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Sample records for bnl medical research

  1. RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    1999-09-10

    RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

  2. Physics of the 1 Teraflop RIKEN-BNL-Columbia QCD project. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop: Volume 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-16

    A workshop was held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on October 16, 1998, as part of the first anniversary celebration for the center. This meeting brought together the physicists from RIKEN-BNL, BNL and Columbia who are using the QCDSP (Quantum Chromodynamics on Digital Signal Processors) computer at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center for studies of QCD. Many of the talks in the workshop were devoted to domain wall fermions, a discretization of the continuum description of fermions which preserves the global symmetries of the continuum, even at finite lattice spacing. This formulation has been the subject of analytic investigation for some time and has reached the stage where large-scale simulations in QCD seem very promising. With the computational power available from the QCDSP computers, scientists are looking forward to an exciting time for numerical simulations of QCD.

  3. DOE/NORA/BNL oil heat research agenda development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Easton, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has been formed and is currently working to establish a Congressionally approved oilheat check-off program to provide funding for research, education, training, safety, and marketing to benefit the US oilheat industry. NORA will be presenting this program to the Congress for its consideration and approval in the coming year. It will follow the same path as the National Propane Gas Association which is currently working on obtaining Congressional approval of a propane check off program that has already attracted over 120 cosponsors in the House of representatives. An effort to define the basis of a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oilheat industry (marketers) program for future oilheat equipment research and development will be conducted during FY-1996. At the request of NORA representatives BNL will coordinate the development of a research agenda addressing three categories of activities, research appropriate for DOE support only, research appropriate for NORA support only, and research appropriate for co-funding by both organizations. This will also serve to update a prior oil-fueled research plan developed for DOE ten years ago which has been the road map for DOE`s very successful Oil Heat R&D program at BNL.

  4. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workwhop on RHIC spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOFFER,J.

    1999-10-06

    This RHIC Spin Workshop is the 1999 annual meeting of the RHIC Spin Collaboration, and the second to be hosted at Brookhaven and sponsored by the RIKEN BNL Research Center. The previous meetings were at Brookhaven (1998), Marseille (1996), MIT in 1995, Argonne 1994, Tucson in 1991, and the Polarized Collider Workshop at Penn State in 1990. As noted last year, the Center provides a home for combined work on spin by theorists, experimenters, and accelerator physicists. This proceedings, as last year, is a compilation of 1 page summaries and 5 selected transparencies for each speaker. It is designed to be available soon after the workshop is completed. Speakers are welcome to include web or other references for additional material. The RHIC spin program and RHIC are rapidly becoming reality. RHIC has completed its first commissioning run, as described here by Steve Peggs. The first Siberian Snake for spin has been completed and is being installed in RHIC. A new polarized source from KEK and Triumf with over 1 milliampere of polarized H{sup minus} is being installed, described by Anatoli Zelenski. They have had a successful test of a new polarimeter for RHIC, described by Kazu Kurita and Haixin Huang. Spin commissioning is expected next spring (2000), and the first physics run for spin is anticipated for spring 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to get everyone together about once per year and discuss goals of the spin program, progress, problems, and new ideas. They also have many separate regular forums on spin. There are spin discussion sessions every Tuesday, now organized by Naohito Saito and Werner Vogelsang. The spin discussion schedule and copies of presentations are posted on http://riksg01.rhic.bnl.gov/rsc. Speakers and other spinners are encouraged to come to BNL and to lead a discussion on your favorite idea. They also have regular polarimeter and snake meetings on alternate Thursdays, led by Bill McGahern, the lead engineer for the accelerator spin

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP (VOLUME 64)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; KRETZER,S.; TEANEY,D.; VENUGOPALAN,R.; VOGELSANG,W.

    2004-09-28

    We are presently in a very exciting and important phase of the RHIC era. A huge body of data. has been gathered in heavy-ion collisions that provides very convincing evidence for the formation of a quark. gluon plasma in central collisions. Recently, studies of nuclear modification factors in forward dAu collisions have shown tantalizing signatures that may be understood most naturally in terms of a, universal form of matter controlling the high energy limit of strong interactions, the Color Glass Condensate. Finally, important advances have also been made in spin physics, where first measurements of single-transverse and double-longitudinal spin asymmetries have been presented, marking a qualitatively new era in this field. The wealth of the new experimental data called for a workshop in which theorists took stock and reviewed in depth what has been achieved, in order to give guidance as to what avenues should be taken from here. This was the idea behind the workshop ''Theory Summer Program on RHIC Physics''. We decided to invite a fairly small number of participants--some world leaders in their field, others only at the beginning of their careers, but all actively involved in RHIC physics. Each one of them stayed over an extended period of time from two to six weeks. Such long-terms stays led to particularly fruitful interactions and collaborations with many members of the BNL theory groups, as well as with experimentalists at BNL. They also were most beneficial for achieving the main goal of this workshop, namely to perform detailed studies.

  6. PRODEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP : HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING WITH QCDOC AND BLUEGENE.

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    CHRIST,N.; DAVENPORT,J.; DENG,Y.; GARA,A.; GLIMM,J.; MAWHINNEY,R.; MCFADDEN,E.; PESKIN,A.; PULLEYBLANK,W.

    2003-03-11

    Staff of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Columbia University, IBM and the RIKEN BNL Research Center organized a one-day workshop held on February 28, 2003 at Brookhaven to promote the following goals: (1) To explore areas other than QCD applications where the QCDOC and BlueGene/L machines can be applied to good advantage, (2) To identify areas where collaboration among the sponsoring institutions can be fruitful, and (3) To expose scientists to the emerging software architecture. This workshop grew out of an informal visit last fall by BNL staff to the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center that resulted in a continuing dialog among participants on issues common to these two related supercomputers. The workshop was divided into three sessions, addressing the hardware and software status of each system, prospective applications, and future directions.

  7. Research at the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff Facility, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Research programs at the Brookhaven Van de Graaff accelerators are summarized. Major accomplishments of the laboratory are discussed including quasielastic reactions, high-spin spectroscopy, yrast spectra, fusion reactions, and atomic physics. The outside user program at the Laboratory is discussed. Research proposed for 1981 is outlined. (GHT)

  8. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Progress in High-pT Physics at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilevsky, A.; Bland, L.; Vogelsang, W.

    2010-03-17

    This volume archives the presentations at the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop 'Progress in High-PT Physics at RHIC', held at BNL in March 2010. Much has been learned from high-p{sub T} physics after 10 years of RHIC operations for heavy-ion collisions, polarized proton collisions and d+Au collisions. The workshop focused on recent progress in these areas by both theory and experiment. The first morning saw review talks on the theory of RHIC high-p{sub T} physics by G. Sterman and J. Soffer, and on the experimental results by M. Tannenbaum. One of the most exciting recent results from the RHIC spin program is the first observation of W bosons and their associated single-spin asymmetry. The new preliminary data were reported on the first day of our workshop, along with a theoretical perspective. There also were detailed discussions on the global analysis of polarized parton distributions, including the knowledge on gluon polarization and the impact of the W-data. The main topic of the second workshop day were single-transverse spin asymmetries and their analysis in terms of transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. There is currently much interest in a future Drell-Yan program at RHIC, thanks to the exciting physics opportunities this would offer. This was addressed in some of the talks. There also were presentations on the latest results on transverse-spin physics from HERMES and BELLE. On the final day of the workshop, the focus shifted toward forward and small-x physics at RHIC, which has become a cornerstone of the whole RHIC program. Exciting new data were presented and discussed in terms of their possible implications for our understanding of strong color-field phenomena in QCD. In the afternoon, there were discussions of nuclear parton distributions and jet observables, among them fragmentation. The workshop was concluded with outlooks toward the near-term (LHC, JLab) and longer-term (EIC) future. The workshop has been a great success

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN/BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP FUTURE TRANSVERSITY MEASUREMENTS (VOLUME 29).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, D.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.

    2001-01-02

    The RIKEN-BNL Research Center workshop on ''Future Transversity Measurements'' was held at BNL from September 18-20, 2000. The main goal of the workshop was to explore future measurements of transversity distributions. This issue is of importance to the RHIC experiments, which will study polarized proton-proton collisions with great precision. One of the workshop's goals was to enhance interactions between the DIS community at HERA and the spin community at RHIC in this field. The workshop has been well received by the participants; the number of 69 registered participants demonstrates broad interest in the workshop's topics. The program contained 35 talks and there was ample time for lively discussions. The program covered all recent work in the field and in addition some very elucidating educational talks were given. At the workshop the present status of the field was discussed and it has succeeded in stimulating new experimental and theoretical studies (e.g. model calculations for interference fragmentation functions (IFF), IFF analysis at DELPHI). It also functioned to focus attention on the open questions that need to be resolved for near future experiments. In general, the conclusions were optimistic, i.e. measuring the transversity functions seems to be possible, although some new experimental hurdles will have to be taken.

  10. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Nucleon Spin Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, A.; Qiu, Jianwei; Vogelsang, W.; Yuan, F.

    2011-08-02

    Understanding the structure of the nucleon is of fundamental importance in sub-atomic physics. Already the experimental studies on the electro-magnetic form factors in the 1950s showed that the nucleon has a nontrivial internal structure, and the deep inelastic scattering experiments in the 1970s revealed the partonic substructure of the nucleon. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin and the gluonic structure of the nucleon. Experiments using deep inelastic scattering or polarized p-p collisions are carried out in the US at the CEBAF and RHIC facilities, respectively, and there are other experimental facilities around the world. More than twenty years ago, the European Muon Collaboration published their first experimental results on the proton spin structure as revealed in polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and concluded that quarks contribute very little to the proton's spin. With additional experimental and theoretical investigations and progress in the following years, it is now established that, contrary to naive quark model expectations, quarks and anti-quarks carry only about 30% of the total spin of the proton. Twenty years later, the discovery from the polarized hadron collider at RHIC was equally surprising. For the phase space probed by existing RHIC experiments, gluons do not seem to contribute any to the proton's spin. To find out what carries the remaining part of proton's spin is a key focus in current hadronic physics and also a major driving force for the new generation of spin experiments at RHIC and Jefferson Lab and at a future Electron Ion Collider. It is therefore very important and timely to organize a series of annual spin physics meetings to summarize the status of proton spin physics, to focus the effort, and to layout the future perspectives. This summer program on 'Nucleon Spin Physics' held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on July 14-27, 2010 [http://www.bnl.gov/spnsp/] is the

  11. Targeted Alpha Therapy: The US DOE Tri-Lab (ORNL, BNL, LANL) Research Effort to Provide Accelerator-Produced 225Ac for Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an emerging discipline of cancer therapy that exploits the biochemical differences between normal cells and cancer cells to selectively deliver a lethal dose of radiation to cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells relatively unperturbed. A broad overview of targeted alpha therapy including isotope production methods, and associated isotope production facility needs, will be provided. A more general overview of the US Department of Energy Isotope Program's Tri-Lab (ORNL, BNL, LANL) Research Effort to Provide Accelerator-Produced 225Ac for Radiotherapy will also be presented focusing on the accelerator-production of 225Ac and final product isolation methodologies for medical applications.

  12. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios,N.P.

    2008-11-17

    The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  13. NGSPN @ BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gomera, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department hosted the Next Generation Safeguards Professional Network (NGSPN) at BNL September 6-9, 2016. Thirteen representatives from seven Department of Energy National Laboratories, including two from BNL, participated in the four-day meeting. The NGSPN meeting was sponsored by the Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) of the National Nuclear Security Administration, which provided funding for BNL’s development and conduct of the meeting program and the participant’s labor and travel. NGSPN meetings were previously held at Savannah River National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of NGSPN is to provide a forum for early-career international safeguards practitioners to network with their peers, to meet international safeguards experts from other institutions and to learn about organizations other than their employers who contribute to international safeguards.

  14. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: The Physics of W and Z Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, S.; Okada, K.; Patwa, A.; Qiu, J.; Surrow, B.

    2010-06-24

    A two-day workshop on 'The Physics of Wand Z Bosons' Was held at the RIKEN BNL Research Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory on June 24-25, 2010. With the recent release of the first measurement of W bosons in proton-proton collisions at RHIC and the first observation of W events at the LHC, the workshop was a timely opportunity to bring together experts from both the high energy particle and nuclear physics communities to share their ideas and expertise on the physics of Wand Z bosons, with the aim of fully exploring the potential of the W/Z physics programs at RHIC and the LHC. The focus was on the production and measurement of W/Z bosons in both polarized and unpolarized proton-proton collisions, and the role of W/Z production in probing the parton flavor and helicity structure of the colliding proton and in the search for new physics. There were lively discussions about the potential and future prospects of W/Z programs at RHIC, Tevatron, and the LHC.

