 47 countries, including Argentina (3), Australia (13), Austria (4), Belarus (1), Belgium (3), Brazil (10), Canada (10), China (41), Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Egypt (3), Estonia (1), Finland

  19. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark

  20. Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers during some Czechoslovak airlines commercial flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers on boards of Czechoslovak Airlines (CSA) subsonic aircraft was studied. It was found that the exposure levels depends on flights altitude, changes also with geographical position (latitude and longitude). Measurements were performed during 1991 to 1993 years; i.e. at the period of sun maximum and immediately after it. Total dose equivalent rates did not exceed 10 μSv per hour of flight. An increasing of its level with decreasing sun activity has been already registered. (orig.)

  1. Simulation Augmented Manoeuvring Design and Monitoring - a New Method for Advanced Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Benedict

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A fast time simulation tool box is under development to simulate the ships motion with complex dynamic models and to display the ships track immediately for the intended or actual rudder or engine manoeuvre. Based on this approach the innovative Simulation Augmented Manoeuvring Design and Monitoring - SAMMON tool box will allow for (a a new type of design of a manoeuvring plan as enhancement exceeding the common pure way point planning (b an unmatched monitoring of ship handling processes to follow the underlying manoeuvring plan. During the manoeuvring process the planned manoeuvres can be constantly displayed together with the actual ship motion and the predicted future track which is based on actual input data from the ship's sensors and manoeuvring handle positions. This SAMMON tool box is intended be used on board of real ships but it is in parallel an effective tool for training in ship handling simulators: (a in the briefing for preparing a manoeuvring plan for the whole exercise in some minutes, (b during the exercise run to see the consequences of the use of manoeuvring equipment even before the ship has changed her motion and (c in debriefing sessions to discuss potential alternatives of the students decisions by simulating fast variations of their choices during the exercises. Examples will be given for results from test trials on board and in the full mission ship handling simulator of the Maritime Simulation Centre Warnemuende.

  2. Considerations for Passenger Transport by Advanced Spaceplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Scott, J. L.; Harrison, M.; Woodrow, A. D.

    One of the strongest incentives to space industry development in the 21st century is likely to be space tourism. At present the greatest handicaps to the exploitation of this opportunity are the prohibitive cost of access to space (few tourists could afford the ticket) and safety (astronautics remains an inherently dangerous occupation). This paper addresses both of these issues. First, the characteristics required of a vehicle suitable for carrying passengers into space are discussed in the context of the SKYLON spaceplane concept. Attention is focused on the design of the cabin module. Then the needs of the passengers are considered both from the perspectives of safety (the unique environmental hazards), health, and comfort. The paper concludes with a review of the key issues.

  3. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  4. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqian Qu; Jinfu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the dif...

  5. Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A macroeconomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mennel, Tim; Jokisch, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today?s transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This working paper assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model PACE-T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European countries from the introduction of hydrogen. The magnitude of ...

  6. Disruption management in passenger railway transportation.

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen-Groth, J.; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, J.; Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Maróti, Gábor; Nielsen, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an o...

  7. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics such as shu...

  8. Operations research in passenger railway transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics as shuntin...

  9. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2012-01-01

    more accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship......We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable...

  10. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

  11. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  12. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  13. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  14. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  15. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  16. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  17. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van;

    2015-01-01

    increasing share of the industry. The complexity of the energy system of a s hip where the energy required by propulsion is no longer the trivial main contributor to the whole energy use thus makes this kind of ship of particular interest for the analysis of how energy is converted from its original form to...... destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil - fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%) ; the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (6 7% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices . The improved...... its final use on board. To illustrate this, we perform ed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system . The energy analys is allows...

  19. Recovery energy from ship propulsion system based on microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanoaia, F.; Nicorescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    All shipping companies are involved in the several management programs for increasing of efficiency of transportation on the sea. Optimal transportation is one of actual tendency in the world shipbuilding which requests a lot of human resources in design development respectively in construction of the ships. One direction with very good results is to use one part of propulsion energy for electrical power generating on board with multiple technical and economical advantages. Based on this, more resources in research and design are encouraged by development projects in order to increase the efficiency of described system. Even if, power-generating plant is one of classic ship mecatronics system, it must to be continuously perfected in the way of decreasing of specific fuel consumption as well in the increasing of the friableness and endurance.

  20. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  1. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  2. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

  3. EMI Standards for Wireless Voice and Data on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.

    2002-01-01

    The use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) on board aircraft continues to be an increasing source of misunderstanding between passengers and flight-crews, and consequently, an issue of controversy between wireless product manufacturers and air transport regulatory authorities. This conflict arises primarily because of the vastly different regulatory objectives between commercial product and airborne equipment standards for avoiding electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper summarizes international regulatory limits and test processes for measuring spurious radiated emissions from commercially available PEDs, and compares them to international standards for airborne equipment. The goal is to provide insight for wireless product developers desiring to extend the freedom of their customers to use wireless products on-board aircraft, and to identify future product characteristics, test methods and technologies that may facilitate improved wireless freedom for airline passengers.

  4. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  5. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2012-2016 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery Editorial Board consists of 341 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in pediatrics.They are from 37 countries,including Australia(6),Austria(2),Belgium(6),Brazil(9),Bulgaria(2),Canada(8),China(29),Denmark(1),Finland(2),France(9),Germany(21),Greece(7),India(11),Ireland(3),Israel(3),Italy(50),Jamaica(1),Japan(47),Lithuania(1),Malaysia(1),Netherlands(11),Pakistan(1),Poland(1),Portugal(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(1),Serbia(2),Singapore(5),South Korea(8),Spain(5),Sweden(2),Switzerland(3),Thailand(2),Tunisia(1),Turkey(8),United Kingdom(11),and United States(59).

  6. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  7. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation fo...

