WorldWideScience

Sample records for boa ii asbestos

  1. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  2. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  3. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E. [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY `95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  4. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

  5. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potential of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.

  6. Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fabrics, packaging, gaskets, and coatings. Some vermiculite or talc products may contain asbestos. top What happens to ... top How can families reduce the risk of exposure to asbestos? Materials containing asbestos that are not ...

  7. Asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  8. Boa leitura!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Enne

    2011-01-01

    o articulista a modificá-lo e reenviá-lo para nós, caso concorde com o teor dos pareceres.
    Para nossa satisfação, tal prática tem se revelado muito positiva. Muitos dos autores nos escrevem agradecendo pelas observações e já temos recebido, também em número significativo, artigos reenviados, contendo os ajustes sugeridos, para publicação em nossas próximas edições. Tais respostas são, claramente, um indício de que nossa proposta está sendo bem compreendida e um incentivo fundamental para que continuemos com nossa política editorial. Obrigada a todos e boa leitura!
    Ana Lucia Enne - editora 

  9. Boa leitura!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Enne

    2011-01-01

    , propõe uma detalhada metodologia para delimitação do corpus em pesquisas de semiótica.


    Desejamos a todos uma boa leitura e aproveitamos para lembrar que as chamadas para nossas próximas edições continuam abertas.

     

  10. Boa leitura!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sibilia e Maurício Bragança

    2010-12-01

    -family: ">Considerando esse instigante enfoque, a Estação Transmídia traz, mais uma vez, várias contribuições de autores convidados que apresentam suas perspectivas sobre a temática, através de uma experimentação de linguagens que dialoga de um modo mais ousado com a multiplicidade de materiais disponíveis na internet.

    Agradecemos a colaboração de todos os autores que participaram desta edição, desejamos uma boa leitura e aproveitamos, também, para agradecer o valioso trabalho da equipe editorial e dos pareceristas.

    Atenciosamente,

    Mauricio de Bragança e Paula Sibilia

  • Boa Leitura!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sibilia e Maurício Bragança Sibilia e Bragança

    2010-06-01

    despertando o interesse de muitos pesquisadores da área.

    Boa leitura!

    Atenciosamente,

     

    Paula Sibilia e Maurício de Bragança

    Coordenadores da Equipe Editorial

  • Public Law 99-519: Title II--Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's rule on local educational agency inspection for, and notification of, the presence of friable asbestos-containing material in school buildings included neither standards for the proper identification of asbestos-containing material and appropriate response actions with respect to friable asbestos-containing…

  • Boas Goes to Atlanta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    Sharing an antiracist agenda, Boas and Du Bois were struggling to institutionalize their arguments by furthering research to counter scientific racism and by participating in public discussions to promote their ideas...

  • Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  • Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  • Asbestos, the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  • Asbestos, the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  • Prioritizing Asbestos Removal from Various Facilities Using the INSIGHT II+ Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Seattle, WA. 12 February, 1986. 23. Jones, Robert H. Asbestos and Asbestic . Crosby, Lockwood...dutCt5. TEXT Material Asbest ,s cc:,-itai-irg material is: (Select c,, e TEXT Ha rd hard and can nc t be damaged by hand pressure. Sharp tools are requ to...institution if significant action is not taken to cont-ol it. The increased awareness of the public on the fatal affect - of asbests makes it’s presence a very

  • Boa viagem !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie Théodat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Un temps maussade règne sur l’Europe du Nord tandis que le Sud frise la canicule. En ce mois de juillet, certains prendront leurs quartiers d’été au Portugal, sur les bords du Tage, ou de l’Atlantique. Boa viagem ! Vivement Lisbonne, le Chiado, Evora, etc. Il ne s’agit pas de refaire la publicité d’une destination archi connue, ni de vous allécher les papilles à l’évocation du Porto…, mais de rappeler la solennité de la tâche qui incombe, une fois de plus, à la patrie de Magellan, de Cabral e...

  •   Bente Boa, Torm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of July 2009, Maria Anne Wagtmann (Associate Professor, PhD, University of Southern Denmark) had the opportunity to interview Ms Bente Boa, a senior marine HR manager in the Danish ship owning firm TORM A/S' ( http://www.torm.com/ ). Bente Boa is also chairwoman of the "The Sea...

    1. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Related Topics: Asbestos Contact Us Share Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

    2. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

    3. Boas, Darwin, science, and anthropology.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lewis, H S

      2001-06-01

      This paper presents a new reading of Franz Boas's philosophy of science and his approach to the understanding of culture and behavior. It points out that his approach had important parallels with the worldview of the major figures associated with pragmatism and suggests that a similar perspective can be useful today.

    4. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Figlio, Mary Ellen

      1979-01-01

      Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

    5. Asbestos in the Home.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

      The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

    6. Asbestos in the Home.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

      The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

    7. Pleural mesothelioma and neighborhood asbestos exposure

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fischbein, A.; Rohl, A.N.

      1984-07-06

      Widespread use and occupational exposure to asbestos in US shipyards, particularly during World War II, is one reason for the currently high incidence of asbestos-related diseases, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. There is typically a long latency period between asbestos exposure and resulting disease. A case report is presented which lends additional credence to the earlier suggestion that exposure to asbestos in the neighborhood of the shipyard may be related to the development of malignant mesothelioma in this particular patient. The identification of amosite asbestos fibers in the lung tissue of the patient provides plausible evidence for this etiologic connection. Amosite asbestos is not found in the lungs of persons from the general population, and its occurrence, therefore, indicates either an occupational exposure or an exposure to a specific environmental source. Although only a very small portion of the total amount of asbestos used consists of amosite, this asbestos type is commonly used in shipbuilding and repair and was used a great deal in the shipyard adjacent to which our patient worked.

    8. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

    9. Contact Us about Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

    10. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baldwin, Cynthia A.

      This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

    11. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baldwin, Cynthia A.

      This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

    12. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Thuc Bui

      2007-12-06

      The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

    13. Franz Boas and Native American biological variability.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jantz, R L

      1995-06-01

      The contributions to physical anthropology with which Franz Boas is usually credited are in the areas of growth, plasticity of head and body form, and biometric genetics. Such a listing of Boas's contributions overlooks the tremendous amount of research he did with biological variability of Native American populations. The rediscovery of his anthropometric data documents the tremendous investment in time, money, and effort Boas devoted to the topic and provides the opportunity to rediscover his insights into a subject that is of continuing interest. The design of his massive anthropometric survey of native North Americans reveals a concern for population analyses and a rejection of the typological framework of the time. If Boas's ideas had been adopted at the turn of the century, the development of physical anthropology in America might have been much different.

    14. A robotic inspection experimental system (ARIES) and BOA

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      1998-02-01

      ARIES consists of a 6-wheeled K3A mobile platform, a compact subturret, a sonar imaging system, a laser-based light detection and ranging (lidar) navigation beacon system, and a camera positioning system. It has a sonar imaging system used in navigation and collision avoidance and an automatic docking/charging system. Drum-referencing algorithms and camera-positioning algorithms have been included in the primitive instruction set for the robot. The robot`s navigation is based on Synchro-Drive, a patented design that utilizes concentric shafts to distribute drive and steering power to the six wheels simultaneously. ARIES uses a virtual path concept in which only a limited amount of information needs to be provided to the control computer in order to get the vehicle moving. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, found several areas of concern including ergonomics, laser hazards, tripping hazards, fall-from-above and struck-by hazards, electrical hazards, and decontamination of the system. BOA is a self-propelled automated mini-enclosure, able to remove insulation from installed pipes, primarily of 4 inch nominal outside diameter. The system is designed for two operators: one oversees the abatement head operation from a distance of 10 or 15 feet using a pendant control and the other bags the debris at a cyclonic bagging station that is attached by a vacuum hose to the cutting head. Since the abatement head is its own enclosure, there may be no need for further enclosures to be built. The system wets and removes asbestos insulation automatically, cutting the debris into consistent chunks and moving the wave under a strong vacuum to a bagging machine. Prior to reaching the bagging operation, the material passes through a water separator which greatly reduces the weight of the debris and allows recirculation of water, after sufficient filtration. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, focused on: noise, dust

    15. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Scherpereel, Arnaud

      2016-01-01

      Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

    16. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

      2002-01-01

      The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

    17. All about Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Roy, Ken

      2005-01-01

      Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

    18. Asbestos in the Classroom.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Becker, Susan

      1984-01-01

      Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

    19. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Evans, Joanna, Comp.

      Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

    20. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

      Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

    1. Asbestos in Asia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

      2015-05-01

      Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases.

    2. The anthropometric legacy of Franz Boas.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jantz, Richard L

      2003-06-01

      Franz Boas was responsible for obtaining anthropometric data from approximately 27,000 subjects living around the turn-of-the-century. The subjects are of Native American, Siberian and European ancestry. These data have been entered into databases and are available for research. This paper describes the circumstances under which these data were collected and discusses their research potential.

    3. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      EPA Journal, 1979

      1979-01-01

      Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

    4. Asbestos Removal Case History.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haney, Stanley J.

      1986-01-01

      The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

    5. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

      Data.gov (United States)

      Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

    6. The asbestos war.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kazan-Allen, Laurie

      2003-01-01

      That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries.

    7. Estimating the asbestos-related lung cancer burden from mesothelioma mortality

      Science.gov (United States)

      McCormack, V; Peto, J; Byrnes, G; Straif, K; Boffetta, P

      2012-01-01

      Background: Quantifying the asbestos-related lung cancer burden is difficult in the presence of this disease's multiple causes. We explore two methods to estimate this burden using mesothelioma deaths as a proxy for asbestos exposure. Methods: From the follow-up of 55 asbestos cohorts, we estimated ratios of (i) absolute number of asbestos-related lung cancers to mesothelioma deaths; (ii) excess lung cancer relative risk (%) to mesothelioma mortality per 1000 non-asbestos-related deaths. Results: Ratios varied by asbestos type; there were a mean 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5, 1.0) asbestos-related lung cancers per mesothelioma death in crocidolite cohorts (n=6 estimates), 6.1 (3.6, 10.5) in chrysotile (n=16), 4.0 (2.8, 5.9) in amosite (n=4) and 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) in mixed asbestos fibre cohorts (n=31). In a population with 2 mesothelioma deaths per 1000 deaths at ages 40–84 years (e.g., US men), the estimated lung cancer population attributable fraction due to mixed asbestos was estimated to be 4.0%. Conclusion: All types of asbestos fibres kill at least twice as many people through lung cancer than through mesothelioma, except for crocidolite. For chrysotile, widely consumed today, asbestos-related lung cancers cannot be robustly estimated from few mesothelioma deaths and the latter cannot be used to infer no excess risk of lung or other cancers. PMID:22233924

    8. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite

      Science.gov (United States)

      Letters and guidance that detail the requirements of asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants as is applies to vermiculite asbestos-containing material during residential demolitions

    9. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Russek, William F.

      1980-01-01

      Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

    10. A Report on Asbestos Management.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

      1997-01-01

      A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

    11. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Olson, Kristin

      Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

    12. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

      Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

    13. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Olson, Kristin

      Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

    14. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jean C. Pfau

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA, a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b exposure misclassification, (c latency of clinical disease, (d mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

    15. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on asbestos by R. A. Lemen on March 21, 1984

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      1984-03-21

      The testimony discussed the work conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concerning protection for workers exposed to asbestos (1332214). All commercial forms of asbestos were considered to be carcinogenic. Exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk of contracting asbestos, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos was one of the primary causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It was estimated that since the beginning of World War II as many as eight million workers have been exposed to asbestos. Over one million currently worked where exposure may be a problem. Construction workers involved in the demolition of buildings containing asbestos insulation were at increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Maintenance personnel often repaired machines in asbestos-contaminated work spaces or worked directly with products containing asbestos. NIOSH programs have involved measuring and characterizing asbestos fibers found in the work environment, quantification of the extent of disease among workers through epidemiological studies, and supporting these study results with toxicological experiments. NIOSH has also sponsored educational programs for the public and the training of workers to alert individuals to the dangers of asbestos.

    16. Water in Asbestos

      CERN Document Server

      Fomin, Yu D; Tsiok, E N

      2015-01-01

      We present the molecular simulation study of the behavior of water and sodium chloride solution confined in lizardite asbestos nanotube which is a typical example of hydrophilic confinement. The local structure, orientational and dynamic properties are studied. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient drops about two orders of magnitude comparing to the bulk case, and water in lizardite asbestos tubes experiences vitrification rather then crystallization upon cooling in accordance with the results for some other hydrophilic confinements. The behavior of sodium chloride solutions also considered and the formation of double layer is observed. It is shower that both sodium and chlorine have larger diffusion coefficients then water.

    17. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

    18. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings

      Science.gov (United States)

      HICKEY, Jane; SAUNDERS, Jean; DAVERN, Peter

      2015-01-01

      A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers’ motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers’ instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike. PMID:25914070

    19. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hickey, Jane; Saunders, Jean; Davern, Peter

      2015-01-01

      A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers' motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers' instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike.

    20. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

      2011-01-01

      The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

    1. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Charette, Mike L.

      1982-01-01

      The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

    2. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ..., or other method that breaks, crumbles, or otherwise disintegrates intact ACM. Amended water means... penetrate ACM. Asbestos includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite..., (ACM) means any material containing more than one percent asbestos. Assistant Secretary means...

    3. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

    4. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

      OpenAIRE

      Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

      2009-01-01

      Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary...

    5. History of asbestos related disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bartrip, P

      2004-01-01

      The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

    6. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sarić, Marko

      2009-11-01

      This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

    7. iBOA: The Incremental Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

      CERN Document Server

      Pelikan, Martin; Goldberg, David E

      2008-01-01

      This paper proposes the incremental Bayesian optimization algorithm (iBOA), which modifies standard BOA by removing the population of solutions and using incremental updates of the Bayesian network. iBOA is shown to be able to learn and exploit unrestricted Bayesian networks using incremental techniques for updating both the structure as well as the parameters of the probabilistic model. This represents an important step toward the design of competent incremental estimation of distribution algorithms that can solve difficult nearly decomposable problems scalably and reliably.

    8. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Makruski, Edward D.

      1984-01-01

      An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

    9. Why asbestos should be banned

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Cremers, J.

      2013-01-01

      There has been an outburst of public anger after the ‘discovery’ of asbestos polluted social housing, despite there being several other topical asbestos related incidents. This coupled with the spectacular Turin trial against some captains of industry who were sentenced for knowingly exposing their

    10. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

      The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

    11. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sedrel, Roy A.

      Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

    12. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

      The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

    13. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sedrel, Roy A.

      Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

    14. Franz Boas, geographer, and the problem of disciplinary identity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Koelsch, William A

      2004-01-01

      This paper examines Franz Boas as an aspiring professional geographer during the 1880s: his Baffin Land research, his publications, his participation in geography organizations, and his struggle to attain a university appointment in geography. Frustrated by a seeming lack of opportunity for advancement in Germany, Boas explored career opportunities as a geographer in America and launched a series of unsuccessful but meaningful attempts to dominate the intellectual direction of American geography. Finally, the article reviews the circumstances surrounding Boas's appointment as an anthropologist at Clark University in 1889. Through examining Boas's own words and actions, the paper demonstrates that his professional identification with geography was lengthier and stronger than earlier accounts have suggested. It also critiques the myth of a Baffin Land "conversion" to anthropology, and delineates the circumstances of his shift from German human geography to his Americanist recasting of anthropology after 1889. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    15. [Evaluation of exposure of workers to asbestos dust in asbestos-processing plants].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stroszejn-Mrowca, G; Wiecek, E

      1985-01-01

      Working environments have been tested in plants producing asbestos products, asbestos-cement products, textile asbestos products, asbestos-caoutchouc plates, asbestos boards and asbestos frictional materials for automotive industry, Measurements of total dust concentrations and concentrations of asbestos fibres 5 micron long supported workers' exposure investigations. Basing on literature data on the working environment at the Mining Metallurgical Plant in Szklary, the health risk for workers producing nickel from ores containing asbestos mixtures has been analysed. The asbestos-exposure in asbestos-processing plants has been found to be still considerable despite modernization of the plants. Particularly dangerous to health have been regarded the conditions at asbestos spinning-mills and the Mining-Metallurgical Plant at Szklary, where even average asbestos concentrations considerably exceed the threshold limit values.

    16. Alternative fiber to asbestos. Asbesto daitai sen prime i

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ashizawa, M. (Nichias Corporation, Yokohama (Japan))

      1991-07-20

      Explanation is made of alternative fiber to asbestos. Being the finest of all the fibers, excellent in thermal resistivity, flexibility and chemical resistivity, and large in tensile force, the asbestos fiber is described to be used as fireproof spun fiber and other asbestos products as well as for the asbestos slate, for the most part, and other asbestos cement products to be heightened in strength and thermal resistivity by its utilization. Characteristics, etc. are then summarized of pulp, cotton, glass fiber, aramid fiber, potassium titanate fiber, carbon fiber and metallic fiber which are being all studied as alternative fiber to asbestos. Further in order to heighten the product in strength by a use of alternative fiber to asbestos, necessity is pointed out of not only heightening the strength (tensile force) of fiber proper but also heightening the aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) of fiber, adhesive force on the interface between the fiber and product matrix, and mutual holding/bonding force among the treads of fiber. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

    17. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

      2009-06-01

      Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

    18. AMS Observations over Coastal California from the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Hodas, N.; Negron, A.; Ortega, A. M.; Crosbie, E.; Sorooshian, A.; Nenes, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

      2015-12-01

      In July 2015, fifteen research flights were conducted on a US Navy Twin Otter aircraft as part of the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS) campaign. The flights took place near the California coast at Monterey, to investigate the effects of sea surface temperature and algal blooms on oceanic particulate emissions, the diurnal mixing of urban pollution with other airmasses, and the impacts of biological aerosols on the California atmosphere. The aircraft's payload included an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a differential mobility analyzer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a counterflow virtual impactor, a cloudwater collector, and two instruments designed to detect biological aerosols - a wideband integrated biological spectrometer and a SpinCon II - as well as a number of meteorology and aerosol probes, two condensation particle counters, and instruments to measure gas-phase CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. Here, we describe in depth the objectives and outcomes of BOAS and report preliminary results, primarily from the AMS. We detail the spatial characteristics and meteorological variability of speciated aerosol components over a strong and persistent bloom of Pseudo-Nitzschia, the harmful algae that cause 'red tide', and report newly identified AMS markers for biological particles. Finally, we compare these results with data collected during BOAS over urban, forested, and agricultural environments, and describe the mixing observed between oceanic and terrestrial airmasses.

    19. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Castleman, Barry

      2006-01-01

      Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed.

    20. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McCormick, Kathleen

      1985-01-01

      Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

    1. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arcot, Divya K.

      2010-01-01

      Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

    2. Osteopetrosis and osteonecrosis in snake Boa constrictor Osteopetrose e osteocondrose em serpente Boa constrictor

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      N.M. Ocarino

      2008-10-01

      Full Text Available Uma jibóia (Boa constrictor, de onze anos de cativeiro, apresentou à seis meses um histórico de aumento de volume ao longo da coluna vertebral e perda progressiva dos movimentos e de apetite. Exames radiológicos revelaram aumento da opacidade, áreas de excrescências ósseas e inúmeras fraturas ao longo da coluna. Devido o prognóstico desfavorável, a serpente foi eutanasiada. À necropsia, aumento de volume com estenose do canal vertebral e compressão da medula espinhal foram observados, juntamente com fraturas completas de corpos vertebrais. O diagnóstico de osteopetrose e osteonecrose foi firmado à histologia.

    3. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sparks, Corey S; Jantz, Richard L

      2002-11-12

      In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology.

    4. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... clutch pads. Asbestos has also been used in ceiling and floor tiles; paints, coatings, and adhesives; and ... for employment-related injuries and diseases. Benefits include wage replacement, payment for medical care, and, where necessary, ...

    5. Asbestos and its lethal legacy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tweedale, Geoffrey

      2002-04-01

      Asbestos has become the leading cause of occupationally related cancer death, and the second most fatal manufactured carcinogen (after tobacco). In the public's mind, asbestos has been a hazard since the 1960s and 1970s. However, the knowledge that the material was a mortal health hazard dates back at least a century, and its carcinogenic properties have been appreciated for more than 50 years.

    6. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

      2016-04-01

      Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

    7. The asbestos hazard

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Mellini, M. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

      2000-07-01

      This lecture arises from my own opinion about the positive role of Earth Sciences in general, and Mineralogy in particular, in defining and solving environmental and health problems. These disciplines should cooperate with other sciences in defining what is the problem, and how the problem might be solved, taking into account economical, social and environmental aspects. However, it seems that quite often scientific and technical knowledge is simply not existent in everyday life. At best, it is just confined within a narrow, negative role; the social request is that science contributes only in passively monitoring, analyzing and counting phenomena that cannot be overturned (or that are, in any case, governed elsewhere). The history of the asbestos issue has been a dramatic example of the failure of science in helping people while making important decisions.

    8. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

      2011-01-01

      The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

    9. Global problems from exposure to asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Frank, A L

      1993-01-01

      Considerable human-derived data the health consequences of asbestos exposure are available. Usually, less information is available from laboratory models of asbestos-related health effects. Animal data mirror the experience in man, and cellular studies help in to understand the mechanistic changes related to asbestos. Although it is clearly carcinogenic, asbestos has shown much variability when examined for its mutagenic activity. Asbestos, a commercial term referring to a family of six naturally occurring mineral fibers, has been widely used around the world. Disease has been recognized into the last century, and at this time every occupational group that has been examined for possible asbestos-related disease has demonstrated it. Disease associated with asbestos makes no distinction based on race or geography, and wherever asbestos is handled it produces disease. With shifting global commercial patterns, disease patterns can be expected to shift also. PMID:8143612

    10. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

      Science.gov (United States)

      School Business Affairs, 1988

      1988-01-01

      A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

    11. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

    12. Risk factors associated with asbestos-related diseases: a community-based case–control study

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-01-01

      Background Asbestos is a first level carcinogen. However, few epidemiological studies analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and follow up these conditions in the general population. Pleural mesothelioma, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, is the most representative asbestos-related disease. The objectives of this study are to analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and to investigate the incidence of new clinical manifestations in patients already diagnosed with some form of ARD. Methods/Design We have designed a matched case–control study with follow up of both cohorts from a population of a health district of the Barcelona province that has been exposed to asbestos for a period of 90 years. Discussion A better understanding of asbestos-related diseases should improve i) the clinical and epidemiological follow up of patients with this condition; ii) the design of new treatment strategies; iii) and the development of preventive activities. At the end of the study, the two cohorts created in this study (affected cases and healthy controls) will constitute the basis for future research. PMID:23915043

    13. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Levins, Hoag

      1983-01-01

      Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

    14. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

      Science.gov (United States)

      AGB Reports, 1986

      1986-01-01

      Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

    15. Asbestos in Plaster and Wall Systems

      Science.gov (United States)

      This collection of letters and clarification on final rules provides guidance on Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for asbestos-containing join compounds, and asbestos-containing materials found in plaster and wall systems.

    16. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

      Science.gov (United States)

      The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

    17. Asbestos' Impact on Indoor Air Quality

      Science.gov (United States)

      Asbestos is a mineral fiber that has been used commonly in a variety of building construction materials for insulation and as a fire-retardant. EPA and CPSC have banned several asbestos products. Manufacturers have also voluntarily limited uses of asbesto

    18. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sharman, Ron

      This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains…

    19. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Virta, Robert L.

      2010-01-01

      The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

    20. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

      Science.gov (United States)

      The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

    1. Development of behavioural profile in the Northern common boa (Boa imperator): Repeatable independent traits or personality?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Šimková, Olga; Frýdlová, Petra; Žampachová, Barbora; Frynta, Daniel; Landová, Eva

      2017-01-01

      Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and ecological and evolutionary significance in particular, but the question of its development was largely overlooked. The attributes of personality are defined as between-individual differences in behaviour, which are consistent over time (differential consistency) and contexts (contextual generality) and both can be affected by development. We assessed several candidates for personality variables measured in various tests with different contexts over several life-stages (juveniles, older juveniles, subadults and adults) in the Northern common boa. Variables describing foraging/feeding decision and some of the defensive behaviours expressed as individual average values are highly repeatable and consistent. We found two main personality axes-one associated with foraging/feeding and the speed of decision, the other reflecting agonistic behaviour. Intensity of behaviour in the feeding context changes during development, but the level of agonistic behaviour remains the same. The juveniles and adults have a similar personality structure, but there is a period of structural change of behaviour during the second year of life (subadults). These results require a new theoretical model to explain the selection pressures resulting in this developmental pattern of personality. We also studied the proximate factors and their relationship to behavioural characteristics. Physiological parameters (heart and breath rate stress response) measured in adults clustered with variables concerning the agonistic behavioural profile, while no relationship between the juvenile/adult body size and personality concerning feeding/foraging and the agonistic behavioural profile was found. Our study suggests that it is important for studies of personality development to focus on both the structural and differential consistency, because even though behaviour is differentially consistent, the structure can change.

    2. Asbestos-related pleural disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Stephen A. Geller

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The image shows asbestos plaques on the right parietal pleura of a 58-year-old former shipyard worker who died of acute suppurative bronchitis. He also had cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Histologically, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with asbestos bodies was demonstrated. The pleural plaques consist predominantly of dense collagen. This photograph was taken after removal of the lung with the camera held in the lower right thorax, at approximately the level of the diaphragm, looking up toward the apex of the chest cavity.

    3. FREUD, JUNG AND BOAS: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC ENGAGEMENT WITH ANTHROPOLOGY REVISITED.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kenny, Robert

      2015-06-20

      Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas.

    4. Variation among North Amerindians: analysis of Boas's anthropometric data.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jantz, R L; Hunt, D R; Falsetti, A B; Key, P J

      1992-06-01

      In the late nineteenth century Franz Boas was responsible for assembling anthropometric data from North Amerindians. Approximately 15,000 subjects were measured, but the data have never been systematically analyzed. Here we describe our efforts to develop a computerized database from Boas's data and present the first systematic analysis of these data. In addition to a general analysis of North Amerindian anthropometric variation, we also present a more detailed analysis of anthropometric variation among tribes located in the American Northwest. In the general analysis we find that anthropometric variation is strongly patterned along geographic lines. We examine geographic and language patterning by grouping tribes by culture area and language phylum. Both have high explanatory power, culture area being the higher. The Northwest analysis shows that both language and geographic location are important in explaining anthropometric variation.

    5. Valores bioquímicos de jiboia (Boa constrictor

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kalena Barros da Silva

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores médios dos indicadores bioquímicos sanguíneos: glicose, ureia, creatinina, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, amilase e lipase de jiboias (Boa constrictor e comparados os valores das concentrações encontradas entre os grupos de machos e fêmeas. Foram utilizados 12 espécimes de Boa constrictor, dos quais sete machos e cinco fêmeas. A comparação das médias dos indicadores bioquímicos entre os grupos de machos e fêmeas indicou ausência de influência significativa de fatores sexuais. As técnicas bioquímicas tradicionais foram adequadas para a determinação desses indicadores para esta espécie.

    6. Freud, Jung and Boas: the psychoanalytic engagement with anthropology revisited

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kenny, Robert

      2015-01-01

      Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas. PMID:26665301

    7. Did Franz Boas witness an act of cannibalism?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maud, R

      1986-01-01

      Franz Boas has been used as an authority for the existence of cannibalism among the Kwakiutl of British Columbia, as cited in Patterns of Culture. There is reason to think, however, that all his evidence is hearsay, and that he himself never witnessed an act of cannibalism. One indication is that he eliminated all references to such acts in his final overview, published posthumously as Kwakiutl Ethnology.

    8. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Russo, Charles J.

      1988-01-01

      Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

    9. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

      2004-07-01

      The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

    10. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

      OpenAIRE

      Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

      2016-01-01

      Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, tar...

    11. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

      2015-03-01

      A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.

    12. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tindall Matthew

      2005-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low.

    13. Measurements Of Scattered Light From Asbestos Particulate

      Science.gov (United States)

      Riis, P.; Ballik, E. A.

      1987-09-01

      Light-scattering techniques are potentially very important for the low-level detection and identification of particulate species such as asbestos in aerosol and liquid suspensions. Low-level detection is essential because asbestos is a known carcinogen, even at very-low exposure levels. At present, most asbestos particulate monitoring is used on optical microscopy. If detailed analysis is required, then electron microscopy is employed. Both of these methods are labour intensive. Furthermore, the optical microscopy method is not very reliable. Although the light-scattering techniques described here have general applicability, the emphasis is on asbestos measurements. Ordinary measurements of Mie scattering from asbestos suspensions can provide only limited information on asbestos content. owever, a more sophisticated technique can be employed which relies on the fact that asbestos particulate is fibrous rather than spherical in shape, and that the fibres align in a strong magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T). Particulate other than asbestos is generally non-fibrous in shape. Measurements have been carried out on liquid suspensions of asbestos contained in a small cell placed between the poles of a rotating magnet. The aligned fibres, which rotate about their centre of mass as they follow the field, are illuminated using a laser source. The Mie-scattering intensity is measured as a function of rotation angle, and the resulting data is then analysed with the aid of a microcomputer. Intensity maxima and minima provide reliable information on asbestos concentration, even in the presence of strong scattering from other particulate. In addition, the angular location of the intensity peaks provides information on the type of asbestos present. Each type has a characteristic alignment behaviour in a strong magnetic field. Using relatively-simple equipment, chrysotile asbestos (the most commonly-used type) has been detected at levels below 30 ng/l.

    14. Asbestos Burden Predicts Survival in Pleural Mesothelioma

      OpenAIRE

      Christensen, Brock C; Roelofs, Cora R.; Longacker, Jennifer L.; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Godleski, John Joseph; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David John

      2008-01-01

      Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rapidly fatal asbestos-associated malignancy with a median survival time of < 1 year following diagnosis. Treatment strategy is determined in part using known prognostic factors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between asbestos exposure and survival outcome in MPM in an effort to advance the understanding of the contribution of asbestos exposure to MPM prognosis. Methods: We studied incident cases of MPM...

    15. Interactions of chrysotile asbestos with erythrocyte membranes.

      OpenAIRE

      Brody, A R; Hill, L. H.

      1983-01-01

      Chrysotile asbestos causes lysis of red blood cells. It has been proposed that the mechanism of hemolysis is mediated through interactions between asbestos and cell membrane glycoproteins. Our studies support this concept and the following results are reported. Electron microscopy shows that asbestos fibers distort red blood cells and bind to cell membranes which may become wrapped around the fibers. This reaction is prevented by pretreatment of the cells with neuraminidase. The distribution ...

    16. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ralph A. Pietrofesa

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2 and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA, and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP. We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001, time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%–88% and 41%–73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

    17. Triatoma maculata colonises urban domicilies in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ricardo-Silva, Alice; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; da Silva, Silvano Pedrosa; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Vargas, Nathalia Coelho; Freitas, Maria-Rosa Goreti

      2016-01-01

      During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:27759767

    18. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

      2016-01-01

      More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

    19. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daniela Marsili

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

    20. Asbestos related diseases among workers of asbestos processing plants in relation to type of production and asbestos use.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Świątkowska, Beata; Sobala, Wojciech; Szubert, Zuzanna; Wilczyńska, Urszula

      2015-01-01

      Asbestos dust is one of the most dangerous pneumoconiotic and carcinogenic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of asbestosis and pleural mesothelioma, depending on asbestos consumption and the type of manufactured products, among former asbestos workers in Poland. The study subjects included employees of 18 large state-owned asbestos processing enterprises operating in the Polish market in 1945-1998. The study is based on data obtained from asbestos company records and the Central Register of Occupational Diseases data on the cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma for the period from 1970 till 2012 as well as data from Amiantus Programme. The analysis was performed for 5 sectors comprising plants classified according to the products manufactured and applied production technology. In the study period, 2160 cases of asbestosis and 138 cases of mesothelioma were reported. The plants processed a total of about 2 million tons of asbestos, including about 7.5% of crocidolite. Total asbestosis consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence (R2 = 0.68, p = 0.055). The highest risk occurrence of asbestosis was observed in the production of textiles and sealing products. Mesothelioma occurred only in plants where crocidolite had been ever processed. Total asbestos consumption was a strong predictor of the rate of asbestosis incidence. The observation confirms the relationship between exposure to crocidolite and the occurrence of mesothelioma, regardless of the manufactured products, and suggests the absence of such a link for the total volume of asbestos consumption.

    1. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

      Science.gov (United States)

      McDiarmid, Roy W.; Toure, T'Shaka; Savage, Jay M.