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, RHIC SPIN PHYSICS V, VOLUME 32, FEBRUARY 21, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUNCE,G.; SAITO,N.; VIGDOR,S.; ROSER,T.; SPINKA,H.; ENYO,H.; BLAND,L.C.; GURYN,W.

    2001-02-21

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkysho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. During the fast year, the Center had only a Theory Group. In the second year, an Experimental Group was also established at the Center. At present, there are seven Fellows and nine post dots in these two groups. During the third year, we started a new Tenure Track Strong Interaction Theory RHIC Physics Fellow Program, with six positions in the academic year 1999-2000; this program will increase to include eleven theorists in the next academic year, and, in the year after, also be extended to experimental physics. In addition, the Center has an active workshop program on strong interaction physics, about ten workshops a year, with each workshop focused on a specific physics problem. Each workshop speaker is encouraged to select few of the most important transparencies from his or her presentation, accompanied by a page of explanation. This material is collected at the end of the workshop by the organizer to form proceedings, which can therefore be available within a short time. The construction of a 0.6 teraflop parallel processor, which was begun at the Center on February 19, 1998, was completed on August 28, 1998.

  16. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 72, RHIC SPIN COLLABORATION MEETINGS XXXI, XXXII, XXXIII.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OGAWA, A.

    2005-04-11

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has both a theory and experimental component. At present the theoretical group has 4 Fellows and 3 Research Associates as well as 11 RHIC Physics/University Fellows (academic year 2003-2004). To date there are approximately 30 graduates from the program of which 13 have attained tenure positions at major institutions worldwide. The experimental group is smaller and has 2 Fellows and 3 RHIC Physics/University Fellows and 3 Research Associates, and historically 6 individuals have attained permanent positions. Beginning in 2001 a new RIKEN Spin Program (RSP) category was implemented at RBRC. These appointments are joint positions of RBRC and RIKEN and include the following positions in theory and experiment: RSP Researchers, RSP Research Associates, and Young Researchers, who are mentored by senior RBRC Scientists. A number of RIKEN Jr. Research Associates and Visiting Scientists also contribute to the physics program at the Center. RBRC has an active workshop program on strong interaction physics with each workshop focused on a specific physics problem. Each workshop speaker is encouraged to select a few of the most important transparencies from his or her presentation, accompanied by a page of explanation. This material is collected at the end of the workshop by the organizer to form proceedings, which can therefore be available within a short time. To date there are seventy-two proceeding volumes available. The construction of a 0.6 teraflops parallel processor, dedicated to lattice QCD, begun at the Center on February 19, 1998, was completed on August

  17. QUARKONIUM PRODUCTION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    1999-04-20

    The RIKEN-BNL Workshop on Quarkonium Production in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions was held September 28--October 2, 1998, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Workshop brought together about 50 invited participants from around the world and a number of Brookhaven physicists from both particle and nuclear physics communities.

  18. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-10-10

    The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  19. PROCEEDINGS FROM RIKEN-BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: PARITY-VIOLATING SPIN ASYMMETRIES AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VOGELSANG,W.; PERDEKAMP, M.; SURROW, B.

    2007-04-26

    . Also, new observables, such as jet and W+charrn final states and spin asymmetries in Z production, were proposed and discussed. All of the talks attracted much interest and initiated active discussions. This was a very successful workshop. It stimulated many discussions and new collaborations. We are grateful to all participants and speakers for coming to the Center, and for their excellent work. The support provided for this workshop by Dr. N. Samios and his RIKEN-BNL Research Center has been magnificent, and we are very grateful for it. We thank Brookhaven National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy for providing the facilities to hold the workshop. Finally, sincere thanks go to Jane Lysik for her efficient work on organizing and running the workshop.

  20. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Thermal Photons and Dileptons in Heavy-Ion Collisions. Volume 119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rapp, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ruan, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yee, H-U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-09-11

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan and the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The RBRC is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has theory, lattice gauge computing and experimental components. It is presently exploring the possibility of an astrophysics component being added to the program. The primary theme for this workshop related to sharing the latest experimental and theoretical developments in area of low transverse momentum (pT) dielectron and photons. All the presentations given at the workshop are included in this proceedings, primarily as PowerPoint presentations.

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER, VOLUME 39, RHIC SPIN COLLABORATION MEETING, VII.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX, B.

    2002-04-22

    In the first meeting of this series (which took place at BNL on February 22, 2002), we focused on the upgrades which are expected to be completed prior to the end of this year and thus available for the next run. The two main items are the Spin Rotators in RHIC and the CNI polarimeter for the AGS. In addition, because of the progress on technical issues related to the design of partial snake in the AGS, we also had a presentation on this topic. And, finally, in keeping with a tradition of having some theoretical presentations to accompany the experimental and machine presentations, we had presentations on single spin transverse asymmetries in proton-proton reactions and Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analyzing powers in proton-carbon elastic scattering.

  2. Perturbative QCD as a probe of hadron structure: Volume 2. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The workshop brought together about thirty invited participants from around the world, and an almost equal number of Brookhaven users and staff, to discuss recent developments and future prospects for hadronic strong interaction studies at high energy, particularly relating to the RHIC project at Brookhaven. RIKEN and Brookhaven have long traditions in and commitments to the study of the strong interactions, and the advent of the RHIC collider will open new opportunities both for relativistic heavy ion and polarized proton-proton studies. Activities at the RIKEN BNL Research Center are intended to focus on physics opportunities stimulated by this new facility. Thus, one of the purposes of the center is to provide a forum where workers in the field can gather to share and develop their ideas in a stimulating environment. The purpose of the workshop was both to delineate theoretical problems and stimulate collaborations to address them. The workshop focused primarily, but not exclusively, on spin and small-x physics.

  3. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, HADRON STRUCTURE FROM LATTICE QCD, MARCH 18 - 22, 2002, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLUM, T.; BOER, D.; CREUTZ, M.; OHTA, S.; ORGINOS, K.

    2002-03-18

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Hadron Structure from Lattice QCD'' was held at BNL during March 11-15, 2002. Hadron structure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations, with significant success in understanding the building blocks of matter. The nonperturbative nature of QCD, however, has always been an obstacle to deepening our understanding of hadronic physics. Lattice QCD provides the tool to overcome these difficulties and hence a link can be established between the fundamental theory of QCD and hadron phenomenology. Due to the steady progress in improving lattice calculations over the years, comparison with experimentally measured hadronic quantities has become important. In this respect the workshop was especially timely. By providing an opportunity for experts from the lattice and hadron structure communities to present their latest results, the workshop enhanced the exchange of knowledge and ideas. With a total of 32 registered participants and 26 talks, the interest of a growing community is clearly exemplified. At the workshop Schierholz and Negele presented the current status of lattice computations of hadron structure. Substantial progress has been made during recent years now that the quenched results are well under control and the first dynamical results have appeared. In both the dynamical and the quenched simulations the lattice results, extrapolated to lighter quark masses, seem to disagree with experiment. Melnitchouk presented a possible explanation (chiral logs) for this disagreement. It became clear from these discussions that lattice computations at significantly lighter quark masses need to be performed.

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP (VOLUME 55) COLLECTIVE FLOW AND QGP PROPERTIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BASS,S.ESUMI,S.HEINZ,U.KOLB,P.SHURYAK,E.XU,N.

    2003-11-17

    The first three years of RHIC physics, with Au/Au collisions induced at 65, 130 and 200 GeV per nucleon pair, produced dramatic results, particularly with respect to collective observables such as transverse flow and anisotropies in transverse momentum spectra. It has become clear that the data show very strong rescattering at very early times of the reaction, strong enough in fact to be described by the hydrodynamic limit. Therefore, with today's experiments, we are able to investigate the equation of state of hot quark gluon matter, discuss its thermodynamic properties and relate them to experimental observables. At this workshop we came together to discuss our latest efforts both in the theoretical description of heavy ion collisions as well as most recent experimental results that ultimately allow us to extract information on the properties of RHIC matter. About 50 participants registered for the workshop, but many more dropped in from the offices at BNL. The workshop lasted for three days, of which each day was assigned a special topic on which the talks focused. On the first day we dealt with the more general question what the strong collective phenomena observed in RHIC collisions tell us about the properties and the dynamics of RHIC matter. The second day covered all different aspects of momentum anisotropies, and interesting new experimental results were presented for the first time. On the third day, we focused on the late fireball dynamics and the breakdown of the assumption of thermalization. New experimental observables were discussed, which will deliver more information of how the expanding fireball breaks up, once the frequent interaction ceases.

  5. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED - DOMAIN WALL FERMIONS AT TEN YEARS (VOLUME 84)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLUM,T.; SONI,A.

    2007-03-15

    The workshop was held to mark the 10th anniversary of the first numerical simulations of QCD using domain wall fermions initiated at BNL. It is very gratifying that in the intervening decade widespread use of domain wall and overlap fermions is being made. It therefore seemed appropriate at this stage for some ''communal introspection'' of the progress that has been made, hurdles that need to be overcome, and physics that can and should be done with chiral fermions. The meeting was very well attended, drawing about 60 registered participants primarily from Europe, Japan and the US. It was quite remarkable that pioneers David Kaplan, Herbert Neuberger, Rajamani Narayanan, Yigal Shamir, Sinya Aoki, and Pavlos Vranas all attended the workshop. Comparisons between domain wall and overlap formulations, with their respective advantages and limitations, were discussed at length, and a broad physics program including pion and kaon physics, the epsilon regime, nucleon structure, and topology, among others, emerged. New machines and improved algorithms have played a key role in realizing realistic dynamical fermion lattice simulations (small quark mass, large volume, and so on), so much in fact that measurements are now as costly. Consequently, ways to make the measurements more efficient were also discussed. We were very pleased to see the keen and ever growing interest in chiral fermions in our community and the significant strides our colleagues have made in bringing chiral fermions to the fore of lattice QCD calculations. Their contributions made the workshop a success, and we thank them deeply for sharing their time and ideas. Finally, we must especially acknowledge Norman Christ and Bob Mawhinney for their early and continued collaboration without which the success of domain wall fermions would not have been possible.

  6. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: The Approach to Equilibrium in Strongly Interacting Matter. Volume 118

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Venugopalan, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berges, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaizot, J. -P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gelis, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory*. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan and the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The RBRC is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has theory, lattice gauge computing and experimental components. It is presently exploring the possibility of an astrophysics component being added to the program. The purpose of this Workshop is to critically review the recent progress on the theory and phenomenology of early time dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies, to examine the various approaches on thermalization and existing issues, and to formulate new research efforts for the future. Topics slated to be covered include Experimental evidence for equilibration/isotropization, comparison of various approaches, dependence on the initial conditions and couplings, and turbulent cascades and Bose-Einstein condensation.

  7. Understanding Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ...

  8. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED "ODDERON SEARCHES AT RHIC" (VOLUME 76)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORGANIZERS: GURYN, W.; KOVCHEGOV, Y.; VOGELSANG, W.; TRUEMAN, L.

    2005-10-25

    The Odderon, a charge-conjugation-odd partner of the Pomeron, has been a puzzle ever since its introduction in 1973. The Pomeron describes a colorless exchange with vacuum quantum numbers in the t-channel of hadronic scattering at high energies. The concept was originally formulated for the non-perturbative regime of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In perturbation theory, the simplest picture of the Poineron is that of a two-gluon exchange process, whereas an Odderon can be thought of as an exchange of three gluons. Both the Pomeron and the Odderon are expected in QCD. However, while there exists plenty of experimental data that could be successfully described by Pomeron exchanges (for example in electron-proton and hadron-hadron scattering at high energies), no experimental sign of the Odderon has been observed. One of the very few hints so far is the difference in the diffractive minima of elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering measured at the ISR. The Odderon has recently received renewed attention by QCD researchers, mainly for the following two reasons. First of all, RHIC has entered the scene, offering exciting unique new opportunities for Odderon searches. RHIC provides collisions of nuclei at center-of-mass energies far exceeding those at all previous experiments. RHIC also provides collisions of protons of the highest center-of-mass energy, and in the interval, which has not been explored previously in p {bar p} collisions. In addition, it also has the unique feature of polarization for the proton beams, promising to become a crucial tool in Odderon searches. Indeed, theorists have proposed possible signatures of the Odderon in some spin asymmetries measurable at RHIC. Qualitatively unique signals should be seen in these observables if the Odderon coupling is large. Secondly, the Odderon has recently been shown to naturally emerge from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC), a theory for the high-energy asymptotics of QCD. It has been argued that

  10. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, RHIC SPIN COLLABORATION MEETINGS XII AND XIII, SEPTEMBER 16, 2002, OCTOBER 22, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,B.