  8. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    suborbital passenger vehicles such as bloon, Spaceplane as well as SpaceShipTwo (which is British-owned) this is clearly the appropriate time for the EC or other competent institutions to issue regulations regarding suborbital passenger flight. Rules and regulations regarding suborbital passenger transport such as liability and waivers to protect third parties, governments, and operators, need to be addressed by the European Union (EU) as a whole or at least by national or regional governments wishing to attract suborbital passenger flights to their territory. After all, it would be in Europe's financial and other interests to create and foster a favorable legal and commercial environment for the aerospace business within the borders of the EU.

  9. Hydra - a fuel cell passenger-boat; Hydra - ein Brennstoffzellenpassagierboot. BZ-Antrieb erstmals fuer oeffentliche Gewaesser zugelassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauff, O. [Technologietransfer und Innovationszentrum Region Bonn GmbH und Co KG, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    To introduce a new technology to a market needs more than a technical development. As an example of the several steps necessary the development of the fuel cell passenger boat 'Hydra' not only took the construction of a special driving shaft and propeller as well as the design of a novel ship's belly. It also took dedicated negotiations to get the necessary certification and registration. The 'Hydra' had its maiden voyage in June 2000, it is powered by a 5 kW ZeTek Power AFC that is operated at 75 C. (orig.)

  10. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  11. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  13. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  14. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  15. Medical doctors as the captain of a ship: an analysis of medical students’ book reports on Joseph Conrad’s “Lord Jim”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hwang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In South Korean ferry disaster in 2014, the captain abandoned the ship with passengers including high school students still aboard. We noticed the resemblance of abandoning the ship with passengers still aboard the ferry (named the Sewol and the ship Patna, which was full of pilgrims, in Joseph Conrad’s novel “Lord Jim.” The aim of this study is to see how medical students think about the role of a medical doctor as a captain of a ship by analyzing book reports on Conrad’s “Lord Jim.” Methods: Participants included 49 third-year medical students. Their book reports were analyzed. Results: If placed in the same situation as the character of Jim, 24 students of the 49 respondents answered that they would stay with the passengers, while 18 students indicated they would escape from the ship with the crew. Most of the students thought the role of a doctor in the medical field was like that of a ‘captain.’ The medical students reported that they wanted to be a doctor who is responsible for his or her patients, highly moral, warm-hearted, honest, and with high self-esteem. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that “Lord Jim” induced the virtue of ‘responsibility’ from the medical students. Consequently, “Lord Jim” could be good teaching material for medical humanities.

  16. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Water vapour (H2O) and NOx emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  17. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2011-2015The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark(1),Egypt(3),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(5),Germany(21),Greece(6),Hungary(4),India(18),Iran(6),Ireland(1),Israel(4),Italy(35),Japan(34),Lebanon(1),Lithuania(3),Mexico(2),Netherlands(10),New Zealand(2),Norway(2),Pakistan(2),Philippines(1),Poland(3),Portugal(2),Romania(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(2),Singapore(3),Slovenia(1),South Africa(1),South Korea(16),Spain(13),Sweden(3),Switzerland(1),Thailand(4),Turkey(7),United Kingdom(20),and United States(84).

  18. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... all cars. Emergency lighting power sources that include batteries located under passenger cars may not... was codified as a Federal regulatory requirement for all passenger cars in 1999. See 64 FR 25540. FRA... recent accidents support NTSB's implied concern that placement of electrical conduits and battery...

  19. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  20. 14 CFR 121.573 - Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing passengers: Extended overwater... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.573 Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations. (a) In addition to the oral briefing required by §...

  1. NECESSITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND INTRODUCTION OF PASSENGER COMPLEX COMMERCIAL SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, U.; Dergousova, A.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of development and introduction of complex commercial services is in-process considered for the passenger economy of railways. Expediency of their development is shown with the purpose of increase of profitableness and diminishing of losses of passenger transportations.

  2. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline...

  3. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  4. 75 FR 739 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., ``Use of Certain Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft'' (70 FR 40156). SFAR 106 is the result of a notice the FAA published in July 2004 (69 FR 42324) to address the needs of passengers who... Inogen, Inc.'s Inogen One POCs. SFAR 106 was amended on September 12, 2006, (71 FR 53954) to add...

  5. Shipping Lanes in U.S. Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GIS REST service for "Shipping Lanes in U.S. waters" provides raster maps of the Shipping Lanes is a term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping...

  6. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    encounter frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull......,400 TEU ships, but, in addition to ship size, speed and bow flare angle are also believed to be important factors contributing to the hull girder vibrations. The hull girder vibrational response is found to be dominated by the 2-node vertical bending mode. No torsional vibrations are found but torsion may...... analogy, i.e. use the motions of the ship and the associated motion transfer functions to derive the sea state parameters. The method is promising but needs further refinement before it can be implemented in decision support systems on board ships. Fatigue damage is estimated from full scale strain...

  7. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  8. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station.

  9. 49 CFR 39.29 - May PVOs limit the number of passengers with a disability on a passenger vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mobility disability on your vessel. However, if in the Captain's judgment, weight or stability issues are presented by the presence of mobility devices and would conflict with legitimate safety requirements pertaining to the vessel and its passengers, then the number of passengers with mobility aids may be...

  10. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  11. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  12. Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Legara, Erika Fille

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...

  13. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS. These...... are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  14. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the difference of the factors for different city. By comparing demand distribution with airports’ throughput, we can analyze the demand flow. There are some conclusions. The factors have different contribution rate to different city for demand generation. Aircraft movement is the most important factor influencing demand flow. It provides more accurate basis for market positioning and developing, airport layout in a multi-airport system.

  15. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...... between model, data and estimation are described, with a focus of possibilities/limitations of different techniques. Two special issues of modelling are addressed in further detail, namely data segmentation and estimation of Mixed Logit models. Both issues are concerned with whether individuals can be...... assumed ’homogeneous’, that is, can be described by the same model (fixed coefficients). First, a new method for data segmentation is proposed, which segments data by individual preferences. Segmentation by individual preferences will diminish the severeness of the assumed homogeneity of individuals...

  16. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  17. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... levels. The model validity is strongly asserted by the fact that the forecasting results for 2000 exhibit a very good fir to the observed car and public transport traffic, and that some modfel results (e.g. car driving cost elesticity) match the results from other well established models well. This paper...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well the...