      1996-01-01

      Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

    2. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ...-containing material (ACM) means any material containing more than 1% asbestos. Assistant Secretary means the.... Surfacing ACM means surfacing material which contains more than 1% asbestos. Surfacing material means..., fireproofing, and other purposes). Thermal System Insulation (TSI) means ACM applied to pipes,...

    3. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

      Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

    4. Woodbridge Research Facility Asbestos Survey, Woodbridge, Virginia

      Science.gov (United States)

      2007-11-02

      Calcium carbonate, CASO Calcium sulfate, MICA, PERLITE, OTHER or NONE 3.) Report of results a.) NAD - No Asbestos Detected - No asbestos found in...end of the rest period to make sure that it has dropped to normal. " Body temperatures should be measured orally with a clinical thermometer as early

    5. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

      Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

    6. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

      Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

    7. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

      1975-01-01

      This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

    8. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

    9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

    10. Environmental asbestos exposure sources in Korea.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Young-Sik; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Yong-Jin

      2016-10-01

      Because of the long asbestos-related disease latencies (10-50 years), detection, diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies require asbestos exposure history. However, environmental asbestos exposure source (EAES) data are lacking. To survey the available data for past EAES and supplement these data with interviews. We constructed an EAES database using a literature review and interviews of experts, former traders, and workers. Exposure sources by time period and type were visualized using a geographic information system (ArcGIS), web-based mapping (Google Maps), and OpenWeatherMap. The data were mounted in the GIS to show the exposure source location and trend. The majority of asbestos mines, factories, and consumption was located in Chungnam; Gyeonggi, Busan, and Gyeongnam; and Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Busan, respectively. Shipbuilding and repair companies were mostly located in Busan and Gyeongnam. These tools might help evaluate past exposure from EAES and estimate the future asbestos burden in Korea.

    11. [Dynamic studies of the leukocyte phagocytic activity after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hurbánková, M

      1993-05-01

      The paper presents the results of the dynamic one-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of Wistar-rats peripheral blood leukocytes following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres (Man-Made Mineral Fibres--MMMF). We investigated the phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres to rats 2, 24, 48 h as well as 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months after dosing. We investigated the time dependent of the changes of relative granulocytes count, percentage of phagocytizing cells from leukocytes, percentage of phagocytizing granulocytes and percentage of phagocytizing monocytes. The results of our experiment showed that asbestos and basalt fibres differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Granulocyte count as well as the phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the one-year dynamic follow-up in both dust--exposed groups of animals were found to change in two phases, characterised by the initial stimulation of the acute phase (I), followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase (II). Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibres led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibres at the same time significantly decreased also the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibres did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. It follows from the results of the experiment, that the monocytic component of leukocytes probably plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts and basalt fibres have smaller biological effects compared with asbestos fibres.

    12. Ultrasound and computed tomography description of the liver the Boa constrictor; Descricao ultrassonografica e tomografica do figado de Boa constrictor

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Zulim, Rosalia Marina Infiesta; Geller, Felipe Foletto; Souza, Priscila Macedo de; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline, E-mail: rosaliamarina@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Cardoso, Guilherme Schiess; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Andrade, Rafael Souza [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Rossetti, Diogo Pascoal; Comerlato, Alexandra Tiso [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CEMPAS/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Centro de Medicina e Pesquisa de Animais Silvestres

      2012-07-01

      Ultrasound is a method for noninvasive diagnosis, their effectiveness in the diagnosis of liver disease has been described in snakes. The liver is the largest organ of the coelomic cavity of reptiles. Elongated and flattened. The caudal vena cava and portal vein divides the body into two lobes. The hepatic parenchyma is homogeneous hypoechoic echogenicity. The objective is to describe and to obtain reference images in the study of liver four snakes of Boa constrictor amarali, through an ultrasound and tomography. Physical restraint made for the ultrasound examination held in prone position, to compare the texture and mark the structures for the slices on CT. A linear multifrequency probe of 6-10 mHz was used. The anesthetic protocol for computed tomography consisted of isoflurane. In helical CT scanner, the animal was positioned in the prone position, and used continuous cross sections of 2 mm by 2. The ultrasound and CT examinations allowed the identification of liver contours as well as the definition and extension of the caudal vena cava and portal vein. Normal pattern recognition of CT aspect of the present study will be of help in the diagnosis of liver diseases in snakes (Boa constrictor amarali). (author)

    13. Consumidor Colecionador de Pratos da Boa Lembrança

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Isabele Oliveira de Almeida

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a relação entre as principais proposições de colecionismo apresentadas por Belk (2001 e a experiência de colecionar, representada por entrevistados que colecionam pratos da Boa Lembrança de restaurantes. O método é baseado na abordagem qualitativa e a coleta de dados contou com entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os resultados mostram aderência às proposições de Belk (2001, quais sejam: as coleções raramente ocorrem de forma proposital; o vício e compulsão podem fazer parte do ato de colecionar; coleção legítima de itens como arte ou ciência; existe uma conversão do item colecionado do profano para sagrado; as coleções são extensão do self; imortalidade da coleção e do sujeito (herança familiar; e por fim, há simultaneidade do desejo e do temor de completar a coleção. Assim, a oferta do alimento no restaurante é fundamental, pois não é o prato em si que interessa, mas o que representa.  Consumer Collector Plates Boa Lembrança - The article aims to analyze the relationship between the main propositions of hoarding presented by Belk (2001 and the experience of collecting, represented by respondents who collect plates of Boa Lembrança in restaurants. The method is based on a qualitative approach and data collection included semi-structured interviews. The results show adherence to propositions Belk (2001, namely: the collections rarely occur on purpose; addiction and compulsion can be part of the act of collecting; legitimate collection of items such as art or science, there is a conversion of the collected item sacred to the profane; collections are extension of self; immortality of the collection and the subject (family heritage, and finally, there is simultaneity of desire and fear to complete the collection. Thus, the supply of food in the restaurant is fundamental, because it is not the dish itself that matters, but what it represents

    14. Development of an airborne asbestos monitoring system. Taiki kankyo no asbesto monitoring ni kansuru kento

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Takatsuki, H.; Sakai, S.; terazono, A. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Center)

      1991-07-10

      In order to develop an airborne asbestos monitoring system, the efficiency of FAM (fibrous aerosol monitor) was evaluated in which the scattered light due to vibration of fibrous particles is detected by applying He-Ne laser to the particles after vibration was induced in them by high voltage quadrupole electrodes. As compared with the data concurrently obtained by phase contrast microscope (PCM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), no correlation of an asbestos concentration was observed between FAM and PCM in low concentration environment, however, FAM offered comparatively reliable results in high concentration environment. As an asbestos concentration was measured with time by FAM around a duct outlet during removal of sprayed-on asbestos, FAM responded instantaneously to emergent emission of a large amount of asbestos in the event of dust collector failure for example. FAM was thus useful for monitoring asbestos leakage. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

    15. Asbestos in Colombia: A silent enemy = Asbesto en Colombia: un enemigo silencioso

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Asbestos is a group of fibrous non-metallic minerals, composed of double chain silicates, that shows high resistance to tension and chemical degradation and low thermal conductivity. Despite being recognized as carcinogenic agents by the World Health Organization (WHO, based on experimental evidences and population studies, asbestos are still used in many countries at the expense of the health of workers. This has become a worldwide problem associated with the increase of asbestos-related diseases in exposed persons. In this article, we review asbestos and their associated diseases; the use, exposure and existing regulations on asbestos both in Colombia and in other countries. Finally, we raise the possibility of evaluating the usefulness of genetic monitoring in addition to following-up exposed individuals. This would enable a better surveillance in our country with respect to lung cancer, mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases.

    16. Ultrastructure of the lung in the rat following exposure to crocidolite asbestos and quartz.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miller, K; Webster, I; Handfield, R I; Skikne, M I

      1978-01-01

      Lung tissue from rats that had inhaled U.I.C.C. crocidolite asbestos or quartz particles showed thickening of the interstitial tissue and the presence of collagen fibres. Aggregates of macrophages in the alveolar spaces were a dominant feature of all the sections examined from asbestos exposed rats. According to the ultrastructural studies described here, all the macrophages were mature cells, indicating that the ingested crocidolite asbestos was non-toxic. Lung sections of rats exposed to quartz particles were significantly different. Single cells were found in the alveolar spaces and many macrophages showed a characteristic pattern of vacuole formation. Other cells contained intracellular membranous lamellated bodies, similar to those found in Type II pneumocytes. Cells containing lamellated bodies were also found in the interstitial tissue. These findings suggest that the two mineral dusts have quite different biological effects on the macrophage and that the development of pulmonary fibrosis may, to some extent, be caused by a different mechanism in each instance.

    17. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

      2011-01-01

      To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

    18. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

      2004-01-01

      Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

    19. Columbia University's Franz Boas: He Led the Undoing of Scientific Racism.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baker, Lee D.

      1999-01-01

      As early as 1887, the anthropologist Franz Boas began to combat scientific racism and the insistence that blacks were of lower intelligence than whites. Throughout his career, Boas guided anthropology to a consensus that people of color were not racially inferior and that they possessed unique and historically specific cultures. (SLD)

    20. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

      1986-01-01

      Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

    1. Asbestos in toys: an exemplary case.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silvestri, Stefano; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Raffaell, Corrado; Veraldi, Angela

      2016-01-01

      DAS was an artificial clay which, once molded, hardened at room temperature. It was largely used as a toy between 1963 and 1975 in Italy, Netherlands, Germany, UK and Norway. This case report describes and reports the presence of asbestos in DAS. We investigated the presence of asbestos in DAS using light and electron microscopy on samples of the original material. We searched administrative documents at the State Archive of Turin and conducted interviews with past employees on annual production, suppliers, and purchasers. The analytical tests confirmed the presence of asbestos fibers in DAS: about 30% of its composition. The documents found at the State Archive confirmed the annual purchase of hundreds tons of raw asbestos from the Amiantifera di Balangero, the Italian asbestos mine. DAS was found to be used also within craftsmanship. Asbestos fibers in DAS may have caused exposure to production workers and a variety of users, including artists, teachers, and children. Over 13 years, about 55 million packs of DAS were produced and sold. The number of users is difficult to estimate but may have been in the order of millions. In Italy, a specific question on the use of DAS has been included in a routinely used mesothelioma questionnaire. As DAS was exported to other countries, our findings suggest that mesothelioma patients should be asked about their past use of DAS, in particular individuals not reporting a clear past asbestos exposure. Additionally, this discovery shows the incompleteness of records on asbestos uses and suggests to test items, including toys, imported from countries where asbestos is not forbidden.

    2. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yuwadee Ngamwong

      Full Text Available Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10 and cohort (N = 7 studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs, relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S- were compared with; (i asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-, (ii non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+, and (iii asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+. Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-, odds ratios for the disease (95% CI were (i 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21, (ii 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42, (iii 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10. The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77 and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30. Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28 and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85. Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.

    3. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

      2015-01-01

      Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.

    4. [Screening for asbestos-related conditions

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Brauer, C.; Baandrup, U.; Jacobsen, P.

      2009-01-01

      Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2/2...

    5. Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek

      2014-05-01

      This article aims to review the geological background of environmental asbestos exposure and the distribution of asbestos-related disease (ARD) in association with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), and discusses the potential health risks associated with exposure to non-occupational asbestos. With the motion of continental and oceanic plates, in some parts of the world serpentinites in the lower layer of the oceanic plate move into the continental plate and form the so-called ophiolites. Ophiolites consist of soil and rocks containing serpentine-type asbestos. There is an increase in ARDs in regions close to ophiolites. Indoor exposure and outdoor exposure to NOA, outdoor exposure to industrial asbestos and mines, urbanization and construction works in NOA regions are the known sources and types of environmental asbestos exposure. Although there is an expectance of decline in ARDs caused by industrial exposure to asbestos, the environmental exposure to asbestos is still a challenge waiting to be overcome.

    6. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Gosen, Bradley S.

      2010-01-01

      This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

    7. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Gosen, Bradley S.

      2008-01-01

      This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

    8. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

      Science.gov (United States)

      There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

    9. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

      1983-01-01

      Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

    10. Asbestos and cancer of the larynx

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Viallat, J.R.; Farisse, P.; Rey, F.; Boutin, C.; Henin, Y.; Jausseran, M.; D' Istria, J.C.

      1986-01-01

      Two hundred subjects were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire in order to determine possible exposure to asbestos: 50 patients with a carcinoma of the larynx (mean age: 59.2 +/- 1.6 years), 50 patients with a carcinoma of the bronchus (mean age 61.2 +/- 1.5 years) and 100 controls. Rates concerning exposure to asbestos were 27.8%, 23.4% and 4% respectively. The difference between the carcinoma patients and the controls was significant (p less than 0.001). The mean time lapse between the first exposure to asbestos and the development of malignant disease was shorter for the larynx (28.5 +/- 4 years) than for the lung (46.2 +/- 4.2): p less than 0.01. This study confirms the etiological role of asbestos in the pathogenesis of carcinoma of the larynx as well as carcinoma of the lung, and raises the problem of their medicolegal compensation.

    11. [Asbestos exposure in the non-asbestos textile industry: the experience of the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mensi, Carolina; Macchione, Maria; Termine, Lorenzo; Canti, Zulejka; Rivolta, Giuseppe; Riboldi, Luciano; Chiappino, Gerolamo

      2007-01-01

      The Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, activated in 2000, receives more than 300 cases per year of suspected malignant mesothelioma; the standardized (age and gender) incidence rate of pleural mesothelioma is 2.4/100,000 inhabitants (CI 95% 2.0-2.7). The finding of an increasing number of cases among workers of the non-asbestos-textile industry, classified as "unknown exposure to asbestos", upheld the suspect of presence of asbestos in this compartment. Specific information about a possible asbestos exposure were collected by technicians, maintenance personnel and other experts; industrial machinery utilized in the past was thoroughly examined; direct inspections were carried out in several workplaces that had not yet undergone significant changes with respect to the past. A large amount of asbestos had been regularly used on the ceilings and also to the walls of factories in order to avoid both condensation of steam and reflection of noise. In addition, asbestos had also been widely used to insulate water and steam pipes. The braking systems of most of machines also had asbestos gaskets, and on several looms some brakes operated continuously. The population in study was composed of 119 subjects, 27 males and 92 females, median age of 72 years. Asbestos exposure was ascribed to work in 106 cases (89%). The system devised by the Lombardy Registry had brought to light an occupational hazard in a professional area previously never believed as a source of asbestos exposure. In consideration of the described experience, both environmental and clinical, it seems reasonable to consider the non-asbestos-textile as a new department at risk for asbestos exposure.

    12. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marianne Gabirot

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates, although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species.Muchas serpientes son capaces de usar su sistema quimiosensorial para detectar el olor de individuos coespecíficos, lo que es importante en muchos contextos sociales. La discriminación de la edad basada en señales químicas puede ser especialmente importante para asegurar el acceso a parejas potenciales que sean sexualmente maduras. En este estudio, usamos 24 individuos de una especie de boa (Boa constrictor (12 individuos adultos y 12 inmaduros que habían sido capturados en diferentes partes de Ecuador y eran mantenidos en cautividad el Vivarium de Quito. Usamos

    13. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

      Science.gov (United States)

      O'Neill, Rory

      2006-01-01

      The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

    14. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lewis, B.A.G.

      1977-12-01

      Fill material in natural- or mechanical-draft cooling towers can be manufactured from a variety of materials, including asbestos cement or asbestos paper. To aid in the environmental impact assessment of cooling towers containing these asbestos types of fill, information on these materials was obtained from cooling-tower vendors and users. Samples of makeup, basin, and blowdown waters at a number of operating cooling towers were obtained, and identification and enumeration of asbestos in the samples were performed by transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Asbestos fibers were detected in cooling-tower water at 10 of the 18 sites sampled in the study. At all but three sites, the fibers were detected in cooling-tower basin or blowdown samples, with no fibers detected in the makeup water. The fibers were identified as chrysotile at all sites except one. Concentrations were on the order of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter of water, with mass concentrations between <0.1 ..mu..g/liter to 37 ..mu..g/liter. The maximum concentrations of asbestos fibers in air near ground due to drift from cooling towers were estimated (using models) to be on the order of asbestos concentrations reported for ambient air up to distances of 4 km downwind of the towers. The human health hazard due to abestos in drinking-water supplies is not clear. Based on current information, the concentrations of asbestos in natural waters after mixing with cooling-tower blowdown containing 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 8/ fibers/liter will pose little health risk. These conclusions may need to be revised if future epidemiological studies so indicate.

    15. Asbestos Workshop: Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-03-01

      coatings Vinyl/asbestos floor tile Automatic transmission components Clutch facings Disc brake pads Drum brake linings Brake blocks Commercial and...1EMDQ March 2012 ASBESTOS WORKSHOP: SAMPLING, ANALYSIS , AND RISK ASSESSMENT Paul Black, PhD, Neptune and Company Ralph Perona, DABT, Neptune and...Sampling, Analysis , and Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

    16. Asbestos: the measures taken by CERN

      CERN Multimedia

      2005-01-01

      Recently, the Canton's Department for Installation, Equipment, and Housing launched a survey into the presence of asbestos in buildings built in Geneva before 1991. Their initial findings have caused some concern to the public, with buildings and landmarks such as the TSR Tower, the Temple de la Madeleine, and the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre all found to contain asbestos. Several employees here also contacted the Bulletin to find out more about CERN's approach in dealing with asbestos. In the 1960s, asbestos' use was widespread. Its low cost and attractive properties made it a popular choice for insulating buildings. It was used in buildings throughout the world, including many at CERN. However, since the 1970s the use of asbestos has been gradually limited. In France, the first specific rules for the protection of workers came about in 1977. Since then, its use was limited more and more, under pressure from European directives. Finally, a European directive in 1999 widened the ban on asbestos. It covered ...

    17. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

      2012-07-01

      A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

    18. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

      Science.gov (United States)

      The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

    19. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marianne Gabirot

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates, although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species.

    20. Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... face' showdown over Obama-era tailpipe rule Blog: Yoga, Tai Chi and Your Lungs: The Benefits of ... number of items"); $("#local_list_xml").quickPagination(); }, error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML ...

    1. Asbestos in Schools. An AS&U Roundtable.

      Science.gov (United States)

      American School and University, 1985

      1985-01-01

      A discussion among six professionals about the status and outlook for asbestos removal in schools. The experts call for state or federal standards for asbestos in buildings and cite lack of funding as a major problem. (MLF)

    2. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

    3. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Municipal Demolition Activities

      Science.gov (United States)

      Memos about the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants provide clarification on demolition concerns such as the definition of a facility, and the applicability of asbestos NESHAP to structures demolished by municipal entities.

    4. Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) Enforcement Response Policy

      Science.gov (United States)

      The Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan (MAP) (40 CFR 763 Subpart E Appendix C) mandates safety training for those who do asbestos removal work, and implements the additional training requirements mandated by Congress

    5. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Roofing Materials

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guidance Manual and letters that clarify the applicability of the asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to the removal of asbestos-containing roofing material including tiles, and piping during demolition

    6. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

    7. Asbestos mines, prospects, and occurrences in the US

      Data.gov (United States)

      U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and mineralogical characteristics of former mines, prospects, and occurrences of asbestos in the continental US. No asbestos producing mines are currently...

    8. FFRANZ BOAS E A INSTITUCIONALIZAÇÃO DA ANTROPOLOGIA NOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Diogo da Silva Roiz

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available RESENHA BOAS, Franz. A formação da antropologia americana, 1883-1911. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, 2004. 423p. ______. Antropologia cultural. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 2010. 109p.

    9. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gramatikov Boris

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback, 787 pages

    10. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

      OpenAIRE

      Gramatikov Boris

      2012-01-01

      Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback), 787 pages

    11. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

      Science.gov (United States)

      National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

      The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

    12. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Malcolm, Stuart

      Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

    13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

      Science.gov (United States)

      Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

    14. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

      1986-01-01

      Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

    15. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

      Science.gov (United States)

      Selby, Thomas W.

      1996-01-01

      Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

    16. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

      Science.gov (United States)

      National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

      The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

    17. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

      Science.gov (United States)

      Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

    18. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-10-01

      ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

    19. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Malcolm, Stuart

      Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

    20. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

      Science.gov (United States)

      National Education Association, Washington, DC.

      This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

    1. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

      2007-12-01

      A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

    2. Tabulation of asbestos-related terminology

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Greg

      2002-01-01

      The term asbestos has been defined in numerous publications including many State and Federal regulations. The definition of asbestos often varies depending on the source or publication in which it is used. Differences in definitions also exist for the asbestos-related terms acicular, asbestiform, cleavage, cleavage fragment, fiber, fibril, fibrous, and parting. An inexperienced reader of the asbestos literature would have difficulty understanding these differences and grasping many of the subtleties that exist in the literature and regulatory language. Disagreement among workers from the industrial, medical, mineralogical, and regulatory communities regarding these definitions has fueled debate as to their applicability to various morphological structures and chemical compositions that exist in the amphibole and serpentine groups of minerals. This debate has significant public health, economic and legal implications. This report summarizes asbestos-related definitions taken from a variety of academic, industrial, and regulatory sources. This summary is by no means complete but includes the majority of significant definitions currently applied in the discipline.

    3. Cancer of the esophagus and asbestos exposure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Clin, Bénédicte; Thaon, Isabelle; Boulanger, Mathilde; Brochard, Patrick; Chamming's, Soizick; Gislard, Antoine; Lacourt, Aude; Luc, Amandine; Ogier, Guy; Paris, Christophe; Pairon, Jean-Claude

      2017-09-07

      Our study aimed at analyzing incidence and mortality from esophageal cancer within a cohort of workers with previous occupational asbestos exposure (ARDCo Program). A 10-year follow-up study was conducted in the 14 515 male subjects included in this program between October 2003 and December 2005. Follow-up began when exposure stopped. Asbestos exposure was analyzed by industrial hygienists using data from a standardized questionnaire. The Cox model was used, with age as the time axis variable adjusted for smoking, time since first exposure (TSFE) and cumulative exposure index (CEI) of exposure to asbestos. We reported a significant dose-response relationship between CEI of exposure to asbestos and esophageal cancer, in both incidence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.58), and mortality (HR 1.40, [95%CI 1.12-1.75]). This large-scale study suggests the existence of a relationship between asbestos exposure and cancer of the esophagus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    4. Immunological Effects of Silica and Asbestos

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto

      2007-01-01

      Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.

    5. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

      2016-01-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

    6. TNF-α inhibits asbestos-induced cytotoxicity via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, a possible mechanism for asbestos-induced oncogenesis

      OpenAIRE

      Yang, Haining; Bocchetta, Maurizio; Kroczynska, Barbara; Elmishad, Amira G.; Chen, Yuanbin; Liu, Zemin; Bubici, Concetta; Mossman, Brooke T.; Harvey I Pass; Testa, Joseph R.; Franzoso, Guido; Carbone, Michele

      2006-01-01

      Asbestos is the main cause of human malignant mesothelioma (MM). In vivo, macrophages phagocytize asbestos and, in response, release TNF-α and other cytokines that contribute to carcinogenesis through unknown mechanisms. In vitro, asbestos does not induce transformation of primary human mesothelial cells (HM); instead, asbestos is very cytotoxic to HM, causing extensive cell death. This finding raised an apparent paradox: How can asbestos cause MM if HM exposed to asbestos die? We found that ...

    7. Effects of inhaled asbestos, asbestos plus cigarette smoke, asbestos-cement and talc baby powder in hamsters

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wehner, A.P.

      1980-01-01

      Chronic exposure of hamsters to chrysotile asbestos resulted in severe asbestosis in all animals and in increased mortality; concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect type or severity of asbestotic lesions. Chronic exposure to asbestos-cement dust increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. Exposure to talc baby powder caused no significant changes. Deposition of talc particles in the lungs was demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and by a study with neutron-activated talc. No malignant tumours were observed in any of these studies.

    8. Effects of inhaled asbestos, asbestos plus cigarette smoke, asbestos-cement and talc baby powder in hamsters.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wehner, A P

      1980-01-01

      Chronic exposure of hamsters to chrysotile asbestos resulted in severe asbestosis in all animals and in increased mortality; concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect type or severity of asbestotic lesions. Chronic exposure to asbestos-cement dust increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. Exposure to talc baby powder caused no significant changes. Deposition of talc particles in the lungs was demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and by a study with neutron-activated talc. No malignant tumours were observed in any of these studies.

    9. A visual historical review of exposure to asbestos at puget sound naval shipyard (1962-1972).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hollins, Dana M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Clark, Katherine; Mangold, Carl A

      2009-02-01

      The study of occupational exposure to asbestos has been an ongoing activity for at least 75 years, dating back to the papers of Merewether and Price (1930). Since that time, literally tens of thousands of air samples have been collected in an attempt to characterize the concentration of asbestos associated with various activities. Many of the individuals who developed diseases from the 1970s to the current day were often exposed to very high airborne concentrations because of direct or indirect exposure to either raw asbestos fiber or insulation during the approximate 1940-1970 time period. Often, these high exposures were associated with work in shipyards during and after World War II and the Korean War, as well as with decommissioning, which continued into the mid-1970s. This study reviews the historical asbestos concentrations measured in shipyards and presents a visual illustration of typical conditions and work practices. A majority of the photographs presented in this article depict work conditions at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, circa 1940-1965, which is representative of other military shipyards of the time.

    10. Generation of Anti-Boa Immunoglobulin Antibodies for Serodiagnostic Applications, and Their Use to Detect Anti-Reptarenavirus Antibodies in Boa Constrictor.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yegor Korzyukov

      Full Text Available Immunoglobulins (Igs, the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD, an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive. However, so far, the study of the serological response towards reptarenaviruses in BIBD has been hampered by the lack of reagents. Thus we set up a purification protocol for boa constrictor IgY and IgM, which should also be applicable for other snake species. We used centrifugal filter units, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography to purify and separate the IgM and IgY fractions from boa constrictor serum, which we further used to immunise rabbits. We affinity purified IgM and IgY specific reagents from the produced antiserum, and labelled the reagents with horseradish peroxidase. Finally, using the sera of snakes with known exposure to reptarenaviruses we demonstrated that the newly generated reagents can be utilised for serodiagnostic purposes, such as immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show reptarenavirus-specific antibodies in boa constrictors.

    11. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

      2012-08-01

      Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

    12. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kehler, Kurt [Decommissioning and Demolition, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States)

      2012-07-01

      Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

    13. Current and future risks of asbestos exposure in the Australian community.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gray, Corie; Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison

      2016-10-01

      Australia mined asbestos for more than 100 years and manufactured and imported asbestos products. There is a legacy of in situ asbestos throughout the built environment. The aim of this study was to identify the possible sources of current and future asbestos exposure from the built environment. Telephone interviews with environmental health officers, asbestos removalists, and asbestos assessors in Australia sought information about common asbestos scenarios encountered. There is a considerable amount of asbestos remaining in situ in the Australian built environment. Potential current and future sources of asbestos exposure to the public are from asbestos-containing roofs and fences, unsafe asbestos removal practices, do-it-yourself home renovations and illegal dumping. This research has highlighted a need for consistent approaches in the regulation and enforcement of safe practices for the management and removal of asbestos to ensure that in situ asbestos in the built environment is managed appropriately.

    14. Uma "boa" educação A "good" education

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Monique de Saint Martin

      1999-04-01

      Full Text Available Uma educação ética 3/4 uma "boa" educação 3/4 de sua filhas sempre representou uma preocupação central para as camadas dominantes da burguesia e da aristocracia. A instrução, por outro lado, por visar essencialmente atividades intelectuais, sempre foi vista como secundária, assim como, no caso dessas moças, a transmissão do capital cultural e econômico. Mais do que uma exceção, a escola "Notre-Dame des Oiseaux" representa um caso-limite. Com algumas concessões à nova moralidade burguesa e na base de uma homogeneidade consistente, não apenas das alunas como das docentes e freiras, a educação das moças desse meio continua centrada no preparo para um papel específico - o de mãe "feliz", esposa culta, com um emprego (embora disposta a abandoná-lo, pia e envolvida em ações caridosas.For the dominant sections of the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy, an ethical education 3/4 a "good"education 3/4 for their daughters, is always a major preoccupation.Instruction, on the other hand, a training for intellectual activity, is considered of secundary importance, as though, in the case of theses girls, the transmission of the economic and cultural capital. The "Notre Dame des Oiseaux" school, is not so much an excepcional case as a bordeline case.With a few concessions to the new bourgeois morality, and thanks to the extreme homogeneity not only of its pupils, but also of its teaching staff and the sisters, the preparation for a specific role 3/4 "happy" mother, cultivated wife, with a job but quite prepared to give it up, pious, involved in some charitable activity 3/4 remains the most important aspect of the education of young girls of this milieu.

    15. Replacement of Asbestos Aboard Naval Aircraft.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1981-11-10

      Siding shingles and clapboard, including aoccesorlas Roofing shingles Asbets Textiles Yarn, cord, and thread Cloth Other asbestos textiles . including...all types Gakets (for sealing nonmoving parts) Asbestos, asbetos-metallic, and asbetos-ubber Packing (except leather , rubber, and metal) and abestos...c~ 0 oo N + -) ;-- (5"-00 0 . . SC C o U _ ’Do- - C. x 0 z I ok C L C; C 0 0S L ’-C -4 - - an t 0 - 0 _c - gc ~ .0 -o s.. - z 4- i r US v Q 6 U.~ cc

    16. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

      2010-03-01

      Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

    17. Surface improvement of asbestos by wet process. Shisshiki shori ni yoru asbesto no hyomen kaishitsu

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yasue, T.; Kojima, Y.; Obata, H.; Ogura, T.; Arai, Y. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering)

      1991-09-01

      The eluting process of each ion in asbestos was pursued up to the decomposition by processing with hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid to verify the acid processing condition making asbestos harmless and holding the fibrous structure. The decomposition of asbestos is significantly affected by the eluting condition. When treated by 3N hydrochloric acid, Mg{sup 2+} in asbestos elutes perfectly after 7days at 20 centigrade and after 30 minutes at 100 centigrade, remaining amorphous silica of comparatively high purity. When asbestos fiber which was acid-processed to exchange almost all sites with Ca{sup 2+} ion after Mg{sup 2+} in the first to fifth layers eluted, is put in Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, hydroxyapatite is formed on the surface. When this asbestos is hydrothermally processed in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution adjusted so that the atomic ratio of Ca{sup 2+}/Si{sup 4+} to silicate radical remained on the surface becomes 0.8, calcium silicate hydrate is formed on the surface. 22 refs., 12 figs.

    18. Enfermedades pleurales benignas inducidas por asbesto Benign pleural diseases induced by asbestos

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      J. Boldú

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available La exposición al asbesto es una causa importante de patología pleural y se puede producir con intensidades moderadas o ligeras dada la capacidad del asbesto de concentrarse en la pleura. Ello motiva junto a la prolongada latencia existente entre la exposición y la enfermedad, que sigamos viendo durante muchos años manifestaciones clínicas pleurales de exposición previa, a pesar del uso del asbesto cada vez más limitado en las últimas décadas. Dicha exposición puede presentarse con distintas manifestaciones tanto malignas como el mesotelioma como benignas, siendo las principales de éstas el derrame pleural benigno, las placas pleurales, la fibrosis pleural difusa y la atelectasia redonda.Exposure to asbestos is an important cause of pleural pathology and can be produced with light or moderate tendencies given the capacity of asbestos to concentrate in the pleura. Together with the prolonged latency existing between exposure and the disease, this means that for many years we will continue to see pleural clinical manifestations from past exposure, in spite of the increasingly limited use of asbestos in recent decades. This exposure can show itself in different manifestations, both malign, such as mesothelioma, and benign, principally benign pleural effusion, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis and massive atelectasis.