    2003-03-06

    Since its inception, the RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC) has held semi-regular meetings each year to discuss the physics possibilities and the operational details of the program. Having collected our first data sample of polarized proton-proton collisions in Run02 of RHIC, we are now in the process of examining the performance of both the accelerator and the experiments. During the PAC meeting on August 29, 2002, the beam use proposal with a four week, polarized proton physics run was approved as part of the plan for Run-03. So, we meet at BNL on September 16, 2002 to discuss the concrete plans for this proton-proton run.

  12. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 57, HIGH PT PHYSICS AT RHIC, DECEMBER 2-6, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Stefan; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner

    2004-02-18

    The AuAu, dAu, and pp collision modes of the RHIC collider at BNL have led to the publication of exciting high p{perpendicular} particle production data. There have also been two physics runs with polarized protons, and preliminary results on the double-spin asymmetry for pion production had been presented very recently. The ontological questions behind these measurements are fascinating: Did RHIC collisions create a Quark-Gluon-Plasma phase and did they verify the Color Glass Condensate as the high energy limit of QCD? Will the Spin Crisis finally be resolved in terms of gluon polarization and what new surprises are we yet to meet for Transverse Spin? Phenomena related to sub-microscopic questions as important as these call for interpretations that are footed in solid theory. At large p{perpendicular}, perturbative concepts are legitimately expected to provide useful approaches. The corresponding hard parton dynamics are, in several ways, key to unraveling the initial or final state and collisional phase of hard scattering events in vacuum as well as in hot or cold nuclear matter. Before the advent of RHIC data, a RIKEN-BNL workshop had been held at BNL in March 1999 on ''Hard Parton Physics in High Energy Nuclear Collisions''. The 2003 workshop on ''High p{perpendicular} Physics at RHIC'' was a logical continuation of this previous workshop. It gave the opportunity to revisit the 1999 expectations in the light of what has been found in the meantime and, at the same time, to critically discuss the underlying theoretical concepts. We brought together theorists who have done seminal work on the foundations of parton phenomenology in field theory, with theorists and experimentalists who are presently working on RHIC phenomenology. The participants were both from a high-energy physics and nuclear physics background and it remains only to be said here that this chemistry worked perfectly and the workshop was a great success.

  13. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  14. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Understanding QGP through Spectral Functions and Euclidean Correlators (Volume 89)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsy,A.; Petreczky, P.

    2008-06-27

    In the past two decades, one of the most important goals of the nuclear physics community has been the production and characterization of the new state of matter--Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Understanding how properties of hadrons change in medium, particularly, the bound state of a very heavy quark and its antiquark, known as quarkonium, as well as determining the transport coefficients is crucial for identifying the properties of QGP and for the understanding of the experimental data from RHIC. On April 23rd, more than sixty physicists from twenty-seven institutions gathered for this three-day topical workshop held at BNL to discuss how to understand the properties of the new state of matter obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (particularly at RHIC-BNL) through spectral functions. In-medium properties of the different particle species and the transport properties of the medium are encoded in spectral functions. The former could yield important signatures of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration at high temperatures and densities, while the later are crucial for the understanding of the dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Participants at the workshop are experts in various areas of spectral function studies. The workshop encouraged direct exchange of scientific information among experts, as well as between the younger and the more established scientists. The workshops success is evident from the coherent picture that developed of the current understanding of transport properties and in-medium particle properties, illustrated in the current proceedings. The following pages show calculations of meson spectral functions in lattice QCD, as well as implications of these for quarkonia melting/survival in the quark gluon plasma; Lattice calculations of the transport coefficients (shear and bulk viscosities, electric conductivity); Calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients in field theories using weak coupling

  15. Medical Research System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Based on Johnson Space Flight Center's development of a rotating bioreactor cell culture apparatus for Space Shuttle medical research, Johnson Space Flight Center engineers who worked on the original project formed a company called Synthecon, with the intention of commercializing the bioreactor technology. Synthecon grows three dimensional tissues in the bioreactor. These are superior to previous two-dimensional tissue samples in the study of human cell growth. A refined version of the Johnson Space Center technology, Synthecon's Rotary Cell Culture System includes a cell culture chamber that rotates around a horizontal axis. The cells establish an orbit that approximates free fall through the liquid medium in the chamber. The technology has significant applications for cancer research and treatment as well as AIDS research.

  16. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes of ...

  17. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  18. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Quarkonium Production in Elementary and Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, A.; Lourenco, C.; Petreczky, P.; Qiu, J., Ruan, L.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the structure of the hadron is of fundamental importance in subatomic physics. Production of heavy quarkonia is arguably one of the most fascinating subjects in strong interaction physics. It offers unique perspectives into the formation of QCD bound states. Heavy quarkonia are among the most studied particles both theoretically and experimentally. They have been, and continue to be, the focus of measurements in all high energy colliders around the world. Because of their distinct multiple mass scales, heavy quarkonia were suggested as a probe of the hot quark-gluon matter produced in heavy-ion collisions; and their production has been one of the main subjects of the experimental heavy-ion programs at the SPS and RHIC. However, since the discovery of J/psi at Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory over 36 years ago, theorists still have not been able to fully understand the production mechanism of heavy quarkonia, although major progresses have been made in recent years. With this in mind, a two-week program on quarkonium production was organized at BNL on June 6-17, 2011. Many new experimental data from LHC and from RHIC were presented during the program, including results from the LHC heavy ion run. To analyze and correctly interpret these measurements, and in order to quantify properties of the hot matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to improve our theoretical understanding of quarkonium production. Therefore, a wide range of theoretical aspects on the production mechanism in the vacuum as well as in cold nuclear and hot quark-gluon medium were discussed during the program from the controlled calculations in QCD and its effective theories such as NRQCD to various models, and to the first principle lattice calculation. The scientific program was divided into three major scientific parts: basic production mechanism for heavy quarkonium in vacuum or in high energy elementary collisions; the

  19. Promote translational medical research and report high quality medical studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAORI Getu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Translational medical research, an emerging new important component of medical research, is now attracting attention of more and more researchers, experts and physicians in universities, medical research institutes,hospitals and relevant officers in government agencies.

  20. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Dystonia Research Research News Funding Programs Current Research Dystonia Coalition About DMRF Mission People Dystonia Dialogue Financials For the Media Connect Contact Us Privacy Policy Support Groups Calendar

  1. Medical Products Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  2. Advances in Translational Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Research Program Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program National Prion Research Program Myeloproliferative Disorders...OEF/OIF Veterans  Randomized Controlled Trial of Galantamine, Methylphenidate , and Placebo for the Treatment of Cognitive Symptoms in Patients...Research Organization Network Guiding Studies on Trauma and Resilience External Advisory Board Genetics Core NeuroimagingCore CR Darnall Army Medical

  3. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathilde; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely...... accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent...... reporting of medical research findings....

  4. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  5. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  6. PROCEEDINGS OF THE RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON LARGE SCALE COMPUTATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS USING THE QCDOC, SEPTEMBER 26 - 28, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AOKI,Y.; BALTZ,A.; CREUTZ,M.; GYULASSY,M.; OHTA,S.

    2002-09-26

    The massively parallel computer QCDOC (QCD On a Chip) of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RI3RC) will provide ten-teraflop peak performance for lattice gauge calculations. Lattice groups from both Columbia University and RBRC, along with assistance from IBM, jointly handled the design of the QCDOC. RIKEN has provided $5 million in funding to complete the machine in 2003. Some fraction of this computer (perhaps as much as 10%) might be made available for large-scale computations in areas of theoretical nuclear physics other than lattice gauge theory. The purpose of this workshop was to investigate the feasibility and possibility of using a supercomputer such as the QCDOC for lattice, general nuclear theory, and other calculations. The lattice applications to nuclear physics that can be investigated with the QCDOC are varied: for example, the light hadron spectrum, finite temperature QCD, and kaon ({Delta}I = 1/2 and CP violation), and nucleon (the structure of the proton) matrix elements, to name a few. There are also other topics in theoretical nuclear physics that are currently limited by computer resources. Among these are ab initio calculations of nuclear structure for light nuclei (e.g. up to {approx}A = 8 nuclei), nuclear shell model calculations, nuclear hydrodynamics, heavy ion cascade and other transport calculations for RHIC, and nuclear astrophysics topics such as exploding supernovae. The physics topics were quite varied, ranging from simulations of stellar collapse by Douglas Swesty to detailed shell model calculations by David Dean, Takaharu Otsuka, and Noritaka Shimizu. Going outside traditional nuclear physics, James Davenport discussed molecular dynamics simulations and Shailesh Chandrasekharan presented a class of algorithms for simulating a wide variety of femionic problems. Four speakers addressed various aspects of theory and computational modeling for relativistic heavy ion reactions at RHIC. Scott Pratt and Steffen Bass gave general overviews of

  7. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathilde; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent...

  8. Deployment Related Medical Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    including face, visual/ocular, and nerve damage; dental ; and auditory systems) Deployment Related Medical Research Program4 DRMRP Research Gaps Together...healing • Approaches to prevention or treatment of bone infections • Methods and technologies for prevention of the formation of bacterial biofilms in...from combat injuries, and biocompatible craniofacial implants for use in craniofacial reconstruction due to combat trauma • Characterization of

  9. Modern medical research ethics - bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez Abanto J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For today, the medical association came to common opinion, that a doctor-scientist cannot be higher than the universal values. At a decision-making, equally with the scientific interests, which, undoubtedly, will bring to development of the theoretical and practical medicine, a doctor must take into account moral values. The doctrine of the informed consent of patient that is examined as a necessary condition of any medical interference became ethic basis of experiment with participation of human. An observance of confidentiality of the results of the studies is also very important. The present development of the biomedical knowledge supposes realization of human research in a good cause, after the conducted tests on the animals and the other models. A clinical test on human must take place only then, when the risk does not exceed the benefit. Carrying out of the biomedical studies is considered as illegal, unconscionable, amoral and even criminal action. If the regulations and the norms of the law are not observed, it entails penal offence. This article provides the basic foundations of medical activities rather moral standards of medical and research activity, which in the different periods underwent the changes dictated by moral requirements of an era and society are analyzed.

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  11. A Tool for Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  12. Teaching Sociological Research Methods to Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Stanford W.; O'Toole, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Reports the development of a three-course eight-week summer program for medical students. One course covers research methods and the other two involve research practicums in public health and medical sociology. (JDH)

  13. PHYSICS OF THE 1 TERAFLOP RIKEN-BNL-COLUMBIA QCD PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAWHINNEY,R.

    1998-10-16

    A workshop was held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on the afternoon of October 16, 1998, as part of the first anniversary ceremony for the center. Titled ''Workshop on Physics of the 1 Teraflop RIKEN-BNL-Columbia QCD Project'', this meeting brought together the physicists from RIKEN-BNL, BNL and Columbia who are using the QCDSP (Quantum Chromodynamics on Digital Signal Processors) computer at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center for studies of QCD. In addition, Akira Ukawa, a leader of the CP-PACS project at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, attended and gave a talk on the Aoki phase. There were also others in attendance who were interested in more general properties of the QCDSP computer. The QCDSP computer and lattice QCD had been presented during the morning ceremony by Shigemi Ohta of KEK and the RIKEN-BNL Research Center. This was followed by a tour of the QCDSP machine room and a formal unveiling of the computer to the attendees of the anniversary ceremony and the press. The rapid completion of construction of the QCDSP computer was made possible through many factors: (1) the existence of a complete design and working hardware at Columbia when the RIKEN-BNL center was being set up, (2) strong support for the project from RIKEN and the center and (3) aggressive involvement of members of the Computing and Communications Division at BNL. With this powerful new resource, the members of the RIKEN-BNL-Columbia, QCD project are looking forward to advances in our understanding of QCD.