  18. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  19. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...... quality.The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of...

  20. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  1. Primary particles in ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  2. European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars against real-world mobility data from two Italian provinces

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINI Giorgio; PAFFUMI Elena; DE GENNARO MICHELE; MELLIOS Giorgos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars based on real-world mobility data. The study relies on two large databases of driving patterns from conventional fuel vehicles collected by means of on-board GPS systems in the Italian provinces of Modena and Firenze. Approximately 28,000 vehicles were monitored, corresponding to approximately 36 million kilometres over a period of one month. The driving pat...

  3. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard – a harbinger of a more polluted Arctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3, Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when ships were not present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime mean concentrations of 60 nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45%, respectively, relative to values when ships are not present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO. The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles, while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are present although they carry high pollutant concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60 nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications. Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summertime Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains as one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is

  4. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  5. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  6. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Petersen, Bjørn; Røpke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost, by...... modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  7. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF6, and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF6. After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  8. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  9. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

  10. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  11. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  12. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaranta Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. Methods A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2–14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14 × 103 CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2–14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72 × 103 CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p

  13. Prehospital thrombolysis perfomed by a ship's nurse with on-line physician consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Olli; Mäkijärvi, Markku; Silfvast, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Prehospital thrombolysis for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown to improve recovery from myocardial function. We describe prehospital thrombolytic treatment in two patients suffering from STEMI complicated by ventricular fibrillation (VF) on a passenger ship. The importance of a functioning Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system providing guidance for paramedical personnel is discussed briefly. Both our patients survived and returned back to normal life. It is concluded that EMS physician guided prehospital thrombolytic treatment may offer an important therapeutic option for nurses or paramedics in locations out of reach of ordinary EMS services. PMID:15680535

  14. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, (Sweden); Laurikko, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Ryden, C. [Tima, (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm`s Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV`s and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm's Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV's and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  16. Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

  17. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Qinyou Hu; F. Cai; Chun Yang; Chaojian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express p...

  18. Studying Network design in Container linter shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

  19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where a...... very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  20. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  1. [Flight and altitude medicine for anesthetists-part 3: emergencies on board commercial aircraft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürgen; Stüben, Uwe; Pump, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The demographic trend of industrialized societies is also reflected in commercial airlines' passengers: passengers are older nowadays and long-haul flights are routine mode of transport despite considerable chronic and acute medical conditions. Moreover, duration of non-stop flight routes and the number of passengers on board increase. Thus, the probability of a medical incident during a particular flight event increases, too.Due to international regulations minimum standards for medical equipment on board, and first aid training of the crews are set. However, it is often difficult to assess whether a stopover at a nearby airport can improve the medical care of a critically ill passenger. Besides flight operations and technical aspects, the medical infrastructure on the ground has to be considered carefully.Regardless of the amount of experience of a physician medical emergencies on board an aircraft usually represent a particular challenge. This is mainly due to the unfamiliar surroundings, the characteristics of the cabin atmosphere, the often existing cultural and language barriers and legal liability concerns. PMID:23633251

  2. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  3. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  4. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  5. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...... modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired by the...... express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen Area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger waiting times in the network of 10-20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining largely unaffected....

  6. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2013-01-01

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost, by...... modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...... by the express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger transfer waiting times in the network of up to 20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining mostly unaffected....

  7. Marginalizing Out Future Passengers in Group Elevator Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nikovski, Daniel N.; Brand, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Group elevator scheduling is an NP-hard sequential decision-making problem with unbounded state spaces and substantial uncertainty. Decision-theoretic reasoning plays a surprisingly limited role in fielded systems. A new opportunity for probabilistic methods has opened with the recent discovery of a tractable solution for the expected waiting times of all passengers in the building, marginalized over all possible passenger itineraries. Though commercially competitive, this solution does not c...

  8. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental acco...

  9. ACTIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION IN RAILWAY PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt of numerical description of the active vibration isolation system of railway passenger car. Computer simulations were performed for different speeds of the passenger car riding along the same track. Formal basis to solve the formulated research problem was achieved by using the law and the principles of mechanics and control theory. Model results clearly indicate that the use of active vibration reduction systems in rail transport can significantly increase comfort

  10. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Dou Dou; Jie Xu; Li Wang; Limin Jia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during...

  11. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container configura......An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  13. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... the primary hull structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural...

  14. Ship waves and lee waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

  15. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  16. Traditional Sailing Ships as Indigenous Dalmatian Nautical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Favro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern tourist movements of the development of selective tourism forms have offered an opportunity to implement the valorisation of Croatian littoral area through the development of nautical tourism in all its forms, cruising included. As opposed to international cruise market, where the main word have cruisers with few hundred to several thousand passengers, a special type of multi-day cruising or excursion cruising along Croatian coast on traditional Croatian sailing ships has significantly developed in the last few years. Wooden sailing ships have a magical power to attract. They won’t pass unnoticed regardless a huge competition of new trends in constructing technologically perfect modern mega-yachts and the most sophisticated mega-cruisers. In this paper, several traditional sailing ships will be described. They were primary intended to transport cargo, and today they’re renovated with saloons, kitchens, toilets, bathrooms, air-conditioners and satellite TV receivers. Modern usage of this, for Croatian culture, important indigenous product promotes specificities of Croatian maritime and shipbuilding tradition, creates recognition and authenticity of nautical tourism in Croatia and creates also numerous other positive effects such as promotion of middle and small shipbuilding and employment of local inhabitants on islands that at the same time prevents their depopulation. In order to achieve full potential of this form of Croatian nautical offer it is necessary to invest and to motivate main carriers of activities – small ship owners. Besides the need for economic incentives, it is also very important a joint defining of maritime routes for touristic cruising in the way to select ports that, with the state support, would be renovated to accept cruisers. It is also necessary to set a system of planned cruises and berth reservations by a careful selection of favourable locations. This would enable organisation stages and coordination

  17. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal. PMID:20093000

  18. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  19. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  1. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the...... collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull and...

  2. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  3. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get...