    19. Characterization of Lone Pine, California, tremolite asbestos and preparation of research material.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harper, Martin; Van Gosen, Bradley; Crankshaw, Owen S; Doorn, Stacy S; Ennis, Todd J; Harrison, Sara E

      2015-01-01

      Well-characterized amphibole asbestos mineral samples are required for use as analytical standards and in future research projects. Currently, the National Institute for Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material samples of asbestos are listed as 'Discontinued'. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a goal under the Asbestos Roadmap of locating and characterizing research materials for future use. Where an initial characterization analysis determines that a collected material is appropriate for use as a research material in terms of composition and asbestiform habit, sufficient amounts of the material will be collected to make it publicly available. An abandoned mine near Lone Pine, California, contains a vein of tremolite asbestos, which was the probable source of a reference material that has been available for the past 17 years from the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in the UK. Newly collected fibrous vein material from this mine was analyzed at Research Triangle Institute (RTI International) with some additional analysis by the US Geological Survey's Denver Microbeam Laboratory. The analysis at RTI International included: (i) polarized light microscopy (PLM) with a determination of principal optical properties; (ii) X-ray diffraction; (iii) transmission electron microscopy, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected-area electron diffraction; and (iv) spindle stage analysis using PLM to determine whether individual fibers and bundles of the samples were polycrystalline or single-crystal cleavage fragments. The overall findings of the study indicated that the material is tremolite asbestos with characteristics substantially similar to the earlier distributed HSL reference material. A larger quantity of material was prepared by sorting, acid-washing and mixing for sub-division into vials of ~10g each. These vials have been transferred from NIOSH to RTI International, from where they can be obtained on

    20. Characterization of Lone Pine, California, tremolite asbestos and preparation of research material

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harper, Martin; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Crankshaw, Owen S; Doorn, Stacy S; Ennis, J. Todd; Harrison, Sara E

      2014-01-01

      Well-characterized amphibole asbestos mineral samples are required for use as analytical standards and in future research projects. Currently, the National Institute for Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material samples of asbestos are listed as ‘Discontinued’. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a goal under the Asbestos Roadmap of locating and characterizing research materials for future use. Where an initial characterization analysis determines that a collected material is appropriate for use as a research material in terms of composition and asbestiform habit, sufficient amounts of the material will be collected to make it publicly available. An abandoned mine near Lone Pine, California, contains a vein of tremolite asbestos, which was the probable source of a reference material that has been available for the past 17 years from the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in the UK. Newly collected fibrous vein material from this mine was analyzed at Research Triangle Institute (RTI International) with some additional analysis by the US Geological Survey’s Denver Microbeam Laboratory. The analysis at RTI International included: (i) polarized light microscopy (PLM) with a determination of principal optical properties; (ii) X-ray diffraction; (iii) transmission electron microscopy, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected-area electron diffraction; and (iv) spindle stage analysis using PLM to determine whether individual fibers and bundles of the samples were polycrystalline or single-crystal cleavage fragments. The overall findings of the study indicated that the material is tremolite asbestos with characteristics substantially similar to the earlier distributed HSL reference material. A larger quantity of material was prepared by sorting, acid-washing and mixing for sub-division into vials of ~10g each. These vials have been transferred from NIOSH to RTI International, from where they can be

    1. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal multiple species of Boa and independent origins of insular dwarfism.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Corbin, Andrew B; Perry, Blair W; Andrew, Audra L; Pasquesi, Giulia I M; Smith, Eric N; Jezkova, Tereza; Boback, Scott M; Booth, Warren; Castoe, Todd A

      2016-09-01

      Boa is a Neotropical genus of snakes historically recognized as monotypic despite its expansive distribution. The distinct morphological traits and color patterns exhibited by these snakes, together with the wide diversity of ecosystems they inhabit, collectively suggest that the genus may represent multiple species. Morphological variation within Boa also includes instances of dwarfism observed in multiple offshore island populations. Despite this substantial diversity, the systematics of the genus Boa has received little attention until very recently. In this study we examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Boa populations using mitochondrial sequences and genome-wide SNP data obtained from RADseq. We analyzed these data at multiple geographic scales using a combination of phylogenetic inference (including coalescent-based species delimitation) and population genetic analyses. We identified extensive population structure across the range of the genus Boa and multiple lines of evidence for three widely-distributed clades roughly corresponding with the three primary land masses of the Western Hemisphere. We also find both mitochondrial and nuclear support for independent origins and parallel evolution of dwarfism on offshore island clusters in Belize and Cayos Cochinos Menor, Honduras. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    2. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ..., grinding or other method that breaks, crumbles, or disintegrates intact ACM. Amended water means water to which surfactant (wetting agent) has been added to increase the ability of the liquid to penetrate ACM... standard, “asbestos” includes PACM, as defined below. Asbestos-containing material (ACM), means...

    3. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mantegazza F

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

    4. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

      2008-02-01

      An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

    5. Determinants of Toxicity of Environmental Asbestos Fibers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Recent EPA-led studies have addressed the comparative toxicity and pathological mechanisms of environmental asbestos samples from Libby, Montana and other communities in the United States. Longer amosite fibers induce a 4-10 fold greater induction of pro-inflammatory mediators C...

    6. Determinants of Toxicity of Environmental Asbestos Fibers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Recent EPA-led studies have addressed the comparative toxicity and pathological mechanisms of environmental asbestos samples from Libby, Montana and other communities in the United States. Longer amosite fibers induce a 4-10 fold greater induction of pro-inflammatory mediators C...

    7. Relatório de estágio Creche Boa Infância

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Micheli Marcansoni

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available O estágio é fundamental para a formação profissional a fim de adequar essa formação às expectativas do mercado de trabalho onde o licenciado irá atuar. Assim o estágio dá oportunidade de aliar a teoria à prática. O estágio ocorreu na Creche Municipal Boa Infância, situada na Avenida Amanda da Penha, nº. 1.205, na cidade de Sinop; onde foi realizado o estágio de docência na sala do Maternal II A, no período Matutino, a docência se realizou nos dias 14/02/2011 a 02/05/2011, com carga horária de 60 horas. O seguinte relatório irá apresentar alguns dados coletados durante a docência em sala de aula e no ambiente externo, bem como também na parte administrativa. Durante a docência tivemos acesso ao Projeto Político Pedagógico da creche, onde podemos coletar alguns dados importantes, como sua missão, objetivo, entre outros. Está experiência proporcionada pelo estágio de docência amplia o significado da constituição de um profissional da área de educação e complementa a formação acadêmica. Também com a docência pude compreender algumas barreiras que temos que enfrentar dentro da educação e que realmente tenho que enfrentar para alcançar os objetivos de uma melhor educação. Palavras-chave: educação; estágio; qualidade.

    8. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

      1981-01-01

      Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

    9. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Torres M

      2009-08-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de las cuales, 9 fueron hembras, 24 machos y 4 ninfas. Conclusiones. La identificación de ectoparásitos en especies de Boa c. constrictor contribuye a mantener adecuadamente esta especie en cautiverio y provee datos para establecer medidas profilácticas y tratamiento, igualmente, ayuda en el conocimiento de los agentes parasitarios de la fauna silvestre.

    10. An Australian stocks and flows model for asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Donovan, Sally; Pickin, Joe

      2016-10-01

      All available data on asbestos consumption in Australia were collated in order to determine the most common asbestos-containing materials remaining in the built environment. The proportion of asbestos contained within each material and the types of products these materials are most commonly found in was also determined. The lifetime of these asbestos containing products was estimated in order to develop a model that projects stocks and flows of asbestos products in Australia through to the year 2100. The model is based on a Weibull distribution and was built in an excel spreadsheet to make it user-friendly and accessible. The nature of the products under consideration means both their asbestos content and lifetime parameters are highly variable, and so for each of these a high and low estimate is presented along with the estimate used in the model. The user is able to vary the parameters in the model as better data become available.

    11. One-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hurbánková, M

      1994-10-01

      The phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood was investigated after 2, 24, and 48 hr; 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks; and 6 and 12 months following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibers to Wistar rats. Asbestos and basalt fibers differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Both granulocyte count and phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the 1-year dynamic follow-up in both dust-exposed groups of animals changed in two phases, characterized by the initial stimulation of the acute phase I, followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase II. Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibers led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibers also significantly decreased phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibers did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. Results suggest that the monocytic component of leukocytes plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts, but basalt fibers have lesser biological effects than asbestos fibers.

    12. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

      2006-07-01

      Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

    13. Consumption of an adult Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae by the snake Boa constrictor (Boidae in Central Mexico Consumo de un jaguarundi adulto Puma yagouaroundi (Felidae por la serpiente Boa constrictor (Boidae en el centro de México

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available Few felids have been recorded as being preyed upon by the Boa constrictor snake (Boa constrictor. Documentation of predation on felids by reptiles is scarce, and natural predators of the adult jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi are poorly known. Here, we report for the first time an adult male jaguarundi being eaten by the snake Boa constrictor (of 273 cm snout-to-vent length at the Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve, Estado de México.Pocos depredadores han sido registrados como presas de la Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor. La depredación de felinos por reptiles es escasamente documentada y los depredadores naturales del jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi son pobremente conocidos. Aquí, nosotros informamos de un evento de depredación de un jaguarundi macho adulto que fue consumido por una B. constrictor (longitud hocico-cloaca: 273 cm en la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, Estado de México.

    14. [Evaluation of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kishimoto, Takumi; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Shinji

      2008-09-01

      We encountered 19 patients of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos from 2000 to 2007. All patients were men whose ages arranged from 60 to 89 years with a mean of 74.2 years. Twenty rounded atelectasis were present in the right lung and 5 in the left lung. Five patients had 2 rounded atelectasis. In 21 rounded atelectasis were found in Segment 10 and while other 2 found in S1 and each in S5 and 9. Eleven patients were diagnosed with no symptoms through medical examinations. Other 8 patients complained of dyspnea, chest pain and cough. Thirteen patients complicated with benign asbestos pleurisy and only 3 patients accompanied asbestosis. Eighteen patients (95%) displayed pleural plaques and 15 patients with calcified plaques. Ten patients had been exposed to asbestos in the shipyards and 4 in construction works and other 5 patients had also exposed by occupational exposure to asbestos. The mean period of exposure to asbestos was 26.6 years and the mean latency periods from the first asbestos exposure to the diagnosis of rounded atelectasis were 51.6 years. An autopsied patient had 18,100 asbestos bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue which meant the heavy asbestos exposure. High incidence of pleural plaques and long period of latency from the first exposure to the appearance of rounded atelectasis in this study suggested that rounded atelectasis might appear less high-dose exposure to asbestos than former patients who were reported 6 years ago.

    15. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

    16. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daniela Marsili

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

    17. Código de Boas Práticas de Higiene

      OpenAIRE

      Rocha,Ada

      2008-01-01

      Índice1.Código de boas práticas de higiene . âmbito e aplicação2. Causas da deterioração dos alimentos3. Manipuladores de alimentos4. Instalações5. Utensílios e equipamentos6. Produção7. Formação8. Bibliografia

    18. High resolution neutron imaging capabilities at BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Morgano, M.; Panzner, T.; Lehmann, E.; Filgers, U. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

      2015-06-01

      The cold neutron spectrum of the Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at Paul Scherrer Institut enables high contrast neutron imaging because neutron cross sections for many materials increase with neutron wavelength. However, for many neutron imaging applications, spatial resolution can be as important as contrast. In this paper the neutron transmission imaging capabilities of an MCP/Timepix detector installed at the BOA beamline are presented, demonstrating the possibilities for studying sub-20 µm features in various samples. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and microtomography, the high degree of neutron polarization at the BOA beamline can be very attractive for imaging of magnetic fields, as demonstrated by our measurements. We also show that a collimated cold neutron beamline combined with a high resolution detector can produce image artifacts, (e.g. edge enhancements) due to neutron refraction and scattering. The results of our experiments indicate that the BOA beamline is a valuable addition to neutron imaging facilities, providing improved and sometimes unique capabilities for non-destructive studies with cold neutrons.

    19. MIGRAÇÕES E MÚLTIPLAS TERRITORIALIDADES DOS IMIGRANTES EM BOA VISTA-RR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pedro Marcelo Staevie

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available The present article aims to show the migratory process towards the Boa Vista city and the multiple existing territorialities in the urban space of the city. W ith a population formed by immigrants, mostly northeasters, the capital of Roraima is configured in a multifaceted city, a place of distinct territorial manifestations.

    20. Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-01-01

      Background Asbestos is classified as a human carcinogen, and studies have consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few studies have evaluated risks in population-based settings where there is a greater variety in the types of occupations, and exposures. Methods This was a population based case–control study with 1,681 incident cases of lung cancer, and 2,053 controls recruited from 8 Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to elicit a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information for other risk factors. Occupational hygienists, who were blinded to case–control status, assigned asbestos exposures to each job on the basis of (i) concentration (low, medium, high), (ii) frequency (30% of the time in a normal work week), and (iii) reliability (possible, probable, definite). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Those occupationally exposed to (i) low, and (ii) medium or high concentrations of asbestos had ORs for lung cancer of 1.17 (95% CI=0.92 – 1.50) and 2.16 (95% CI=1.21-3.88), respectively, relative to those who were unexposed. Medium or high exposure to asbestos roughly doubled the risk for lung cancer across all three smoking pack-year categories. The joint relationship between smoking and asbestos was consistent with a multiplicative risk model. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to asbestos has contributed to an increased risk of lung cancer in Canadian workplaces, and suggests that nearly 3% of lung cancers among Canadian men are caused by occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:23234401

    1. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas

      OpenAIRE

      Terra Filho,Mário; Freitas,Jefferson Benedito Pires de; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [UNIFESP

      2006-01-01

      Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.

    2. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE AND SARCOMATOID MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA

      OpenAIRE

      Gorantla,; Namballa; Tupakula Suresh

      2014-01-01

      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is commonly associated with documented asbestos exposure. The mean interval between exposure and death is around 40 years. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common form of MPM. It is more aggressive and associated with worst prognosis. Adequate sampling is important for accurate diagnosis. Both VATS and image guided core needle biopsy have higher diagnostic yield compared to the closed pleural biopsy. IHC markers are used as an adju...

    3. Validity and Reliability of Asbestos Knowledge and Awareness Questionnaire for Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Rural Areas

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Selma Metintaş

      2017-04-01

      Full Text Available Objective: There is no treatment for asbestos–related diseases, but they can be prevented. One of the first interventions is to improve the knowledge level of people in order to protect people from asbestos and asbestos–related diseases. The present study was conducted to develop a questionnaire for measuring the knowledge and awareness level of asbestos and also assess its validity and reliability in a rural population that is exposed to asbestos environmentally. Methods: A questionnaire, interviewer–administered, that included 37 items was employed on a convenient sample consisting of adult persons who attended a tertiary teaching hospital in Eskişehir where asbestos exposure is widespread in its rural areas. After assessment of validity and reliability of the results, the questionnaire was refined to 19 items and one subscale. Results: A total of 760 participants were included in this study. The mean age of participants was 53.2±15.1 years and 51.6% of them were male. The discrimination and difficulty indices of the asbestos knowledge and awareness questionnaire ranged between 20.0–60.5% and 0.39–0.98, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.951 for overall items. The median (min–max and mean (SD score of the study population were 30 (19–56 and 33.9 (11.9, respectively. The score increased correspondingly with greater knowledge levels. Conclusion: This questionnaire is a practical and easy tool to apply with acceptable reliability and validity on high-risk adults in rural areas with environmental asbestos exposure.

    4. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lange John H

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment. These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Discussion Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes. Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections. In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Summary Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

    5. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

      2015-01-01

      There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.

    6. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nobukazu Fujimoto

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE. The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1 history of asbestos exposure; (2 presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3 the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%. Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5% cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3% cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT was detected in 30 (27.3% cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM during the follow-up.

    7. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

      1992-05-01

      The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

    8. The Role of Gatekeepers in the Asbestos Awareness Campaign.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Freimuth, Vicki S.; Van Nevel, J. Paul

      The role of news media as gatekeepers controlling the flow of information that the public receives was explored during the 1978 Asbestos Awareness campaign conducted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). In an effort to inform high risk workers and the general public about the health hazards associated with asbestos exposure,…

    9. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

      1990-01-01

      School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

    10. Asbestos real-time monitor in an atmospheric environment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hiromoto, N; Hashiguchi, K; Ito, S; Itabe, T

      1997-12-20

      The concentration of asbestos fiber aerosols can be monitored by measuring the polarization of laser light scattered by asbestos fibers. The principle of discriminating asbestos fibers is based on the theoretically expected difference in polarization at a scattering angle of 170 deg between cylindrical and spherical airborne particles; polarization at this scattering angle should be positive for cylindrical particles such as asbestos fibers but should be negative or close to zero for spherical mineral particles. We constructed an experimental asbestos real-time monitor that uses a strong electric field to align the airborne particles, that uses lasers having linear polarization with an equal amplitude in parallel and perpendicular components to the aligned long axis of particles, and that simultaneously detects the two components of the linear polarization of light scattered at 170 deg, i.e., close to the backscatter. Experiments that were performed to detect the light scattered from airborne standard asbestos fibers showed that the measured polarization fits theoretical prediction. The concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers obtained by the asbestos real-time monitor were consistent with those estimated by the standard phase contrast microscope method.

    11. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

      1985-06-01

      In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

    12. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

      This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by…

    13. Application of Microwave Energy at Treatment of Asbestos Cement (Eternit)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Znamenáčková, Ingrid; Dolinská, Silvia; Lovás, Michal; Hredzák, Slavomír; Matik, Marek; Tomčová, Jana; Čablík, Vladimír

      2016-10-01

      Asbestos is the common name applied to a group of natural, fibrous silicate minerals, which were once one of the most popular raw materials to be used in building materials. Asbestos was mainly used for the production of assortment asbestos cement products. Today it is generally known that asbestos belongs to the group of hazardous materials and shows carcinogenic activity. It is therefore advisable to attempt to dispose of asbestos minerals in asbestos-containing materials and to convert them into a harmless material. One of methods may be microwave thermal decomposition of asbestos minerals. The research was used for old etemit roof ceiling. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of undesirable chrysotile. Its thermal destruction was carried out in a microwave oven in the power of 2500 W. In case the heating time was 15 min, X-ray analysis was confirmed chrysotile change into harmless minerals. Thermal analysis was used for characterization and the thermal behaviour of the asbestos cement sample.

    14. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

      This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

    15. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet... asbestos, Portland cement, silica, and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

    16. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of...

    17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

    18. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to other asbestos... for Asbestos § 61.156 Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations. In addition to this subpart, the regulations referenced in Table 1 also apply to asbestos and may be applicable to those sources specified...

    19. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

    20. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

      2008-03-01

      A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

    1. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silvestri, Stefano

      2012-01-01

      Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

    2. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

      2015-11-22

      Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

    3. Exporting asbestos: disease and policy in the developing world.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Huncharek, M

      1993-01-01

      The health effects of asbestos are well known, with lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis recognized as the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among exposed populations. Recognition of these hazards coupled with an explosion of litigation against asbestos manufacturers brought by injured workers has resulted in declining markets for this commodity in the U.S. and other Western democracies. With Western markets for asbestos decreasing, the developing world has become the target of asbestos exporters in an attempt to revitalize an industry in decline. This paper discusses the trends in worldwide asbestos markets over the last two decades and the serious health implications of policies directed at establishing viable markets for this commodity in developing nations.

    4. Detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials by microwave treatment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yoshikawa, N; Kashimura, K; Hashiguchi, M; Sato, M; Horikoshi, S; Mitani, T; Shinohara, N

      2015-03-02

      The detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was investigated through simulations and experiments. The permittivities of pure CaO and Mg3Si4O12, as quasi-asbestos materials, were measured using the cavity perturbation method. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ɛr' and ɛr″) of CaO are functions of temperature, and numerical simulations revealed the thermal distributions in an electromagnetic field with respect to both asbestos shape and material configuration based on permittivity. Optical microscopic observation revealed that the thickness of chrysotile fibers decreased as a result of CaO heating. The heating mechanism of asbestos materials has been determined using CaO phase, and the detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was discussed based on the heating mechanism.

    5. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

      Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

    6. Assessment of asbestos exposure during a simulated agricultural activity in the proximity of the former asbestos mine of Balangero, Italy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turci, Francesco; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Gazzano, Claudia; Tomatis, Maura; Gentile-Garofalo, Laura; Bergamini, Massimo

      2016-05-05

      The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rural areas is a serious concern for human health and the dispersion route of asbestos in the proximity of natural asbestos-rich settings has been marginally evaluated so far. NOA may affect air, but also water and soil quality. In rural areas population may be exposed to asbestos with a largely unknown impact on human health. This work investigates the potential exposure of a farmer cultivating a field nearby the largest former asbestos mine of Western Europe (Balangero, Italy). The concentration of waterborne asbestos in the stream used to water the field was measured (ca. 2×10(5) fibers per liter, ff/L) and the cultivated ultramafic topsoil characterized, evidencing a remarkable occurrence of chrysotile. The worker's personal exposure and the environmental fiber dispersion during a simulated agricultural activity (tillage) were quantified in two independent trials. During the trials, the worker was exposed to average concentrations of 16 and 26 ff/L, with a peak of 40 ff/L. These data inform about the possible exposure of an agricultural worker to asbestos concentration higher than the accepted threshold of 2 ff/L. The release of asbestos fibers into the environment was negligible (0-2 ff/L).

    7. Association Between Laryngeal Cancer and Asbestos Exposure: A Systematic Review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ferster, Ashley P O'Connell; Schubart, Jane; Kim, Yesul; Goldenberg, David

      2017-04-01

      It has been debated whether a link exists between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. Prior systematic reviews have been conducted on this topic, but no updates have been performed on the most recent literature since 2000. To provide an updated systematic review of the association between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. A search of electronic databases, including PubMed and the Cochrane Library, was performed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and April 30, 2016. Search terms, including laryngeal cancer and asbestos, were used to identify publications reviewing the risk of laryngeal cancer in association with asbestos exposure. Studies analyzing this association that were published in any language and translated reliably were included. Two independent reviewers assessed articles based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Each study was reviewed for quality using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence and assessed for their findings of support for or against a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. A total of 160 studies were retrieved from all databases, and 2 additional articles were identified by cross-references. Of the 162 articles screened, 15 articles comprising 438 376 study participants were included in this review. Of these 15 studies, 10 showed no correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. The remaining 5 studies claimed a correlation between asbestos exposure and incidence of laryngeal cancer, although only 1 accounted for smoking or alcohol exposure while 3 others did not, and 1 study included only 2 patients. Although asbestos is considered hazardous and carcinogenic, current evidence is lacking to support a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. Few studies have been able to definitively conclude a causal association between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer, and those that found an association often did not account for the

    8. Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: iconographic essay; Alteracoes pleurais e parenquimatosas relacionadas a exposicao ao asbesto: ensaio iconografico

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Bagatin, Ericson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva e Social; Terra-Filho, Mario [Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com

      2007-07-01

      The aim of this study is to illustrate the main imaging findings of asbestos-related diseases. Pleural and pulmonary asbestos-related diseases range from benign conditions, like pleural effusion and pleural plaques, to some neoplasias, such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Pleural effusion is the earliest finding after asbestos exposure, but the imaging findings are not specific. Diffuse pleural thickening involves the visceral pleura and pleural plaques are considered to be hallmarks of exposure. Asbestosis is the pulmonary fibrosis due to asbestos. Rounded atelectasis is a peripheral lung collapse in these individuals, generally related to pleural disease. Some neoplasias, like lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma, are more prevalent in asbestos-exposed subjects. (author)

    9. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

    10. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yamamoto, Takashi, E-mail: tyama@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Kida, Akiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Noma, Yukio [Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Womens University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashiku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan); Terazono, Atsushi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Sakai, Shin-ichi [Environmental Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

      2014-02-15

      Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

    11. Franz Boas and his plans for an International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology in Mexico.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Godoy, R

      1977-07-01

      The expansionist policy of the United States at the turn of the century widened the horizons of American anthropology. The International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology was one of the first attempts by American anthropologists to carry out systematic research in foreign lands. Motivated partly by a wish to strengthen the quality of American anthropology, Franz Boas succeeded in gaining the cooperation of several European and American institutions. The purpose of the school was to conduct rigorous anthropological investigations in Mexico. Obsessed with professionalizing the discipline, Boas failed to take into account the turbulent political climate of Mexico when planning the school. Although it did good work for a number of years (1910-1914), the school was broken up forever in 1914 because of the Mexican revolution. Attempts at resurrection failed for numerous reasons.

    12. [The registry for asbesto-related tumors].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Melino, C

      2003-01-01

      The author stresses the importance of DPCM 10 December 2002 no.308, which determines the format and the rules to fill the registry for the cases of asbestos-related mesothelioma, according to art 36, comma 3, DLgs 277/91. The Author admits the usefulness of such a registry, but comments that its official approval came very late, because it actually was started in 1993 by ISPESL (The Higher Institute for Prevention and Safety of Labor), after the approval of DLgs 277/91. According to ISPESL initiative, all cases of mesothelioma and related circumstances were (and are) collected through a periferal information net operated by COR's.

    13. Asbestos, lead, and the family: household risks

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fischbein, A.; Cohn, J.; Ackerman, G.

      1980-06-01

      Although the intrafamilial transmission of infectious diseases has long been recognized, the induction of environmental disease in household contacts is being increasingly documented and requires a higher index of suspicion. An incidental radiographic finding, such as pleural thickening or calcification, or even interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in a young person without obvious occupational exposure to asbestos, should prompt the physician to clarify the parental occupational history. Likewise, unexpected evidence of lead induced abnormalities, such as elevated blood lead and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, should focus the examiner's attention on possible intrafamilial transmission, treatment, and prevention.

    14. Conforto para uma boa morte: perspectiva de uma equipe de enfermagem intensivista

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rudval Souza da Silva

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou conhecer o significado do cuidar em enfermagem para uma boa morte na perspectiva de uma equipe de enfermagem intensivista. Métodos: Adotou-se o Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin como referencial metodológico para análise. Foram entrevistados 10 profissionais de enfermagem, que vivenciavam o cuidado à pessoa em processo de terminalidade, numa UTI de um hospital especializado em oncologia. Resultados: O significado do cuidar para uma boa morte centra-se na promoção do conforto como categoria central e três subcategorias: Alívio de desconfortos físicos, Suporte social e emocional e Manutenção da integridade e do posicionamento corporal. Conclusão: Cuidar para uma boa morte significa promover conforto como um resultado de intervenções terapêuticas que conciliem racionalidade e sensibilidade nas interações dos profissionais de saúde com o paciente e sua família assegurando a sua dignidade.

    15. Las discípulas ocultas de Franz Boas: historia e historias de vida

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zelda Alice Franceschi

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Hay dos mujeres cuya obra se estudia en los textos de historia de la antropología: Ruth Benedict (1887-1948 y Margaret Mead (1901-1978, ambas alumnas del antropólogo alemán Franz Boas (1858-1942. En este trabajo consideramos algunas de las tramas del enfoque de Boas, quien se concentró especialmente en el estudio de la persona. Se analizan las trayectorias de algunas estudiantes directa o indirectamente influenciadas en su formación por Boas que no entraron, por diferentes razones, en la historia canónica de la antropología. Estas trayectorias biográficas no solo muestran cómo las redes de la antropología boasianas eran densas en términos teóricos, metodológicos y etnográficos, sino también que estas mujeres fueron valientes investigadoras en su enfoque etnográfico. En particular, consideramos los caminos de Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960, Elsie Clews Parsons (1875-1941 y Ruth Landes (1908-1991.

    16. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dennis José da Silva Lima

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

    17. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

      1993-03-01

      Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

    18. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site—Working towards a toolbox for better assessment

      Science.gov (United States)

      Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. En...

    19. Airways microbiota: Hidden Trojan horses in asbestos exposed individuals?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

      2014-11-01

      Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer with devastating prognosis, which develops in the pleural cavity from transformed mesothelium. MPM has been directly associated with asbestos exposure however there are aspects of the pathophysiology involved in the translocation of asbestos fibers in the pleura that remain unclear. Here, we propose and discuss that certain proteins secreted by airways symbiotic microbiota create membrane pores to the airway epithelial cells, through which asbestos fibers can penetrate the lung parenchyma and reach the sub-pleural areas. We evaluate this hypothesis using data from the published literature regarding the airways microbiota toxins such as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs).

    20. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

      2008-05-30

      Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

    1. Justice for asbestos victims and the politics of compensation: the French experience.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thébaud-Mony, Annie

      2003-01-01

      This paper presents the history of asbestos mining and manufacture in France, the strategies of the multinational asbestos firms to become major international participants, the failures of occupational health and safety that allowed an epidemic of asbestos-related diseases to occur, and the important social movement of the victims of asbestos exposure. The asbestos industry thrived in France until the health effects of asbestos exposure were made public. At that time, the industry had already moved its mining and manufacture to developing countries, where they were able to take advantage of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational and environmental laws. The author analyzes the compensation systems that were approached with varying degrees of success by the victims of asbestos exposure. France banned all manufacture and use of asbestos in 1997, and in the years that have followed, it has enjoyed many successes in achieving compensation for asbestos victims.

    2. Climatic conditions for grapevine cultivation in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil = Aptidão climática para o cultivo da videira em Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Grapevine plants have been grown in different tropical regions of Brazil. In the state of Roraima, this culture was introduced commercially in 2005 in Boa Vista. Unlike temperate regions, tropical regions present thermal conditions for grape production throughout the year. To evaluate the climatic characteristics on different periods of the year, it can be used different indices. The objective of this study was to characterize climate suitability of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, for grapevine cultivation at different months of the year. For climate classification it was used the Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (CCM, which is composed by three indices: Heliothermal (IH, Cool Night (IF, and Drought (IS. It was also used the Zuluaga Index (IZ, to assess the risk of incidence of fungal diseases on the vine, especially in relation to the incidence of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, one of the main grapevine diseases in humid regions. Based on the evaluated indices, it was found that the most favorable period for grape production goes from October to March because of the lower values of rainfall. During the other months, it can be employed branch pruning without fruit production, as occurs in other tropical locations of Brazil. =A videira tem sido cultivada em diferentes regiões tropicais do Brasil. No estado de Roraima, ela foi implantada comercialmente em 2005 em Boa Vista. Ao contrário das regiões de clima temperado, as regiões tropicais apresentam condições térmicas para a produção de uvas durante o ano inteiro. Para se avaliar as características climáticas dos diferentes períodos do ano pode-se recorrer a diversos índices. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a aptidão climática de Boa Vista, Roraima, para o cultivo da videira, considerando-se diferentes períodos de produção ao longo do ano. Na caracterização climática, foi utilizado o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicrit

    3. Study of the radiological procedures used in odontologic clinics of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil; Estudo dos procedimentos radiologicos nos consultorios odontologicos de Boa Vista, Roraima

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Costa, Jaberson Luiz Leitao

      2002-04-01

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological procedures used at the odontologic clinics of Boa Vista, Roraima-Brazil. The following parameters were recorded: field diameter, half value layer, total filtration, discrepancy between the preset and the applied kilovoltage and exposure time. Dose to the patient's skin from radiography of the upper molar tooth was also estimated. The results showed that 78% of the inspected units had field diameters larger than 6,0 cm, which is outside the limits recommended by the Brazilian Health Ministry. The results also showed that 14% of the equipment presented a discrepancy of more than 10% between preset and applied kilovoltage. On the other hand, the discrepancy between preset and applied exposure time is higher than 10% in 70% of the tested units. The total filtration of 77% units is lower than 1,5 mm of Al, a value recommended by the Brazilian Health Ministry for equipment that operates in the range of 50 kV to 70 kV. The survey also indicates that for 35% of the units the entrance dose in high than 3,5 mGy that is the reference value established by the Brazilian Health Ministry for dental radiography with film type. It was observed that the majority of the clinics use neither aprons nor collars for patients and that films are processed manually, without controlling temperature or processing time. Based on the results obtained it is strongly recommended that a quality control program be implemented in dental radiological clinics in Boa Vista, Roraima. (author)

    4. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas Asbestos-related diseases

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mário Terra Filho

      2006-05-01

      Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.This chapter presents a bibliographic review of asbestos-related diseases. The latest diagnostic, radiological, computed tomography and lung function aspects of benign pleural disease, asbestosis, occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma are discussed.

    5. Boa leitura!

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luís Carlos Lopes

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available

      A Ciberlegenda está completando sete anos de vida. Neste período, o número de seusleitores cresceu enormemente, bem como sua difusão entre os rincões das diásporaslusófonas e hispanofônicas. Somos citados em inúmeros outros sítios e reconhecidoscomo de leitura obrigatória em diversos espaços físicos e virtuais. 

      Consultando-se, em novembro de 2004, o motor de busca Google encontramos 464 menções na WEB referentes à palavra Ciberlegenda. Destas, 311 estão em línguaportuguesa, 111 em espanhol, 31 em inglês e 7 em francês. Manejando o nossocontador, que funciona desde janeiro de 2001 e que já passou da contabilização de 40.000 acessos, verifica-se uma média de 30 acessos/dia ao periódico. Não temoscomo saber quantos destes são relativos a leitores reais.  