  14. PHYSICS OF THE 1 TERAFLOP RIKEN-BNL-COLUMBIA QCD PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAWHINNEY,R.

    1998-10-16

    A workshop was held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on the afternoon of October 16, i 998, as part of the first anniversary ceremony for the center. Titled ''Workshop on Physics of the 1 Teraflop RIKEN-BNL-Columbia QCD Project'', this meeting brought together the physicists from RIKEN-BNL, BNL and Columbia who are using the QCDSP (Quantum Chromodynamics on Digital Signal Processors) computer at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center for studies of QCD. In addition, Akira Ukawa, a leader of the CP-PACS project at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, attended and gave a talk on the Aoki phase. There were also others in attendance who were interested in more general properties of the QCDSP computer. The QCDSP computer and lattice QCD had been presented during the morning ceremony by Shigemi Ohta of KEK and the RIKEN-BNL Research Center. This was followed by a tour of the QCDSP machine room and a formal unveiling of the computer to the attendees of the anniversary ceremony and the press. The rapid completion of construction of the QCDSP computer was made possible through many factors: (1) the existence of a complete design and working hardware at Columbia when the RIKEN-BNL center was being set up, (2) strong support for the project from RIKEN and the center and (3) aggressive involvement of members of the Computing and Communications Division at BNL. With this powerful new resource, the members of the RIKEN-BNL-Columbia, QCD project are looking forward to advances in our understanding of QCD.

  15. Initiatives for Medical Education Research at the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Jutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical Education research is a relativelynew field but one that is progressing rapidly worldwide.This article is an attempt to take stock of the currentstatus of Medical Education research in InternationalMedical University and to explore the various factorsthat have influenced its direction. It also shares some ofthe initiatives that have been instituted or intended tobe instituted at our university.

  16. Medical education research in GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996–2013. Methods In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996–2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an aff...

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, RHIC SPIN COLLABORATION MEETINGS VIII, IX, X, XI, APRIL 12, MAY, 22, JUNE 17, JULY 29, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOX,B.

    2003-03-06

    Since its inception, the RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC) has held semi-regular meetings each year to discuss the physics possibilities and the operational details of the program. Having collected our first data sample of polarized proton-proton collisions in Run02 of RHIC, we are now in the process of examining the performance of both the accelerator and the experiments. From this evaluation, we not only aim to formulate a consensus plan for polarized proton-proton during Run03 of RHIC but also to look more forward into the future to ensure the success of the spin program. In the second meeting of this series (which took place at BNL on April 12, 2002), we focused on Run02 polarization issues. This meeting opened with a presentation by Thomas Roser about his reflections on the outcome from the RHIC retreat during which the Run02 performance was evaluated. Of particular importance, Thomas pointed out that, with the expected beam time and his estimates for machine-tuning requirements, the experiments should limit their beam requests to two or three programs.

  18. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided.

  19. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  20. Emerging research trends in medical textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gokarneshan, N; Rajendran, V; Lavanya, B; Ghoshal, Arundhathi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the significant researches reported during the recent years in the field of medical textiles. It also highlights the use of new types of fibres in developing medical textile products and their promising role in the respective areas of application. Considerable developments have taken place in the development of medical textiles for varied applications.

  1. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm2 and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  2. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  3. Lack of research aptitude in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Students are attracted towards the medical profession to become a doctor and not to be a researcher. According to a recent study there are about 1,00,000 undergraduate medical students in India at a given point of time, out of them only 0.9% of the students have shown research aptitude. During their training period of graduation in medical sciences, they are so much burdened with the work load of exams, practicals, ward duties and tutorials. In such an over burdened situation very few of them can think about research. A study had shown that training in research methodology received early in medical school helps students to develop a positive attitude towards research. So changes in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum are required to promote research among medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 247-248

  4. Trends in research about postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Cárdenas, Leonor Angélica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was framed in the research: Characterization of professional competency-based model in medical education developed in twelve clinical and nine surgical specializations at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia. Its aim was to inquire about the state of the art in medical postgraduate education. The guiding question was: Where is present-day research headed in medical postgraduate education. For this descriptive, nonexperimental work, 12 bibliographic databases were reviewed and 28 research articles related to graduate medical formation were selected. The findings were compared, analyzed and interpreted. The tendency in research on graduate medical education points to the need of having multi-inter-trans-disciplinary and humanistic proposals based on constructivism; to consider evaluation as a process emphasizing on learning and the participation of students, and to build systems of pedagogical formation of tutors and interactive and flexible curricula. The lack of studies that promote competencies-based training in postgraduate medical education is notorious.

  5. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgoyne, Louise N

    2010-01-01

    Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.

  6. Transition of Research into Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  7. BNL ACTIVITIES IN ADVANCED NEUTRON SOURCE DEVELOPMENT: PAST AND PRESENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HASTINGS,J.B.; LUDEWIG,H.; MONTANEZ,P.; TODOSOW,M.; SMITH,G.C.; LARESE,J.Z.

    1998-06-14

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in advanced neutron sources almost from its inception in 1947. These efforts have mainly focused on steady state reactors beginning with the construction of the first research reactor for neutron beams, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This was followed by the High Flux Beam Reactor that has served as the design standard for all the subsequent high flux reactors constructed worldwide. In parallel with the reactor developments BNL has focused on the construction and use of high energy proton accelerators. The first machine to operate over 1 GeV in the world was the Cosmotron. The machine that followed this, the AGS, is still operating and is the highest intensity proton machine in the world and has nucleated an international collaboration investigating liquid metal targets for next generation pulsed spallation sources. Early work using the Cosmotron focused on spallation product studies for both light and heavy elements into the several GeV proton energy region. These original studies are still important today. In the sections below the authors discuss the facilities and activities at BNL focused on advanced neutron sources. BNL is involved in the proton source for the Spallation Neutron source, spectrometer development at LANSCE, target studies using the AGS and state-of-the-art neutron detector development.

  8. BNL Activities in Advanced Neutron Source Development: Past and Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, J.B.; Ludewig, H.; Montanez, P.; Todosow, M.; Smith, G.C.; Larese, J.Z.

    1998-06-14

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in advanced neutron sources almost from its inception in 1947. These efforts have mainly focused on steady state reactors beginning with the construction of the first research reactor for neutron beams, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This was followed by the High Flux Beam Reactor that has served as the design standard for all the subsequent high flux reactors constructed worldwide. In parallel with the reactor developments BNL has focused on the construction and use of high energy proton accelerators. The first machine to operate over 1 GeV in the world was the Cosmotron. The machine that followed this, the AGS, is still operating and is the highest intensity proton machine in the world and has nucleated an international collaboration investigating liquid metal targets for next generation pulsed spallation sources. Early work using the Cosmotron focused on spallation product studies for both light and heavy elements into the several GeV proton energy region. These original studies are still important today. In this report we discuss the facilities and activities at BNL focused on advanced neutron sources. BNL is involved in the proton source for the Spallation Neutron source, spectrometer development at LANSCE, target studies using the AGS and state-of-the-art neutron detector development.

  9. Medical research misconduct need regulatory reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Neeraj

    2014-10-01

    The medical research misconduct has become a global problem. Except from countries like the USA, China, and Germany the exact figures of misconduct are not available. The research misconduct include fabricating the data, falsifying data, and plagiarism. The irresponsible research practices are publishing research data more than once, conflicts of interest is not declared, selective reporting of data and including an author who has not contributed at all and many more. About 2% of scientists have been found to admit the fabricating the data and 33% researchers were involved in irresponsible research practices. There is no formal regulatory programs available to monitor the research projects. Few developed countries like the USA, Germany, and China tried to develop programs which can monitor the medical research misconduct. There is a need to develop a regulatory system at national and institutional level to regulate the research activity to ensure that good ethical and scientific standards are practiced by medical researchers.

  10. Medical research misconduct need regulatory reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Bedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical research misconduct has become a global problem. Except from countries like the USA, China, and Germany the exact figures of misconduct are not available. The research misconduct include fabricating the data, falsifying data, and plagiarism. The irresponsible research practices are publishing research data more than once, conflicts of interest is not declared, selective reporting of data and including an author who has not contributed at all and many more. About 2% of scientists have been found to admit the fabricating the data and 33% researchers were involved in irresponsible research practices. There is no formal regulatory programs available to monitor the research projects. Few developed countries like the USA, Germany, and China tried to develop programs which can monitor the medical research misconduct. There is a need to develop a regulatory system at national and institutional level to regulate the research activity to ensure that good ethical and scientific standards are practiced by medical researchers.

  11. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  12. Medical technology advances from space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  13. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  14. The principles of medical ethics and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the application of the principles of medical ethics and of medical research to the case of children and others whose consent to treatment and to research is problematic. Public health depends substantially on the possibility of ongoing research into all conditions which affect the health of the people. Constraints on this research are therefore a public health issue. Moreover and more importantly the possibility of predictive testing and indeed of screening for health-relevant conditions is an important public health tool, and limitations on the use of this tool are of great significance to public health medicine. Having considered the particular problems created by research and predictive testing on children for late-onset conditions I go on to discuss research on those whose consent is problematic more generally. I conclude with radical recommendations for the reform of The Declaration of Helsinki and of the International Ethics Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, prepared by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS.

  15. Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

  16. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, D.; Scherpbier, A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Cate, O.T.J. ten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years, relate

  17. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Masic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity.

  18. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  19. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  20. Fraud and deceit in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world′s population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the "FFP" (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism model put forward by the United States′ Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world′s media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research.

  1. Fraud and deceit in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, Marios

    2012-11-01

    Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world's population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the "FFP" (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) model put forward by the United States' Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world's media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research.

  2. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is governed by moral principles that define human conduct for an individual, group or society. Role of ethics has become extremely important in medical practice and research. Medical practice or any scientific act related to human participation in research should be carefully calibrated safeguarding the ethical interest of the patient/participant. The philosophy of medical intervention should be to integrate a transparent health care system that focuses on consistent delivery of evidence based care at the right time in the right environment and in right manner. In futuristic healthcare sector, upcoming professionals should be adequately sensitized to protect and respect the ethical interest of the patients.

  3. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  4. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students.

  5. Marketing research of medical services quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Alkaravani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify and to analyze the characteristics of medical services quality and marketing research of medical services quality. The results of the analysis. The task of medical services is the proper control of health of the population and application of the necessary efforts to treat and prevent disease by providing quality and affordable medical services. In this regard, an important question is what characteristics of the medical services quality consumers consider the most significant and the most important, because the answer to this question will allow to develop marketing strategy to promote medical services. A lot of works of national and international scientists and economists are dedicated to problems of the theory and practice of medical services promotion. These researches have made a significant contribution to development of theoretical and practical instruments and technologies of development of marketing medical services, but there is a practical need and scientific interest in developing an approach for promoting medical services adapted to the present Ukrainian realities. To study the problems associated with the development, promotion and implementation of the medical services the survey of Donetsk region population was conducted. Analysis and data processing was performed using the software package IBM SPSS Statistics and Microsoft Excel. The survey was attended by 450 respondents of sexes, all ages, social status and income level. The research of medical services quality was made in Donetsk region in 1990. The results of it showed that 0,3% of respondents recognized the quality of medical services excellent, 1,5% – well, 36,9% – satisfactory, and 58,0% – unsatisfactory. Today the majority of respondents is not satisfied with medical services quality, analysis revealed no correlation answers the question of gender, education level and social status of the respondents. As

  6. 2013 BNL Site Environmental Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.; Remien, J.; Pohlot, P.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, P.; Dorsch, W.; Welty, T.; Burke, J.

    2014-10-01

    A summary of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL) Site Environmental Report, meant to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance in the lab’s surrounding area during the calendar year. The review is comprised of multiple volumes relevant to environmental data/environmental management performance and groundwater status report.

  7. [The evaluation of medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacara, J M

    1997-01-01

    The peer review process for manuscripts submitted for publication to scientific journals and for the evaluation of grant research proposals is unsatisfactory in several respects. We examine here some of the problems related with evaluation of scientific merit. Some criteria for rejection are proposed, i.e. a poor preparation of the manuscript, a lack of a distinct hypothesis, a disagreement between hypothesis and methodology, and a deficient methodology. Other important criteria causes of rejection would be lack of originality of the hypothesis, scarce relevance of the work, and inconsistency in the results. Conversely, interesting work are rejected for invalid objections such as "less than optimal design", "lack of experience of the group" and some conceptual objections which are controversial. In order to improve the peer review process, we propose a larger role of editorial committees in final editorial decisions, an improved mechanism for selection of reviewers, and more explicit criteria for causes of rejection for reviewers and authors.

  8. Faculty development in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  9. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulraheem Olarongbe Mahmoud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8% and over a third (37.5% had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%. They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4% and change (4% in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  10. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER, RIKEN WINTER SCHOOL, QUARK GLUON STRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEON AND QCD, MARCH 29-31, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EN YO,H.; SAITO,N.; SHIBATA,T.A.; YAZAKI,K.; BUNCE,G.