  4. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  5. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  6. Dynamic selection of ship responses for estimation of on-site directional wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Storhaug, Gaute

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the wave environment in which a ship is operating is crucial for most on-board decision support systems. Previous research has shown that the directional wave spectrum can be estimated by the use of measured global ship responses and a set of transfer functions determined for the...... operation of the ship. Since measurements of more than three responses are usually available, a quick, dynamic selection procedure of the three signals best suited for the wave spectrum estimation procedure is essential. In the present paper the concept of a selection method based on a simple pre......-estimate of the wave spectrum is suggested. The selection method needs to be robust for what reason a parameterised uni-directional, two-parameter wave spectrum is treated. The parameters included are the zero up-crossing period, the significant wave height and the main wave direction relative to the ship...

  7. The application of process integration to the optimisation of cruise ship energy systems: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Ahlgren, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    from 1990 to 2008 and keep growing today. A small cruise ship can emit about 85 tons of CO2 per day, and require around 27 tons of fuel per day. To keep up with market demand, while reducing their impact on the environment, cruise ships will need to improve their energy efficiency.Most previous...... its integration with available sources of waste heat on board.In this study, the principles of process integration are applied to the energy system of a cruise ship operating in the Baltic Sea. The heat sources (waste heat from the main and auxiliary engines in form of exhaust gas, cylinder cooling......, charge air cooling, and lubricating oil cooling) and sinks (HVAC, hot water, fuel heating) are evaluated based on one year of operational data and used to generate four operating conditions that best represent ship operations.Applying the pinch analysis to the system revealed that the theoretical...

  8. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  9. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  10. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the...

  11. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  12. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  13. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  14. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control o...

  15. Design and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Ejector Refrigeration/Heat Pump System for Naval Surface Ship Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cüneyt Ezgi; Ibrahim Girgin

    2015-01-01

    Naval surface ships should use thermally driven heating and cooling technologies to continue the Navy’s leadership role in protecting the marine environment. Steam ejector refrigeration (SER) or steam ejector heat pump (SEHP) systems are thermally driven heating and cooling technologies and seem to be a promising technology to reduce emissions for heating and cooling on board naval surface ships. In this study, design and thermodynamic analysis of a seawater cooled SER and SEHP as an HVAC sys...

  16. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  17. Real-world emissions of inland ships on the Grand Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Ding, Yan; Ge, Yunshan; Yu, Linxiao; Yin, Hang; Ye, Wentao; Liang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    Ship emissions are widely recognized as a relevant source of the total air pollution and have a remarkable impact on air quality of the sea, territorial waters and coastal areas. To assess this impact, various emission models have been developed to calculate the emission inventory of ship based on ship activity data. However, few studies in China have collected the emission factors of local ship which are decisive factors in accurate assessment of ship emission inventory. This study intends to obtain emission data of inland ships on the Grand Canal of China by conducting on-board emission tests. We measured CO, HC NOx and PM emission from 7 inland ships of different engine powers, and derive distance-based and fuel-based emission factors on the basis of the cruise and manoeuvring (including port departure and port arrival) operating modes. The results show that average distance-based emission factors of CO, HC and PM for manoeuvring mode are higher than those for cruise mode. For NOx, average distance-based emission factors for cruise mode are higher than those for port arrival mode but lower than those for port departure mode. Particular number (PN) distribution analysis indicates that larger amounts of small size PM (Dp human health. The average fuel-based emission factor of NOx in this study is 1.4-4.3 times higher than those in on-board studies. When compared with estimated Tier 1 standard limit (in unit of g kg-1 fuel), NOx in this study is nearly twice of Tier 1. The higher NOx emission indicates that stricter emission strategies and policies should be implemented to control ship emission in China. It is noticeable that distance-based emission factors of four pollutants are higher with the increase of engine loads.

  18. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  19. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  20. 77 FR 53159 - Passenger Use of Portable Electronic Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... transmitting and receiving signals wirelessly using radio waves, such as Wi-Fi,\\4\\ Bluetooth,\\5\\ and various... Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards.'' Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. \\5\\ Bluetooth is...

  1. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horwacik, T.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 377-380. ISSN 0144-8420 Grant ostatní: EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Aircrew * thermoluminescent detectors * environmental measurements Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  2. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  3. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  4. Strong managers, weak boards?

    OpenAIRE

    Renee B. Adams; Ferreira, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Many governance reform proposals are based on the view that boards have been too friendly to executives, for example, by awarding them excessive pay. Although boards are often on friendly terms with executives, it is less clear that they have systematically failed to function in the interests of shareholders. Understanding board monitoring requires a theory of boards that takes into account how firms provide incentives for their Chief Executive Officer's (CEOs) through other means. We develop...

  5. Board independence and competence

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Alexander F

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes board independence and competence as distinct, but inextricably linked aspects of board effectiveness. Competent directors add shareholder value because they have better information about the quality of projects. While a CEO cares about shareholder value, he also wants his board to behave loyally to him by agreeing to projects that give him private benefits. Because many aspects of the CEO-board relationship are not contractible, the paper studies a model of relational con...

  6. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  7. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  8. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  9. Scrum Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stefan; van de Goor, Wim

    The Scrum Board Game is a workshop for beginners. It is for people with any role (customer, developer, tester, etc.), who don’t exactly know what a Scrum Board is, or how to create one themselves. The workshop teaches the benefits of a Scrum Board, how to use it, and how to introduce it in projects.

  10. Training Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Young Electronics Company's new product is a testboard developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a tool for training and qualifying personnel in board assembly and in the art of soldering components without damaging boards or components. The boards are used for pre- employment testing and employee requalification.

  11. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and co...

  12. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  13. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

  14. MiBoard: Multiplayer Interactive Board Game

    CERN Document Server

    Dempsey, Kyle B; Jackson, G Tanner; Boonthum, Chutima; Levinstein, Irwin B; McNamara, Danielle S

    2010-01-01

    Serious games have recently emerged as an avenue for curriculum delivery. Serious games incorporate motivation and entertainment while providing pointed curriculum for the user. This paper presents a serious game, called MiBoard, currently being developed from the iSTART Intelligent Tutoring System. MiBoard incorporates a multiplayer interaction that iSTART was previously unable to provide. This multiplayer interaction produces a wide variation across game trials, while also increasing the repeat playability for users. This paper presents a demonstration of the MiBoard system and the expectations for its application.