      Chegam ao endereço eletrônico do editor correios eletrônicos de várias partes domundo. Agradecemos, em nome do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação da Universidade Federal Fluminense, os elogios e as outras palavras de incentivo.Alguns, menos avisados, pedem cópias em papel ou desejam assinar o periódico.Quando possível, é esclarecido que a revista só existe no formato eletrônico e que o acesso é livre e sem ônus.

      Alguns leitores mandam contribuições que, infelizmente, não se podem publicar. Ésempre difícil conviver com o corte do material enviado, tanto do ponto de vista doautor, tal como o do editor. Este não tem o poder final sobre o que deve ou não ser publicado, sendo apenas um dos que trabalham na seleção dos textos. Usam-sesempre os pareceres dos membros do comitê e do conselho editoriais. Há problemas de espaço, de pertinência à linha editorial e de qualidade dos textos.

      Nem sempre se tem tempo hábil para responder a todas as solicitações de nossosleitores e colaboradores. Faz-se isto na medida do possível. A nossa revista nãopossui um esquema de produção comercial e nem funcionários para geri-la.Normalmente, ela é publicada a partir da casa e computador pessoal do editor. Desteespaço, ela é enviada aos computadores da Universidade Federal Fluminense, que a abrigam e a mantém Tenta-se manter o mais elevado nível de profissionalismo, dentrodas condições de trabalho  e possibilidades existentes. 

      Nunca é demais esclarecer que os pontos de vista dos autores, bem como a íntegrade seus textos, são de exclusiva responsabilidade dos mesmos. Não se faz censuraideológica ou controle de procedência. Não se introduz qualquer modificação nostextos enviados, a não ser as de caráter absolutamente formais.  Procura-seselecionar os artigos a partir de critérios de qualidade e adequação aos objetivosenunciados nas normas editoriais.  

      Tem sido muito prazeroso editar a Ciberlegenda, mesmo com as dificuldadesinerentes a esta tarefa. Ela já ocupou o seu lugar nas mídias eletrônicas e no universodas demais revistas acadêmicas que escolheram o ciberespaço como um lugarprivilegiado. Se os objetivos principais de revistas desta natureza consistem eminformar e fazer circular amplamente as idéias da comunidade dos pesquisadores, acredita-se que se está no caminho certo. Aliás, o julgamento que realmente importa é o do leitor.  

      A Ciberlegenda é feita para os seus leitores. Eles esperam e cobram insistentementepor cada novo número. Aproximadamente, são realizadas 10.000 consultas por ano. Este último número de 2004 é mais uma vez dedicado aos seus fiéis leitores. Espera-se que em 2005, a revista esteja ainda melhor e que seus leitores continuem sendoseus parceiros ativos, bem como os seus críticos mais construtivos. 

      Rio de Janeiro, 27 de novembro de 2004.

      Luís Carlos Lopes

      Editor

    6. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated?

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated? No treatments can reverse the effects of ... ease pain, or relieve other complications of your disease. If you have lung cancer or mesothelioma, talk with your doctor about ...

    7. Geologic sources of asbestos in Seattle's tolt reservoir

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reid, M.E.; Craven, G.

      1996-01-01

      Water from Seattle's South Fork Tolt Reservoir contains chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers, derived from natural sources. Using optical petrographic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, we identified the geologic source of these asbestiform minerals within the watershed. No asbestos was found in the bedrock underlying the watershed, while both chrysotile and amphibole fibers were found in sediments transported by Puget-lobe glacial processes. These materials, widely distributed throughout the lower watershed, would be difficult to separate from the reservoir sediments. The probable source of this asbestos is in pods of ultramafic rock occurring north of the watershed. Because asbestos is contained in widespread Pugetlobe glacial materials, it may be naturally distributed in other watersheds in the Puget Sound area.

    8. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      V. S. Aigbodion

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

    9. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

      1993-01-01

      Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.

    10. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

      Science.gov (United States)

      Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

      2013-01-01

      Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

    11. Silencing the noise : asbestos liabilities, accounting and strategic bankruptcy.

      OpenAIRE

      Moerman, L.; S. van der Laan

      2015-01-01

      The legacy of the global exploitation of asbestos provides an illustrative case to examine corporate strategy in response to the significant financial risk presented by the long-tail liability. The James Hardie group was the dominant asbestos manufacturing concern in Australia and, confronted with the uncertainties of burgeoning long-tail tort claims, embarked on a radical corporate reorganization. At the centre of the reorganization was the creation of a business unit of limited potential to...

    12. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

      2006-01-01

      Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence.

    13. COS Imaging TA and Spectroscopic WCA-PSA/BOA offset verifications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Penton, Steven

      2013-10-01

      This program builds upon the monitoring and calibration of the FGSs (13616 - HST Cycle 21 Focal Plane Calibration (SI-FGS Alignment)). HST 13616 performs back-to-back PSA/MIRRORA & PSA/MIRRORB ACQ/IMAGES, from which all the results herein are bootstrapped.The list of proposals, cycles, and the order in which the alignment is checked is given below. 11878->12399->12781->13171->13616 C17->C18 ->C19->C20->C21 STIS->WFC3->ACS->COSThis program will be repeated every cycle and we will once again use it's COS exposures as the baseline for this program.This program performs a PSA/MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE on a target that should already be centered in the aperture. This verifies the COS NUV PSA aperture position in the SIAF. After this PSA+MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE, a PSA+MIRRORB ACQ/IMAGE is then performed. This exposure bootstraps the PSA+MIRRORB centering to the PSA+MIRROR SIAF verification. This allows us to monitor the properties of the PSA+MIRRORB image in a controlled way on a centered target. No spectra are taken in 13616 due to time constraints.This program extends the SIAF verification of 13616 to the other two ACQ/IMAGE combinations (BOA+MIRRORA & BOA+MIRRORB) by bootstraping from the PSA+MIRRORB verification of 13616.Visit 1 of this program begins with a PSA+MIRRORB NUV ACQ/IMAGE followed by a BOA+MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE. Both observations are high S/N to get the most accurate centering information possible. The program then takes a PSA+MIRRORB IMAGE to ensure that we are still properly centered. We prefer that Visit 01 of this program executes within 45 days of Visit 02 of 13616, to ensure that no long term instrument or telescope focus changes impart our results.After the Imaging verification , Visit 1 of this program will obtain a S/N > 60 NUV spectrum using the most popular NUV grating (G230L, G185M, & G285M), and FUV Spectra using G130M/1309 and G140L/1280. This allows the direct verification of the NUV and FUV WCA-to-PSA cross-dispersion offsets used by ACQ/PEAKXD.Visit 02 of

    14. Detection of asbestos fibres in selected building materials

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jiří Škvarla

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral having a fibrous structure. The Directive 2003/18/EC of the European Parliamentand of the Council of 27 March 2003 considers „asbestos“ the following fibrous silicates: actinolite, gruenerite (amosite, anthophyllite,chrysotile, crocidolite, tremolite.Materials based on asbestos fibres and other mineral fibres have preferential characteristics; they are chemically, electricallyand thermally resistant. Because of these unique characteristics, asbestos is utilized by builders, mainly in roofing, insulation materialsand facades.In connection with the restriction of the usage of asbestos fibres usage in EU is due to the documented carcinogenic impact,it is necessary to detect and identify these fibres.Selected samples of building insulation materials were studied by the polarized light microscopy and by the scanning electronmicroscopy. For the purpose of measuring asbestos, only fibres with a length of more than five micrometers, a breadth of less than threemicrometers and a length/breadth ratio greater than 3:1 were taken into consideration. Asbestos fibres, fibres of mineral wooland cellulose we identified.

    15. Working with asbestos and the possible health risks.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sen, D

      2015-01-01

      The generic term asbestos refers to a group of crystalline mineral silicates that occur naturally in various forms. Because of their properties of strength, heat and electrical resistance and their ability to withstand corrosion by acids and sea water, asbestos was used extensively both in the UK and worldwide. To provide a historical perspective of this ubiquitous occupational hazard, consider the key changes in UK legislation aimed at improving the management of this occupational health risk and describe the evidence from the scientific literature concerning asbestos and disease. Original articles, reviews (including reference textbooks) and scientific literature in PubMed and other principal medical science databases, 1960-2014, were searched. Publications by regulatory agencies and by governmental organizations were also considered and included where relevant. Asbestos remains the biggest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. For malignant mesothelioma deaths alone, it is estimated that in the UK, between 2015 and 2020, the number of cases will peak at 2500 cases annually. It is not clear whether there is a safe level of asbestos fibres in air. Evidence for the efficacy of health surveillance is lacking. Although the use of asbestos was banned in the UK in 1985 (amosite and crocidolite) and 1999 (chrysotile), it remains a significant occupational risk factor for work-related morbidity and mortality, causing both benign and malignant diseases, often with long latency. Further research is needed regarding exposure levels and health surveillance. © Crown copyright 2015.

    16. Porcelain Factory Worker With Asbestos-related Mesothelioma

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Meng-Ting Tsou

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor among the general population, but for people exposed to asbestos, the lifetime risk is high. A 58-year old man presented with suffering from chest pain, upper back pain, shortness of breath, and coughing that had continued for several months. A chest X-ray revealed right-side pleural effusion; however, pleural biopsy from drainage treatment confirmed a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. According to his occupational and environmental history, the patient had worked continuously in a porcelain factory for 30 years. The specific characteristics of his work, making asbestos wallboards and gaskets, entailed working in high-temperature conditions with a high fine-particle content in the atmosphere. The high working temperature caused asbestos debris and dust to fall down regularly from the wallboards, however, it was not until recently that the patient had started to wear personal protection. Asbestos is a significant source of hazardous exposure in old buildings, and this case serves as a reminder of the importance of asbestos-related exposure history, which facilitated the correct diagnosis of pulmonary malignant mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials that are now banned or regulated are still present in older buildings and remain an exposure hazard; they continue to be a serious health concern in many countries.

    17. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

      2012-06-01

      Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos.

    18. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

      2016-06-01

      Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

    19. Experimental asbestos studies in the UK: 1912-1950.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Greenberg, Morris

      2017-11-01

      The asbestos industry originated in the UK in the 1870s. By 1898, asbestos had many applications and was reported to be one of the four leading causes of severe occupational disease. In 1912, the UK government sponsored an experimental study that reported that exposure to asbestos produced no more than a modicum of pulmonary fibrosis in guinea pigs. In the 1930s, the newly established Medical Research Council, with assistance from industry, sponsored a study of the effects of exposing animals to asbestos by injection (intratracheal and subcutaneous) and by inhalation in the factory environment. Government reports, publications, and contemporary records obtained by legal discovery have been reviewed in the context of the stage of scientific development and the history of the times. Experimenters were engaged in a learning process during the 1912-1950 period, and their reports of the effects of asbestos were inconsistent. Pathologists who studied the effects of asbestos experimentally, at whole animal, tissue and cellular levels, advanced experimental methodology and mechanistic knowledge. In the hands of public relations experts, however, research was exploited to preserve an industry and perpetuate preventable diseases, a practice that continues to this day. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    20. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE AND SARCOMATOID MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gorantla

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is commonly associated with documented asbestos exposure. The mean interval between exposure and death is around 40 years. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common form of MPM. It is more aggressive and associated with worst prognosis. Adequate sampling is important for accurate diagnosis. Both VATS and image guided core needle biopsy have higher diagnostic yield compared to the closed pleural biopsy. IHC markers are used as an adjunct to tumour histopathology. The primary treatment options for sarcomatoid type are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival for patients with sarcomatoid tumours is typically less than six months. Patients in whom the diagnosis is made early have a survival benefit from multimodality therapeutic approach.

    1. A pedagogia no combate ao trabalho infantil no município de Boa Vista

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lysne Nôzenir Camelo de Lima

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available O trabalho infantil expõe as crianças a vários riscos, prejudicando seu desenvolvimento e configura-se como violação de direito. O trabalho apresenta a pedagogia utilizada pelo PETI em Boa Vista; o procedimento foi aplicado através de entrevista semi-estruturada e questionários, aos gestores e as crianças do programa, com enfoque qualitativo e quantitativo, avaliando a participação e satisfação dos integrantes e seus familiares. O PETI tem a finalidade de erradicar as diversas formas de trabalho infantil, assim como retirar das ruas crianças e/ou adolescentes. Sendo o seu público alvo crianças e/ou adolescentes na faixa etária de 07 (sete a 15 (quinze anos de idade. Dentre as ações desenvolvidas estão a de caráter protetivo e sócioeducativo, que compreendem: atividades ludopedagógicas, palestras preventivas e educativas, esportes, artesanatos, músicas e etc. Nesse contexto, cabe ao PETI, como programa estratégico, contribuindo para erradicação do trabalho infantil no Município de Boa Vista. Oportunizando assim as crianças e adolescentes assim como suas famílias a terem uma vida melhor. No resultado final, constatou-se o compromisso em erradicar o trabalho infantil em Boa Vista, priorizando o atendimento as famílias, através da educação social.

    2. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin

      2009-01-01

      and nephelinites were erupted during the third stage, initially dominated by eruption of subaerial mafic lavas around 9 Ma. Pillow lavas are erupted around 7 Ma whereupon dominantly subaerial mafic lavas were erupted. Stage 3 saw volcanism in many centres distributed mainly along the present coastline...... phonolites and trachytes are related through the fractional crystallization of three compositionally distinct magmas. Two of these may have been derived by crystal fractionation of primitive Boa Vista melts, whereas the third was not...

    3. On Some Extensions of Szasz Operators Including Boas-Buck-Type Polynomials

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sezgin Sucu

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a new sequence of linear positive operators which generalize Szasz operators including Boas-Buck-type polynomials. We establish a convergence theorem for these operators and give the quantitative estimation of the approximation process by using a classical approach and the second modulus of continuity. Some explicit examples of our operators involving Laguerre polynomials, Charlier polynomials, and Gould-Hopper polynomials are given. Moreover, a Voronovskaya-type result is obtained for the operators containing Gould-Hopper polynomials.

    4. O que é uma vida boa? What is a good life?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ronald Dworkin

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available A partir de seu novo livro, Justice for Hedgehogs¹, Ronald Dworkin estabelece uma diferente relação entre moral e ética, bem como fundamenta a necessidade de cumprir tais normas por meio da diferença entre vida boa e viver bem.According to his new book, Justice for Hedgehogs, Ronald Dworkin establishes a different relation between morality and ethics founding the need to obey these norms through the distinction between good life and living well.

    5. Douglas Cole, Franz Boas : The Early Years, 1858-1906

      OpenAIRE

      Mauzé, Marie

      2007-01-01

      Douglas Cole (1938-1997), à qui l’on doit plusieurs très importants ouvrages sur l’histoire des relations entre Indiens et Euro-Canadiens, qu’il s’agisse de la collecte des objets ethnographiques – domaine peu exploré lorsque son livre, Captured Heritage, parut en 1985 –, ou de l’histoire de la politique canadienne et de l’interdiction du potlatch, a entrepris une recherche biographique sur Franz Boas qui devait comprendre deux volumes. Seul le premier, publié après sa mort, nous sera connu ;...

    6. The Transplantation of BOA Based on Linux3.0.1 and S3C6410

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jianmin Wang

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The web server is a tool of information queries and information dissemination based on hypertext. Special software didn’t need to be installed by the users, and can access the embedded devices by accessing the browser through a general-purpose PC. In this paper, the embedded Web Server BOA transplantation, in the latest ARM11 architecture S3C6410 processor and version of the Linux3.0.1 operating system and gave an example of how to access the browser to control the development Board as the instance for LED lights.

    7. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-01-01

      The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D  3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

    8. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

      2014-02-01

      Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

    9. Hydrothermal conversion of chrysotile asbestos using near supercritical conditions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Axiotis, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, P.C. 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, P.C. 73100 (Greece)

      2010-07-15

      The present research investigates, develops and evaluates the transformation of chrysotile asbestos into a non-hazardous material, such as forsterite, using an economically viable and safe method. The aim of this study is to convert fibrous chrysotile asbestos into an anhydrous magnesium silicate with a non-hazardous lamellar morphology using supercritical steam. The treatment method is characterized as hydrothermal in a temperature and pressure range of 300-700 deg. C and 1.75-5.80 MPa, respectively. Small amounts of asbestos (2.5 g) were treated in each experiment. Deionised water was used as the treatment solution. The treatment duration varied from approximately 1-5 h. Additional experiments took place using solutions of distilled water and small amounts of acetic acid, with the aim of attaining optimal treatment conditions. Crystal phases of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phases present in the treated samples were forsterite, enstatite, and chrysotile asbestos. Lizardite and periclase were also found. The morphology of the treated chrysotile asbestos fibers was identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fibrous form of chrysotile asbestos was converted into non-fibrous form of forsterite. In fact, none of the fibrous-needle-like morphology, with length equal to or greater than 5 {mu}m and diameter less than 3 {mu}m, which was responsible for the toxicity of the original material, was visible in the solid phase. The dissolution of magnesium from chrysotile asbestos was measured using volumetric determination by titration with EDTA. Leaching of magnesium into the liquid phase was observed. Clearly, the highest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are observed after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos using acetic acid 1% (8.4-14.6%). Lowest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are obtained after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos without using additives. Observing the results of the hydrothermal

    10. Hydrothermal conversion of chrysotile asbestos using near supercritical conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Axiotis, Dimosthenis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

      2010-07-15

      The present research investigates, develops and evaluates the transformation of chrysotile asbestos into a non-hazardous material, such as forsterite, using an economically viable and safe method. The aim of this study is to convert fibrous chrysotile asbestos into an anhydrous magnesium silicate with a non-hazardous lamellar morphology using supercritical steam. The treatment method is characterized as hydrothermal in a temperature and pressure range of 300-700 degrees C and 1.75-5.80 MPa, respectively. Small amounts of asbestos (2.5 g) were treated in each experiment. Deionised water was used as the treatment solution. The treatment duration varied from approximately 1-5 h. Additional experiments took place using solutions of distilled water and small amounts of acetic acid, with the aim of attaining optimal treatment conditions. Crystal phases of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phases present in the treated samples were forsterite, enstatite, and chrysotile asbestos. Lizardite and periclase were also found. The morphology of the treated chrysotile asbestos fibers was identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The fibrous form of chrysotile asbestos was converted into non-fibrous form of forsterite. In fact, none of the fibrous-needle-like morphology, with length equal to or greater than 5 microm and diameter less than 3 microm, which was responsible for the toxicity of the original material, was visible in the solid phase. The dissolution of magnesium from chrysotile asbestos was measured using volumetric determination by titration with EDTA. Leaching of magnesium into the liquid phase was observed. Clearly, the highest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are observed after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos using acetic acid 1% (8.4-14.6%). Lowest concentrations of dissolved magnesium are obtained after hydrothermal treatment of chrysotile asbestos without using additives. Observing the results of the

    11. Comportamento de cultivares de alface tipo americana em Boa Esperança Performance of crisphead lettuce cultivars in Boa Esperança, Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jony E. Yuri

      2002-06-01

      Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos em estufas (túnel alto no município de Boa Esperança (MG, para avaliar cultivares de alface do grupo americana ("Crisphead lettuce", em duas épocas de plantio (outubro e março. As cultivares (Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady e Raider foram plantadas em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Para a primeira época (outubro, a produção comercial variou de 29,3 t.ha-1 a 37,6 t.ha-1 e circunferência da cabeça de 40,07 a 42,95 cm, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre cultivares. Na segunda época de plantio (março, sobressaíram-se as cultivares Raider, Cassino, Lady, Legacy e Lorca com produção comercial de 42,6; 41,6; 39,3; 37,3 e 32,5 t.ha-1, respectivamente. Quanto à circunferência de cabeça comercial, as cultivares Lady, Raider, Lucy Brown e Cassino, foram superiores às demais cultivares, com 48,15; 46,69; 45,90 e 45,67 cm respectivamente, sem diferirem significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at green house, in Boa Esperança, Brazil, to evaluate lettuce cultivars (Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady and Raider, crisphead group, in two planting seasons (October and March. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications. For the first season (October, the commercial yield, varied from 29.3 t.ha-1 to 37.6 t.ha-1 and head circumference from 40.07 to 42.95 cm, without significant difference among cultivars. At the second planting season (March, cvs. Raider, Cassino, Lady, Legacy and Lorca presented a commercial yield of 42.6; 41.6; 39.3; 37.3 and 32.5 t.ha-1. Cvs. Lady, Raider Lucy Brown and Cassino, were superior to the other cultivars, without significant differences among themselves, with 48.15; 46.69; 45.90; and 45.67 cm respectively.

    12. Asbestos: The Clock Is Ticking in Your Schools, and Inaction Could Prove to Be Devastating.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McCormick, Kathleen

      1984-01-01

      This article urges districts to meet federal regulations and protect students and staff from hazardous asbestos and reviews medical risks, compliance procedures, costs of asbestos removal, consequences of noncompliance, legal ramifications, and contacts for further information. (MJL)

    13. Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.

      2008-02-01

      Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

    14. How to Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: The AHERA Designated Person's Self Study Guide

      Science.gov (United States)

      This EPA document is designed to assist Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) designated persons in understanding their responsibilities to help local education agencies comply with federal asbestos in schools regulations.

    15. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

      2014-04-15

      In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties.

    16. Study of the land degradation in the municipality of Boa Vista-Paraíba

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      João Miguel de Morais Neto

      2007-11-01

      Full Text Available The study area covers all the territory of the municipality of Boa Vista, located in the Microrregião Homogênea dos Cariris Velhos, semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba. The main objective of this study was to elaborate space-temporal thematic maps of the land degradation expansion in the municipality of Boa Vista for the period 1987/2004, based on TM/Landsat-5 image analysis and field work data. The Landsat images digital processing was carried on the SPRING, v.4.2 (CÂMARA et al., 1998. The results had shown that in the study area are presented degradation levels varying from low to the very serious. The degradation levels very low, low and moderate had their occurrence diminished in 4.72%, 9.64% and 0.98%, respectively during the period since 1987 to 2004. In opposing way, the areas of moderate serious, serious and very serious degradation levels had increased in the period, with increments of 2.90%; 6.66% and 5.72%, respectively. In the municipality the land degradation is resultant of a lack of conservation practical in the use of agricultural soils by the farmers, of a lack of an infrastructure for mitigating the drought effects and of a lack of public polices for a sustainable life in the semi-arid region.

    17. New detoxification processes for asbestos fibers in the environment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turci, Francesco; Colonna, Massimiliano; Tomatis, Maura; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Fubini, Bice

      2010-01-01

      Airborne asbestos fibers are associated with many serious detrimental effects on human health, while the hazard posed by waterborne fibers remains an object of debate. In adopting a precautionary principle, asbestos content in water needs to be kept as low as possible and polluting waters with asbestos should be avoided. Turci et al. (2008) recently reported a method for the decontamination of asbestos-polluted waters or landfill leachates from chrysotile that combines power ultrasound (US) with oxalic acid (Ox), an acidic chelating molecule. In the previous study, the occurrence of antigorite, a polymorph of serpentine, the mineral group encompassing chrysotile asbestos, acted as a confounding factor for complete removal of chrysotile from water. The effects of US + Ox on pure chrysotile asbestos from Val Malenco, Italian Central Alps, were examined in this investigation. In the absence of mineral contaminants, a more rapid removal of pure chrysotile from water was undertaken with respect to the previous specimen. After only 12 h of combined US + Ox acid treatment, imaging (SEM) of mineral debris indicated complete loss of fibrous habit. In addition, crystallography and vibrational features of chrysotile were not detectable (x-ray powder diffraction [XRPD] and micro-Raman spectroscopy) and elemental analysis showed a low Mg/Si ratio, i.e., the loss of the brucitic layer in chrysotile (x-ray fluorescence, XRF). Some nanometric rod-shaped debris, observed in the previous study and tentatively recognized as serpentine antigorite, was now found to be made of amorphous silica, which is relatively safe and noncarcinogenic to humans, providing further assurance regarding the safety of treated product. Thus, data indicated the proposed method was effective in detoxifying waterborne chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    18. Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review

      OpenAIRE

      Sandrini Alessandra; Miles Susan E; Johnson Anthony R; Yates Deborah H

      2008-01-01

      Abstract Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT), or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines...

    19. AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES FÍSICO-FUNCIONAIS DE RESTAURANTES COMERCIAIS PARA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DAS BOAS PRÁTICAS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michelle Pereira FONSECA

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available

      Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a edificação, instalações e montagem de restaurantes comerciais de uma cidade da zona da mata mineira e verificar se estes oferecem condições adequadas para implementação das boas práticas. Aplicou-se um check list baseado na Lista de Verificação das Boas Práticas de Fabricação em Estabelecimentos Produtores / Industrializadores de Alimentos (Anexo II da RDC 275/2002 para avaliar os itens edificação e instalações, equipamentos, móveis e utensílios, em 13 restaurantes comerciais (30% situados na área central da cidade. A Lista de Verificação foi aplicada de duas formas: a como proposta pela RDC 275/2002, onde as respostas sobre a adequação incluíram sim, não e não se aplica; b RDC 275/2002 modificada, onde as respostas incluíram as seguintes faixas de adequação: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% e não se aplica. Vários itens referentes à edificação mostraram-se inadequados em relação à legislação, especialmente os relacionados com os setores de armazenamento, preparação do alimento e distribuição/salão de refeições. Verificou-se, pela RDC 275/2002, que 92 a 100% dos restaurantes apresentaram diversos itens inadequados; já a RDC modificada se mostrou mais flexível deixando evidente que a inadequação máxima foi referente apenas ao item manejo de resíduos. De maneira geral, os restaurantes comerciais avaliados, no que diz respeito à edificação, instalações e montagem, não oferecem condições adequadas para implementação das boas práticas, o que pode comprometer a segurança das refeições servidas aos clientes. Assim, existe necessidade de reparos diversos e reformas para atender a legislação vigente, sendo alguns não onerosos e acessíveis aos estabelecimentos.

    20. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-02-18

      ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

    1. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

    2. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

    3. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-05-23

      ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos... teleconference of the SAB Libby Amphibole Asbestos Panel to discuss the Panel's revised draft review report of EPA's Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011 Draft). DATES: The...

    4. 75 FR 59261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-09-27

      ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule and Revised Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan Rule; EPA ICR No. 1365.09... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Asbestos-Containing Materials...

    5. Asbestos-in-Schools: A Guide to New Federal Requirements for Local Education Agencies.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

      In 1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law requiring the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. The new rule, The Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule, requires all…

    6. 77 FR 38658 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Asbestos in...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-06-28

      ...; Asbestos in Shipyards Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the..., ``Asbestos in Shipyards Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for... INFORMATION: The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard requires employers to train workers about the hazards...

    7. 78 FR 78387 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Asbestos in...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-12-26

      ...; Asbestos in General Industry Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On December 31, 2013, the Department of... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Asbestos in General Industry Standard'' to the Office of Management and... regulations 29 CFR 1910.1001, the Asbestos in General Industry Standard, that require a covered employer...

    8. How To Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's Self-Study Guide.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

      The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator called the "AHERA (Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act) designated person" (DP) who is responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities. This manual presents some recommendations designed to help those persons appointed…

    9. 77 FR 3798 - Asbestos in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-01-25

      ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of... requirements contained in the Asbestos in Construction Standard (29 CFR 1926.1101). The standard protects workers from adverse health effects from occupational exposure to asbestos, including lung...

    10. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

      2008-12-01

      Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

    11. The clinical relevance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schwartz, D.A. (Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, (United States))

      1991-12-31

      Asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is the most common radiographic abnormality among asbestos-exposed persons. Circumscribed pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening account for more than 90% of the asbestos-induced chest wall abnormalities, and their prevalence is expected to increase for the next 15 to 20 years. Several investigators have recently found that pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening independently contribute to the development of restrictive lung function. The work presented in this paper indicates that asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is also associated with evidence of interstitial lung abnormalities, even among those with normal parenchyma on chest X-ray film. These parenchymal abnormalities include an increased percentage of lymphocytes on bronchoalveolar lavage and an increase in the interstitial changes observed on high-resolution chest computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. However, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor an interstitial parenchymal fibrosis influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that asbestos-induced pleural disease contributes to the development of restrictive lung function and identify a group of exposed individuals who are at excess risk of asbestosis.

    12. Asbestos-related disease associated with exposure to asbestiform tremolite.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Srebro, S H; Roggli, V L

      1994-12-01

      Tremolite is nearly ubiquitous and represents the most common amphibole fiber in the lungs of urbanites. Tremolite asbestos is not mined or used commercially but is a frequent contaminant of chrysotile asbestos, vermiculite, and talc. Therefore, individuals exposed to these materials or to end-products containing these materials may be exposed to tremolite. We have had the opportunity to do asbestos body counts and mineral fiber analysis on pulmonary tissue from five mesothelioma cases and two asbestosis cases with pulmonary tremolite burdens greater than background levels. There were no uncoated amosite or crocidolite fibers detected in any of these cases. Three patients were occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos; two patients had environmental exposures (one to vermiculite and one to chrysotile and talc) and one was a household contact of a shipyard worker. The tremolite burdens for the asbestosis cases were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those for the mesothelioma cases. Our study confirms the relationship between tremolite exposure and the development of asbestos-associated diseases. Furthermore, the finding of relatively modest elevations of tremolite content in some of our mesothelioma cases suggests that, at least for some susceptible individuals, moderate exposures to tremolite-contaminated dust can produce malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    13. A OBRA DE HUMBOLDT E SUA PROVÁVEL INFLUÊNCIA SOBRE A ANTROPOLOGIA DE FRANZ BOAS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vicente Eudes Lemos Alves

      2005-08-01

      Full Text Available O texto analisa a trajetória de Alexander von Humboldt com o intuito de investigar as contribuições da Geografia na formação do pensamento antropológico no século XIX. Busca-se enfocar, por um lado, as temáticas abordadas por Humboldt e por Franz Boas em seus universos de estudo. Por outro lado, mais detidamente, procura-se apontar as possíveis influências das formulações teóricas e dos procedimentos metodológicos de Humboldt nos trabalhos antropológicos de Boas.

    14. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where asbestos is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Provisions Relating to Asbestos § 102-75.335 Where asbestos is... conveyance document? Where the existence of asbestos on the property has been brought to the attention of...

    15. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-01-01

      ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest...

    16. 78 FR 34406 - Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-06-07

      ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Asbestos in General... providing their workers with protection from exposure to hazardous asbestos. Asbestos exposure results...

    17. 75 FR 17164 - Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-04-05

      ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in its Standard on Asbestos in General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001). DATES: Comments must... workers with protection from hazardous asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure results in asbestosis,...

    18. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

      2011-11-15

      Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

    19. Carbon Nanotube and Asbestos Exposures Induce Overlapping but Distinct Profiles of Lung Pathology in Non-Swiss Albino CF-1 Mice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Frank, Evan A; Carreira, Vinicius S; Birch, M Eileen; Yadav, Jagjit S

      2016-02-01

      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as important occupational and environmental toxicants owing to their increasing prevalence and potential to be inhaled as airborne particles. CNTs are a concern because of their similarities to asbestos, which include fibrous morphology, high aspect ratio, and biopersistence. Limitations in research models have made it difficult to experimentally ascertain the risk of CNT exposures to humans and whether these may lead to lung diseases classically associated with asbestos, such as mesothelioma and fibrosis. In this study, we sought to comprehensively compare profiles of lung pathology in mice following repeated exposures to multiwall CNTs or crocidolite asbestos (CA). We show that both exposures resulted in granulomatous inflammation and increased interstitial collagen; CA exposures caused predominantly bronchoalveolar hyperplasia, whereas CNT exposures caused alveolar hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes (T2Ps). T2Ps isolated from CNT-exposed lungs were found to have upregulated proinflammatory genes, including interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), in contrast to those from CA exposed. Immunostaining in tissue showed that while both toxicants increased IL-1ß protein expression in lung cells, T2P-specific IL-1ß increases were greater following CNT exposure. These results suggest related but distinct mechanisms of action by CNTs versus asbestos which may lead to different outcomes in the 2 exposure types.

    20. Meeting Report: Mode(s) of Action of Asbestos and Related Mineral Fibers

      OpenAIRE

      Gwinn, Maureen R.; DeVoney, Danielle; Jarabek, Annie M.; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Wheeler, John; Weissman, David N.; Masten, Scott; Thompson, Claudia

      2011-01-01

      Background: Although asbestos in general is well known to cause a range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic human health effects, not all asbestos fiber types have the same disease-causing potential, and the mode of action (MOA) of specific types of asbestos and related fibers for various health outcomes are not well understood. Objectives: A workshop was held to discuss the state of the science of the MOA for asbestos-related disease. The objective was to review the range of asbestos-induced he...