    2002-03-29

    The RIKEN School on ''Quark-Gluon Structure of the Nucleon and QCD'' was held from March 29th through 31st at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). The school was the second of a new series with a broad perspective of hadron and nuclear physics. The purpose of the school was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn theoretical aspects of hadron physics based on QCD and related experimental programs being or to be carried out by Japanese groups. We had 3 theoretical courses, each consisting of 3 one-hour lectures, and 6 experimental courses, each consisting of a one-hour lecture.

  12. INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM OF MEDICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. The complex qualitative behavior of diseases models depending on parameters and controllers was observed in our investigation even without considering probabilistic nature of the majority of quantities and parameters of information models. KEY WORDS: data mining, system analysis, medical research, decision making

  13. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.

  14. PHENIX Spinfest School 2009 at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster,S.P.; Foster,S.; Seidl, R.; Goto, Y.; Okada, K.

    2009-08-07

    Since 2005, the PHENIX Spin Physics Working Group has set aside several weeks each summer for the purposes of training and integrating recent members of the working group as well as coordinating and making rapid progress on support tasks and data analysis. One week is dedicated to more formal didactic lectures by outside speakers. The location has so far alternated between BNL and the RIKEN campus in Wako, Japan, with support provided by RBRC and LANL.

  15. Critical Medical Anthropology in Midwifery Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Newnham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the use of critical medical anthropology (CMA as a theoretical framework for research in the maternity care setting. With reference to the doctoral research of the first author, we argue for the relevance of using CMA for research into the maternity care setting, particularly as it relates to midwifery. We then give an overview of an existing analytic model within CMA that we adapted for looking specifically at childbirth practices and which was then used in both analyzing the data and structuring the thesis. There is often no clear guide to the analysis or writing up of data in ethnographic research; we therefore offer this Critical analytic model of childbirth practices for other researchers conducting ethnographic research into childbirth or maternity care.

  16. BNL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN TRIENNIAL UPDATE, JANUARY 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is located on a 5,265-acre site in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. BNL has a comprehensive Environmental Management System (EMS) in place, which meets the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization 14001 EMS Standard, as described in the BNL EMS Manual. BNL's extensive environmental monitoring program is one component of the EMS, and the BNL Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes this program in detail. The data derived from systematically monitoring the various environmental media on site enable BNL to make informed decisions concerning the protection of human health and the environment and to be responsive to community concerns.

  17. On Academic Conflict in Medical Research Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.

  18. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease.

  19. Correlation Research of Medical Security Management System Network Platform in Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wang; Fan, Zhang; Jian, Hao; Li-nong, Yu; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-The related research of medical security management system network in medical practice. Methods-Establishing network platform of medical safety management system, medical security network host station, medical security management system(C/S), medical security management system of departments and sections, comprehensive query, medical security disposal and examination system. Results-In medical safety management, medical security management system can reflect the hospital medical security problem, and can achieve real-time detection and improve the medical security incident detection rate. Conclusion-The application of the research in the hospital management implementation, can find hospital medical security hidden danger and the problems of medical disputes, and can help in resolving medical disputes in time and achieve good work efficiency, which is worth applying in the hospital practice.

  20. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  1. BNl 703 MHz superconducting RF cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehy, B.; Altinbas, Z.; Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Laloudakis, N.; Lederle, D.; Litvinenko, V.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Phillips, D.; Schultheiss, C.; Seda,T.; Than, R.; Xu, W.; Zaltsman, A.; Schultheiss, T.

    2011-03-28

    The BNL 5-cell, 703 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity has been installed in the high-current ERL experiment. This experiment will function as a proving ground for the development of high-current machines in general and is particularly targeted at beam development for an electron-ion collider (eRHIC). The cavity performed well in vertical tests, demonstrating gradients of 20 MV/m and a Q{sub 0} of 1e10. Here we will present its performance in the horizontal tests, and discuss technical issues involved in its implementation in the ERL.

  2. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and thank you for your interest in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). ... This Web site provides an introduction to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) ...

  3. Model observers in medical imaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-10-04

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research.

  4. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  5. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  6. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, Alexander, E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Alessi, James G., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward N., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  7. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project.

  8. Highlights from BNL and RHIC 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of news from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the period July 2014-June 2015 are presented. The news this year was mostly very positive. The major event at BNL was the startup and dedication of the new NSLS II, "the World's brightest Synchrotron Light Source". The operation of RHIC was outstanding with a polarized p+p run at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV with integrated luminosity that exceeded the sum of all previous p+p integrated luminosity at this $\\sqrt{s}$. For the first time at RHIC asymmetric p+Au and p+Al runs were made but the p+Al run caused damage in the PHENIX forward detectors from quenches that were inadequately shielded for this first p+A run. This was also the 10th anniversary of the 2005 announcement of the Perfect Liquid Quark Gluon Plasma at RHIC and a review is presented of the discoveries leading to this claim. A new result on net-charge fluctuations (with no particle identification) from PHENIX based on previous scans ov...

  9. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  10. BNL Building 650 lead decontamination and treatment feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.D.; Cowgill, M.G.; Milian, L.W. [and others

    1995-10-01

    Lead has been used extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for radiation shielding in numerous reactor, accelerator and other research programs. A large inventory of excess lead (estimated at 410,000 kg) in many shapes and sizes is currently being stored. Due to it`s toxicity, lead and soluble lead compounds are considered hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency. Through use at BNL, some of the lead has become radioactive, either by contamination of the surface or through activation by neutrons or deuterons. This study was conducted at BNL`s Environmental and Waste Technology Center for the BNL Safety and Environmental Protection Division to evaluate feasibility of various treatment options for excess lead currently being stored. The objectives of this effort included investigating potential treatment methods by conducting a review of the literature, developing a means of screening lead waste to determine the radioactive characteristics, examining the feasibility of chemical and physical decontamination technologies, and demonstrating BNL polyethylene macro-encapsulation as a means of treating hazardous or mixed waste lead for disposal. A review and evaluation of the literature indicated that a number of physical and chemical methods are available for decontamination of lead. Many of these techniques have been applied for this purpose with varying degrees of success. Methods that apply mechanical techniques are more appropriate for lead bricks and sheet which contain large smooth surfaces amenable to physical abrasion. Lead wool, turnings, and small irregularly shaped pieces would be treated more effectively by chemical decontamination techniques. Either dry abrasion or wet chemical methods result in production of a secondary mixed waste stream that requires treatment prior to disposal.

  11. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  12. Heavy Ion results from RHIC-BNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinlchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from heavy ion collision experiments from RHIC at BNL are presented and discussed in terms of Quark Gluon Plasm properties, such as partonic collectivity and partonic energy loss. The experimental results with direct photons and heavy quarks have given important additional insights of the plasma on top of what has been known with light hadrons. Higher order event anisotropies and the related results have provided the geometrical, temporal and dynamical information of the plasma. The beam energy dependence of the various measurements could reveal the structure of QCD phase diagram and possibly the critical point in the diagram, where the properties of phase transition are expected to change drastically.

  13. Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decisions about treatment options. Learning the Effects of Medication during Pregnancy The U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... and should be continued. Current Knowledge about Using Medication during Pregnancy The information we have is limited. ...

  14. Can significant differences in regulating medical and non-medical research be justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David

    2014-01-01

    It is now typical for human subjects research to be regulated by review by an independent research ethics committee in most jurisdictions. However it is common for countries to opt to only compulsorily regulate medical research while leaving some or all non-medical research either unregulated or only regulated on a voluntary basis. In this paper I will argue, using regulation in the UK as an example, that it is difficult to justify this sharp distinction in practices. While I won't come to any definitive conclusions in this paper as to whether research ought to be regulated compulsorily I will suggest that we would be better to regulate all research, albeit perhaps with a lighter touch than the present UK system if we want to prevent some highly risky research avoiding appropriate regulation. I will examine several arguments to defend making such a distinction; that medical professionals have special moral duties, that medical research has a higher magnitude/frequency of risks and that regulating non-medical research constitutes the inappropriate imposition of the medical model onto non-medical research. Having critiqued these objections I will then discuss the advantages of harmonizing the regulation of research and conclude that there is not a good reason to treat medical and non-medical research as fundamentally different in kind.

  15. [SOROKA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: THE ROAD TO LEADERSHIP IN QUALITY OF MEDICAL CARE, SERVICE AND RESEARCH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ehud; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    Soroka University Medical Center is a tertiary hospital, and the sole medical center in the Negev, the southern part of Israel. Soroka has invested in quality, service and research. The region has developed joint programs in order to advance the quality of medical care whilst optimizing the utilization of available resources. In this editorial we describe the path to leadership in quality of medical care, service and research.

  16. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  17. Are you a researcher as well as a medical illustrator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David

    2013-12-01

    When we list the areas of practice for medical illustrators we always include research, but how involved in research are we? The aim of this activity is to encourage your professional development not just as a medical illustrator but your involvement with research whether that is undertaking your own research, undertaking evidence based practice (1) , working as part of a research team, advising researchers on the value of medical illustration or supporting a student undertaking a research project for their degree or post-graduate qualification.

  18. Tissue simulating gel for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  19. The importance of research in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mauricio José; Rodríguez-Restrepo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Currently medical information flows at great speed, bombarding medical students. Students are unfamiliar with fundamental aspects of biomedical literature appraisal. We assert that research performed during medical school will help to reduce the gap between the information available and comprehension by the student. The goal of the present review is to expound the importance of performing research during the undergraduate medical years and the relevance of research in other fields of medicine. We performed a literature review searching MEDLINE with terms consistent with our objective. We discuss the conduct of research projects during medical school training. The analysis of the articles retrieved proves that research is feasible and that it is a critical process during the undergraduate period for medical students.

  20. Education and research in medical optronics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

    2000-06-01

    First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

  1. Highlights from BNL and RHIC 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2015-01-01

    Highlights of news from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the period July 2013-June 2014 are presented. It was a busy year for news, most notably a U. S. Government shutdown for 16 days beginning October 1, 2013 due to the lack of an approved budget for FY2014. Even with this unusual government activity, the $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV Au+Au Run14 at RHIC was the best ever with integrated luminosity exceeding the sum of all previous runs. Additionally there was a brief He$^3$+Au run to continue the study of collective flow in small systems which was reinforced by new results presented on identified particle flow in d+Au. The other scientific highlights are also mostly concerned with ``soft (low $p_T$)'' physics complemented by the first preliminary results of reconstructed jets from hard-scattered partons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC . The measurements of transverse energy ($E_T$) spectra in p-p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions, which demonstrated last ye...

  2. Review: BNL graphite blanket design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    A review of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) minimum activity graphite blanket designs is made. Three designs are identified and discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a thick graphite screen (typically 30 cm or greater, depending on type as well as application-experimental power reactor or commercial reactor). Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy. This energy is then either radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or is removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the structural material of the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude by the graphite screen, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma, whatever the degree of radiation damage.

  3. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [and others

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  4. The Future Of Spin Physics At BNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Samuel; Deshpande, Abhay

    2007-06-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the world's only polarized proton-proton collider. Collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 500 GeV and beam polarizations approaching 70% (longitudinal or transverse) are provided to two experiments, STAR and PHENIX, at luminosities ⩾ 1032/cm2/sec. Transverse polarized beam has also been provided to the BRAHMS experiment. Measurements that bear on the important question of the spin content of the nucleon are beginning to appear. Over the next 10 years, as the performance of polarized proton running at RHIC is farmer developed, the Spin Physics program at RHIC will provide definitive measurements of the contributions to the proton's spin of the gluon, the sea quarks and the orbital motion of the partons in the proton's wave function. We plan to extend the reach of our study of the role of spin in QCD with the development of "eRHIC," which will provide polarized e-p collisions to a new detector.

  5. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  6. Digital Libraries and Recent Medical Informatics Research. Findings from the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, E; Knaup, P; Maier, C; Mludek, V; Singer, R; Skonetzki, S; Wolff, A C; Haux, R; Kulikowski, C

    2001-05-01

    The Yearbook of Medical Informatics is published annually by the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and contains a selection of recent excellent papers on medical informatics research (http://www.med.uni-heidelberg.de/mi/yearbook/index.htm). The special topic of the just published Yearbook 2001 is "Digital Libraries and Medicine". Digital libraries have changed dramatically and will continue to change the way we work with medical knowledge. The selected papers present recent research and new results on digital libraries. As usual, the Yearbook 2001 also contains a variety of papers on other subjects relevant to medical informatics, such as Electronic Patient Records, Health Information Systems, Health and Clinical Management, Decision Support Systems, Education, as well as Image and Signal Processing. This paper will briefly introduce the contributions covering digital libraries and will show how medical informatics research contributes to this important topic.