  15. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  16. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  17. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  18. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

  19. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  20. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  1. The Museum-ship "Abdon Calderon"

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals the reconstruction of the career of the Ecuadorian tug "Abdon Calderon," which is now a museum-ship. It is shown that the ship had a significant impact on the naval history of Ecuador. But the role of the ship in the battle in the strait Jambeli in 1941 clearly exaggerated.

  2. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... are presented of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of...

  3. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  4. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  5. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  6. Some Practical Design Aspects of Appendages for Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hag Soo; Lee, Hwa Joon; Joo, Young Ryeol; Kim, Jung Joong; Chun, Ho Hwan

    2009-09-01

    The hydrodynamic effect of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels, such as Ro-Pax, Ro-Ro and cruiser vessels, is very severe and, therefore, it is essential to carry out the design of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels from the preliminary design stage to the final detail design stage through a full survey of the reference vessels together with sufficient technical investigation. Otherwise, many problems would be caused by mismatches between the appendages and the hull form. This paper investigates the design characteristics of some appendages, such as the side thruster, the shaft-strut, and the stern wedge, based on the design experience accumulated at Samsung, on CFD, and on model test results for high-speed passenger vessels. Further to this investigation, some practical and valuable design guidelines for such appendages are suggested.

  7. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  8. Shipping Crises in the Media

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the general media’s portrayal of important maritime accidents which in the maritime media receive widespread publicity and are likely to have an impact on the shipping community’s social image. To this purpose, news framing theories were researched and used in a content analysis of print media articles on six important maritime accidents and incidents during the period 2008 to 2012. The study examines related articles published in the UK newspapers with...

  9. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  10. Boards to combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Research Council's Board on Earth Sciences and the Board on Mineral and Energy Resources were eliminated during the summer by a decision of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, which oversees both bodies, and Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences. The responsibilities of the two boards will be merged into a Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, not yet formed.Raphael Kasper, executive director of the Commission, said that the boards were dissolved for two reasons. “There's been a general trend within the Academy toward bringing together the pure and applied branches of particular sciences.” BES had dealt largely with basic Earth science research, while BMER had addressed questions related to mineral resources, land use, and public policy. The Space Science Board and the Space Applications Board, also under the jurisdiction of the Commission, were combined this fall into a single body (Eos, October 18, p. 961).

  11. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

  12. The Untersee solar ferry. Demonstrational operation of a photovoltaic-driven passenger ferry on the Bodensse. Final report; Solar-Faehre Untersee. Demonstrationsbetrieb einer photovoltaisch betriebenen Passagierfaehre am Bodensee. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfrommer, W.

    2001-08-15

    The Bodensee lake is a traffic area for ca. 50,000 ships. At the same time, however, it serves as a drinking-water reservoir. Therefore, it is of essential importance to this lake to develop and use non-polluting ship technologies. Especially during the summer months, increasingly more transportation has to be carried out by the passenger ferries. Solar-energy driven passenger ships are one of the limited possibilities of providing mobility with regenerative energies. After having gained some initial experience with smaller solar boats, a solar ferry will start service for passengers and bikes at the so-called ''Untersee'' in spring 2000. The initiative aims at establishing a regular public ferry connection with a solar ship between the German shore of the Hoeri-peninsula and the Swiss shore of the lake. With this project, the Bodensee foundation guarantees a demonstrational operation in close cooperation with the Untersee Solar Ship Society and other partners from the region. [German] Der Bodensee dient ca. 50.000 Schiffen als Verkehrsraum. Da er gleichzeitig die Funktion eines Trinkwasserspeichers erfuellen muss, ist die Entwicklung gewaesserschonender Schiffstechnologien und deren Einsatz von besonderer Bedeutung. Insbesondere in den Sommermonaten werden immer mehr Transportleistungen von der Fahrgastschifffahrt verlangt. Personenfahrgastschiffe mit Solarantrieben stellen eine der wenigen Moeglichkeiten dar, wie mit regenerativen Energien Mobilitaetsleistungen erbracht werden koennen. Nach ersten positiven Erfahrungen mit kleinen Solarbooten wird ab dem Fruehsommer 2000 auf dem Untersee eine neue Solarfaehre als Personen- und Fahrradfaehre eingesetzt. Ziel der Initiative ist es, eine oeffentliche, fahrplanmaessige Personenfaehrverbindung mit einem Solarschiff zwischen dem deutschen Ufer der Hoeri-Halbinsel und dem Schweizer Ufer des Untersees aufzubauen. Die Bodensee-Stiftung gewaehrleistet mit dem Projekt den Demonstrationsbetrieb in enger

  13. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  14. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  15. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  16. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristache, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistical analysis of the main indicators concerning passenger transport for the southern part of Romania, respectively for the historical provinces Muntenia (excluding Bucharest Municipality and Oltenia.

  17. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  18. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel is...... polynomially proportional to the speed. This study proposes a new model which for a fixed liner shipping network, minimizes the fuel consumption by adjusting the port berth times to allow for a more even speed throughout the service and thus a lower overall fuel consumption. This speed optimization is done...... liner shipping networks is presented....

  19. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  20. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  1. 76 FR 12405 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... (radios). Airfield vault replacement. Flight information display system. Airport master plan update... of PFC notice of intent. Construct passenger terminal replacement: terminal building structure and enclosure (phase 2: bid package 1A). Construct passenger terminal replacement: terminal building...