    1. Asbestos: a chronology of its origins and health effects.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Murray, R

      1990-01-01

      The emotionalised subject of asbestos is treated in chronological terms: how the "magic mineral" known in ancient times in Europe and Asia became in the late nineteenth century an important industrial resource of particular interest to the navies of the world; and how its malign effects gradually became apparent during the present century. The media have made asbestos a notorious villain, but it still has properties and applications useful to society if they are properly controlled in the same way as other industrial hazards. One important application is the manufacture of asbestos cement pipes which are a convenient and cheap method of providing water supplies and sewage disposal for developing countries. An appeal is made for prudence and not hysteria in relation to the use of mineral fibres of all types. PMID:2088320

    2. Que "boa família"?: assistência e solidariedade familiar em Cuba

      OpenAIRE

      Destremau, Blandine

      2014-01-01

      O reforço da assistência e da intervenção sociais em Cuba responde mais aos efeitos sociais da crise econômica e das transformações estruturais que a acompanham do que ao crescimento da pobreza. Este artigo examina as práticas de intervenção social à luz das normas familiares subjacentes: que "boa família" elas prometem? De que modo a assistência e a intervenção sociais abordam estruturas familiares fragilizadas quando se exacerba a contradição entre individualização e igualdade, de um lado, ...

    3. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Colangelo, F. [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Cioffi, R., E-mail: raffaele.cioffi@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Verdolotti, L. [Institute for Biomedical and Composite Materials - CNR, Naples (Italy); De Stefano, L. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems - CNR, Naples (Italy)

      2011-11-15

      Highlights: {yields} Asbestos-cement wastes are hazardous. {yields} High energy milling treatment at room temperature allows mineralogical and morphological transformation of asbestos phases. {yields} The obtained milled powders are not-hazardous. {yields} The inert powders can be recycled as pozzolanic materials. {yields} The hydraulic mortars containing the milled inert powders are good building materials. - Abstract: The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4 h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm{sup -1}, of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive

    4. Worldwide asbestos supply and consumption trends from 1900 to 2000

      Science.gov (United States)

      Virta, Robert L.

      2003-01-01

      The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States has produced about 3.28 million metric tons of asbestos fiber and used approximately 31.5 million tons between 1900 and 2000. About half of this amount was used since 1960. Cumulative world production during that same time period was about 173 million tons. Assuming that unusually large stocks are not maintained and that world consumption roughly equals production, about half of the world production and consumption occurred since 1976. The United States and western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of States within the former Soviet Union by the 1970s. With the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, world production and consumption began to decline during the 1980s. In 2000, world consumption, estimated to be 1.48 million tons, was only 31% that of 1980. Countries in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union remain the largest users of asbestos. More specifically, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, and Thailand are the only countries that consumed more than 60,000 tons of asbestos in 2000. These six countries accounted for more than 80% of world?s apparent consumption in 2000.

    5. Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and asbestos - similarities and differences.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig A; Murphy, Fiona A; MacFarlane, Marion; Chernova, Tatyana; Schinwald, Anja

      2013-12-01

      Carbon nanotubes are a valuable industrial product but there is potential for human pulmonary exposure during production and their fibrous shape raises the possibility that they may have effects like asbestos, which caused a worldwide pandemic of disease in the20th century that continues into present. CNT may exist as fibres or as more compact particles and the asbestos-type hazard only pertains to the fibrous forms of CNT. Exposure to asbestos causes asbestosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, pleural fibrosis and pleural plaques indicating that both the lungs and the pleura are targets. The fibre pathogenicity paradigm was developed in the 1970s-80s and has a robust structure/toxicity relationship that enables the prediction of the pathogenicity of fibres depending on their length, thickness and biopersistence. Fibres that are sufficiently long and biopersistent and that deposit in the lungs can cause oxidative stress and inflammation. They may also translocate to the pleura where they can be retained depending on their length, and where they cause inflammation and oxidative stress in the pleural tissues. These pathobiological processes culminate in pathologic change - fibroplasia and neoplasia in the lungs and the pleura. There may also be direct genotoxic effects of fibres on epithelial cells and mesothelium, contributing to neoplasia. CNT show some of the properties of asbestos and other types of fibre in producing these types of effects and more research is needed. In terms of the molecular pathways involved in the interaction of long biopersistent fibres with target tissue the events leading to mesothelioma have been a particular area of interest. A variety of kinase pathways important in proliferation are activated by asbestos leading to pre-malignant states and investigations are under way to determine whether fibrous CNT also affects these molecular pathways. Current research suggests that fibrous CNT can elicit effects similar to asbestos but more

    6. Development of an automated asbestos counting software based on fluorescence microscopy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alexandrov, Maxym; Ichida, Etsuko; Nishimura, Tomoki; Aoki, Kousuke; Ishida, Takenori; Hirota, Ryuichi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Kuroda, Akio

      2015-01-01

      An emerging alternative to the commonly used analytical methods for asbestos analysis is fluorescence microscopy (FM), which relies on highly specific asbestos-binding probes to distinguish asbestos from interfering non-asbestos fibers. However, all types of microscopic asbestos analysis require laborious examination of large number of fields of view and are prone to subjective errors and large variability between asbestos counts by different analysts and laboratories. A possible solution to these problems is automated counting of asbestos fibers by image analysis software, which would lower the cost and increase the reliability of asbestos testing. This study seeks to develop a fiber recognition and counting software for FM-based asbestos analysis. We discuss the main features of the developed software and the results of its testing. Software testing showed good correlation between automated and manual counts for the samples with medium and high fiber concentrations. At low fiber concentrations, the automated counts were less accurate, leading us to implement correction mode for automated counts. While the full automation of asbestos analysis would require further improvements in accuracy of fiber identification, the developed software could already assist professional asbestos analysts and record detailed fiber dimensions for the use in epidemiological research.

    7. [Treatment of asbestos-containing waste products to prevent harm to the lungs ].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morimoto, Yasuo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Takanami, Tetsuo

      2009-05-01

      The amount of industrial wastes with asbestos such as dismantled construction materials has increased. We have reviewed the effect of asbestos-containing products subjected to harmless treatment on the lungs. Usually, the harmless treatment of asbestos is confirmed by the disappearance of fibrous materials and crystal structures by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. However, it is very important to perform animal studies and in vitro studies in order to examine the effect of the treated asbestos-containing products on the lungs. From previous treatments of asbestos using acids or high temperature, almost treated materials tended to show decreased toxicity in vitro and in vivo studies. There are some reports of the adverse effects of the treatment. If new harmless treatments of asbestos are developed, it is necessary to perform animal studies and in vitro studies of asbestos-containing products using new harmless treatments.

    8. Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer—A Systematic Review of the Literature

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Bælum, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper

      2014-01-01

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing low-level exposure. A literature search in PubMed and Embase resulted in 5,864 citations. Information from included studies was extracted using SIGN. Twenty-one statements were...... evidence graded. The results show that histology and location are not helpful in differentiating asbestos-related lung cancer. Pleural plaques, asbestos bodies, or asbestos fibers are useful as markers of asbestos exposure. The interaction between asbestos and smoking regarding lung cancer risk is between...... additive and multiplicative. The findings indicate that the association between asbestos exposure and lung cancer risk is basically linear, but may level off at very high exposures. The relative risk for lung cancer increases between 1% and 4% per fiber-year (f-y)/mL, corresponding to a doubling of risk...

    9. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

      2008-01-01

      During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

    10. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

      2009-08-01

      This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

    11. [Asbestos: An up-to-date general review].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aubier, Michel

      2015-01-01

      Major risks associated with asbestos exposure (mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis) have been knownfor a long time. Various clinical and epidemiological studies, which include assessment of risk of developing cancer after discovering atypical computer-tomography (CT) images or pleural plaques in persons who had been exposed to asbestos, are still ongoing, however. This short report updates the risk of occupational exposure in 2014, the consequences of the former occupational exposures, the scale of compensation and recent legal dispositions intended to reduce the risk of occupational and non-professional exposure in France.

    12. "Different by Degree": Ella Cara Deloria, Zora Neale Hurston, and Franz Boas Contend with Race and Ethnicity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoefel, Roseanne

      2001-01-01

      American Indian ethnographer and linguist Ella Cara Deloria and African American folklorist and writer Zora Neale Hurston did fieldwork for Franz Boas, the father of modern anthropology. Both were shocked by how American racism empowered white people's historical actions. By correcting stereotypes through their work, they reasserted the role of…

    13. Clinical study of asbestos-related lung cancer in Japan with special reference to occupational history.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kishimoto, Takumi; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Onishi, Kazuo; Usami, Ikuji; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Kimura, Kiyonobu

      2010-05-01

      A total of 152 patients with asbestos-related lung cancer recognized by the criteria of Japanese compensation law for asbestos-related diseases were examined and compared with 431 patients with non-asbestos-related lung cancer. Male comprised 96% of patients. Ages ranged from 50 to 91 years with a median of 72 years. Eighty-nine percent were smokers or ex-smokers. Almost all patients had occupational histories of asbestos exposure. The median duration of asbestos exposure was 31 years and the median latency period was 47 years. Thirty-four percent of patients exhibited asbestosis and 81% exhibited pleural plaques by radiography. Regarding asbestos particles in the lung for 73 operated or autopsied patients, 62% had more than 5,000 particles per gram. On the other hand, 100% of non-asbestos-related lung cancer patients had <5000 particles per gram with a median of 554 particles. The number of asbestos bodies in the lung, male gender, absence of symptoms, smoking index, and early stage of cancer were significantly much more than those of non-asbestos-related lung cancer. In this study, a diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer was made in 34% of patients by asbestosis, in 62% by presence of both pleural plaques and more than 10 years' occupational asbestos exposure, and in 4% by more than 5000 asbestos particles per gram of lung tissue. Occupational histories, duration of asbestos exposure, and pleural plaques are common categories for the recognition of asbestos-related lung cancer in Japan.

    14. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

      Science.gov (United States)

      Virta, Robert L.

      2006-01-01

      This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

    15. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      1995-04-01

      The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

    16. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

      This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

    17. Improved method facilitates debulking and curing of phenolic impregnated asbestos

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gaines, P.

      1966-01-01

      Workpieces covered with phenolic impregnated asbestos tape and then wrapped with a specified thickness of nylon yarn under pressure, are debulked and cured in a standard oven. This method of debulking and curing is used in the fabrication of ablative chambers for the Gemini and Apollo attitude control engines.

    18. Asbestos: scientific basis for environmental control of fibres.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Acheson, E D; Gardner, M J

      1980-01-01

      Any review of the scientific evidence on which public policy is based must commence with a cautionary statement about the quality of the available data both about dust and about asbestos-related disease. Attention is drawn to some of the main problems. It is concluded that, in spite of their shortcomings, the data are sufficiently consistent to be useful in relation to some aspects of the problem of environmental control of the asbestos hazard. The question whether or not there is a threshold dose of fibre below which no biological effect occurs is of considerable importance in framing public policy. The evidence concerning the existence or otherwise of a threshold in relation to the different asbestos-related diseases is summarized. A summary is also given of the evidence about the shape of the dose-response curves for asbestos-related diseases in man. The paper concludes with a note on how scientific data may be summarized in a manner which may be helpful in formulating public policy with regard to a control limit.

    19. The long and winding road to an asbestos free Europe

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Cremers, Jan; Gehring, Rolf

      2013-01-01

      The book documents, with a wide range of contributions written by outstanding experts, that asbestos is still with us, also after the official ban in 2005. The ban was not the end of a hazardous story, but a necessary step to protect workers and citizens.

    20. Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Driece, Hermen A.L.; Siesling, Sabine; Swuste, Paul H.J.J.; Burdorf, Alex

      2010-01-01

      In a rural area widespread pollution of friable and non-friable waste products was present, used to harden dirt tracks, yards, and driveways during 1935–1974. Exposure to environmental asbestos was assessed by a site approach, based on number of polluted sites within postal code areas, and by a

    1. Clinical and radiological observations on asbestos-related pathology

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bohlig, H.; Hain, E.

      1980-01-01

      The papers in this session, which are summarized briefly, do not cover the wide range of radiological and clinical problems resulting from inhalation of asbestos dust. Pleural effusions are found in persons exposed occupationally to asbestos, even in the absence of asbestosis, but they are difficult to attribute to such exposure. Asbestosis of the lung shows no striking symptoms and can also be diagnosed only after all other possibilities have been excluded. There are no convincing or striking morphological peculiarities that suggest that an 'asbestos lung cancer' exists. Mesotheliomas of the pleura and of the peritoneum are usually resistant to therapy of any kind, although several possibilities are discussed. Radiological surveillance is presented as being still the most effective and reliable method for medical surveillance of asbestos workers. Circumscribed pleural thickening is benign but a good indicator of exposure to mineral dusts. Diffuse pleural thickening occurs frequently in nonexposed groups and cannot, therefore, be used as an indication of exposure; however, it cannot yet be ruled out as being significant epidemiologically.

    2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Final Report)

      Science.gov (United States)

      EPA has finalized the, Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

    3. The long and winding road to an asbestos free Europe

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Cremers, Jan; Gehring, Rolf

      2013-01-01

      The book documents, with a wide range of contributions written by outstanding experts, that asbestos is still with us, also after the official ban in 2005. The ban was not the end of a hazardous story, but a necessary step to protect workers and citizens.

    4. The geologic relationships of industrial mineral deposits and asbestos in the western united states

      Science.gov (United States)

      VanGosen, B.S.

      2009-01-01

      In recent years, U.S. regulatory agencies have placed emphasis on identifying and regulating asbestos dust exposures in the mining environment, with a particular focus upon industrial mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral. Because asbestos minerals form in specific geologic environments, only certain predictable types of industrial mineral deposits can potentially host asbestos mineralization. By applying a basic knowledge of asbestos geology, the costly and time consuming efforts of asbestos monitoring and analyses can be directed towards those mineral deposit types most likely to contain asbestos mineralogy, while saving efforts on the mineral deposits that are unlikely to contain asbestos. While the vast majority of industrial mineral deposits in the Western United States are asbestos-free, there are several types that can, in some instances, host asbestos mineralization, or be closely associated with it. These industrial mineral deposits include a few types of aggregate, dimension, and decorative stone, and some deposits of chromite-nickel, magnesite, nepheline syenite, olivine, rare earth elements, talc, vermiculite, and wollastonite.

    5. ADAM28: a potential oncogene involved in asbestos-related lung adenocarcinomas.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wright, Casey M; Larsen, Jill E; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martins, Maria U; Tan, Maxine E; Davidson, Morgan R; Savarimuthu, Santiyagu M; McLachlan, Rebecca E; Passmore, Linda H; Windsor, Morgan N; Clarke, Belinda E; Duhig, Edwina E; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

      2010-08-01

      Asbestos-related lung cancer accounts for 4-12% of all lung cancers worldwide. Since putative mechanisms of carcinogenesis differ between asbestos and tobacco induced lung cancers, tumors induced by the two agents may be genetically distinct. To identify gene expression biomarkers associated with asbestos-related lung tumorigenicity we performed gene expression array analysis on tumors of 36 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, comparing 12 patients with lung asbestos body counts above levels associated with urban dwelling (ARLC-AC: asbestos-related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma) with 24 patients with no asbestos bodies (NARLC-AC: non-asbestos related lung cancer-adenocarcinoma). Genes differentially expressed between ARLC-AC and NARLC-AC were identified on fold change and P value, and then prioritized using gene ontology. Candidates included ZNRF3, ADAM28, PPP1CA, IRF6, RAB3D, and PRDX1. Expression of these six genes was technically and biologically replicated by qRT-PCR in the training set and biologically validated in three independent test sets. ADAM28, encoding a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain protein that interacts with integrins, was consistently upregulated in ARLC across all four datasets. Further studies are being designed to investigate the possible role of this gene in asbestos lung tumorigenicity, its potential utility as a marker of asbestos related lung cancer for purposes of causal attribution, and its potential as a treatment target for lung cancers arising in asbestos exposed persons.

    6. OccIDEAS: An Innovative Tool to Assess Past Asbestos Exposure in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ewan MacFarlane

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon but rapidly fatal disease for which the principal aetiological agent is exposure to asbestos. Mesothelioma is of particular significance in Australia where asbestos use was very widespread from the 1950s until the 1980s. Exposure to asbestos includes occupational exposure associated with working with asbestos or in workplaces where asbestos is used and also ‘take-home’ exposure of family members of asbestos exposed workers. Asbestos exposure may also be nonoccupational, occurring as a consequence of using asbestos products in non-occupational contexts and passive exposure is also possible, such as exposure to asbestos products in the built environment or proximity to an environmental source of exposure, for example an asbestos production plant. The extremely long latency period for this disease makes exposure assessment problematic in the context of a mesothelioma registry. OccIDEAS, a recently developed online tool for retrospective exposure assessment, has been adapted for use in the Australian Mesothelioma Registry (AMR to enable systematic retrospective exposure assessment of consenting cases. Twelve occupational questionnaire modules and one non-occupational module have been developed for the AMR, which form the basis of structured interviews using OccIDEAS, which also stores collected data and provides a framework for generating metrics of exposure.

    7. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

      1991-12-31

      The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

    8. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

      Science.gov (United States)

      A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

    9. Environmental assessment do support the urban planning: Boa Esperança (MG case

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Larissa Gischewski Guimarães

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The study area comprises the urban watersheds in Boa Esperança-MG, which have several social and environmental problems due to human action. Pollution, siltation and eutrophication of streams, along with the disorderly occupation of permanent preservation areas are the main problems observed. In the study area formed the Encantos lake, portion of the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Plant reservoir, widely used for recreation, sports and fishing activities. This study conducted environmental analysis of the mentioned river basins, through the analysis of qualitative aspects of stream, land use, environmental degradation and areas subject to flooding. The results show that urbanization affected the Areas of Permanent Preservation, damaging the environmental and health quality of these environments, resulting in issues that may directly affect public health. From this analysis it was recommended the establishment of corrective and preventive actions, such as the revitalization of the environment, the creation and expansion of municipal parks, creating bicycle paths and educational activities involving the community. For these actions to succeed, the review process of the master plan, should include guidelines related to environmental conservation. This initiative is essential for urban planning is integrated with environmental planning.

    10. Bacterial Enzymatic Activity and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Boa Viagem Beach (Guanabara Bay

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mirian Crapez

      2003-01-01

      Full Text Available This study focuses on the quality of the organic matter that reaches the sediment from Boa Viagem Beach and through the evaluation of the total bacterial count, the electron transport system activity (ETSA, the esterase activity (EST, as well as the protein and the organic matter contents. Seasonal variations of organic matter, protein content and the number of bacteria were particularly notable in the summer. ETSA reached a maximum of 7.48 µl O 2 h-1 g-1 in the summer. EST activity presented a different pattern once it reached a maximum of 0.17 µg fluorescein h-1 g-1 in the winter. The temporal variation of ETSA and EST activity indicated that biopolymers predominated in the winter, and oligomers or monomers predominated in the summer. These results suggest that organic carbon turnover is more likely to be controlled by organic matter quality. The heavy metals concentrations, especially for Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, indicated absence of the inhibition of dehydrogenase activity, and they are not bioavailable in the EC 50 values

    11. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

      2015-01-01

      Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses. PMID:26039812

    12. Asbestos exposure and health hazards: a global emergency, Epidemiological evidence and denial theories

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francesca Zazzara

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available On June 3rd 2013, in Turin, Italy, the Swiss industrialist Schmidheiny has been sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for intentional disaster for 3,000 asbestos-linked tumours in Italian workers at cement multinational Eternit. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide. Although many studies have shown that asbestos is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, denial theories were spread over time, showing how the logic of profit governs the production of asbestos. We examined the history of the epidemiological evidence of asbestos related risks and, second, the main sources of exposure in Italy and in the world, occupational, non-occupational, and post-disaster exposure (as occurred after L’Aquila earthquake in April 2009. The theme of inequality and social justice is ever so alarming in the fight against asbestos and its lobbies.

    13. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

      2015-01-01

      Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

    14. BOAS PRÁTICAS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MEL NA MICRORREGIÃO DE PAU DOS FERROS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pedro Henrique de Assis Silva

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available As Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF e as Boas Práticas Apícolas abrangem um conjunto de medidas que devem ser adotadas pelas unidades de extração do mel a fim de garantir a qualidade sanitária e aconformidade do produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar pesquisas na microrregião de Pau dos Ferros, sobre Processo do mel desde a colheita até seu envase. O levantamento foi feito em quatro cidades da região com visitas a apicultores, que foram submetidos a perguntas relacionadas ao modo de colheita do mel e seu processamento. As pesquisas mostram que, a apicultura na região esta evoluindo, mas precisa de melhorias. PALAVRAS CHAVES: Mel, BPF, BPA, pesquisa.

    15. A retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality in employees of a Russian chrysotile asbestos mine and mills: study rationale and key features.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schüz, J; Schonfeld, S J; Kromhout, H; Straif, K; Kashanskiy, S V; Kovalevskiy, E V; Bukhtiyarov, I V; McCormack, V

      2013-08-01

      Chrysotile, a serpentine asbestos fibre, is the only type of asbestos produced and consumed in the world today. It is an established human carcinogen. We have begun fieldwork on a retrospective cohort study of employees of one of the world's largest chrysotile mine and mills, situated in Asbest, Russia. The primary aim of the study is to better characterize and quantify the risk of cancer mortality in terms of (i) the dose-response relationship of exposure with risk; (ii) the range of cancer sites affected, including female-specific cancers; and (iii) effects of duration of exposure and latency periods. This information will expand our understanding of the scale of the impending cancer burden due to chrysotile, including if chrysotile use ceased worldwide forthwith. Herein we describe the scientific rationale for conducting this study and the main features of its study design.

    16. Historical state of knowledge of the health risks of asbestos posed to seamen on merchant ships.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dodge, David G; Beck, Barbara D

      2016-12-01

      We examined the development of knowledge concerning the risks posed by asbestos to seamen working aboard merchant ships at sea (i.e. commercial, rather than naval vessels). Seamen were potentially exposed to "in-place" asbestos on merchant ships by performing intermittent repair and maintenance tasks. We reviewed studies measuring airborne asbestos onboard merchant ships and health outcomes of merchant seamen, as well as studies, communications, and actions of U.S. organizations with roles in maritime health and safety. Up to the 1970s, most knowledge of the health risks of asbestos was derived from studies of workers in asbestos product manufacturing and asbestos mining and milling industries, and certain end-users of asbestos products (particularly insulators). We found that attention to the potential health risks of asbestos to merchant seamen began in the mid- to late 1970s and early 1980s. Findings of pleural abnormalities in U.S. seamen elicited some concern from governmental and industry/labor organizations, but airborne asbestos concentrations aboard merchant ships were found to be <1 f/cc for most short-term repair and maintenance tasks. Responses to this evolving information served to warn seamen and the merchant shipping industry and led to increased precautions regarding asbestos exposure. Starting in the 1990s, findings of modest increases in lung cancer and/or mesothelioma in some epidemiology studies of seamen led some authors to propose that a causal link between shipboard exposures and asbestos-related diseases existed. Limitations in these studies, however, together with mostly unremarkable measures of airborne asbestos on merchant ships, preclude definitive conclusions in this regard.

    17. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries

      OpenAIRE

      1998-01-01

      Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there...

    18. Asbestos: use, bans and disease burden in Europe

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kameda, Takashi; Kim, Rokho; Jiang, Ying; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Park, Eun-Kee; Rantanen, Jorma

      2014-01-01

      Abstract Objective To analyse national data on asbestos use and related diseases in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods For each of the 53 countries, per capita asbestos use (kg/capita/year) and age-adjusted mortality rates (deaths/million persons/year) due to mesothelioma and asbestosis were calculated using the databases of the United States Geological Survey and WHO, respectively. Countries were further categorized by ban status: early-ban (ban adopted by 2000, n = 17), late-ban (ban adopted 2001–2013, n = 17), and no-ban (n = 19). Findings Between 1920–2012, the highest per capita asbestos use was found in the no-ban group. After 2000, early-ban and late-ban groups reduced their asbestos use levels to less than or equal to 0.1 kg/capita/year, respectively, while the no-ban group maintained a very high use at 2.2 kg/capita/year. Between 1994 and 2010, the European Region registered 106 180 deaths from mesothelioma and asbestosis, accounting for 60% of such deaths worldwide. In the early-ban and late-ban groups, 16/17 and 15/17 countries, respectively, reported mesothelioma data to WHO, while only 6/19 countries in the no-ban group reported such data. The age-adjusted mortality rates for mesothelioma for the early-ban, late-ban and no-ban groups were 9.4, 3.7 and 3.2 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Asbestosis rates for the groups were 0.8, 0.9 and 1.5 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Conclusion Within the European Region, the early-ban countries reported most of the current asbestos-related deaths. However, this might shift to the no-ban countries, since the disease burden will likely increase in these countries due the heavy use of asbestos. PMID:25378740

    19. Investigation of the actual conditions of asbestos use in school building materials

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Shin, Y.C.; Son, B.H.; Hong, W.H. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

      2008-07-01

      Asbestos has been widely used as a construction material due to its high insulation properties, abrasion resistance, and tensile strength. This paper evaluated materials containing asbestos in school buildings in Korea constructed between the 1970s and the 1990s. Interviews with building manager were used in addition to data obtained from building drawings and building registers. The study showed that asbestos was used to form slates, ceiling materials, interior wall materials, and outer-wall materials. Eighty per cent of the asbestos used in Korea was imported. Asbestos amounts were calculated by multiplying the area of construction materials used by the unit weight per m{sup 2} of the asbestos-containing materials, and again by asbestos content. The document survey was not successful in identifying asbestos in all construction materials. A field survey was then conducted in order to collect samples which were then analyzed at a laboratory. Results of the study will be used to plan asbestos control and removal procedures. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

    20. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

      1999-01-01

      The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

    1. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States)); Janssen, Y.M. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States) Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

      1993-04-15

      To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

    2. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

      2013-12-10

      Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

    3. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eun-Kee Park

      2014-12-01

      Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

    4. Asbestos and health in the Third World: the case of Brazil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Berman, D M

      1986-01-01

      Almost all of the asbestos used in Brazil is mined by an enterprise wholly owned by two European multinational companies, which also produce and market over two-thirds (by weight of asbestos) of the products made from asbestos. About 80 percent of the asbestos used in Brazil is finally consumed in the form of asbestos cement: for roof tiles and roofing panels, wall-board, and domestic and industrial water tanks. A survey of consumer literature and advertising printed by Eternit, S.A., and Brasilit, S.A., disclosed no mention of a potential danger from exposure to asbestos dust, and no recommendations for cutting down exposure to that dust. The situation at smaller, Brazilian-owned firms is reputed to be disastrous from the standpoint of workers' exposure to asbestos dust at the point of production. At a large asbestos-cement manufacturing plant owned by Eternit, however, exposure to asbestos dust (according to company records) seemed to be kept under 2.0 fibers per cc., the present standard for the United States.

    5. Collaborative research, participatory solutions: research on asbestos in Kuruman, South Africa.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jacobs, Nancy; Kisting, Sophia; Braun, Lundy

      2004-01-01

      The 1998 South African National Asbestos Summit proposed a post-apartheid asbestos policy for the country. In the areas of environmental rehabilitation, health care, and compensation, it envisioned connecting asbestos mitigation to participatory development. In 2001, the Asbestos Collaborative, an international and interdisciplinary team, conducted follow-up research on the recommendations of the 1998 Summit, researching environmental, health, and compensation issues through consultation of documents and interviews with officials in urban areas and with people in Kuruman, a former crocidolite-mining site with high rates of asbestos-related disease. In Kuruman, local opinion supported the recommendations of the Asbestos Summit, insisting that policies to mitigate the problem of asbestos must also address poverty. In the wake of the 2001 research, a new organization, the Asbestos Interest Group (AIG), has been founded to facilitate grassroots participation in asbestos issues. One success of the AIG has been the settlement of a lawsuit by former workers against the former mining company in Kuruman.

    6. O Direito Comercial e a formação histórica do princípio da boa-fé objetiva

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fabio

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda o desenvolvimento histórico do princípio da boa-fé objetiva, tendo por cerne as relações jurídicas de natureza comercial. O tema é explorado a partir dos atuais contornos da boa-fé objetiva. A partir da aludida base conceitual, são traçados alguns cortes históricos, buscando demonstrar a influência do direito comercial no surgimento e desenvolvimento da boa-fé objetiva, notadamente, em decorrência do cosmopolitismo que caracteriza esse ramo jurídico. Verificou-se, assim, que os usos e costumes comerciais, os juramentos de honra e a jurisprudência comercial alemã são pontos de extrema importância para a atual compreensão de boa-fé objetiva.

    7. Chemistry of environmental materials. 3. Substitutive materials of asbestos; Kankyo zairyo no kagaku. Asbesto daitai zairyo

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fujiki, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

      1996-03-01

      This paper outlines the synthesis and characteristics of substitutive materials of asbestos. Oxide system fibers are used as substitutes and classified into natural and synthetic fibers. As natural substitute, wollastonite fiber is used, while as synthetic substitute, silicate system, alumina system, zirconia system and potassium titanate system fibers are used. Wollastonite distributes in regional metamorphic rock and contact metamorphic zone between limestone and plutonic rock, and is used as heat insulator and adiabator. Silicate system fiber includes glass fiber, quartz fiber and silica fiber, while alumina system fiber includes alumina/silica fiber and alumina fiber. Glass fiber is composed of non-alkaline boro-silicate glass and classified into lint and staple. As fibers similar to glass staple, rock wool and slag wool are used. Only slag wool is produced in Japan because of its lower cost and higher qualitative stability than those of glass wool. Potassium titanate system fiber offers excellent heat resistance, thermal insulation and frictional resistance. 18 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

    8. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

      1995-10-01

      DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

    9. Safe Replacement For Asbestos In Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

      Science.gov (United States)

      Scott, William E.

      1993-01-01

      Polyethylene fibers and potassium titanate particles perform as well as asbestos. New material for separators of nickel-hydrogen electrochemical cells offers performance similar to that of asbestos separator material without adverse health effects. In one version, separator contains pure polyethylene fibers, and may or may not contain supplementary latices as bonding agents. In standard wet-laying papermaking process, fibers pressed into mat, then dried. Mat used as is or pressed further in hot calender stack to soften and fuse fibers at crossing points. Treatment reduces porosity and increases resistance of mat to passage of air bubbles under pressure. In alternative version, matrix of 20 to 40 percent polyethylene fibers and 60 to 80 percent potassium titanate particles formed on paper machine, then dried. It, too, can be treated by hot calendering.

    10. Arsenic, asbestos and radon: emerging players in lung tumorigenesis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hubaux Roland

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract The cause of lung cancer is generally attributed to tobacco smoking. However lung cancer in never smokers accounts for 10 to 25% of all lung cancer cases. Arsenic, asbestos and radon are three prominent non-tobacco carcinogens strongly associated with lung cancer. Exposure to these agents can lead to genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor genomes, impacting genes and pathways involved in lung cancer development. Moreover, these agents not only exhibit unique mechanisms in causing genomic alterations, but also exert deleterious effects through common mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, commonly associated with carcinogenesis. This article provides a comprehensive review of arsenic, asbestos, and radon induced molecular mechanisms responsible for the generation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer. A better understanding of the mode of action of these carcinogens will facilitate the prevention and management of lung cancer related to such environmental hazards.

    11. Arsenic, asbestos and radon: emerging players in lung tumorigenesis

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-01-01

      The cause of lung cancer is generally attributed to tobacco smoking. However lung cancer in never smokers accounts for 10 to 25% of all lung cancer cases. Arsenic, asbestos and radon are three prominent non-tobacco carcinogens strongly associated with lung cancer. Exposure to these agents can lead to genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor genomes, impacting genes and pathways involved in lung cancer development. Moreover, these agents not only exhibit unique mechanisms in causing genomic alterations, but also exert deleterious effects through common mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, commonly associated with carcinogenesis. This article provides a comprehensive review of arsenic, asbestos, and radon induced molecular mechanisms responsible for the generation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer. A better understanding of the mode of action of these carcinogens will facilitate the prevention and management of lung cancer related to such environmental hazards. PMID:23173984

    12. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

    13. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective Netherlands cohort study

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; van den Brandt, Piet a

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and

    14. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

    15. Developing Asbestos Job Exposure Matrix Using Occupation and Industry Specific Exposure Data (1984–2008 in Republic of Korea

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sangjun Choi

      2017-03-01

      Conclusion: The newly constructed GPJEM which is generated from actual domestic quantitative exposure data could be useful in evaluating historical exposure levels to asbestos and could contribute to improved prediction of asbestos-related diseases among Koreans.