  7. Radar Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Giangrande, S. E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Radar Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) [http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/osc2013rwpcf] campaign was scheduled to take place from 15 July 2013 through 15 July 2015 (or until shipped for the next U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Climate Research Facility first Mobile Facility [AMF1] deployment). The campaign involved the deployment of the AMF1 Scintec 915 MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) at BNL, in conjunction with several other ARM, BNL and National Weather Service (NWS) instruments. The two main scientific foci of the campaign were: 1) To provide profiles of the horizontal wind to be used to test and validate short-term cloud advection forecasts for solar-energy applications and 2) to provide vertical profiling capabilities for the study of dynamics (i.e., vertical velocity) and hydrometeors in winter storms. This campaign was a serendipitous opportunity that arose following the deployment of the RWP at the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and restriction from participation in the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) campaign due to radio-frequency allocation restriction for international deployments. The RWP arrived at BNL in the fall of 2013, but deployment was delayed until fall of 2014 as work/safety planning and site preparation were completed. The RWP further encountered multiple electrical failures, which eventually required several shipments of instrument power supplies and the final amplifier to the vendor to complete repairs. Data collection began in late January 2015. The operational modes of the RWP were changed such that in addition to collecting traditional profiles of the horizontal wind, a vertically pointing mode was also included for the purpose of precipitation sensing and estimation of vertical velocities. The RWP operated well until the end of the campaign in July 2015 and collected observations for more than 20 precipitation

  8. SynapSense Wireless Environmental Monitoring System of the RHIC & ATLAS Computing Facility at BNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, K.; Garcia, E.; Hogue, R.; Hollowell, C.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2014-06-01

    RHIC & ATLAS Computing Facility (RACF) at BNL is a 15000 sq. ft. facility hosting the IT equipment of the BNL ATLAS WLCG Tier-1 site, offline farms for the STAR and PHENIX experiments operating at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the BNL Cloud installation, various Open Science Grid (OSG) resources, and many other small physics research oriented IT installations. The facility originated in 1990 and grew steadily up to the present configuration with 4 physically isolated IT areas with the maximum rack capacity of about 1000 racks and the total peak power consumption of 1.5 MW. In June 2012 a project was initiated with the primary goal to replace several environmental monitoring systems deployed earlier within RACF with a single commercial hardware and software solution by SynapSense Corporation based on wireless sensor groups and proprietary SynapSense™ MapSense™ software that offers a unified solution for monitoring the temperature and humidity within the rack/CRAC units as well as pressure distribution underneath the raised floor across the entire facility. The deployment was completed successfully in 2013. The new system also supports a set of additional features such as capacity planning based on measurements of total heat load, power consumption monitoring and control, CRAC unit power consumption optimization based on feedback from the temperature measurements and overall power usage efficiency estimations that are not currently implemented within RACF but may be deployed in the future.

  9. First Results from the DUV-FEL Upgrade at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xijie; Murphy, James; Pinayev, Igor; Rakowsky, George; Rose, James; Shaftan, Timur; Sheehy, Brian; Skaritka, John; Wu, Zilu; Yu Li Hua

    2005-01-01

    The DUV-FEL at BNL is the world’s only facility dedicated to laser-seeded FEL R&D and its applications. Tremendous progress was made in both HGHG FEL and its applications in the last couple years.*,** In response to the requests of many users to study chemical science at the facility, the DUV-FEL linac was upgraded from 200 to 300 MeV to enable the HGHG FEL to produce 100 uJ pulses of 100 nm light. This will establish the DUV FEL as a premier user facility for ultraviolet radiation and enable state-of-the-art gas phase photochemistry research. The upgraded facility will also make possible key R&D experiments such as higher harmonic HGHG (n>5) that would lay the groundwork for future X-ray FEL based on HGHG. The upgraded HGHG FEL will operate at the 4th harmonic with the seed laser at either 800 nm or 400nm. The increase of the electron beam energy will be accomplished by installing a 5th linac cavity and two 45 MW klystrons. New HGHG modulator and dispersion sections vacuum chambers w...

  10. Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

  11. [Promoting research in a medical center--the management narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Jonathan; Turner, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Promoting research within a medical institute is a delicate balance between the importance of facilitating academia and maximizing resources towards the primary goal of a hospital--healing sick people. Shaare Zedek Medical Center have successfully adopted a "niche" approach to research in which the hospital invests in selected talented clinicians-scientists rather than futile expectation that all clinicians would be engaged in high impact research. Moreover, these research excellence centers are developing into a driving force to also foster research endeavors of other clinicians and residents in the hospital. In this special issue of Harefuah honoring Shaare Zedek investigators, 18 manuscripts included reflect the diversity of research projects performed in the medical center. We believe that this project will assist and encourage clinicians to be engaged in research, at all levels and disciplines.

  12. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  13. Clinical Research In The International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Nalliah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research refers to any field ofresearch involving human subjects. Clinicians asresearchers are well placed in contributing to research asthey have access to human subjects and are able to applyresearch results for better patient outcome. The need forclinician-scientists as a dedicated breed is henceimplied. Clinical research has low priority in the agendaof academic clinicians for various reasons. Strategies toovercome such a malady include training in researchmethodology and creating a permissive environment forthe conduct of research. The IMU has introducedseveral measures to enhance clinical research and has avibrant postgraduate program. The BMedSc programmehas seen an increase in MBBS students taking thisdegree. Research is part of the curriculum before theSemester 7 examinations. Clinicians have beenincreasingly seen to be involved in research. Theenhancement of clinical research through encouragingformal clinical research training and development of theMBBS-PhD programs could further enhance clinicalresearch at the IMU. Attention to logistic constraints,improvement in collaboration with the CRC-MOH andother agencies and the close working relationship withscientists will propel clinical research to higher levels.

  14. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  15. Medical marijuana: CAS releases report, government cuts research funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    In June 2006, the Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) released a comprehensive report with recommendations to overcome barriers to the use of cannabis for medical purposes faced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. On 25 September 2006, as part of package of spending cuts, the federal government announced plans to eliminate its marijuana medical research program.

  16. Risk management for medical devices in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In applied research for medical devices exists a conflict between effective research and regulations. While researchers need sufficient freedom the regulations require a complex technical documentation for a medical device. One relevant aspect of the regulations is risk management which takes time and therefore is ignored in many research projects. With adoptions to the standard the effort can be reduced: Identifying of risks can be focused on critical risks, measures can be categorised and only some categories need to be implemented. Research teams using this method can provide results which can be transferred into commercial products easier, cheaper and faster.

  17. A Multiagent System for Dynamic Data Aggregation in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Dubovitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of medical data for research purposes is a challenging and long-lasting process. In an effort to accelerate and facilitate this process we propose a new framework for dynamic aggregation of medical data from distributed sources. We use agent-based coordination between medical and research institutions. Our system employs principles of peer-to-peer network organization and coordination models to search over already constructed distributed databases and to identify the potential contributors when a new database has to be built. Our framework takes into account both the requirements of a research study and current data availability. This leads to better definition of database characteristics such as schema, content, and privacy parameters. We show that this approach enables a more efficient way to collect data for medical research.

  18. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  19. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  20. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  1. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Accessed 1-yr attrition % attrit Paralysis, weakness, lack of coordination 397 3.8 42 10.6 26 61.9 9 34.6 6 66.7 Recurrent headaches 392 3.8 130...3.7 86 22.5 58 67.4 15 25.9 2 13.3 Visually caviated teeth 302 2.9 181 59.9 111 61.3 50 45.0 11 22.0 Current orthodontic appliances 155 1.5 56 36.1...of recurrent syncope and/or presyncope unless there has been no recurrence during the preceding 2 years while off all medication. Syncope or a

  2. Developing research skills in medical students: AMEE Guide No. 69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Aiton, Jim; Struthers, Julie; Guild, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This Guide has been written to provide guidance for individuals involved in curriculum design who wish to develop research skills and foster the attributes in medical undergraduates that help develop research. The Guide will provoke debate on an important subject, and although written specifically with undergraduate medical education in mind, we hope that it will be of interest to all those involved with other health professionals' education. Initially, the Guide describes why research skills and its related attributes are important to those pursuing a medical career. It also explores the reasons why research skills and an ethos of research should be instilled into professionals of the future. The Guide also tries to define what these skills and attributes should be for medical students and lays out the case for providing opportunities to develop research expertise in the undergraduate curriculum. Potential methods to encourage the development of research-related attributes are explored as are some suggestions as to how research skills could be taught and assessed within already busy curricula. This publication also discusses the real and potential barriers to developing research skills in undergraduate students, and suggests strategies to overcome or circumvent these. Whilst we anticipate that this Guide will appeal to all levels of expertise in terms of student research, we hope that, through the use of case studies, we will provide practical advice to those currently developing this area within their curriculum.

  3. International travel as medical research: architecture and the modern hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cameron; Willis, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The design and development of the modern hospital in Australia had a profound impact on medical practice and research at a variety of levels. Between the late 1920s and the 1950s hospital architects, administrators, and politicians travelled widely in order to review the latest international developments in the hospital field They were motivated by Australia's geographic isolation and a growing concern with how to govern the population at the level of physical health. While not 'medical research' in the conventional sense of the term, this travel was a powerful generator of medical thinking in Australia and has left a rich archival legacy. This paper draws on that archive to demonstrate the ways in which architectural research and international networks of hospital specialists profoundly shaped the provision of medical infrastructure in Australia.

  4. Religion and the body in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S

    1998-09-01

    Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue. It finds that the "donation paradigm" typically invoked in religious discourse to justify uses of the body for therapeutic reasons is inadequate in the context of nontherapeutic research, while the "resource paradigm" implicit in scientific discourse presumes a reductionist account of the body that runs contrary to important religious values about embodiment. The essay proposes a "contribution paradigm" that provides a religious perspective within which research on human tissue can be both justified and limited.

  5. Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year we had observed different types of misconduct in the submitted manuscripts into the editorial office. Those are included attempted theft of data, presence of ghost authors, gift authorship, dual submissions, salami publications, falsification and some other types of fraud. Our analysis in the editorial office led us to conclude that research fraud is an important issue and should be discussed clearly. The emphasis on competition and pressure to produce published materials, while internal intention to discover the scientific truth may foster a conflict between personal career goals and human intellectual motivation; finally may induce research misconduct. Having accurate and good knowledge in this field is mandatory for researchers especially the younger ones. In the first part of this article we will discuss a short but important part of the history of this problem and in the second part definition and editorial response will be reviewed

  6. Medical Research on Stem Cells to Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China will maintain its opposition to human reproductive cloning but will continue to allow closely monitored embryo stem cell research for the treatment and prevention of disease, said Wang Hongguang, president of the China National Center for Biotechnology Development, on February 20 in Beijing.

  7. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  8. Research status and development of medical science in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-hai SUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To propose the concept, objects of study,tasks and roles of military medical sciences in cold regions(CM, and provide a theoretical basis and academic reference for its establishment anddevelopment. Methods  Literature concerning medical sciences in cold regions were retrieved with infomatics method to analyze the research status and development of medical sciences in cold regions in the military,domestic and abroad, and venture to propose the strategy and direction of development of medical sciences in cold regions. Results CM is a comprehensive medical science composing of multiple speciaties.A large area of Chinese territory is situated in frigid area, where the garrison servicemen have to take up onerous duties, so that the establishment anddevelopment of CM should be considered as a special subject and an important specialty in military medical support. Conclusion Research work on CM in PLA is in preliminary stage.For developing CM in the future,it is suggested to integrate medical resources of CM, with the aim of gathering and rectifying interrelated medical resources,improving related medical equipment,in order to establish abasic and clinical research platform for improving the health level of garrison forces both at peacetime and during military conflicts, and also in prevention of organic and psychological diseases.Therefore,it is important to emphasize the establishment of such specialty, with an effort to accelerate team construction of science and technology of medicine of cold regions, with an increase in funding for research andimprovement in improve the scientific innovation, with a purpose of safeguarding andimproving the combat effectiveness of troops in cold regions.