  2. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. (authors)

  3. 空调客车外翻转型车窗的设计%Design of Eversible Window for Air-conditioning Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐剑波; 杨佳宙; 赵跃; 黄东云; 曾俊延

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design idea of eversible flashing board in the food truck, a design scheme of eversible window for the air-conditioning passenger car was designed, and a physical model was made. The eversible window frame can be controlled by the electromagnetic relay and window fault prevention device. It provides the possibility for passengers escaping in case of emergency.%基于流动餐车的外翻转遮雨板的设计灵感,提出了空调客车外翻转型车窗的设计方案,制作出了实物模型,通过电磁继电器以及车窗防故障装置控制可外翻转车窗框,为空调客车发生意外时逃生提供了可能。

  4. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Dingjun Chen; Shaoquan Ni; Chang’an Xu; Hongxia Lv; Simin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model i...

  5. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  6. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  7. 76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects. SUMMARY: This notice details the application requirements and procedures for obtaining funding under FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail...

  8. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Transportation Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program; Notices #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY.... Agency Contact Appendix 1: Definition of High-Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail Appendix 2:...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  11. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... capacity. See 64 FR 25598. As FRA was issuing comprehensive Federal requirements for passenger train safety... Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629. The rule contains minimum Federal safety standards for the... rule. See 64 FR 25540. This rule established comprehensive safety standards for railroad...

  12. PASSENGER CAR MOTION RESISTANCE AT COAST-DOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rabinovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the real dependence of the movement resistance of a passenger car speed during the free coast-down is significantly different from the theoretical one. Partially, the differences can be eliminated by taking into account the loss of transmission idling.

  13. Autotransporters with GDSL passenger domains: molecular physiology and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Susanne; Rosenau, Frank; Kolmar, Harald; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2011-07-01

    Autotransporters are large proteins produced and secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain, which typically harbours enzymatic activity and exerts a virulence function, and a C-terminal membrane anchor domain. Somehow, the membrane domain facilitates the transport of the passenger domain into the extracellular space. Several autotransporters possess hydrolase passenger domains that belong to the GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. GDSL autotransporters represent a functionally distinct family and are characterized by several features of their passenger domains; these include 1) the absence of a conserved right-handed parallel β-helix, 2) lipolytic activity, and thus the capability to hydrolyse membranes, and 3) covalent attachment to the respective C-terminal β-domain, with the hydrolase domain exposed to the exterior. The esterase EstA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a typical enzyme of this type. Its physiological role was studied, its potential biotechnological application has been demonstrated, and its crystal structure was solved recently. Furthermore, it is capable of displaying different classes of enzymes in a range of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, and FACS-based high-throughput screening for enantioselective esterases could be achieved using EstA. PMID:21598370

  14. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. 177.870 Section 177.870 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND...

  15. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... the FAA issued an NPRM, Crewmember Requirements When Passengers Are Onboard (74 FR 3469; January 21... Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that would, if adopted... Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that proposes to change the...

  16. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 121.571, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing passengers before takeoff. 121.571... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.571 Briefing...

  17. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published on September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55335), FRA proposed an alternate... in that list is the net cash used in operating activities per passenger-mile. FRA is making one... 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA has prepared and placed in the docket a regulatory...

  18. Passenger Transportation and Travel Curriculum Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Carol

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course in passenger transportation and travel. The four-credit, competency-based program provides students with skills necessary to obtain employment in the aviation industry, travel agencies, hotel/motel management, and car rental agencies. An overview of vocational-technical education at the school…

  19. 75 FR 38877 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... transporting people. DOJ's regulations applicable to public accommodations apply to ensure nondiscrimination by... disability for almost every mode of passenger transportation, including public transportation (bus, subway..., 2007 (72 FR 2833). In response to the NPRM, hundreds of comments were received from disability...

  20. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger

    2011-01-01

    We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...

  1. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  2. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  3. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  4. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  5. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  6. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  7. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses. PMID:22317485

  8. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  9. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one. PMID:15146740

  10. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  11. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Quaranta Gianluigi; Vincenti Sara; Ferriero Anna; Boninti Federica; Sezzatini Romina; Turnaturi Cinzia; Gliubizzi Maria; Munafò Elio; Ceccarelli Gianluca; Causarano Carmelo; Accorsi Massimo; Del Nord Pasquale; Ricciardi Walter; Laurenti Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. ...

  12. Shielding designs and tests of a new exclusive ship for transporting spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokuei-Maru, a ship built specially for the transport of spent nuclear fuels in casks, was launched April in 1996. She is the first ship to comply with special Japanese regulations, KAISA 520, based on the INF code. DOT3.5 and MCNP-4A were used for the evaluation of dose equivalent rates of her shielding structures. On-board gamma-ray shielding tests were executed to confirm the effectiveness of the ship's shielding performance. The tests confirmed that effective shielding has been achieved and the dose equivalent rate in the accommodation and other inhabited spaces is sufficiently lower than the regulated limitations. This was achieved by employing the appropriate calculation methods and shielding materials. (author)

  13. Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...

  14. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  15. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board

  16. Holding Effective Board Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Advice and tested methods for management of meetings from superintendents and board members are combined in this reference book on conducting effective school board meetings. Intended for a wide readership, it contains three chapters and an exhibit section comprising over one-third of the document. Following a brief introduction, chapter 1,…

  17. Board Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This guidance is produced to assist companies in understanding, and consequently managing, some of the major issues involved when considering how to carry out board performance evaluation. Different issues will apply to different companies, thus this guidance should not be considered as exhaustive. Hopefully it will trigger the thought processes so that boards may consider for themselves t...

  18. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  19. Embracing an International Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new international stock board will soon be established in Shanghai,allowing foreign companies to list their businesses and tap into the China market China is moving closer to launching its own international stock board,a market for foreign companies to list their stocks in China,said Shang Fulin,

  20. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

  1. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  3. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  4. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit...... analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far...... necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed...