    16. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Korzyukov, Yegor; Kipar, Anja

      2017-01-01

      Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae). Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB) and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the “reptarenavirome” of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental “reptarenavirome”. We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring. PMID:28114434

    17. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Saskia Keller

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae. Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the "reptarenavirome" of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental "reptarenavirome". We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring.

    18. Good faith in business relations A boa-fé nas relações negociais

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Paula Parra Leite

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available As a consequence of ideological changes, that implicated the evolution of the conception of State, from Liberal to a Social one, gradually there was an intervention of the State in private relationships, that gained a proper sociality. With attention to that, the legislator elaborated the Civil Code of 2002, a text inspired by constitutional dictates of equality, dignity of the human being and solidarity. Based on this new ideology, the contracts suffered too many changes, always concerning to the principles that inform the new codex, which are: ethics, sociality and operability. In the same way, it is important the study of the objective good faith and its hermeneutical and integrative functions, that creates lateral obligations, annex or instrumental, and limiter of the subjective rights.Em decorrência de modificações ideológicas que implicaram na evolução da concepção do Estado de Liberal para um Estado Social, paulatinamente, houve a intervenção do Estado nas relações privadas, que passaram e ter contornos de socialidade. Atento a isto, o legislador pátrio elaborou o Código Civil de 2002, um texto inspirado em ditames constitucionais de igualdade, dignidade da pessoa humana e solidariedade. Fundado nesta nova ideologia, os contratos sofreram inúmeras modificações, sempre na observância dos princípios informadores do novo codex, quais sejam: eticidade, socialidade e operabilidade. Nesse sentido, importante é o estudo da boa-fé objetiva com suas funções hermenêutico-integrativa, criadora de deveres laterais, anexos ou instrumentais e limitadora de direitos subjetivos.

    19. Mesothelioma mortality surveillance and asbestos exposure tracking in Italy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lucia Fazzo

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spatial distribution of mortality from pleural mesothelioma (which in the ICD-10 Revision has a specific code: C45.0 in Italy for the period 2003-2009 is described. Previous mortality studies at national level employed the topographic code "Malignant neoplasms of pleura", because of unavailability of a specific code in ICD-9 Revision for pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: Standardized mortality ratios were computed for all municipalities, using each regional population as reference; for municipalities in Regions with rate higher than the national rate, the latter has been used as reference. SMRs were computed specifically also for each Italian Polluted Sites "of national concern for environmental remediation" (IPS with asbestos exposure sources, composed by one or more municipalities, using regional rate as reference. Spatial Scan Statistics procedure, using SatScan software, was applied in cluster analysis: the country was divided into geographic macro-areas and the relative risks (RR express the ratio of risk within the cluster to the risk of the macro-area outside the cluster. Clusters with p-value < 0.10 were selected. RESULTS: The national standardized annual mortality rate was 1.7 cases per 100 000. Several areas with evident burden of asbestos-related disease were detected. Significant clusters were found in correspondence to asbestos-cement industries (e.g. Casale Monferrato, women: RR = 28.7, shipyards (e.g. Trieste, men: RR = 4.8, petrochemical industries (e.g. Priolo, men: RR = 6.9 and a stone quarry contaminated by fluoro-edenite fibres (Biancavilla, women: RR = 25.9. Some of the increased clusters correspond to IPS. CONCLUSIONS: The results may contribute to detect asbestos exposure and to set priorites for environmental remediation.

    20. Asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fonte, Rodolfo; Gambettino, Salvatore; Melazzini, Mario; Scelsi, Mario; Zanon, Claudio; Candura, Stefano M

      2004-01-01

      Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure continues to represent a public health problem, despite increasingly restrictive laws adopted by most industrialized countries. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos-related malignancy. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed recurrent ascites after having been exposed to asbestos in the building industry for > 40 years. Liver function and histology were normal. Abdominal computed tomography initially excluded the presence of expansive processes, and no abnormal cells were found in the ascitic fluid. Laparoscopy showed diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the peritoneum. Histopathology of bioptic samples revealed epithelioid neoplastic proliferation with a tubulopapillary pattern, falsely suggesting metastatic adenocarcinomatosis. In consideration of the occupational history, and after further diagnostic procedures had failed to identify the hypothetical primitive tumor, immunostaining of the neoplastic tissue was performed. Results were negative for carcinoembrionary antigen and the epithelial glycoprotein Ber-EP4, whereas results were positive for the mesothelial markers cytokeratins, calretinin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HBME-1, thus leading to the correct diagnosis of peritoneal epithelial mesothelioma. The Italian Workers' Compensation Authority recognized the occupational origin of the disease. Cytoreductive surgery associated with continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (cisplatin at 42 degrees C, for 1 hr) was performed. The disease relapsed after 4 months and was later complicated by a bowel obstruction requiring palliative ileostomy. The patient died 23 months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the insidious diagnostic problems posed by peritoneal mesothelioma, a tumor which often simulates other malignancies (e.g., metastatic carcinomas) at routine histopathological examination. Occupational history and immunohistochemistry are helpful for the correct

    1. Aggregation of asbestos fibers in water: role of solution chemistry

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, L.; Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.

      2016-12-01

      Aggregation kinetics and stability of colloidal particles have been extensively studied using bulk techniques such as dynamic light scattering; these techniques involve large ensembles of particles and interpretation of results is difficult when particles are non-spherical and poorly characterized, as is always the case with non-ideal natural hazardous materials such as asbestos fibers. These difficulties hinder greatly progress on fundamental understanding of whether the classic colloidal aggregation theories can be applied to natural materials and how the heterogeneity of particles (e.g., shape) affects the colloidal aggregation kinetics and structure. By using in-situ microscopy and particle tracking techniques, we were able to observe the particle-by-particle growth of aggregated formed by elongated particles (synthetic glass rods and natural asbestos fibers) and demonstrated the rod-shaped geometry induced novel structures and growth dynamics that challenge existing theory. In this study, we continue to use asbestos as model system of elongated colloidal contaminant, and investigate the effects of changing solution chemistry (e.g., ionic strength, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM)), on growth dynamics and aggregates structure. The results show that aggregate growth curves are self-similar with a characteristic timescale that increases with increasing pH. By varying ionic strength for fixed pH values, we determine that the ccc is sensitive to pH. Fractal dimension decreases slightly with increasing pH and decreasing ionic strength, indicating that stronger inter-particle repulsion create sparser aggregates; however, the magnitude of the solution chemistry effects is much smaller than that of colloid shape. In monovalent solutions, regardless of their concentration, HA drastically reduces the aggregation kinetics of asbestos fiber. This work may lead to enhanced prediction of the colloidal contaminants' mobility in the environment, bioavailability, and

    2. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Lavorgna, M; Verdolotti, L; De Stefano, L

      2011-11-15

      The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm(-1), of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive strength in the range of 2.17 and 2.29 MPa, are measured.

    3. Pulmonary asbestos body counts and electron probe analysis of asbestos body cores in patients with mesothelioma: a study of 25 cases

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Roggli, V.L.; McGavran, M.H.; Subach, J.; Sybers, H.D.; Greenberg, S.D.

      1982-12-01

      Malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum are well-recognized risks of asbestos exposure. We determined the asbestos body content of the lungs from 24 cases of malignant mesothelioma (19 pleural, five peritoneal) and compared such to the content of lungs from 50 consecutive adult autopsies and four cases of overt asbestosis using a Clorox-digestion concentration technique. The cores of 90 asbestos bodies were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and compared with similar data from 120 standard asbestos fibers and 20 fiberglass fibers. The malignant mesothelioma patients had asbestos body counts intermediate between those of the general population and those of patients with asbestosis, although some of the mesothelioma cases overlapped with the general population. These latter cases often lacked an identifiable occupational exposure to asbestos. EDXA studies demonstrated an amphibole core in 88 of the 90 asbestos bodies (amosite or crocidolite in 80 of 88, anthophyllite or tremolite in eight of 88), and chrysotile in two instances.

    4. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wroble, Julie; Frederick, Timothy; Frame, Alicia; Vallero, Daniel

      2017-01-01

      Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS) to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab") samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

    5. Asbestos: Socio-legal and Scientific Controversies and Unsound Science in the Context of the Worldwide Asbestos Tragedy - Lessons to be Learned.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baur, X

      2016-06-01

      Eight to fifteen per cent of lung cancer cases and nearly all mesothelioma cases are caused by asbestos. Problems in compensation issues ensue from strict legal requirements for eligibility and regulations of the statutory accident insurance institution pertaining to eligibility for occupational disease benefits. The latter include the unscientific requirement for set numbers of asbestos bodies or fibers to be found in lung tissue in order to "prove" disease causation if lung specimen are available. Although the validity of such evidence has been discredited by independent scientists, it is still used as evidence by an influential US pathology department. Frequently, epidemiological evidence regarding causal relationships and exposure histories is also often being ignored by insurance-affiliated medical experts.Similar misleading arguments are currently being used in newly industrialized countries where white asbestos - which is carcinogenic and fibrogenic like other asbestos types - is efficiently promoted as being less harmful. As a result, asbestos use is increasing in some of these countries. Behind the worldwide asbestos tragedy, a well-designed strategy orchestrated by certain transnational or multinational industrial interest groups can be perceived.Beyond the asbestos tragedy their covert plan is motivated by economic interests and discounts the ensuing damage to health and the impact of the diseases they create on public health systems.

    6. Encapsulation of Friable Insulation Materials Containing Asbestos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1983-05-01

      HVAC systei;,i ,rd pi - vide new fi te rs. D spose of filters as asbest os-contomi ini ttd ii t. - ri als. Reestablish HVAC , iechari cal, anid...Cijrich). Bethesda MDl: Code 42. Bethesda NID I)INSRDC (’ode 521 tLibravI. Annapolis, MD) FAA (’isd Aerornedical Institute. Oklahoma City . OK Fl~l

    7. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miguel Clemente

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

    8. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

      Science.gov (United States)

      Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

      2015-01-01

      OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

    9. Asbestos exposure correlates with alterations in circulating T cell subsets

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Miller, L.G.; Sparrow, D.; Ginns, L.C.

      1983-01-01

      Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed from 40 subjects with occupational asbestos exposure and 40 controls matched for age and smoking habits. Patients were classified by duration of exposure as short or long, and by chest radiograph as normal, pleural plaques or interstitial changes. As a group, subjects with asbestos exposure had decreased percentages of OKT3+ and OKT8+ cells and increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio compared to controls. Correcting for age and smoking, those with short exposure were similar to controls, while those with long exposure had decreased percentages OKT3+ and OKT8+ cells and an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio. Among radiographic subgroups, those with normal radiographs were similar to controls, but those with plaques had increased circulating OKT4+ cells, and those with interstitial changes had decreased percentages OKT3+ and OKT8+ cells and OKT8+ cells/mm3, with an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio. There were no differences between subjects and controls in OKT10+ cells and OKIa+ cells. There appears to be a progressive decrease in percentage OKT8+ cells and increase in OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio with increasing exposure to asbestos, as determined by length of exposure and by radiographic abnormalities.

    10. Diseases associated with asbestos exposure. Diagnostic perspectives in forensic pathology

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ehrenreich, T.; Selikoff, I.J.

      1983-03-01

      Asbestos, a fibrous mineral, has unique physical and chemical properties, including resistance to heat, acids, and other chemicals; flexibility; and great tensile strength. The fibers subdivide into unit fibrils of molecular dimensions, resulting in a vast mineral surface area which has a direct bearing on its unusual features and its numerous applications. Its biological effects, which include fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis, may be related to the cellular reaction, to its large specific surface, or to the size and shape of the fibers. Its oncogenic action may be multiplied by other carcinogens, principally cigarette smoking. There is clinical, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence that exposure to asbestos, following a long latent period, constitutes an important health hazard. Direct occupational exposure, followed by a long lapsed period after the initial exposure, is associated with pleural plaques and pleural effusion, pulmonary parenchymal fibrosis (asbestosis), pulmonary carcinoma, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and other neoplasms. Indirect exposure may also entail an increased risk of lung disease or mesothelioma or both. Medicolegal investigation of suspected cases includes a lifetime occupational history, clinical history including smoking habits, radiological findings, clinical evidence of asbestosis, and may require detection of asbestos tissue burden.

    11. Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kales Stefanos N

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. Methods We compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers (22% non-smokers and 177 unexposed controls (50.3% non-smokers. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometric and DCLO Measurement methods were utilized. CXRs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Results Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not FEV1/FVC compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Conclusion Asbestos exposure, especially when radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis from asbestosis is present, leads to significant decreases in FVC, FEV1 and the DLCO. However, asbestos exposure alone is not significantly associated with a reduction of the FEV1/FVC. Smoking-asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO than their non-smoking counterparts. Whether asbestos interacts with smoking additively or synergistically on DLCO needs further investigation. Similarly, further studies are needed to assess the progression and clinical significance of asbestos induced airway dysfunction.

    12. Retention of asbestos fibres in lungs of workers with asbestosis, asbestosis and lung cancer, and mesothelioma in Asbestos township.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dufresne, A; Bégin, R; Massé, S; Dufresne, C M; Loosereewanich, P; Perrault, G

      1996-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To conduct a mineralogical study on the particles retained in the necropsied lungs of a homogenous group of asbestos miners and millers from Asbestos township (and a local reference population) and to consider the hypothesis that there is a difference in size between fibres retained in the lungs of patients with asbestosis with and without lung cancer. METHODS: Samples of lung tissue were obtained from 38 patients with asbestosis without lung cancer, 25 with asbestosis and lung cancer, and 12 with mesothelioma, from necropsied Quebec chrysotile miners and millers from Asbestos township. Fibre concentrations in the lungs of these patients were compared with those in tissue from necropsies carried out on a local reference population: men who had died of either accidental death or acute myocardial infarction between 1990 and 1992. 23 were born before 1940 and 26 after 1940. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were higher in cases than in the controls for chrysotile fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis with or without lung cancer; for tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in all patients; for crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma; for chrysotile and tremolite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis; and crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma. However, median concentrations of each type of fibre in the lungs did not show any significant differences between the three disease groups. Average length to diameter ratios of the fibres were calculated to be larger in patients with asbestosis and lung cancer than in those without lung cancer for crocidolite fibres > or = 10 microns long, for chrysotile, amosite, and tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long, and for chrysotile and crocidolite fibres Asbestos township who had an equal concentration of retained fibres but a tendency to a higher length to diameter

    13. CT characteristics of pleural plaques related to occupational or environmental asbestos exposure from South Korean asbestos mines

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myong, Jun Pyo [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Kyong [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soon Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

      2015-10-15

      This study evaluated the CT characteristics of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals and compared occupational versus environmental exposure groups. This study enrolled 181 subjects with occupational exposure and 98 with environmental exposure from chrysotile asbestos mines, who had pleural plaques confirmed by a chest CT. The CT scans were analyzed for morphological characteristics, the number and distribution of pleural plaques and combined pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the CT findings were compared between the occupational and environmental exposure groups. Concerning the 279 subjects, the pleural plaques were single in 2.2% and unilateral in 3.6%, and showed variable widths (range, 1-20 mm; mean, 5.4 ± 2.7 mm) and lengths (5-310 mm; 72.6 ± 54.8 mm). The chest wall was the most commonly involved (98.6%), with an upper predominance on the ventral side (upper, 77.8% vs. lower, 55.9%, p < 0.001) and a lower predominance on the dorsal side (upper, 74.9% vs. lower, 91.8%, p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic involvement (78.1%) showed a right-side predominance (right, 73.8% vs. left, 55.6%, p < 0.001), whereas mediastinal plaques (42.7%) were more frequent on the left (right, 17.6% vs. left, 39.4%, p < 0.001). The extent and maximum length of plaques, and presence and severity of combined asbestosis, were significantly higher in the occupational exposure group (p < 0.05). Pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals are variable in number and size; and show a predominant distribution in the upper ventral and lower dorsal chest walls, right diaphragm, and left mediastinum. Asbestos mine workers have a higher extent of plaques and pulmonary fibrosis versus environmentally exposed individuals.

    14. 77 FR 19737 - The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-04-02

      ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Asbestos in Shipyards Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard (29 CFR... specified in the Asbestos in Shipyards Standard protect workers from the adverse health effects that...

    15. 78 FR 2362 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-01-11

      ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... the readopted and re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and...

    16. 41 CFR 102-80.15 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos?

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-07-01

      ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? 102-80.15 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Asbestos § 102-80.15 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the assessment and management of asbestos? Federal agencies have the following responsibilities concerning...

    17. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-12-23

      ... the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection... draft Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). DATES: The meeting will be held on... Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011). The SAB panel will comply with the provisions of FACA and all...

    18. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-01-11

      ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites Not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and Control,''...

    19. Evaluation of errors in quantitative determination of asbestos in rock

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baietto, Oliviero; Marini, Paola; Vitaliti, Martina

      2016-04-01

      The quantitative determination of the content of asbestos in rock matrices is a complex operation which is susceptible to important errors. The principal methodologies for the analysis are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy (PCOM). Despite the PCOM resolution is inferior to that of SEM, PCOM analysis has several advantages, including more representativity of the analyzed sample, more effective recognition of chrysotile and a lower cost. The DIATI LAA internal methodology for the analysis in PCOM is based on a mild grinding of a rock sample, its subdivision in 5-6 grain size classes smaller than 2 mm and a subsequent microscopic analysis of a portion of each class. The PCOM is based on the optical properties of asbestos and of the liquids with note refractive index in which the particles in analysis are immersed. The error evaluation in the analysis of rock samples, contrary to the analysis of airborne filters, cannot be based on a statistical distribution. In fact for airborne filters a binomial distribution (Poisson), which theoretically defines the variation in the count of fibers resulting from the observation of analysis fields, chosen randomly on the filter, can be applied. The analysis in rock matrices instead cannot lean on any statistical distribution because the most important object of the analysis is the size of the of asbestiform fibers and bundles of fibers observed and the resulting relationship between the weights of the fibrous component compared to the one granular. The error evaluation generally provided by public and private institutions varies between 50 and 150 percent, but there are not, however, specific studies that discuss the origin of the error or that link it to the asbestos content. Our work aims to provide a reliable estimation of the error in relation to the applied methodologies and to the total content of asbestos, especially for the values close to the legal limits. The error assessments must

    20. Analysis of chromosomal alterations induced by asbestos and ceramic fibers.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dopp, E; Schiffmann, D

      1998-08-01

      Asbestos and other mineral fibers have long been known as carcinogenic agents. However, the primary mechanisms of fiber-induced carcinogenesis still remain unclear. We have investigated mitotic disturbances caused by amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts. We also analyzed micronucleus formation as a result of mitotic disturbances, and carried out a characterization of the induced micronucleus population by kinetochore staining. In addition, the spindle fiber morphology was examined. Supravital UV-microscopy was used to analyze changes in chromatin structure, impaired chromatid separation and blocked cytokinesis. All three fiber types induced micronuclei in SHE cells with a high frequency (up to 200 MN/2000 cells; dose range: 0.1-5.0 microg/cm2) in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum between 48 and 66 h. Kinetochore staining revealed that 48% of fiber-induced micronuclei reacted positively. Furthermore, spindle deformation was observed in cells with disturbed meta- and anaphases while the spindle fiber morphology appeared unchanged. Our results show that asbestos fibers may cause both loss as well as breakage of chromosomes in the absence of direct interaction with spindle fibers. In addition, we analyzed the induction of micronuclei, hyperdiploidy and chromosome breakage in human amniotic fluid cells (AFC) in vitro by amosite, chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos and ceramic fibers. The response of human (AFC) and rodent (SHE) cells to fiber treatment was compared using the micronucleus assay. AFC were much less susceptible than SHE cells to the induction of micronuclei by mineral fibers. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with tandem DNA probes yielded more detailed informations about specific structural chromosome aberrations in the 1(cen-q12) and 9(cen-q12) regions and about abnormal numbers of chromosomes in interphase AFC. Using this FISH approach we found a statistically significant

    1. Persistent Effects of Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos Following Subchronic Inhalation in Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Background: Human exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) asbestos increases risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, and non-malignant respiratory disease. This study evaluated potency and time course effects of LA and positive control amosite (AM) asbestos fibers in male F344 rats following...

    2. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

      2014-11-01

      A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking.

    3. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

      Science.gov (United States)

      KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

      2013-01-01

      Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

    4. Asbestos in the Schools: A Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Parents.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harvey, Carolyn; Rollinson, Mark

      The past few years have created decision-making problems for school managers dealing with asbestos hazards in the past, for failing to do so in the present, and for doing so improperly in the future. This book summarizes the available knowledge pertinent to the decisions that school administrators and others must make regarding asbestos in the…

    5. Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer: diagnosis, prognosis and burden

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van der Bij, S.

      2012-01-01

      The negative health-related consequences of the use of asbestos have become very clear and widely recognized. This thesis focused on the most frequent asbestos induced cancers: mesothelioma and lung cancer. Mesothelioma A confirmed diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is important to ensure proper me

    6. Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sandrini Alessandra

      2008-09-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT, or extensive fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to asbestos exposure, is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, profibrotic cytokines and growth factors in response to asbestos is likely to play a role in the formation of a fibrinous intrapleural matrix. Benign asbestos related pleural effusions commonly antedate the development of diffuse pleural thickening. Environmental as well as occupational exposure to asbestos may also result in pleural fibrosis, particularly in geographic areas with naturally occurring asbestiform soil minerals. Pleural disorders may also occur after household exposure. High resolution computed tomography (CT is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening, and several classification systems for asbestos-related disorders have been devised. Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET scanning may be useful in distinguishing between DPT and malignant mesothelioma. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It causes a restrictive defect on lung function and may rarely result in respiratory failure and death. Treatment is primarily supportive.

    7. Co-exposure to refractory ceramic fibres and asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lacourt, Aude; Rinaldo, Mickael; Gramond, Céline; Ducamp, Stéphane; Gilg Soit Ilg, Annabelle; Goldberg, Marcel; Pairon, Jean Claude; Brochard, Patrick

      2014-09-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis of an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma due to co-exposure to asbestos and refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) compared to asbestos exposure alone. Males were selected from a French case-control study conducted in 1987-1993 and from the French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program in 1998-2006. Two population controls were frequency matched to each case by year of birth. Complete job histories were collected and occupational asbestos and RCF exposures were assessed using job exposure matrices. The dose-response relationships for asbestos exposure were estimated from an unconditional logistic regression model in subjects exposed to asbestos only (group 1) and subjects exposed to both asbestos and RCF (group 2). A total of 988 cases and 1125 controls ever-exposed to asbestos were included. A dose-response relationship was observed in both groups but it was stronger in group 2. In comparison with subjects exposed at the minimum value of the cumulative index of exposure, the odds ratio was 2.6 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) for subjects exposed to 75 fibres · mL(-1) · year(-1) in group 1 increasing to 12.4 (95% CI 4.6-33.7) in group 2. Our results suggest that the pleural carcinogenic effect of occupational asbestos exposure may be modified by additional exposure to RCF.

    8. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)

      2003-01-01

      textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by

    9. Occupational asbestos exposure: how to deal with suspected mesothelioma cases - the Dutch approach

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      P. Baas; N. van 't Hullenaar; J. Wagenaar; J.P.G. Kaajan; M. Koolen; M. Schrijver; N. Schlosser; J.A. Burgers

      2006-01-01

      Introduction: Patients with asbestos-related diseases, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), are not uniformly treated in Europe when they apply for compensation. In The Netherlands, the Institute of Asbestos Victims (IAV) acts on behalf of patients with a malignant mesothelioma. In the majority of c

    10. Asbestos in the Schools: A Guide for School Administrators, Teachers, and Parents.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harvey, Carolyn; Rollinson, Mark

      The past few years have created decision-making problems for school managers dealing with asbestos hazards in the past, for failing to do so in the present, and for doing so improperly in the future. This book summarizes the available knowledge pertinent to the decisions that school administrators and others must make regarding asbestos in the…

    11. Asbestos in Our Schools. Taming the Silent Killer. A Handbook for Association Leaders Produced by NEA.

      Science.gov (United States)

      National Education Association, Washington, DC.

      In 1984, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that friable asbestos-containing materials were present in 31,000 school buildings throughout the country. Once inhaled, asbestos fibers may remain in the lungs indefinitely and can lead to various diseases. This handbook is intended to provide administrators--in nontechnical…

    12. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

      Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

    13. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)

      2003-01-01

      textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by tw

    14. A DESCRIÇÃO COMO FERRAMENTA FUNDAMENTAL PARA UMA BOA COMUNICAÇÃO

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sérgio Brasil Fernandes

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available A descrição é um dos principais modos de organização do discurso, pois é por intermédio dela que se adquire a base fundamental para bem utilizar outras formas de organizar a redação de um texto. A descrição viabiliza a possibilidade de as pessoas terem a noção particular e individual sobre si mesmas e sobre tudo o que as envolve. Enfatiza-se que a construção das imagens que constituem o mundo em que vivemos ocorre através dos cinco sentidos (visão, audição, olfato, paladar e tato e da imaginação criadora do ser humano. Explicitar todos esses aspectos fomentou a elaboração deste estudo que tem por objetivo demonstrar a importância da descrição como ferramenta fundamental para uma boa comunicação. Para isso, utilizou-se a pesquisa bibliográfica de natureza qualitativa como metodologia neste trabalho que se caracteriza como um estudo exploratório. Do referencial teórico que embasou o trabalho, cabe ressaltar que a descrição é a forma mais natural no ser humano de produzir um texto porque os instrumentos do descrever, ou seja, os sentidos humanos, já estão em nós e constituem os elementos vitais da nossa sensibilidade (AMARAL; ANTÔNIO; PATROCÍNIO, 2001. Neste estudo, por meio da análise de diversos tipos de texto, são identificadas técnicas descritivas e formas de influência exercidas pela descrição nos modos de organização do discurso narrativo e argumentativo. Em síntese, é preciso priorizar o estudo da descrição como modo de organização do discurso essencial para a obtenção de conhecimento de mundo e para a realização de uma comunicação precisa e eficaz.

    15. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

      2009-01-01

      An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

    16. Significant relationship between the extent of pleural plaques and pulmonary asbestos body concentration in lung cancer patients with occupational asbestos exposure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yusa, Toshikazu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Usami, Ikuji; Morikawa, Tetsuyuki; Wu, Di; Itoi, Kazumi; Okamoto, Kenzo; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kohyama, Norihiko; Morinaga, Kenji

      2015-04-01

      The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a relationship between the extent of pleural plaques and pulmonary asbestos body concentration (PABC). The subjects were 207 lung cancer patients with occupational asbestos exposure. We determined the plaque extent by findings on chest images using our own criteria. PABCs were measured in resected or autopsy lung specimens. There was a significant relationship between plaque extent and PABC. Seventy-five percent of the patients determined to have extensive plaques based on our criteria had a PABC of ≥5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, which is one of the certification criteria of lung cancer caused by asbestos for workers' compensation in Japan. In lung cancer patients, the plaque extent had a significant positive relationship with the PABC. The plaque extent would be useful as a proxy for PABC for lung cancer compensation purposes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    17. Asbesto, asbestose e câncer: critérios diagnósticos Asbestos, asbestosis and cancer: diagnostic criteria

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

      2001-07-01

      Full Text Available As doenças asbesto-induzidas constituem um grave problema de saúde em decorrência de grande número de trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto ao longo dos últimos 50 anos. Processos judiciais contra indústrias que lidam com asbesto somam centenas, com crescente adição de novos casos. O assunto relativo à asbestose é complexo e, muito embora a história natural das doenças induzidas esteja bem estabelecida, muitas áreas importantes, como a patologia, permanecem ainda pouco compreendidas. No Brasil, desde 1940, o asbesto é explorado comercialmente e nos últimos anos sua produção foi da ordem de 200.000 toneladas por ano, estimando-se que na atividade de mineração cerca de 10.000 trabalhadores foram expostos a essa fibra, desconhecendo-se a estimativa do número de pessoas expostas na produção de fibrocimento, especialmente telhas e caixas d'água. Um estudo, com metodologia de investigação científica apropriada, para avaliar as repercussões sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores nas minas de asbesto em nosso país, foi elaborado e intitulado "Morbidade e mortalidade entre trabalhadores expostos ao asbesto na atividade de mineração 1940-1996", de cunho interinstitucional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fornecer uma visão ampla das doenças asbesto-induzidas, com ênfase nas dificuldades no diagnóstico histopatológico, através da experiência adquirida com o desenrolar desse projeto.Asbestos-induced diseases are still major health problems, as a remarkably large number of workers have been exposed to asbestos over the past 50 years. Personal injury lawsuits against asbestos manufacturers number hundreds of thousands, and new cases are still being filed. Asbestosis is a complex issue, and although the broad outlines of asbestos-related diseases are well set, many important areas, especially pathology, are poorly understood. In Brazil, since 1940, asbestos has been commercially explored, producing around 200,000 tons/year, exposing

    18. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Graham Reynolds, R; Niemiller, Matthew L; Revell, Liam J

      2014-02-01

      Snakes in the families Boidae and Pythonidae constitute some of the most spectacular reptiles and comprise an enormous diversity of morphology, behavior, and ecology. While many species of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain contentious and fluid. A major effort in evolutionary and conservation biology is to assemble a comprehensive Tree-of-Life, or a macro-scale phylogenetic hypothesis, for all known life on Earth. No previously published study has produced a species-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa species or 65% of python species. Using both novel and previously published sequence data, we have produced a species-level phylogeny for 84.5% of boid species and 82.5% of pythonid species, contextualized within a larger phylogeny of henophidian snakes. We obtained new sequence data for three boid, one pythonid, and two tropidophiid taxa which have never previously been included in a molecular study, in addition to generating novel sequences for seven genes across an additional 12 taxa. We compiled an 11-gene dataset for 127 taxa, consisting of the mitochondrial genes CYTB, 12S, and 16S, and the nuclear genes bdnf, bmp2, c-mos, gpr35, rag1, ntf3, odc, and slc30a1, totaling up to 7561 base pairs per taxon. We analyzed this dataset using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and recovered a well-supported phylogeny for these species. We found significant evidence of discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary relationships in the genera Tropidophis, Morelia, Liasis, and Leiopython, and we found support for elevating two previously suggested boid species. We suggest a revised taxonomy for the boas (13 genera, 58 species) and pythons (8 genera, 40 species), review relationships between our study and the many other molecular phylogenetic studies of henophidian snakes, and present a taxonomic database and alignment which may be easily used and built upon by other researchers

    19. Por uma semântica profunda: arte, cultura e história no pensamento de Franz Boas

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kátia Maria Pereira de Almeida

      1998-10-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a teoria de Franz Boas (1848-1952 sobre a arte primitiva e, assim, estabelecer um novo princípio de inteligibilidade para a análise de sua obra, tendo como pano de fundo a problematização da relação entre a(s perspectiva(s antropológica(s e o domínio específico da arte e da cultura material. Com tal escopo, dois aspectos são destacados: por um lado, a ênfase boasiana no elemento formal no que se refere à delimitação do fenômeno artístico, redimesionando o simbolismo primitivo; por outro, a ênfase na padronização estilística, como correlata dos mecanismos de processamento das sínteses histórico-culturais, o que redimensiona a questão da imaginação. A discussão deste tema revela alguns dos fundamentos epistemológicos e ontológicos implicados na proposta metodológica do autor, reavalia seu posicionamento crítico em relação às teorias antropológicas anteriores, especialmente o evolucionismo social, e demonstra a originalidade da articulação entre história e ciência, por um lado, e entre as perspectivas atomista e holista da cultura, por outro.Through a discussion of Franz Boas's theory of primitive art, this article aims to establish a new approach to understanding and analyzing his work, taking as its backdrop the problematic relation between anthropological perspective(s and the specific domain of art and material culture. With this objective in mind, two aspects are emphasized: first, Boas's accentuation of the formal element within which artistic phenomena are delimited, an emphasis which reshapes primitive symbolism; secondly, his emphasis on stylistic patterning as a correlate of processual mechanisms of historico-cultural syntheses, an approach which reformulates the question of imagination. Discussion of this theme reveals some of the epistemological and ontological foundations implicated in Boas's proposed methodology. It also re-evaluates his critical position in

    20. BOA Application on Internet of Vehicle%面向车联网技术的BOA应用研究

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      崔建明

      2012-01-01

      Traffic informatization has significantly improved the transport efficiency and the internet of things (IoT) bring more new technology and new methods for the development of traffic informatization. The internet of vehicles (IoV) is subsequently generated and is now under developing. However, it has some technical problems in the application process, such as monitoring the detail component of vehicle. In this paper, a technology is proposed that is accessible the small parts of traffic equipment through BOA technology. If the hardware itself has embedded control interface, can the remote monitor be used to revise the components parameters through integration BOA with the interface. By this way, the whole or parts of the equipments can be monitored and optimized by integrating with the CAN bus. It can even reach a wide range of remoting access and monitoring parameters by setting up separated virtual IPv6 address for the BOA. Finally, the example of the controlled video surveillance with the BOA technology is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology.%交通信息化提高了交通效率,物联网技术为交通信息化的发展带来更多新技术、新方法,由此产生了“车联网技术”.物联网技术是一种在发展的新技术,故此车联网技术在应用过程中存在一些技术障碍,如车辆细部部件的监控等.本文提出一种通过BOA技术进行交通设备部件访问的服务技术,如果硬件本身具有嵌入式控制接口,通过BOA技术与这种接口集成可以远程对部件进行监控与参数修改.这样BOA通过CAN总线集成的操作可以对设备整体进行全部部件监控和更多的优化操作,甚至可以对BOA设置单独的虚拟IPv6地址,达到更大范围内的远程参数获取与监控.最后,通过具有BOA技术的可控视频监控实例证明,此种技术可行.