  9. The superconducting inflector for the BNL g-2 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Krieman, F; Roberts, BL; Brown, HN; Bunce, G; Danby, GT; G-Perdekamp, M; Hseuh, H; Jia, L.; Lee, YY; Mapes, M; Meng, W; Morse, W; Pai, C; Prigl, R; Sampson, W; Sandberg, J; Suenaga, M; Tallerico, T; Toldo, F; Woodle, K; Green, MA; Itoh, I.; Otsuka, H.; Saito, Y; Ozawa, T; Tachiya, Y; Tanaka, H; Grossmann, A; Jungmann, K; Putlitz, GZ; Deng, H; Dhawan, S; Hughes, Robert E; Kawall, D; Pretz, J; Redin, S; Sichtermann, E; Steinmetz, A

    2002-01-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has the goal of determining the muon anomalous magnetic moment, a(mu) (= (g-2)/2), to the very high precision of 0.35 parts per million and thus requires a storage ring magnet with great stability and homogeneity. A super-ferric storage

  10. Data Model of the BNL Archive and Dissemination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, J; Osterer, L

    1977-02-01

    The Data Model, i.e., the information content of the data base as it is viewed by the users, of the BNL Archive and Dissemination System is presented. The syntax of the data model is stated in BNF form, and the semantic meaning is discussed. Examples of the use of the data model are given. 3 figs.

  11. Decline of clinical research in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Kimford J

    2015-09-29

    Marked changes in US medical school funding began in the 1960s with progressively increasing revenues from clinical services. The growth of clinical revenues slowed in the mid-1990s, creating a funding crisis for US academic health care centers, who responded by having their faculty increase their clinical duties at the expense of research activities. Surveys document the resultant stresses on the academic clinician researcher. The NIH provides greater funding for basic and translational research than for clinical research, and the new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is inadequately funded to address the scope of needed clinical research. An increasing portion of clinical research is funded by industry, which leaves many important clinical issues unaddressed. There is an inadequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a lack of external support for clinical research. The impact on the academic environment in university medical centers is especially severe on young faculty, who have a shrinking potential to achieve successful academic careers. National health care research funding policies should encourage the right balance of life-science investigations. Medical universities need to improve and highlight education on clinical research for students, residents, fellows, and young faculty. Medical universities also need to provide appropriate incentives for clinical research. Without training to ensure an adequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a method to adequately fund clinical research, discoveries from basic and translational research cannot be clinically tested and affect patient care. Thus, many clinical problems will continue to be evaluated and treated with inadequate or even absent evidence-based knowledge.

  12. Implications of translating research into practice: a medication management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Gretchen E; Frey, Dennee

    2006-01-01

    Through programs such as the Administration on Aging's Evidence-Based Prevention Initiative, researchers and practitioners are developing translational research studies seeking to implement rigorously tested, evidence-based interventions in new practice settings and evaluate the continuing effectiveness of these interventions. One such translational study is the Community-Based Medications Management Intervention (CBM Intervention), a collaborative effort to implement a medication management screening and intervention protocol in community-based waiver care management programs. The overall goals of the CBM Intervention are to implement an evidence-based medication management intervention in a California Medicaid waiver care management program, and to evaluate the effect of client-, intervention-, and organizational-level characteristics on resolving identified medication problems. This article presents the need for improved medication management in a frail, community-dwelling, older adult population and describes the CBM Intervention as an example of translating an evidence-based practice beyond its original efficacy trial in a home healthcare program into a care management program. It discusses critical factors involved in translating research into practice using a translational research framework, Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS). Our experience suggests that although implementing research into practice can positively impact client care, professional skill enhancement and organizational effectiveness, this is very challenging work requiring signification facilitation for successful outcomes.

  13. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations.

  14. Reliability and validity in medical research

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Scientists commonly refer to study instruments duringmedical research. In fact, the reliability and validity issuesgo beyond psychometric studies and can be linked withany kind measurements. In this study we aimed to explainthe reliability and validity concepts by giving examples.It is possible to evaluate the reliability and validity of aninstrument by scientific methods. If we speak of reliability,we have to mention stability (having the same results inrepeated measurements from the same sa...

  15. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweileh Waleed M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18% articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9% articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  16. Research in medical education: pratical impact on medical training and future challenges [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Medical education research has changed over the years from merely descriptive studies towards justification or curriculum comparison studies and, nowadays, towards a slow introduction of more clarification studies. In clarification studies quantitative and qualitative methods are used to explain why or how educational interventions work or do not work. This shift is described in this paper. In addition, it is explained how research into workplace learning and assessment has impacted developments in educational practice. Finally, it is argued that the participation of teachers within the medical domain in conducting and disseminating research should be cherished, because they play a crucial role in ensuring that medical education research is applied in educational practice.

  17. Research in Medical Education: Balancing Service and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures"…

  18. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  19. Brief guidelines for methods and statistics in medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Ab Rahman, Jamalludin

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide to methods and statistics in medical research. It includes step-by-step instructions on using SPSS software for statistical analysis, as well as relevant examples to help those readers who are new to research in health and medical fields. Simple texts and diagrams are provided to help explain the concepts covered, and print screens for the statistical steps and the SPSS outputs are provided, together with interpretations and examples of how to report on findings. Brief Guidelines for Methods and Statistics in Medical Research offers a valuable quick reference guide for healthcare students and practitioners conducting research in health related fields, written in an accessible style.

  20. Gender-sensitive reporting in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Shirin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex and gender differences influence the health and wellbeing of men and women. Although studies have drawn attention to observed differences between women and men across diseases, remarkably little research has been pursued to systematically investigate these underlying sex differences. Women continue to be underrepresented in clinical trials, and even in studies in which both men and women participate, systematic analysis of data to identify potential sex-based differences is lacking. Standards for reporting of clinical trials have been established to ensure provision of complete, transparent and critical information. An important step in addressing the gender imbalance would be inclusion of a gender perspective in the next Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT guideline revision. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, as a set of well-recognized and widely used guidelines for authors and biomedical journals, should similarly emphasize the ethical obligation of authors to present data analyzed by gender as a matter of routine. Journal editors are also promoters of ethical research and adequate standards of reporting, and requirements for inclusion of gender analyses should be integrated into editorial policies as a matter of urgency.

  1. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  2. Research status and development tendency of medical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development in the medical psychological branches,such as physiological psychology,mental measurement,psychological counseling,and treatment.With these developments,military medical psychology achieved much with regard to the reserve of talented men,the mental measurement for officers and soldiers,mental intervention for military stress,and psychological rehabilitation after stress.Conclusion Thus,future studies on military medical psychology should focus on intensifying the training of medical psychology experts to promote the study on the etiology of military mental diseases and on the prevention and treatment of mental disorders caused by wars.

  3. Combating Fraud in Medical Research: Research Validation Standards Utilized by the Journal of Surgical Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin Patel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fraud in medical publishing has risen to the national spotlight as manufactured and suspect data have led to retractions of papers in prominent journals. Moral turpitude in medical research has led to the loss of National Institute of Health (NIH grants, directly affected patient care, and has led to severe legal ramifications for some authors. While there are multiple checks and balances in medical research to prevent fraud, the final enforcement lies with journal editors and publishers. There is an ethical and legal obligation to make careful and critical examinations of the medical research published in their journals. Failure to follow the highest standards in medical publishing can lead to legal liability and destroy a journal’s integrity. More significant, however, is the protection of the medical profession’s trust with their colleagues and the public they serve. This article discusses various techniques and tools available to editors and publishers that can help curtail fraud in medical publishing.

  4. Pender's health promotion model in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    This review shows how researchers use pander's health promotion model. We included all articles in which Pender's health promotion has been used for theoretical framework. Eligible articles were selected according to review of abstracts. Search was conducted using the electronic database from 1990 to 2012. Based on our search, 74 articles with various methodologies were relevant for review. Their aims of these studies were to predict effective factors/barriers in health promotion behaviours, to detect effects of intervention programme for improving health promotion behaviours, test the model, identify quality of life and health promotion behaviour, predict stage of change in related factors that affect health promotion behaviour, prevent the events that interfere with health promotion behaviour, develop another model similar to this model, compare this model with another model, determine the relationship of variables associated to health promotion behaviours.

  5. Medical Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations: The Relationship-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nate W

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I provide a new account of the basis of medical researchers' ancillary care obligations. Ancillary care in medical research, or medical care that research participants need but that is not required for the validity or safety of a study or to redress research injuries, is a topic that has drawn increasing attention in research ethics over the last ten years. My view, the relationship-based approach, improves on the main existing theory, Richardson and Belsky's 'partial-entrustment model', by avoiding its problematic restriction on the scope of health needs for which researchers could be obligated to provide ancillary care. Instead, it grounds ancillary care obligations in a wide range of morally relevant features of the researcher-participant relationship, including the level of engagement between researchers and participants, and weighs these factors against each other. I argue that the level of engagement, that is, the duration and intensity of interactions, between researchers and participants matters for ancillary care because of its connection to the meaningfulness of a relationship, and I suggest that other morally relevant features can be grounded in researchers' role obligations.

  6. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  7. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  8. [Ocean and bio-medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, par Gilles

    2007-01-01

    On the Planet Earth, oceans and seas today correspond to the largest volume offered to Life. Roughly, 275,000 species have been described from marine environments, only representing some 15% of all the present known living. But marine biomass can be enormous. Life appeared in the ancestral ocean 3 800 million years ago and determining events occurred there: appearance of the nuclear membrane and cell nucleus, "pluricellularity", capture of bacteria transformed into organelles, then sexuality. On the 33 phyla existing today on the Earth, 12 never have left the ocean and are exclusively marine. Such biodiversity, archaism of characters, organisational and behavioural patterns make these marine organisms an excellent reservoir for identifying and extracting very interesting pharmacological and cosmetic molecules (>5 000 today) and/or to represent very pertinent "models" for basic and applied research. Relationships between ocean and public health are physical, chemical, biological and physiological. A few marine species as "models" set the base for major advances in life sciences recognized by several Nobel Prices: from the discovery of phagocytosis to anaphylactic shock, and including nervous influx transmission, memory molecular bases, cyclins discovery, eye organisation, neurotransmitter membrane receptors, bases of the specific immune system... These marine models are very useful to understand the origin and functioning of important living mechanisms in the human and sometimes to deduce applications for efficient treatments. Ocean supplies mankind with renewable living resources, much threatened today. We have to manage and protect these to maintain ecosystems, stocks and biodiversity. Only because of the greenhouse effect and anthropic emissions, temperature is globally increasing: and, what if (tomorrow?) one million species would disappear (before 2050) because of global warming?

  9. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  10. Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within

  11. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  12. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  14. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity Annual Report 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity annual Report 2001 summarizes work done to support the development of evidence-based...Hepatitis, Temporomandibular Disorders, Thyroid Disorders, Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Pap Smear, Enuresis, and Varicocele. Over 1,575,000 enlisted

  15. Research Training in Medical Informatics: The Stanford Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1989-01-01

    Stanford University created an interdisciplinary program to train researchers and academic leaders in the field of medical information sciences. The program is described, identifying experiences of interest to people developing such a program. The program's background and history, students, curriculum and philosophy, and lessons learned are…

  16. Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents Newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet are full of health news stories. Some sound too good to be true. Others sound truly alarming. Here are some tips on how to ... of medical research on television or read about it in the paper. Perhaps ...

  17. Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

  18. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal widt

  19. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  20. [Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

    2013-03-01

    The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale.

  1. ELECTRON COOLING AND ELECTRON-ION COLLIDERS AT BNL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2007-10-03

    Superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) have significant potential uses in various fields, including High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is pursuing some of the potential applications in this area and the technology issues that are associated with these applications. The work addressed in this paper is carried out at BNL towards applications in electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams and electron-nucleon colliders. The common issues for these applications are the generation of high currents of polarized or high-brightness unpolarized electrons, high-charge per bunch and high-current. One must address the associated issue of High-Order Modes generation and damping. Superconducting ERLs have great advantages for these applications as will be outlined in the text.

  2. Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, J S

    1999-09-01

    The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults.