  5. Defeating terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships in a collective maritime security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Selim Canca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global economic development, maritime security constitutes more important role throughout the world. The efforts of the international community including shipmasters, shipowners, international specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and States concentrate on ensuring the safety and security of ships, repressing acts of maritime violence, imposing obligations upon States, and developing regional agreements between States. As the oceans are used by all and controlled by no one[1], these efforts are very important for global trade and security. Taking into account the security concerns of littoral states, the shipping industry and passengers in general, these efforts continue to try to repress the serious crimes of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery at sea while staying in the lines of the freedoms of the seas that are being protected by state practice and customary international law. In this study, the consequent codification related to the acts of terrorism, piracy and armed robbery against ships and the problems related to the measures aiming to defeat these crimes were examined and recommendations to prevent these crimes were given.[1] Gabel, Jr., George D. (2007, "Smoother Seas Ahead: The Draft Guidelines as an International Solution to Modern-Day Piracy", 21st Biennial Admiralty Law Institute Symposium, 81 Tul.L.Rev.1433, p.1.

  6. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  7. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  8. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  9. Nuclear propulsion for merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear propulsion was first used in submarines. The experience acquired in this way has shown the characteristics of naval propulsion reactors: essentially reliability, strength, manoeuvrability and ease of operation. The technique has now been perfected and the development of nuclear propulsion depends mainly on problems of safety, economic competitivity and legislation. With regard to safety, the technical solutions concern essentially the interface with the ship. Competitivity must be studied, not only in the case of replacing a conventional boiler by a nuclear boiler on a given type of vessel, but also against the wider background of a system of transport with optimization of all the factors of its economy. Finally, operation is governed seriously by legislation and much still remains to be done in this field

  10. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  11. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  14. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  15. Implementation of a Real Time Passenger Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, K; Kuri, Joy; Dagale, Haresh; Sudhakar, G; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are gaining recognition in developing countries like India. This paper describes the various components of our prototype implementation of a Real-time Passenger Information System (RTPIS) for a public transport system like a fleet of buses. Vehicle-mounted units, bus station units and a server located at the transport company premises comprise the system. The vehicle unit reports the current position of the vehicle to a central server periodically via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). An Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) algorithm running on the server predicts the arrival times of buses at their stops based on real-time observations of the buses' current Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. This information is displayed and announced to passengers at stops using station units, which periodically fetch the required ETA from the server via GPRS. Novel features of our prototype include: (a) a route creator utility which automatically creates new routes from scra...

  16. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  17. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna...

  18. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  19. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept...

  20. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

  1. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

  2. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

  3. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  4. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  6. Nuclear merchant ships: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the hitherto successful operation of the OTTO HAHN the next steps in the development of an economical, commercial nuclear ship in the FRG are discussed. This ship is to be built until 1985, and from then on it is to be taken into service. (UA)

  7. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  8. Modeling and identification of passenger car dynamics using robotics formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Venture, Gentiane; Ripert, Pierre-Jean; Khalil, Wisama; Gautier, Maxime; Bodson, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of dynamicmodeling and identification of passenger cars. It presents a new method that is based on robotics techniques for modeling and description of tree-structured multibody systems. This method enables us to systematically obtain the dynamic identification model, which is linear with respect to the dynamic parameters. The estimation of the parameters is carried out using a weighted least squares method. The identification is tested using vehicle dynamics ...

  9. ESTIMATION OF PASSENGER CAR UNIT FOR HETROGENEOUS TRAFFIC IN VISAKHAPATNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dadi.Vasavi Swetha*

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries including India, mixed traffic condition prevails on road and highways. Transportation grew to become the ‘economic’ backbone of any country. It assumes greater significance in urban context. There is a wide variation in the static and dynamic characteristics of different types of traffic. The method of accounting for traffic analysis in traffic stream is to convert all vehicles into a common unit known as passenger car unit (PCU). A number of factors have ...

  10. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Pauna Dan

    2011-01-01

    A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers ...

  11. Energy consumption of passenger vehicles on standard test cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mälkönen, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are proven to cause warming of the atmosphere. Transportation accounts for a high share of these emissions. Therefore, the energy consumption and CO2 emission levels of passenger vehicles are regulated in many countries. The regulations are becoming more and more stringent, forcing manufacturers to develop alternative technologies to meet the requirements. Furthermore, the consumers are showing more an...

  12. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  13. Infant Passenger Safety Education in Perinatal Services in California

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Albert; Levy, Esther

    1982-01-01

    Of 166 hospitals surveyed in California, 53 (31.9 percent) routinely provide some information on infant car-safety to parents of newborns and 115 (69.2 percent) were interested in developing a more comprehensive program of infant passenger safety. More than 80 percent of the hospitals estimated that less than a fourth of the infants were safely restrained on leaving the hospital. Larger hospitals provided more car safety education and expressed greater interest in developing comprehensive pro...

  14. Passengers' perception on airport service and quality satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    MK CHING

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate passengers’ expected and perceived service and quality satisfaction of the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) as the overall quality perceived would affect the number of future travelers to Hong Kong. After determining a list of known factors affecting airport service quality, passengers’ satisfaction survey was carried out at the main entrances and exits of the HKIA. Based on the collected data, a passenger satisfaction rating was compiled reflecting the us...

  15. Managing Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems for Better Passenger Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen; Lopes, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobility on demand systems, though still in their infancy, have very promising prospects in providing urban population with sustainable and safe personal mobility in the near future. While much research has been conducted on both autonomous vehicles and mobility on demand systems, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows how to manage autonomous mobility on demand systems for better passenger experience. We introduce the Expand and Target algorithm which can ...

  16. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Cristache, S. E.; Iacob, A. I.; Serban, D; Frâncu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistic...

  17. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Existing mathematical models of unsteady heat exchange in a passenger car do not satisfy the need of the different constructive decisions of the life support system efficiency estimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreover quite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisions of the life support s...

  19. The brace position for passenger aircraft: a biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brownson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Hypothesis A modified brace position would help to prevent injury to some aircraft passengers in the event of an impact accident. Aim of Experiments To evaluate a modified crash brace position. Materials and Methods 1. Impact Testing Impact testing was performed at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track at an acceleration of 16G. A 50% Hybrid III dummy was used as the experimental model. Four ...

  20. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xue; Daniel (Jian) Sun; Shukai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM) filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhi...