    1. A lição do nordeste. Severino e Boa-Morte : Cabras marcados para morrer

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Catarina Oliveira Marques

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available This article intends to develop an intertextual approach to João Cabral de Melo Neto’s Morte e Vida Severina (1956 and Ferreira Gullar’s João Boa-Morte, Cabra marcado para morrer (1962. Both texts are rooted in social protest and participation in the portrayal of the Brazilian Northeast Region. The condition of «severinidade» and «nordestinidade» as topological idiosyncrasy. Textual genres: the «auto de natal» and the «romance de cordel».

    2. Nature/nurture and the anthropology of Franz Boas and Margaret Mead as an agenda for revolutionary politics

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sidney M. Greenfield

      2001-12-01

      Full Text Available There is much more involved in the nature/nurture debate than an abstract theoretical disagreement among dispassionate scientists. Each side of the debate leads logically to significantly different views of the social order and holds different implications for social policy. In this paper I shall argue that Boas' Anthropology with its emphasis on cultural relativism was as much a social and political agenda as it was a scientific theory. The positions on public policy issues he opposed were informed (and rationalized by what its advocates claimed to be science. To be able to counter the discriminatory policy proposals that followed from this science, it was necessary for Boas both to challenge its validity and then replace it with an alternative that would support a more liberal political agenda. This chapter of anthropology's history gains relevance in today's context as neoevolutionary, reductionist theories once more provide "scientific" support for conservative, separatist and often discriminatory social policies.O debate natureza/cultura é muito mais do que um desentendimento teórico e abstrato entre cientistas desapaixonados. Cada lado do debate leva a visões diferentes da ordem social e traz implicações diferentes para políticas sociais. Neste artigo, sugiro que a Antropologia de Boas, com sua ênfase no relativismo cultural, tanto quanto uma teoria científica, foi um programa social e político. As posturas de política pública às quais ele se opunha eram informadas (e racionalizadas por algo apresentado por seus proponentes como ciência. Para combater as propostas discriminatórias que decorriam desta ciência, cabia a Boas desafiar sua validade e substituí-la por uma alternativa que daria apoio a uma agenda política mais liberal. Esse capítulo da história da antropologia assume maior relevância no contexto atual em que teorias néo-evolucionistas e reducionistas mais uma vez fornecem uma base "científica" para pol

    3. [Drawer of boundaries: Franz Boas and the (im)possibility of the concept of culture in anthropology].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

      2011-01-01

      The history of anthropology has tended towards two extremes in its analyses of the works of Franz Boas: aggrandizement or underestimation. This disparity can be explained by the author's liminal relationship with two research approaches in anthropology: universalist theories (evolutionism, difussionism, racialism, etc.) and culturalist theories, prevalent between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With this argument in mind, the article discusses the emergence of the Boasian concept of culture and endeavors to show how this concept proves both possible and impossible within the author's own work.

    4. El dibujante de límites: Franz Boas y la (imposibilidad del concepto de cultura en antropología Drawer of boundaries: Franz Boas and the (impossibility of the concept of culture in anthropology

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Angel Martínez-Hernáez

      2011-09-01

      Full Text Available La obra de Franz Boas ha sido analizada en la historia de la antropología de una forma polarizada entre la tendencia a la magnificación y a la minusvaloración. En este artículo se argumenta que las razones de esta indefinición descansan en el carácter liminal de este autor entre dos programas de investigación en antropología: las teorías universalistas (evolucionismo, difusionismo, racialismo etc. y las teorías culturalistas, que median entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Con este objetivo se discute el surgimiento del concepto boasiano de cultura intentando mostrar las condiciones de posibilidad e imposibilidad de esta noción a lo largo de la producción de este autor.The history of anthropology has tended towards two extremes in its analyses of the works of Franz Boas: aggrandizement or underestimation. This disparity can be explained by the author's liminal relationship with two research approaches in anthropology: universalist theories (evolutionism, difussionism, racialism, etc. and culturalist theories, prevalent between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With this argument in mind, the article discusses the emergence of the Boasian concept of culture and endeavors to show how this concept proves both possible and impossible within the author's own work.

    5. Guidance manual on the estimation of airborne asbestos concentrations as a function of distance from a contaminated surface area for area suspension evaluations

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Stenner, R.D.; Droppo, J.G.; Peloquin, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; VanHouten, N.C.

      1990-04-01

      This Guidance Manual provides a quantitative approach for estimating the airborne concentrations of asbestos from disturbed soils and surfaces. Asbestos-containing surfaces may include roads surfaced with asbestos-bearing serpentine rock, tailings piles, and landfills. This manual identifies the procedures necessary for estimating airborne concentrations of asbestos in disturbed soils. The manual is to be used in conjunction with the Airborne Asbestos Concentration Estimator System-Area Suspension (AACES-AS) computer code. 44 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

    6. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Tonelli, Massimo

      2008-08-15

      The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the "asbestos problem". The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures.

    7. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.gualtieri@unimore.it; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/1, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it; Tonelli, Massimo [Centro Interdipartimentale Grandi Strumenti, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/1, I-41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: tonelli@mail.cigs.unimo.it

      2008-08-15

      The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the 'asbestos problem'. The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures.

    8. National survey of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in Japan.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Aoe, Keisuke; Takeshima, Yukio; Inai, Kouki; Kishimoto, Takumi

      2012-03-01

      In the present study, malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in Japan were investigated retrospectively. We extracted records for 6030 cases of death due to MM between 2003 and 2008 to clarify the clinical features of MM, including its association with asbestos exposure (AE). Of all these cases, a clinical diagnosis of MM was confirmed for 929. The origin of MM included the pleura in 794 cases (85.5%), the peritoneum in 123 cases (13.2%), the pericardium in seven cases (0.8%), and the testicular tunica vaginalis in five cases (0.5%). The histological subtypes of MM included 396 epithelioid (55.9%), 154 sarcomatoid (21.7%), 126 biphasic (17.8%), and 33 cases (4.7%) classified as "other types". Of all the MM cases, AE was indicated in 76.8% and pleural plaques were detected in 34.2%. The number of asbestos particles was determined in 103 cases of MM. More than 1000 asbestos particles per gram dried lung tissue were detected in 74.8% of cases and more than 5000 particles were detected in 43.7% of cases. We compared patient characteristics and the diagnostic procedures for MM before and after the "Kubota shock". Compared with the early phase of this study (2003-2005), the median age at diagnosis of MM was higher, the number of cases without definite diagnosis of MM was lower, the proportion of cases diagnosed by thoracoscopy was higher, and the percentage of cases in which the occupational history was described in the medical records was significantly higher in the later phase (2006-2008). Our study confirmed that more than 70% of MM cases in Japan are associated with AE. The "Kubota shock" may affect some features pertaining to MM.

    9. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cavallo, Alessandro

      2016-04-01

      Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

    10. Perch size and structure have species-dependent effects on the arboreal locomotion of rat snakes and boa constrictors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jayne, Bruce C; Herrmann, Michael P

      2011-07-01

      Arboreal habitats create diverse challenges for animal locomotion, but the numerical and phylogenetic diversity of snakes that climb trees suggest that their overall body plan is well suited for this task. Snakes have considerable diversity of axial anatomy, but the functional consequences of this diversity for arboreal locomotion are poorly understood because of the lack of comparative data. We simulated diverse arboreal surfaces to test whether environmental structure had different effects on the locomotion of snakes belonging to two distantly related species with differences in axial musculature and stoutness. On most cylindrical surfaces lacking pegs, both species used concertina locomotion, which always involved periodic stopping and gripping but was kinematically distinct in the two species. On horizontal cylinders that were a small fraction of body diameter, the boa constrictors used a balancing form of lateral undulation that was not observed for rat snakes. For all snakes the presence of pegs elicited lateral undulation and enhanced speed. For both species maximal speeds decreased with increased incline and were greatest on cylinders with intermediate diameters that approximated the diameter of the snakes. The frictional resistances that we studied had small effects compared with those of cylinder diameter, incline and the presence of pegs. The stouter and more muscular boa constrictors were usually faster than the rat snakes when using the gripping gait, whereas rat snakes were faster when using lateral undulation on the surfaces with pegs. Thus, variation in environmental structure had several highly significant effects on locomotor mode, performance and kinematics that were species dependent.

    11. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the coelomic organs of boid snakes (Boa constrictor imperator, Python regius, Python molurus molurus, and Python curtus).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Banzato, Tommaso; Russo, Elisa; Finotti, Luca; Milan, Maria C; Gianesella, Matteo; Zotti, Alessandro

      2012-05-01

      To determine the ultrasonographic features of the coelomic organs of healthy snakes belonging to the Boidae and Pythonidae families. 16 ball pythons (Python regius; 7 males, 8 females, and 1 sexually immature), 10 Indian rock pythons (Python molurus molurus; 5 males, 4 females, and 1 sexually immature), 12 Python curtus (5 males and 7 females), and 8 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor imperator; 4 males and 4 females). All snakes underwent complete ultrasonographic evaluation of the coelomic cavity; chemical restraint was not necessary. A dorsolateral approach to probe placement was chosen to increase image quality and to avoid injury to the snakes and operators. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded. The liver, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, kidneys, cloaca, and scent glands were identified in all snakes. The hemipenes were identified in 10 of the 21 (48%) male snakes. The spleen was identified in 5 of the 46 (11%) snakes, and ureters were identified in 6 (13%). In 2 sexually immature snakes, the gonads were not visible. One (2%) snake was gravid, and 7 (15%) had small amounts of free fluid in the coelomic cavity. A significant positive correlation was identified between several measurements (diameter and thickness of scent glands, gastric and pyloric walls, and colonic wall) and body length (snout to vent) and body weight. The study findings can be used as an atlas of the ultrasonographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in healthy boid snakes. Ultrasonography was reasonably fast to perform and was well tolerated in conscious snakes.

    12. New insights on the biomineralisation process developing in human lungs around inhaled asbestos fibres

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bardelli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Giulia; Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Charlet, Laurent; Cedola, Alessia; Belluso, Elena

      2017-03-01

      Once penetrated into the lungs of exposed people, asbestos induces an in vivo biomineralisation process that leads to the formation of a ferruginous coating embedding the fibres. The ensemble of the fibre and the coating is referred to as asbestos body and is believed to be responsible for the high toxicological outcome of asbestos. Lung tissue of two individuals subjected to prolonged occupational exposure to crocidolite asbestos was investigated using synchrotron radiation micro-probe tools. The distribution of K and of elements heavier than Fe (Zn, Cu, As, and Ba) in the asbestos bodies was observed for the first time. Elemental quantification, also reported for the first time, confirmed that the coating is highly enriched in Fe (~20% w/w), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Fe is in the 3+ oxidation state and that it is present in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin. Comparison of the results obtained studying the asbestos bodies upon removing the biological tissue by chemical digestion and those embedded in histological sections, allowed unambiguously distinguishing the composition of the asbestos bodies, and understanding to what extent the digestion procedure altered their chemical composition. A speculative model is proposed to explain the observed distribution of Fe.

    13. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sanchez, Vanesa C; Pietruska, Jodie R; Miselis, Nathan R; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

      2009-01-01

      Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers.

    14. Asbestos exposure, pleural plaques, and the risk of death from lung cancer.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pairon, Jean-Claude; Andujar, Pascal; Rinaldo, Mickael; Ameille, Jacques; Brochard, Patrick; Chamming's, Soizick; Clin, Bénédicte; Ferretti, Gilbert; Gislard, Antoine; Laurent, François; Luc, Amandine; Wild, Pascal; Paris, Christophe

      2014-12-15

      Although asbestos is a well-known lung carcinogen, the pleural plaque-lung cancer link remains controversial. This study was designed to examine this link in asbestos-exposed workers. A 6-year follow-up was conducted to study lung cancer mortality in the 5,402 male subjects participating in an asbestos-related disease screening program conducted from October 2003 to December 2005 in four French regions. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in all subjects with randomized, independent, double reading of CT scans focusing on benign asbestos-related abnormalities. Cox model survival regression analysis was used to model lung cancer mortality according to the presence of pleural plaques, with age as the main time variable, adjusting for smoking and asbestos cumulative exposure index. All statistical tests were two-sided. Thirty-six deaths from lung cancer were recorded. Lung cancer mortality was significantly associated with pleural plaques in the follow-up study in terms of both the unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.49-5.70) and the adjusted hazard ratio of 2.41 (95% confidence interval = 1.21-4.85) after adjustment for smoking and asbestos cumulative exposure index. Pleural plaques may be an independent risk factor for lung cancer death in asbestos-exposed workers and could be used as an additional criterion in the definition of high-risk populations eligible for CT screening.

    15. Size- and type-specific exposure assessment of an asbestos products factory in China.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Courtice, Midori N; Berman, D Wayne; Yano, Eiji; Kohyama, Norihiko; Wang, Xiaorong

      2016-01-01

      This study describes fibre size and type-specific airborne asbestos exposures in an asbestos product factory. Forty-four membrane filter samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the size distribution of asbestos fibres, by workshop. Fibre frequencies of bivariate (length by width) categories were calculated and differences between workshops were tested by analysis of variance. Data were recorded for 13,435 chrysotile and 1075 tremolite fibres. The proportions between size metrics traditionally measured and potentially biologically important size metrics were found to vary in this study from proportions reported in other cohort studies. One, common size distribution was generated for each asbestos type over the entire factory because statistically significant differences in frequency between workshops were not detected. This study provides new information on asbestos fibre size and type distributions in an asbestos factory. The extent to which biologically relevant fibre size indices were captured or overlooked between studies can potentially reconcile currently unexplained differences in asbestos-related disease (ARD) risk between cohorts. The fibre distributions presented here, when combined with similar data from other sites, will contribute to the development of quantitative models for predicting risk and our understanding of the effects of fibre characteristics in the development of ARD.

    16. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

      2014-06-17

      Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated.

    17. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

      2002-05-10

      Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

    18. Molecular engineering of a fluorescent bioprobe for sensitive and selective detection of amphibole asbestos.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Takenori Ishida

      Full Text Available Fluorescence microscopy-based affinity assay could enable highly sensitive and selective detection of airborne asbestos, an inorganic environmental pollutant that can cause mesothelioma and lung cancer. We have selected an Escherichia coli histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, H-NS, as a promising candidate for an amphibole asbestos bioprobe. H-NS has high affinity to amphibole asbestos, but also binds to an increasingly common asbestos substitute, wollastonite. To develop a highly specific Bioprobe for amphibole asbestos, we first identified a specific but low-affinity amosite-binding sequence by slicing H-NS into several fragments. Second, we constructed a streptavidin tetramer complex displaying four amosite-binding fragments, resulting in the 250-fold increase in the probe affinity as compared to the single fragment. The tetramer probe had sufficient affinity and specificity for detecting all the five types of asbestos in the amphibole group, and could be used to distinguish them from wollastonite. In order to clarify the binding mechanism and identify the amino acid residues contributing to the probe's affinity to amosite fibers, we constructed a number of shorter and substituted peptides. We found that the probable binding mechanism is electrostatic interaction, with positively charged side chains of lysine residues being primarily responsible for the probe's affinity to asbestos.

    19. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

      2014-08-01

      Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

    20. Corporate corruption of science-Another asbestos example.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Egilman, David; Monárrez, Rubén

      2017-02-01

      Kelsh et al. [2007]: Occup Med (Lond) 57:581-589 published a paper reanalyzing one of the few data sources publicly available on mesothelioma amongst brake workers, the Australian Mesothelioma Surveillance Registry (AMSR). This reanalysis was commissioned by lawyers representing the automobile manufacturing companies and did not align with an independent analysis published by Leigh and Driscoll [2003]: Occup Environ Health 9:206-217. We sought to reevaluate the AMSR data ourselves to understand how the company-sponsored research categorized the data. In our re-analysis of the 78 brake-related folios in the AMSR, we determined that 57 were employed brake mechanics, 35 were employed brake mechanics with no other asbestos exposure besides brake work or repair, and 41 of these cases had no other asbestos exposure besides brake work or repair. Our classifications differed significantly from Kelsh et al. We discuss how Kelsh et al. methodically reduced the relevant cases by following overly stringent criteria for inclusion. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:152-162, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    1. Asbestos in crushed stone: an overlooked aspect with potential of broader international research

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miskovsky, Karel; Prikryl, Richard

      2016-04-01

      Asbestos and related health effects became widely discussed issue during past decades, leading to serious decline in the use of this industrial mineral. Asbestos-like minerals are, however, quite common in several rock types that were and are still used as crushed stone. Unfortunately, there is still missing any broader concern on the detection of these fibrous minerals in aggregate source rocks, and consequently there is lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of the use of asbestos-bearing rocks on the environment and the society. This paper aims to present an introduction to this serious problem and to open a call for wider co-operation on the international level.

    2. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

      2015-05-01

      Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 Ω cm.

    3. Asbestos in road surfaces. Forgotten or hidden?; Asbest in Strassenbelaegen. Vergessen oder verheimlicht?

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Pierdzig, Stefan [CRB Analyse Service GmbH, Hardegsen (Germany)

      2012-11-15

      The problem of asbestos in road surfaces is handled differently in the individual Federal States of Germany. Currently, only in Lower Saxony and partly in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the road surfaces were analysed according to the existence of asbestos with respect to the regulation TRGS 517/BIA 7487. The remaining Federal States assume fundamentally that asphalt may contain asbestos. Protective measures such as milling of road surfaces are applied. Te most Federal States do not supply information on the handling of TRGD 517 when building roads.

    4. The Strength of Disease: Molecular Bonds Between Asbestos and Human Cells

      Science.gov (United States)

      Taylor, E. S.; Lower, S. K.; Wylie, A. G.; Mossman, B. T.

      2008-12-01

      Occupational exposure to asbestos has been linked to the development of life-threatening cancers (i.e., mesothelioma) and diseases (i.e., asbestosis), which can sometimes take decades to appear after initial exposure. There is increasing evidence that environmental exposure to asbestos is a significant public health concern in some regions of the United States, and this type of asbestos contamination could lead to an epidemic of mesothelioma for at least the next two decades. Although mines and regions nearby should be safer with stricter protocols for processing asbestos, the long latent period for asbestos-related diseases makes understanding them an ever-present concern. In addition to the many epidemiological studies, laboratory in vitro and in vivo studies on the biochemical effect of asbestos show that the most trusted predictor for disease is the dosage of longer, thinner chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers. However, many scientists agree that incorporating the many physical and chemical properties of the mineral fibers is needed to properly assess their influence. The study of asbestos-related disease is essentially a multidisciplinary task, requiring knowledge from medicine, biochemistry and mineralogy. To bridge the gap between these disciplines, attention needs to be placed on the molecular communication between the asbestos fibers and the biological environments in which they can be deposited. Our work focused on determining the surface chemical response of riebeckite and crocidolite-its asbestiform counterpart-to changes in salinity and pH. As expected, studies on the mineral surface charge using atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded a slight dependence on pH, as measured by the adhesion force acting on the probe, but not on ionic strength, except at near zero salt concentration. A transition was found for the surface charge of crocidolite above pH 7, where forces at the mineral surface increased. In contrast, the surface charge on riebeckite was

    5. Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kangur, Maie

      2007-01-01

      Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded.

    6. Sauer, Boas, Kroeber e a cultura superorgânica: notas sobre a relação entre geografia e antropologia

      OpenAIRE

      Pedrosa, Breno Viotto

      2015-01-01

      No presente artigo, pretendemos comparar o pensamento de F. Boas e A. Kroeber, elucidando seu esquema geral de análise, buscando os elementos geográficos de seu pensamento e destacando alguns aspectos que serão absorvidos por Carl Sauer em sua geografia cultural. Além disso, procuramos demonstrar as inter-relações presentes entre o pensamento de Ratzel, os seus desdobramentos na antropologia historicista de Boas e, finalmente, a construção da ideia de superorgânico de Kroeber. Dans cet art...

    7. 世界上最大的海洋工程施工船%Boa Deep C the world largest construction vessel

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      俞强

      2005-01-01

      Boa DeepC号是目前世界上最大的海洋工程船。从各方面来看,Boa Deep C号是一艘十分特别的船舶,它主要用来从事海底结构的施工、系统的安装、管线修理等,其独立工作的最大深度为2000米,适应于世界各水域。

    8. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

      1988-10-01

      Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    9. Árvores frutíferas nos quintais urbanos de Boa Vista, Roraima, Amazônia brasileira Fruit trees in urban home gardens of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rui Jorge da Conceição Gomes Semedo

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a riqueza e a diversidade das espécies de árvores frutíferas cultivadas nos quintais caseiros da cidade de Boa Vista, Roraima, bem como determinar quais são as espécies cultivadas preferencialmente pela população urbana local. Os levantamentos foram realizados em dois bairros surgidos com a expansão da cidade em 1982: (1 BEst - Bairro dos Estados (Zona Norte e (2 BAsa - Bairro Asa Branca (Zona Oeste. Foram observados 722 quintais no BEst (06 a 22.03.2004 e 339 no BAsa (07.04 a 01.07.2004. Trinta e seis espécies (19 famílias botânicas foram encontradas no BEst e 37 (20 famílias no BAsa, configurando um total de 43 espécies (20 famílias observadas. Deste total, 30 espécies (69,8% de 19 famílias (95% ocorreram em ambos os bairros, sugerindo preferências frutíferas comuns. Os três maiores índices de valor de preferência (IVP foram coincidentes e registrados para coco (Cocos nucifera L. - BEst: 19,4% e BAsa: 20,5%, manga (Mangifera indica L. - BEst: 14,9% e BAsa: 22,5% e jambo (Syzygium malaccence (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry - BEst: 10,5% e BAsa: 10,1%, todos de origem externa à Amazônia, mas que congregaram conjuntamente 44,9% (BEst e 53,0% (BAsa de IVP. Estes resultados sugerem que o cultivo de árvores frutíferas em quintais caseiros de Boa Vista segue um padrão que concentra a escolha em poucas espécies, não-originárias da Amazônia, mas tradicionalmente consagradas por seu êxito na produção de frutos.The objective of this study was to estimate the richness and the diversity of fruit tree species cultivated in Boa Vista's home gardens, as well as to determine what species the local urban population prefers. Two neighborhoods that originated during the city's expansion in 1982 were sampled: (1 BEst - Bairro dos Estados (North Zone and (2 BAsa - Bairro Asa Branca (West Zone. Seven hundred and twenty-two home gardens were surveyed in BEst (March 6 to 22, 2004, and 339 in BAsa (April 7 to

    10. Smart home system based on BOA and nRF24L01%基于 BOA 和 nRF24L01的智能家居系统

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      窦慧晶; 侯荣全; 陈凤菊

      2015-01-01

      Aiming at the shortcomings of ZigBee and Z-Wave at present wireless communication technology in smart home,this paper presents a smart home system based on the BOA and nRF24L01.The home gateway is based on S3C2440 and Linux operation system.Within the family,nRF24L01 is used to communicate.Each wireless node is de-signed from environmental monitoring,home control,and home security three aspects.In order to fully understand the performance of the system,the system is tested in modular.Experimental results show that the system can achieve the desired result and bring convenience to people's family life.%针对目前智能家居方面比较流行的 ZigBee 和 Z-Wave 无线通信技术的一些不足,提出了一种基于 BOA 和 nRF24L01的智能家居系统,其家庭网关部分以 S3C2440为核心,Linux 为实时操作系统,家庭内部各个节点采用无线射频模块nRF24L01通信,各无线节点从环境监测、家电控制和家庭安防3个方面来设计。为了全面了解系统的性能,对系统进行了分模块的测试。实验结果表明,系统能够达到预期的结果,能够给人们的家庭生活带来方便。

    11. [WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Izmerov, N F

      2008-01-01

      The article covers analysis of contemporary international documents on asbestosis problem. Suggestions are presented to Russia participation in realization of joint WHO and ILO Program on elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

    12. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

    13. Chemical elimination of the harmful properties of asbestos from military facilities.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František; Grabas, Kazimierz; Chęcmanowski, Jacek

      2017-03-01

      This work presents research on the neutralization of asbestos banned from military use and its conversion to usable products. The studies showed that asbestos can be decomposed by the use of phosphoric acid. The process proved very effective when the phosphoric acid concentration was 30%, the temperature was 90°C and the reaction time 60min. Contrary to the common asbestos treatment method that consists of landfilling, the proposed process ensures elimination of the harmful properties of this waste material and its transformation into inert substances. The obtained products include calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate and silica. Chemical, microscopic and X-ray analyses proved that the products are free of harmful fibers and can be, in particular, utilized for fertilizers production. The obtained results may contribute to development of an asbestos utilization technique that fits well into the European waste policy, regulated by the EU waste management law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    14. Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Asbestos-Related Pleural and Pulmonary Disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Diego Roza, Carmen; Cruz Carmona, M Jesús; Fernández Álvarez, Ramón; Ferrer Sancho, Jaume; Marín Martínez, Belén; Martínez González, Cristina; Rodríguez Portal, José Antonio; Romero Valero, Fernando; Villena Garrido, Victoria

      2017-03-06

      Asbestos is the term used for a set of mineral silicates that tend to break up into fibers. Its use has been associated with numerous diseases affecting the lung and pleura in particular, all of which are characterized by their long period of latency. Asbestos, moreover, has been recognized by the WHO as a Group IA carcinogen since 1987 and its use was banned in Spain in 2002. The publication in 2013 of the 3rd edition of the specific asbestos health monitoring protocol, together with the development of new diagnostic techniques, prompted the SEPAR EROM group to sponsor publication of guidelines, which review the clinical, radiological and functional aspects of the different asbestos-related diseases. Recommendations have also been made for the diagnosis and follow-up of exposed patients. These recommendations were drawn up in accordance with the GRADE classification system.

    15. Analysis of asbestos concentration in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dodson, Ronald F; Hammar, Samuel P

      2015-02-01

      Mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm caused by asbestos exposure. The majority of mesotheliomas arise from the pleural lining of the thoracic cavity, but also involve the peritoneal and pericardial cavities. Another type of neoplasm referred to as pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma is rare. Most "pseudomesotheliomas" arise in the pleural tissue of the chest cavity and resemble pleural mesotheliomas, macroscopically and histologically. While most arise in the pleura, there are some that metastasize to the pleura from another site. We evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in 20 cases of pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancer and found a significant number to contain an elevated concentration of asbestos in their lung tissue, which is similar with our study of 55 mesothelioma cases published in 1997. This would provide evidence that some pseudomesotheliomatous lung cancers are caused by asbestos.

    16. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

      Science.gov (United States)

      Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

    17. Setting up an Asbestos Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program

      Science.gov (United States)

      Covers steps a buidling's O&M plan should including: appointing an asbestos program manager, inspecting the building, developing a plan, and if necessary selecting and implementing larger repair or abatement projects.

    18. A difusão do Orçamento Participativo brasileiro: "boas práticas" devem ser promovidas?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Brian Wampler

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available A "terceira onda" de democratização foi acompanhada pela proliferação de novas instituições, que permitem aos cidadãos deliberar e decidir sobre o resultado das políticas adotadas. Organizações internacionais de prestígio, como o Banco Mundial e as Nações Unidas, disseminaram programas de "boas práticas", associados a esforços de reformar políticas apoiadas na idéia de "boa governança". Um dos programas mais conhecidos, o Orçamento Participativo (OP, foi adotado pela primeira vez pelo Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT no Brasil em 1989, como forma de promover justiça social, responsabilidade e transparência. A adoção do orçamento participativo no Brasil se ampliou, capitaneada pelo partido. Não obstante seu pioneirismo, por volta de 2001, quase a metade dos programas de OP haviam sido adotados por governos de outros partidos. O que pode explicar por que governos municipais no Brasil, em especial governos de outros partidos, adotaram programas de OP? Este artigo procura avaliar a probabilidade de que um município adote o OP, recorrendo à análise de regressão logística para testar um modelo que inclua variáveis eleitorais, econômicas, regionais e de redes de políticas públicas. Na conclusão, avalia-se concisamente se os governos que adotam o OP são capazes de produzir resultados similares aos resultados iniciais que inspiraram a designação de "boa prática", o que leva a enfrentar a questão: sob que condições a eventual adoção de programas de "boas práticas" deveria ser promovida?The "third wave" of democratization has been accompanied by the spread of new institutions that allow citizens to deliberate and decide policy outcomes. Leading international organizations, such as the World Bank and the United Nations, have disseminated "best practice" programs identified with "good government" policy reform efforts. One of the most well-known programs, Participatory Budgeting (PB, was first adopted by Brazil

    19. A teoria do adimplemento substancial e o princípio da boa-fé objetiva

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Aliciene Bueno Antocheves de Lima

      2007-08-01

      Full Text Available Este artigo trata da relativização do direito do credor de resolver o contrato por inadimplemento, a partir da aplicação da doutrina do adimplemento substancial. Mostra-se ainda a relação desta teoria com o princípio da boa-fé objetiva,e como ela é aplicada no direito brasileiro. Será também analisada a origem da teoria do substancial performance, e como ela influenciou os tribunais brasileiros no julgamento de casos de resolução de contratos, primando pela conservação da relação obrigacional sempre que possível.

    20. ASSENTADOS E NÃO ASSENTADOS NO POVOADO BOA VISTA, CAPELA/SE: Sustentabilidade e Pequena Propriedade

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Eduardo Prado Ribeiro Junior

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Faced with the challenge of environmental sustainability of the planet, which requires, in addition to changes in the course of development, changes in the functioning of society and its various activities, it is important for this research to analyze the current situation of sugar cane in small farm settlers and not the village of Boa Vista, in the town of Capela. An activity that is linked to factors not always resulting in good outcomes, such as the subordination that small farmers suffer from the sugarcane industry where they are required to provide their small sugarcane production and the low prices that are not always reliable. The paper analyzes the effects of the constant growth of this activity and its infl uence on the environment and socio-economic aspect: trying to show the reality of a region Sergipe that has been marked by such activity, and which has stood out increasingly in recent years (re confi guration of the geographical area where this activity creates confl icts between environmental issues and the agrarian question. The aim is to analyze the various relationships between small farmers and settlers, not settlers. That is, to what extent the sugar cane interfere in the dynamics of relationships between small farmers, squatters, and not the settlers, and the power of cane sugar, still thinking of the similarities and differences of the relations of the settlers and not sitting in the relationship these two actors have with the environment in which they give. Small farms that once lived on subsistence agriculture are now also being infl uenced by this activity, whether it represents an alternative form of income for small farmers, or representing an activity which is unsustainable in the social and environmental. The various relationships presented in this study demonstrate the diffi culties faced by small farmers in the villages Boa Vista, to maintain their cultures, mainly from cane sugar, while many small farmers reported

    1. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

      1999-01-01

      Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

    2. Asbestos: current issues related to cancer and to uses in developing countries Asbesto: seu emprego nos países em desenvolvimento e questões relacionadas ao câncer

      OpenAIRE

      1998-01-01

      Asbestos is one of the main occupational carcinogens recognized and studied in the literature. Its uses have undergone major changes in recent decades, with severe restrictions on commercial amphiboles according to different patterns: in developed countries asbestos is strictly controlled or banned, except in Japan, while in developing countries consumption has leveled off or increased. As an example, Brazil is one the seven world leaders in asbestos production and consumption. Although there...

    3. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hallenbeck, William H.

      1981-01-01

      The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

    4. Asbestos-induced lung disease in small-scale clutch manufacturing workers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gothi, Dipti; Gahlot, Tanushree; Sah, Ram B.; Saxena, Mayank; Ojha, U. C.; Verma, Anand K.; Spalgais, Sonam

      2016-01-01

      Background: The crocidolite variety of asbestos is banned. However, chrysotile, which is not prohibited, is still used in developing countries in making products such as clutch plate. Fourteen workers from a small-scale clutch plate-manufacturing factory were analyzed for asbestos-induced lung disease as one of their colleagues had expired due to asbestosis. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of workers, the prevalence and type of asbestos-induced lung disease, and the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion test. Materials and Methods: History, examination, chest radiograph, spirometry with diffusion, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) thorax was performed in all the workers. The diagnosis of asbestos-induced lung disease was suspected on the basis of HRCT. This was subsequently confirmed on transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). Results: None of the workers had detailed information about asbestos and its ill effects. Eleven out of 14 (71.42%) workers had asbestos-induced lung disease. All 11 had small airway disease (SAD). Three had SAD alone, 6 had additional interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 2 patients had additional ILD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sensitivity and specificity of residual volume (RV) or total lung capacity (TLC) for detecting SAD was 90% and 100%, respectively, and that of diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) for detecting ILD was 100%. Conclusion: The awareness about asbestos in small-scale clutch-plate manufacturing industry is poor. The usage of chrysotile should be strictly regulated as morbidity and mortality is high. DLCO and RV/TLC are sensitive and specific in detecting nonmalignant asbestos induced lung disease.

    5. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

      OpenAIRE

      2014-01-01

      Asbestos containing wastes have been employed for the first time in the formulation of magnesium phosphate cements. Two samples were mixed with magnesium carbonate and calcined at 1100 and 1300 C. Under these conditions, complete destruction of asbestos minerals is known to occur. The product, containing MgO, after reaction with water-soluble potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, led to the formation of hydrated phases at room temperature. Crystalline and amorphous reaction products were detected,...

    6. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax; Asbestverursachte Veraenderungen am Thorax

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hieckel, H.G. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany)

      2010-07-15

      Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [German] Asbestfasern koennen zu einer Lungenfibrose, zu Verdickungen der Pleura und zu Malignomen fuehren. Diese pathologischen Veraenderungen sind fakultativ und abhaengig von der Asbestart, der Dauer der Exposition und von individuellen Faktoren. Asbest fand bis 1993 in Deutschland breiten Einsatz. Weltweit besteht noch kein Verbot. Mehrheitlich sind asbestbedingte Erkrankungen Folgen beruflicher Expositionen. Bis zu ihrem Auftreten liegen lange Latenzzeiten bis ueber 40 Jahre, sodass das Maximum noch nicht erreicht ist. Asbestverursachte Berufserkrankungen am Thorax sind die Asbestose und asbestverursachte benigne Pleuraerkrankungen sowie das maligne Pleuramesotheliom. Bronchialkarzinome koennen asbestverursacht sein. Zur Beweisfuehrung wird von der

    7. Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial to Fibroblastic Transition Is Modulated by the Inflammasome.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thompson, Joyce K; MacPherson, Maximilian B; Beuschel, Stacie L; Shukla, Arti

      2017-03-01

      Despite the causal relationship established between malignant mesothelioma (MM) and asbestos exposure, the exact mechanism by which asbestos induces this neoplasm and other asbestos-related diseases is still not well understood. MM is characterized by chronic inflammation, which is believed to play an intrinsic role in the origin of this disease. We recently found that asbestos activates the nod-like receptor family member containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in a protracted manner, leading to an up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 production in human mesothelial cells. Combined with biopersistence of asbestos fibers, we hypothesize that this creates an environment of chronic IL-1β signaling in human mesothelial cells, which may promote mesothelial to fibroblastic transition (MFT) in an NLRP3-dependent manner. Using a series of experiments, we found that asbestos induces a fibroblastic transition of mesothelial cells with a gain of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and N-cadherin), whereas epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, are down-regulated. Use of siRNA against NLRP3, recombinant IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist confirmed the role of NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β in the process. In vivo studies using wild-type and various inflammasome component knockout mice also revealed the process of asbestos-induced mesothelial to fibroblastic transition and its amelioration in caspase-1 knockout mice. Taken together, our data are the first to suggest that asbestos induces mesothelial to fibroblastic transition in an inflammasome-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    8. Cytokine Production Modified by System Xc- After PM10 and Asbestos Exposure

      OpenAIRE

      Overocker, Jason; Pfau, Jean C.

      2012-01-01

      It has been shown that inhaled particulate matter such as air pollution and asbestos are linked to a number of immune diseases such as asthma, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), respectively. This research may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of how asbestos and air pollution particulate (PM10) produce oxidative stress on macrophages, as well as how the macrophages will respond to the oxidative stressors. Using Flow Cytometry, DCFDA Fluorescence, Glutamate Transport, and Cytoki...

    9. ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES: PENAL, CIVIL AND NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE RESPONSIBILITY ACCORDING TO ITALIAN LAW

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tommaso Savì

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available In this commentary, the authors describe the most important and current issues about the responsibility in asbestos-related diseases according to the Italian Law. In particular, the authors comment the principal implications of Penal, Civil and National Health Insurance laws on occupational and preventive medicine. This brief report represents an useful tool for medical doctor specialists in Occupational, Public Health and Forensic Medicine to support their evaluation of causality in asbestos-related diseases.

    10. [Epidemiologic research on asbestos related disease in ENEL SpA electricity production plant maintenance].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Iachetta, R; Pira, E; Maroni, M; Bosio, D; Di Prisco, M L

      2003-01-01

      Since many years research programs have been set up to study the relationship between asbestos occupational exposure and development of asbestos-related lung diseases in electricity production plants workers. In the year 2000 a new study of asbestos-related lung abnormalities prevalence in italian geothermal and idrothermal power plant maintenance workers was planned. The cohort comprised 3891 subjects. To meet the criteria, only workers in service for at least six months before 1990 and still in service at power plants in May 2000 were included in the study; chest X-rays were taken and made anonymous. Independent reading of X-rays was made by two groups of specialists, and a third reading of selected discordant readings X-rays was made by another group of specialists. A further diagnostic protocol (including HRCT) was planned when two out of three readings showed the presence of asbestos related lung abnormalities. The analysis was made on 3063 subjects (78.7% of the cohort). The number of asbestos-related abnormalities in two out of three X-ray readings was 122 (4%). The further diagnostic protocol, that included occupational and pathological anamnesis and HRCT, confirmed an asbestos-related occupational lung abnormalities in 41 cases (1.3% out of 3063 subjects). The prevalence of asbestos-related lung abnormalities among 3063 power plant maintenance workers was 1.3%. If all the cases of lung abnormalities so far detected (data are still provisional) had developed only in the power plant environment, and not in previous working activities, the prevalence of lung abnormalities would be extremely low. These data support the evidence of limited exposure levels to asbestos in this working environment And bears witness to the success of preventive measures to control this specific risk.

    11. Morphology and properties of periwinkle shell asbestos-free brake pad

      OpenAIRE

      D.S. Yawas; S.Y.Aku; S.G. Amaren

      2016-01-01

      The development of asbestos-free automotive brake pad using periwinkle shell particles as frictional filler material is presented. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of the periwinkle shell, which is largely deposited as a waste, in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Five sets of brake pads with different sieve size (710–125 μm) of periwinkle shell particles with 35% resin were produced using compressive moulding. The physical, mechanical and tribo...

    12. Cancer Attributable to Asbestos Exposure in Shipbreaking Workers: A Matched-Cohort Study.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wei-Te Wu

      Full Text Available Long-term follow-up studies of asbestos-related cancer in shipbreaking workers are lacking. This study examines the relationship between cancer incidence and asbestos exposure among former Taiwan shipbreaking workers.A total of 4,427 shipbreaking workers and 22,135 population-based matched controls were successfully followed in this study. The study cohort was linked to the Taiwan Cancer Registry for new cancer cases. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR for cancer was calculated for the shipbreaking workers with Total Exposure Potential Scores (TEP for asbestos.Follow-up generated 109,932 person-years, with 940 deaths and 436 cancer cases, among 4,427 shipbreaking workers from 1985 to 2008. The high asbestos exposure group also had a statistically significant increase in the risk of overall cancer (aHR= 1.71; 95% CI: 1.42-2.05, esophagus cancer (aHR= 2.31; 95% CI: 1.00-5.41, liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (aHR= 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer (aHR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.80-5.25. Mesothelioma cases were found in the high asbestos exposure group. Moreover, overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer were seen in a dose-dependent relationship with asbestos exposure.This study presented the elevated trend of asbestos exposure with cancer incidence for overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer among shipbreaking workers. Those workers previously exposed to asbestos should receive persistent monitoring in order to early detect adverse health outcomes.

    13. Global DNA hypomethylation has no impact on lung function or serum inflammatory and fibrosis cytokines in asbestos-exposed population.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yu, Min; Lou, Jianlin; Xia, Hailing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yixiao; Chen, Junqiang; Zhang, Xing; Ying, Shibo; Zhu, Lijin; Liu, Lihong; Jia, Guang

      2017-04-01

      To examine the effect of asbestos exposure on global DNA methylation and determine whether lung function and inflammatory and fibrosis biomarkers are correlated with the methylation state. A total of 26 healthy subjects without asbestos exposure (Group 1), 47 healthy subjects with exposure (Group 2), and 52 subjects with benign asbestos-related disorders (ARDs) (Group 3) participated in this cross-sectional study. Blood global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and serum TNF-α, collagen IV, CCL5 and CC16 concentrations were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-like assays. Spirometric maneuvers were performed to assess lung function. Decreased 5mC levels were observed in Groups 2 and 3 compared to Group 1, irrespective of lung function (p asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure causes global DNA hypomethylation. DNA hypomethylation has no influence on serum biomarkers and lung function in asbestos-exposed population with or without pleural and pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities.

    14. Legal aspects of workers' health protection against asbestos in Poland in the light of the EU legal framework

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Beata Świątkowska

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available Legal protection of human life and health against asbestos dust-related hazards is carried out in various dimensions of the European Union law mainly focused on health protection of employees and responsibilities of employers, as well as on environmental protection. The aim of this paper is to present the Community legal issues emphasizing the protection of workers against asbestos and discuss the current state of Polish law in this regard. An analysis of recent legal solutions provides a comprehensive look at the extensive steps currently taken to reduce the risk of exposure to asbestos dust. The legislation in the European Union, including Poland indicates sound foundations for assuring health and safety of workers still exposed to asbestos and those formerly employed in asbestos processing plants. It is only postulated to unify high standards of healthcare to provide all workers employed in asbestos exposure with equal and particular legal protection. Med Pr 2013;64(5:689–697

    15. Railways and asbestos in Japan (1928-1987)--epidemiology of pleural plaques, malignancies and pneumoconioses-.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hosoda, Yutaka; Hiraga, Youmei; Sasagawa, Sumiko

      2008-01-01

      Asbestos has been an indispensable insulating material for railway industries, especially steam locomotives (SLs). This review (1928-1987) consists of three parts. 1) Pleural plaques: Since the 1970s, pleural plaques have been regarded as evidence of past asbestos inhalation, and more recently recognized as a risk factor of asbestos-related malignancies. For diagnostic criteria on plain radiographs, the modified ILO 1980 International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses was used. Most cases had pleural plaques with normal lungs. Large plant workers showed a significantly higher rate of plaques than workers in smaller plants. Bilateral plaques were dominant followed by the left, then the right lung, and chest wall plaques were dominant over the diaphragm. The manifestation of pleural plaques was more correlated to years since the onset of the asbestos exposure than the sum of asbestos work years, although the result was not significant. The boilermen of railway ferry steamers had a significantly higher plaque rate than other seamen. CT studies on plaques started in 1978. 2) Asbestos-related malignancies: Five retrospective cohort studies 1960-1970 were made on primary lung cancer incidence and mortality among 350,000 active railway men with smoking information. The follow-up period was 20 yr at the longest. Almost all plant workers showed a tendency of higher incidence or mortality than the controls. Two cases of mesothelioma were reported in 1980. 3) Pneumoconioses: Most studies (1928-1975) had relatively low prevalence rates among SL-related workers.

    16. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

      2016-09-01

      Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

    17. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978–2011

      Science.gov (United States)

      García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

      2015-01-01

      Background: In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. Objective: To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Methods: Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Results: Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 105 employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 105 employees in Spain to 7·32 per 105 employees in Norway. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain. PMID:25335827

    18. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

      2009-01-15

      Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

    19. ROS-mediated genotoxicity of asbestos-cement in mammalian lung cells in vitro

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rödelsperger Klaus

      2005-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Asbestos is a known carcinogen and co-carcinogen. It is a persisting risk in our daily life due to its use in building material as asbestos-cement powder. The present study done on V79-cells (Chinese hamster lung cells demonstrates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of asbestos-cement powder (ACP in comparison with chrysotile asbestos. A co-exposure of chrysotile and ACP was tested using the cell viability test and the micronucleus assay. The kinetochore analysis had been used to analyse the pathway causing such genotoxic effects. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined as evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species. Both, asbestos cement as well as chrysotile formed micronuclei and induced loss of cell viability in a concentration- and time- dependent way. Results of TBARS analysis and iron chelator experiments showed induction of free radicals in ACP- and chrysotile exposed cultures. CaSO4 appeared to be a negligible entity in enhancing the toxic potential of ACP. The co-exposure of both, ACP and chrysotile, showed an additive effect in enhancing the toxicity. The overall study suggests that asbestos-cement is cytotoxic as well as genotoxic in vitro. In comparison to chrysotile the magnitude of the toxicity was less, but co-exposure increased the toxicity of both.

    20. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Spanish National Insurance System, 1978-2011.

      Science.gov (United States)

      García-Gómez, Montserrat; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; López, Rosario Castañeda

      2015-01-01

      In 1978, asbestos-related occupational cancers were added to the Spanish list of occupational diseases. However, there are no full accounts of compensated cases since their inclusion. To analyze the cases of asbestos-related cancer recognized as occupational in Spain between 1978 and 2011. Cases were obtained from the Spanish Employment Ministry. Specific incidence rates by year, economic activity, and occupation were obtained. We compared mortality rates of mesothelioma and bronchus and lung cancer mortality in Spain and the European Union. Between 1978 and 2011, 164 asbestos-related occupational cancers were recognized in Spain, with a mean annual rate of 0·08 per 10(5) employees (0·13 in males, 0·002 in females). Under-recognition rates were an estimated 93·6% (males) and 99·7% (females) for pleural mesothelioma and 98·8% (males) and 100% (females) for bronchus and lung cancer. In Europe for the year 2000, asbestos-related occupational cancer rates ranged from 0·04 per 10(5) employees in Spain to 7·32 per 10(5) employees in Norway. These findings provide evidence of gross under-recognition of asbestos-related occupational cancers in Spain. Future work should investigate cases treated in the National Healthcare System to better establish the impact of asbestos on health in Spain.

    1. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes predispose asbestos-exposed patients to malignant pleural mesothelioma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Betti, Marta; Casalone, Elisabetta; Ferrante, Daniela; Aspesi, Anna; Morleo, Giulia; Biasi, Alessandra; Sculco, Marika; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Righi, Luisella; Grosso, Federica; Libener, Roberta; Pavesi, Mansueto; Mariani, Narciso; Casadio, Caterina; Boldorini, Renzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Pasini, Barbara; Magnani, Corrado; Matullo, Giuseppe; Dianzani, Irma

      2017-10-01

      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by asbestos exposure. An inherited predisposition has been suggested to explain multiple cases in the same family and the observation that not all individuals highly exposed to asbestos develop the tumor. Germline mutations in BAP1 are responsible for a rare cancer predisposition syndrome that includes predisposition to mesothelioma. We hypothesized that other genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes could be responsible for the inherited mesothelioma predisposition. We investigated the prevalence of germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes in 93 MPM patients with a quantified asbestos exposure. Ten pathogenic truncating variants (PTVs) were identified in PALB2, BRCA1, FANCI, ATM, SLX4, BRCA2, FANCC, FANCF, PMS1 and XPC. All these genes are involved in DNA repair pathways, mostly in homologous recombination repair. Patients carrying PTVs represented 9.7% of the panel and showed lower asbestos exposure than did all the other patients (p = 0.0015). This suggests that they did not efficiently repair the DNA damage induced by asbestos and leading to carcinogenesis. This study shows that germline variants in several genes may increase MPM susceptibility in the presence of asbestos exposure and may be important for specific treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    2. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kostyuk, V A; Potapovich, A I; Speransky, S D; Maslova, G T

      1996-01-01

      Exposure of macrophages to asbestos fibers resulted in enhancement of the production of oxygen radicals, determined by a lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence (LEC) assay, a formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a LDH release into the incubation mixture, and a rapid lysis of the cells. Rutin (Rut) and quercetin (Qr) were effective in inhibiting LEC, TBARS formation, and reducing peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos. The concentrations pre-treatment of antioxidants that were required to prevent the injury of peritoneal macrophages caused by asbestos by 50% (IC50) were 90 microM and 290 microM for Qr and Rut, respectively. Both flavonoids were found to be oxidized during exposure of peritoneal macrophages to asbestos and the oxidation was SOD sensitive. The efficacy of flavonoids as antioxidant agents as well as superoxide ion scavengers was also evaluated using appropriate model systems, and both quercetin and rutin were found to be effective in scavenging O2.-. These findings indicate that flavonoids are able to prevent the respiratory burst in rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to asbestos at the stage of activated oxygen species generation, mainly as superoxide scavengers. On the basis of this study it was concluded that natural flavonoids quercetin and rutin would be promising drug candidates for a prophylactic asbestos-induced disease.

    3. Occult exposure to asbestos in steel workers revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Corhay, J.-L.; Delavignette, J.-P.; Bury, T.; Saint-Remy, P.; Radermecker, M.-F. (CHU, Liege (Belgium))

      To investigate the asbestos burden in a steelplant environment, we counted asbestos bodies (ABs) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 65 steel workers who had retired during the previous 5 y. They had worked for at least 15 y in the same area of the plant (coke oven or blast furnace) as maintenance or production workers. On the basis of occupational anamnesis, 28 had occasional past professional exposure to asbestos; the remaining 37 workers denied any contact with asbestos. A total of 54 white-collar workers who had no occupational exposure to asbestos were included in the study as controls. An increased prevalence and concentration of ABs was found in the BALF of steel workers. Electron microscopy and EDAX analysis of AB from steel workers revealed that the core fibers were mainly amphiboles. More ABs were found in the BALF of maintenance workers than in production workers. However, the BALF from steel workers who denied any contact with asbestos revealed an increased AB burden v. controls. This demonstrates that steel workers may be subject to an occult exposure to amphiboles in the steelplant environment.

    4. Personal exposure to asbestos and respiratory health of heavy vehicle brake mechanics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cely-García, María Fernanda; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Durán, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Sarmiento, Olga Lucía; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

      2015-01-01

      Asbestos brake linings and blocks are currently used in heavy vehicle brake repair shops (BRSs) in Bogotá, Colombia. Some brake products are sold detached from their supports and without holes, requiring manipulation before installation. The aim of this study was to assess asbestos exposures and conduct a preliminary evaluation of respiratory health in workers of heavy vehicles in BRSs. To estimate asbestos exposures, personal and area samples were collected in two heavy vehicle BRSs. Each shop was sampled during six consecutive days for the entire work shift. Personal samples were collected on 10 workers including riveters, brake mechanics, and administrative staff. Among workers sampled, riveters had the highest phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos concentrations, with 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposures ranging between 0.003 and 0.157 f/cm(3). Respiratory health evaluations were performed on the 10 workers sampled. Three workers (30%) had circumscribed pleural thickening (pleural plaques), with calcifications in two of them. This finding is strongly suggestive of asbestos exposure. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that workers in heavy vehicle BRSs could be at excessive risk of developing asbestos-related diseases.

    5. Dual preventive benefits of iron elimination by desferal in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jiang, Li; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Ohara, Yuuki; Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

      2016-07-01

      Asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis is currently a profound social issue due to its extremely long incubation period and high mortality rate. Therefore, procedures to prevent malignant mesothelioma in people already exposed to asbestos are important. In previous experiments, we established an asbestos-induced rat peritoneal mesothelioma model, which revealed that local iron overload is a major cause of pathogenesis and that the induced genetic alterations are similar to human counterparts. Furthermore, we showed that oral administration of deferasirox modified the histology from sarcomatoid to the more favorable epithelioid subtype. Here, we used i.p. administration of desferal to evaluate its effects on asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation and iron deposition, as well as oxidative stress. Nitrilotriacetate was used to promote an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction as a positive control. Desferal significantly decreased peritoneal fibrosis, iron deposition, and nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in mesothelial cells, whereas nitrilotriacetate significantly increased all of them. Desferal was more effective in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells to counteract asbestos-induced cytotoxicity than in murine macrophages (RAW264.7). Furthermore, rat sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were more dependent on iron for proliferation than rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Because inflammogenicity of a fiber is proportionally associated with subsequent mesothelial carcinogenesis, iron elimination from the mesothelial environment can confer dual merits for preventing asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis by suppressing inflammation and mesothelial proliferation simultaneously.

    6. Pilot Analysis of Asbestos-induced Diffuse Pleural Thickening with Respiratory Compromise.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nojima, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

      2015-01-01

      We investigated the clinical features of asbestos-induced diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) with severe respiratory compromise. We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive subjects with asbestos-induced DPT. Medical data such as initial symptoms, radiological findings, respiratory function test results, and clinical course were collected and analyzed. There were 24 patients between 2003 and 2012. All were men, and the median age at the development of DPT was 74 years. The top occupational category associated with asbestos exposure was dockyard workers. The median duration of asbestos exposure was 35.0 years, and the median latency from first exposure to the onset of DPT was 49.0 years. There were no significant differences in respiratory function test results between the higher and lower Brinkman index groups or between unilateral and bilateral DPT. Thirteen patients had a history of benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE), and the median duration from pleural fluid accumulation to DPT with severe respiratory compromise was 28.4 months. DPT with severe respiratory compromise can develop after a long latency following occupational asbestos exposure and a history of BAPE.

    7. Asbestos between science and myth. A 6,000-year story.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

      2015-01-22

      Asbestos was used in making pottery in Eastern Finland from around 4000 B.C. In the ancient era and in the Middle Ages, magic properties were frequently attributed to this mineral. In the first century A.D., the Latin encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder reported in his Historia Naturalis that asbestos protects against all poisonings, particularly that of magicians. Moreover, asbestos was often found in places of worship, in Rome as well as in Athens and in Jerusalem. In the Middle Ages asbestos was identified with some animals, such as the salamander and certain white rodents. With such appearance, the mineral  had a huge success in Western as well as in Eastern literature and the fine arts. Marco Polo (1254-1324) in the Milione tried to deny that asbestos was a salamander. Despite its noxious effects, asbestos continues to be used in much of the world. In the 21st century it seems to be maintaining its quality as a magic stone.

    8. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

      2011-12-01

      The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

    9. Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Intermediate Species Mediate Asbestos-Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress–Responsive Signaling Pathways

      OpenAIRE

      Huang, Sarah X.L.; Partridge, Michael A.; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Davidson, Mercy M.; Sally A Amundson; Hei, Tom K.

      2012-01-01

      Background: The incidence of asbestos-induced human cancers is increasing worldwide, and considerable evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of these diseases. Our previous studies suggested that mitochondria might be involved in the initiation of oxidative stress in asbestos-exposed mammalian cells. Objective: We investigated whether mitochondria are a potential cytoplasmic target of asbestos using a mitochondrial DNA–depleted (ρ0) human small airway epi...

    10. Pleural vasculitides of microscopic polyangiitis with asbestos-related plaques.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hara, Ayako; Kinoshita, Yoshinori; Hosoi, Keita; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Song, Misa; Min, Kyongyob

      2015-12-01

      A 69-year-old man who had been exposed to asbestos for approximately 40 years presented with the complaint of fever and pleuritic chest pain on the right side on deep inspiration. Chest X-ray films showed pleural effusion in the right side. Initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective. The hyaluronic acid level was high in the pleural effusion but no malignant mesotheliomal cells were seen with blind pleural biopsy. Blood chemistry showed a remarkable high titer of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) and open renal biopsy suggested crescentic glomerulonephritis. The precise pathological examination on the pleura obtained by the open pleural biopsy showed vasculitides and plaque leading to diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This is a rare case of MPA seen in the pleural arteries.

    11. On Corporate Accountability: Lead, Asbestos, and Fossil Fuel Lawsuits.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shearer, Christine

      2015-08-01

      This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress. © The Author(s) 2015.

    12. Asbestos: Here's What You Have to Do to Avoid Fines of up to $5,000 a Day.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Braun, Stephen L.; And Others

      1988-01-01

      Provides advice for school systems on developing asbestos abatement plans to comply with EPA regulations. Topics discussed include inspection, management plans, appropriate responses, training, and surveillance. (TE)

    13. "Unleashed on an Unsuspecting World": The Asbestos Information Association and Its Role in Perpetuating a National Epidemic.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Markowitz, Gerald; Rosner, David

      2016-05-01

      Examining previously underused corporate documents, we revisit the story of the Asbestos Information Association/North America, an industry trade group that sought in the early 1970s to counteract the growing public attention to, and government regulation of, asbestos as a serious threat to workers and consumers. From the mid-1960s through the early 1970s, according to its own spokesperson, asbestos was exposed as "probably the most hazardous industrial material ever unleashed on an unsuspecting world." In retrospect, thousands of lives may have been saved if the Asbestos Information Association had publicly acknowledged this earlier.

    14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine

      2017-04-01

      Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

    15. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

      2007-01-01

      This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging materials. The available evidence suggests that although many historical measurements exceeded the current OSHA 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure

    16. Caracterização e quantificação de Benzoxazolinona (BOA em extratos de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. = Characterization and quantification of Benzoxazolinone (BOA in maize plant extract (Zea mays L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luis Wagner Rodrigues Alves

      2007-07-01

      Full Text Available Em função da interferência do milho em outras plantas, objetivou-se verificar a presença e a concentração de benzoxazolinona no milho por meio de extração aquosa obtida de material vegetal das cultivares AG-1051, C-333 e C-435. A massa fresca das amostras foi colocada em água destilada e deixada em repouso durante quatro horas. O extrato foi filtrado e particionado em solventes com diferentes polaridades. O extrato etéreo desidratado foi filtrado, concentrado em evaporador rotatório e levado à estufa. Este foi purificado por cromatografia de camada delgada. Recristalizou-se em hexano, e os cristais obtidos foram submetidos à análise em espectrometria no Infravermelho. As bandas presentes no produto padrão também foram caracterizadas nas amostras das cultivares de milho testadas. As amostras dos extratos foram qualificadas e quantificadas por espectrofotometria de ultravioleta. Pelos resultados, infere-se que a planta de milho possuiem seu metabolismo a benzoxazolinona, na seguinte ordem decrescente: AG-1051 29 mg g-1, C-333 24 mg g-1 e C-435 21 mg g-1 de BOA.Due to the interference of maize on other plants, the presence and concentration of benzoxazolinone in this particular plant (maize wasdetermined via the aqueous extract of three varieties of maize (AG-1051, C-333 and C-435. The fresh sample material was allowed to stand in distilled water for four hours. The extract was filtered and partitioned with solvents of varying polarities. The dried etherextract was filtered, concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried in an oven. The residue was purified by thin layer chromatography and recrystallized from hexane. The crystals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The bands present in the spectrum of the referencesubstance were also observed in the spectra of the samples obtained from the three varieties of maize studied. The extract samples were characterized and quantified by UV spectroscopy. The results indicated that the

    17. PRODUCCIÓN PRIMARIA EN UN LAGO DE AGUAS CLARAS DE LA AMAZONÍA COLOMBIANA (LAGO BOA Primary Production In A Clear Water Lake Of Colombian Amazon (Lake Boa

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      GABRIEL ANTONIO PINILLA AGUDELO

      Full Text Available Dentro de los aspectos funcionales de un sistema acuático uno de los más determinantes es la producción fitoplanctónica. En este trabajo se midió la producción primaria del fitoplancton (método del 14C en un lago de aguas claras de la Amazonía colombiana, en diferentes momentos del ciclo hidrológico. La producción primaria osciló entre 0,6 y 2,3 g C m-2 d-1, valor este último medido durante la fase de aguas bajas. Estos resultados indican que la comunidad fitoplanctónica del lago Boa fluctúa desde condiciones de muy baja capacidad de asimilación de carbono inorgánico (aguas altas, hasta momentos en que este potencial se incrementa hasta cuatro veces (aguas bajas. Tales cambios drásticos obedecen a las fluctuaciones en la abundancia de microalgas, las que a su vez se presentan como respuesta a la variación trófica que tiene el lago durante el ciclo hidrológico. De esta manera, se pasa de condiciones oligotróficas en la época de inundación a un estado eutrófico cuando el sistema se desconecta del río en aguas bajas.Phytoplankton production is one of the most significant aspects in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper primary production of the phytoplankton community was measured (14C method in a clear water lake in the Colombian Amazon region in different periods of the hydrological cycle. Primary production varied between 0.6 and 2.3 g C m-2 d-1, the last recorded at low water phase. Results show that the phytoplankton community of Lake Boa fluctuates from very low capacity of carbon assimilation during high water but increased four times during low water. The strong change in productivity follows the variation in algal abundance, which in turn reflects changes in water quality conditions during the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the lake passes from oligotrophic conditions during the flooding period to eutrophic conditions when the lake is disconnected from the river at low water phase.

    18. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

      2013-05-01

      There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

    19. Dose-time-response association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lacourt, Aude; Lévêque, Emilie; Guichard, Elie; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Leffondré, Karen

      2017-09-01

      Early occupational exposure to asbestos has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma (PM), which suggests that the timing of exposure might play a role in the dose-response relationship. However, none studies has evaluated the relative impact of increasing the annual intensity of occupational exposure to asbestos at each time of the whole exposure history. Yet such evaluation would allow the comparison of the risks of PM associated with different longitudinal profiles of occupational exposure to asbestos. Our objective was to estimate the time-dependent relative impact of asbestos exposure intensity over the whole occupational history and to compare the resulting estimated risks of PM associated with different profiles of exposure, using data from a large French case-control study. This study included 1196 male cases recruited in 1987-2006 and 2369 matched controls on birth year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed using a job exposure matrix and represented in logistic regression models using a flexible weighted cumulative index of exposure. Due to much stronger weights of early doses of asbestos exposure, subjects who accumulated 20 fibres/mL over their entire job history with high doses during the first years and low doses thereafter were at higher risk of PM than those who accumulated most of the doses later (OR=2.37 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.87)). This study provides new insights on the dose-time-response relationship between occupational asbestos and PM and illustrates the importance of considering timing of exposure in its association with cancer risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

    20. [Asbestos-related diseases in a population near a fibrous cement factory].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tarrés, Josep; Abós-Herràndiz, Rafael; Albertí, Constança; Martínez-Artés, Xavier; Rosell-Murphy, Magdalena; García-Allas, Isabel; Krier, Illona; Castro, Emilia; Cantarell, Gloria; Gallego, Miguel; Orriols, Ramón

      2009-09-01

      The first fibrous cement factory in Spain was set up in Cerdanyola, Barcelona, in 1907 and was a source of pollution there until it was closed in 1997. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the population with by asbestos-related diseases who had worked in the factory and/or lived in the vicinity. We retrospectively collected information available on patients with asbestos-related diseases who at the time of diagnosis had resided in the area near the fibrous cement factory. Information was obtained from the medical records of the primary care centers of the 12 surrounding towns and the sole referral hospital in the area for cases diagnosed between January 1, 1970 and December 31, 2006. In the 559 patients diagnosed, 1107 cases of asbestos-related diseases were identified. Between 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence was 9.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants for the entire study area and 35.5 cases per 100,000 for the area nearest the factory. The prevalence of asbestos-related diseases as of December 31, 2006 was 91 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the entire study area and 353.4 cases per 100,000 in the area nearest the factory. Of the 1107 asbestos-related disease cases identified, 86.5% were benign and 8.4% pleural mesothelioma. The factory introduced an important area-wide risk factor for asbestos-related diseases for both workers and for the nearby population. The number of cases of asbestos-related diseases detected annually showed an upward trend. The incidence was extremely high in the period studied.