  1. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  4. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  5. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  12. Chicago Transit Authority train passenger environmental noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffee, Matt R.; Karner, Chris

    2003-04-01

    The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) train system is referred to as the ``L'' because most of the track throughout the city is elevated. Passengers riding aboard the ``L'' are often subjected to high levels of noise due to the aging metal girder system that the tracks are perched on, as well as some train cars that are in disrepair. The environmental acoustics class of nine students at Columbia College Chicago decided to quantify exactly how much noise an ``L'' passenger is subjected to. Using a Quest 2900 integrating sound level meter the class split up and took Leq measurements on all of the seven train lines. Each line was tested in both directions of travel twice, with the meter taking samples every 3 s, which added up to a total of approximately 65 000 samples. The data were then averaged and synthesized into a graph using ESRI ArcView software. The graph is actually a map of the CTA ``L'' system that is color coded according to the Leq level that the passengers are subjected to between each station. It was interesting to see the difference in noise levels according to the type of track construction.

  13. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  14. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  15. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  16. Particle- and Gaseous Emissions from an LNG Powered Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Fridell, Erik

    2015-10-20

    Measurements of particle number and mass concentrations and number size distribution of particles from a ship running on liquefied natural gas (LNG) were made on-board a ship with dual-fuel engines installed. Today there is a large interest in LNG as a marine fuel, as a means to comply with sulfur and NOX regulations. Particles were studied in a wide size range together with measurements of other exhaust gases under different engine loads and different mixtures of LNG and marine gas oil. Results from these measurements show that emissions of particles, NOX, and CO2 are considerably lower for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils. Emitted particles were mainly of volatile character and mainly had diameters below 50 nm. Number size distribution for LNG showed a distinct peak at 9-10 nm and a part of a peak at diameter 6 nm and below. Emissions of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are higher for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils, which points to the importance of considering the methane slip from combustion of LNG. PMID:26422536

  17. Study and project of a radiation monitoring system in ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the project and the development of a radiation detection system for use in ships, called RADINAC. This system was developed to measure the radiation in several points of the ship and to give the dose rates and total dose. The radioactive activity of the sea water is also measured. The project was based on a system developed in the middle of the seventies which is not working due to the lack of some mechanical and electronic components. The RADINAC system was developed in order to nationalize and modernize the old project. The detectors used are plastic scintillator to measure the sea water radioactive activity and ionization chambers to measure the dose rates. The nuclear instrumentation has only three imported items: acquisition data board, picoamperimeter and photomultiplier tube. All the other items are made in Brazil. With regard to the data acquisition, we used the Labwindows software to create the 'virtual instruments' in order to display the data on the computer monitor. (author)

  18. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    scrap naval vessels in 2002 was $33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...... to place the ship (unmanned) in about 50 m of water where deep-water swells may have an average wave period of 6–15 s. The ship would be “tuned” to have large motion response, particularly in heave and pitch. In short waves, the ship could serve as a platform for secondary energy absorption. The idea...... is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to...

  19. Environmental effects of driving behaviour and congestion related to passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.; De Keukeleere, D.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

    Using Vito's on-board measuring system the influence of track, driving behaviour and traffic conditions on fuel consumption and emissions were studied for a small test fleet of passenger cars. City traffic resulted in the highest fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption was about two times higher than for ring roads, which generally gave the lowest values. This was even more pronounced for emissions. Depending on road type and technology, fuel consumption increased with up to 40% for aggressive driving compared to normal driving. Again, this was more pronounced for emissions, with increases up to a factor 8. Driving behaviour had a greater influence on petrol-fuelled than on diesel-fuelled cars.Traffic condition also has a major effect on fuel consumption and emissions. For city driving intense traffic increased fuel consumption by 20-45%. The increase in fuel consumption and emissions during rush hours were the highest on ring roads, with increases between 10 and 200%. In absolute terms, a surplus of up to 5 l fuel per 100 km was measured. More environment-friendly route option requires the use of ring roads and motorways during rush hours instead of short cuts.

  20. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  1. CMS Collaboration Board Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The first CMS Collaboration Board meeting of the year (2013) provided an opportunity to thank Teresa Rodrigo, Matthias Kasemann and Randy Ruchti, the 2011-12 CB Chair, Deputy Chair and Secretary, respectively.

  2. An Opportunity for Board Development: The Director-Board Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann; Lipton, Linda

    2004-01-01

    One of the very unique characteristics of child care boards is the prevalence of parent volunteers serving as board members. When parents serve as board members, a number of challenges are created. Because most parents do not have previous board experience and they are both clients as well as trustees, there is the potential for conflicts of…

  3. RS-232 Led Board

    OpenAIRE

    Tskhvaradze, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to develop a Microchip PIC16F84 based device that supports RS-232 interface with PC. Circuit (LED Board) design and software development will be discussed. PicBasic Pro Compiler from microEngineering Labs, Inc. is used for PIC programming. Development of LED Board Control Console using C/C++ is also briefly discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming.

  4. Battery Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  5. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

  6. COLLABORATION BOARD (CB55)

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Cousins

    Open Access Publication Policy ATLAS had recently issued a short statement in support of open access publishing. The mood of the discussions in the December CMS Collaboration Board had appeared to be in favour and so it was being proposed that CMS issue the same statement as that made by ATLAS (the statement is attached to the agenda of this meeting). The Collaboration Board agreed. Election of the Chair of the Collaboration Board Following the agreement to shorten the terms of both the Spokesperson and the Collaboration Board Chair, and to introduce a longer overlap period between the election and the start of the term, the election for the next Collaboration Board Chair was due in December 2007. If the old standard schedule specified in the Constitution were adapted to this date, then the Board should be informed at the present meeting that the election was being prepared. However, it was felt that the experience of the previous year's election of the Spokesperson had shown that it would be desirable to...

  7. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  8. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  9. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  10. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  11. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  12. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  13. 75 FR 3272 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: January 12, 2009. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  14. 77 FR 47491 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: August 1, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  15. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct four...: August 30, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department...

  16. 77 FR 57637 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of administrative requirements in mandatory...

  17. 77 FR 12641 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  18. 78 FR 58596 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... session of the Assembly --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of...

  19. 77 FR 70525 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  20. 76 FR 70529 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will...: November 7, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...