  3. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  4. Integrative Curriculum Development in Nuclear Education and Research Vertical Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Jow, Julius O.; Edwards, Matthew E.; Montgomery, V. Trent [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science Center, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); James, Ralph B.; Blackburn, Noel D. [Nonproliferation and National Security Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Glenn, Chance M. [College of Engineering, Technology and Physical Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Using a vertical education enhancement model, a Nuclear Education and Research Vertical Enhancement (NERVE) program was developed. The NERVE program is aimed at developing nuclear engineering education and research to 1) enhance skilled workforce development in disciplines relevant to nuclear power, national security and medical physics, and 2) increase the number of students and faculty from underrepresented groups (women and minorities) in fields related to the nuclear industry. The program uses multi-track training activities that vertically cut across the several education domains: undergraduate degree programs, graduate schools, and post-doctoral training. In this paper, we present the results of an integrative curriculum development in the NERVE program. The curriculum development began with nuclear content infusion into existing science, engineering and technology courses. The second step involved the development of nuclear engineering courses: 1) Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 2) Nuclear Engineering I, and 2) Nuclear Engineering II. The third step is the establishment of nuclear engineering concentrations in two engineering degree programs: 1) electrical engineering, and 2) mechanical engineering. A major outcome of the NERVE program is a collaborative infrastructure that uses laboratory work, internships at nuclear facilities, on-campus research, and mentoring in collaboration with industry and government partners to provide hands-on training for students. The major activities of the research and education collaborations include: - One-week spring training workshop at Brookhaven National Laboratory: The one-week training and workshop is used to enhance research collaborations and train faculty and students on user facilities/equipment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and for summer research internships. Participants included students, faculty members at Alabama A and M University and research collaborators at BNL. The activities include 1) tour and

  5. Enhancing medical research efficiency by using concept maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurupur, Varadraj P; Kamdi, Amit S; Tuncer, Tolga; Tanik, Murat M; Tanju, Murat N

    2011-01-01

    Even with today's advances in technology, the processes involved in medical research continue to be both time consuming and labor intensive. We have built an experimental integrated tool to convert the textual information available to the researchers into a concept map using the Web Ontology Language as an intermediate source of information. This tool is based on building semantic models using concept maps. The labor-intensive sequence of processes involved in medical research is suitably replaced by using this tool built by a suitable integration of concept maps and Web Ontology Language. We analyzed this tool by considering the example of linking vitamin D deficiency with prostate cancer. This tool is intended to provide a faster solution in building relations and concepts based on the existing facts.

  6. Patient perceptions on the subject of medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventolini G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gary Ventolini,1 Breanna Goodwin,1 Courtney Woody21School of Medicine, 2Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Odessa, TX, USAAbstract: While performing medical research we often spend little time addressing patient's views on how research participants perceive the trial will affect their own condition. This manuscript identifies various ways in which the field of medicine must approach the important subject of patient's outlook. The described approach is vital to succeed at achieving meaningful patient's involvement in research.Keywords: human, trials, involvement, insights, options

  7. Perspectives on electronic medical records adoption: electronic medical records (EMR in outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Belletti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dan Belletti1, Christopher Zacker1, C Daniel Mullins21Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Health information technology (HIT is engineered to promote improved quality and efficiency of care, and reduce medical errors. Healthcare organizations have made significant investments in HIT tools and the electronic medical record (EMR is a major technological advance. The Department of Veterans Affairs was one of the first large healthcare systems to fully implement EMR. The Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VistA began by providing an interface to review and update a patient’s medical record with its computerized patient record system. However, since the implementation of the VistA system there has not been an overall substantial adoption of EMR in the ambulatory or inpatient setting. In fact, only 23.9% of physicians were using EMRs in their office-based practices in 2005. A sample from the American Medical Association revealed that EMRs were available in an office setting to 17% of physicians in late 2007 and early 2008. Of these, 17% of physicians with EMR, only 4% were considered to be fully functional EMR systems. With the exception of some large aggregate EMR databases the slow adoption of EMR has limited its use in outcomes research. This paper reviews the literature and presents the current status of and forces influencing the adoption of EMR in the office-based practice, and identifies the benefits, limitations, and overall value of EMR in the conduct of outcomes research in the US.Keywords: electronic medical records, health information technology, medical errors

  8. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: VOLUME 61 RIKEN-TODAI MINI-WORKSHOP ON ''TOPICS IN HADRON PHYSICS AT RHIC''. VOLUME 61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EN' YO,H.HAMAGAKI,H.HATSUDAT.WATANABA,Y.YAZAKI,K.

    2004-05-26

    The RIKEN-TODAI Mini-Workshop on ''Topics in Hadron Physics at RHIC'' was held on March 23rd and 24th, 2064 at the Nishina Memorial Hall of RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan, sponsored by RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and TODAI (University of Tokyo). The workshop was planned when we learned that two distinguished theorists in hadron physics, Professors L. McLerran and S.H. Lee, would be visiting TODAI and/or RIKEN during the week of March 22-26. We asked them to give key talks at the beginning of the workshop and attend the sessions consisting of talks by young theorists in RIKEN, TODAI and other institutes in Japan and they kindly agreed on both. Considering the JPS meeting scheduled from March 27 through 30, we decided to have a.one-and-half-a-day workshop on March 23 and 24. The purpose of the workshop was to offer young researchers an opportunity to learn the forefront of hadron physics as well as to discuss their own works with the distinguished theorists.

  10. Naval Medical Research And Development News. Volume 7, Issue 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Center, Matthew Wagner of the Naval Medical Research Center, Andrew Vickers of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Christopher Dente of Emory...countless tedious hours in the lab, you make a discovery that adds to the greater wealth of scientific knowledge and has the potential to benefit many...Edstrom and David Burnside, were in attendance with their dog to watch Edstrom’s daughter, intern Emmy Franklin of Rhode Island School of Design

  11. The role of user requirements research in medical device development

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, A; Alshawi, S

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This research aims to suggest a concise framework to help in the better conceptualisation and integration of users in the medical device development (MDD) process. The current economic, political and social climate concerning the matter of healthcare delivery has resulted in the emergence of numerous users and user groups for whom the healthcare system has not previously catered for. These users have created ambiguity for the designers and manufacturers of ...

  12. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  13. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanfeng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Pengbo; Meng, Jinfeng; Li, Haibei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guangfu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Lingqian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gangqiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  14. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management.

  15. BNL ACCELERATOR-BASED RADIOBIOLOGY FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    2000-05-28

    For the past several years, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) has provided ions of iron, silicon and gold, at energies from 600 MeV/nucleon to 10 GeV/nucleon, for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) radiobiology research program. NASA has recently funded the construction of a new dedicated ion facility, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The Booster synchrotron will supply ion beams ranging from protons to gold, in an energy range from 40--3,000 MeV/nucleon with maximum beam intensities of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} ions per pulse. The BAF Project is described and the future AGS and BAF operation plans are presented.

  16. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research.

  17. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  18. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  19. Commentary: a ray of hope for medical school research funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Steven G; Lockwood, Charles J; Marsh, Clay B

    2012-11-01

    Academic health centers are traditionally dependent on extramural agencies like the National Institutes of Health to fund medical research. The still-struggling U.S. economy has kept federal paylines stagnant in recent years even as research costs climb. Academic health center leaders need to find new funding sources to ensure that critical medical research continues. Myers and colleagues, in their report in this issue of Academic Medicine, found that scientific research funding by philanthropic nonprofit organizations rose 26% from 2006 to 2008. Even though the time frame for their study precedes the recent economic recession, their findings provide hope and guidance to academic health centers. Stable research portfolios should include a variety of sources, and Myers and colleagues suggest that partnership opportunities exist between federal and not-for-profit funding sources to focus on key disease areas. Seeking broader research funding may benefit at-risk groups like junior investigators, as the average age of a first-time NIH grant recipient in 2008 was 42 years old. To foster the new discoveries and ideas that come from young scientists, academic health centers need to diversify their research funding sources.It is encouraging that high-visibility philanthropic organizations enhanced funding by 26% from 2006 to 2008. However, between 2008 and 2010, overall grant support from foundations declined 2.3%. Should federal and private funding continue to fall, there is an eminent threat of losing a generation of investigators. Thus, creative solutions and partnerships are needed to fund more high-priority research to cure disease and create the future of medicine.

  20. BNL 56 MHz HOM damper prototype fabrication at JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, N.; McIntyre, G.; Daly, E. F.; Clemens, W.; Wu, Q.; Seberg, S.; Bellavia, S.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider’s (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  1. BNL 56 MHz HOM Damper Prototype Fabrication at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); McIntyre, Gary T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Qiong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seberg, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bellavia, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider's (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  2. SERPENTINE COIL TOPOLOGY FOR BNL DIRECT WIND SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARKER, B.; ESCALLIER, J.

    2005-05-16

    Serpentine winding, a recent innovation developed at BNL for direct winding superconducting magnets, allows winding a coil layer of arbitrary multipolarity in one continuous winding process and greatly simplifies magnet design and production compared to the planar patterns used before. Serpentine windings were used for the BEPC-II Upgrade and JPARC magnets and are proposed to make compact final focus magnets for the EC. Serpentine patterns exhibit a direct connection between 2D body harmonics and harmonics derived from the integral fields. Straightforward 2D optimization yields good integral field quality with uniformly spaced (natural) coil ends. This and other surprising features of Serpentine windings are addressed in this paper.

  3. Results from the experiment E895 at the BNL AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, G; Alexander, J; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D A; Chance, J L; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J; Klay, J; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L S; Srivastava, B K; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Wells, R; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Yang, X; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y

    1999-01-01

    We present some of the latest results from the E895 experiment conducted at the BNL AGS accelerator. Au+Au collisions were recorded by the EOS Time Projection Chamber (TPC) at beam energies of 2, 4, 6, and 8 A GeV. The TPC detector permitted the reconstruction of individual collision events with almost 4 pi acceptance and good particle identification. This capability allowed E895 to study global observables and two particle correlations with respect to symmetries of the event. Flow excitation functions are examined and discussed in the context of the Nuclear Equation of State.

  4. The two revolutions in bio-medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern medical science, we can identify certain epochs. Some of these will be our concern here, for they offer important insights into the development of modern medicine and offer equally important predictors of where it is heading in the future. In fact they are so important that they qualify to be called nothing less than revolutions.Till the early twentieth century, medicine was an activity dependent on a small privileged elite. This changed by the mid-twentieth century into a vast publicly owned enterprise with enlightened governmental approach, support and funding. One example of this was in the 1940s, sixty five years ago, when Vannever Bush in the US, for example, persuaded the government there to divert resources allocated for the then war effort (World War II to fund basic research in academic institutions. Similarly, in India, what was earlier dependent on the benevolence of zamindars/philanthropists and some missionaries who set up charitable dispensaries/hospitals to serve certain sections of the population was supplemented, and then overtaken, by governmental funding after independence in 1947.This major governmental support to medical science was an important development that led to great advances in medical research and facilities all over. Such funding and consequent blossoming of medical science was nothing less than a revolution, which we can legitimately consider the first revolution in modern medicine.A second revolution was soon to follow four decades later. It was fuelled by a vast upsurge in medical research, training and therapy, with capital pouring in from private enterprise and philanthropy. This revolution is still on. It is aided by efforts like the Bayh-Dole Amendments of 1980 in the US, for example. This epoch making amendment conferred intellectual property rights to institutions and connected scientists even if they had developed their products/inventions with government funding. It was followed

  5. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  6. Archives of Medical Research: an historical and subject coverage overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, X; Rivera-Arce, E; Domínguez, F; Arellano, M L; Muñoz, O

    1995-01-01

    A bibliometric study about the subject content of the articles published in the Mexican scientific journal Archives of Medical Research is reported. The journal, published by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), is comprised of 100 regular issues and 12 special supplements giving a total amount of 1,424 reports on medical research performed in Mexico during the last 25 years. According to the type of studies published during this period, we found that there is a similar percent of biomedical and clinical reports in the journal (47 and 42%, respectively) and a low proportion of epidemiological and medical educational reports (8 and 3%, respectively). Six thematic areas of research have been permanently published in this journal: investigations on infectious and neurological diseases being the areas mainly represented (34% of the total, corresponding to 17% in each area), followed by studies in reproductive biology (10%) and endocrine (7%), oncological (5%) and cardiovascular (3%) diseases. The tendency of the subjects covered by the journal during this period shows an increment in reports on infectious and parasitic disorders together with an increase in publications related to medicinal plant pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrine studies show also an increasing tendency. On the other hand, a moderate decrease in studies related to neurological, oncological and cardiovascular diseases is observed. The origin of contributions during the last five years has balanced the proportion of papers published from IMSS scientists, other Mexican biomedical researchers and foreign contributions, thus reflecting favorably the recent changes in the journal's policies. This journal represents a clear example of a scientific publication edited in a developing country, originating as a national publication that evolved progressively into an international biomedical journal.

  7. Qualitative methods used in medical informatics research: a 12-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2008-11-06

    Qualitative methodology is gaining popularity in medical informatics research. We performed a systematic review of published studies, between 1994 and 2005, in two major medical informatics journals: JAMIA and International Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI). The goal is to describe the emerging trends of using qualitative methodology in medical informatics research and to access the methodological quality of these qualitative studies.

  8. [Research code at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam: useful].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, M

    2002-08-31

    At the Academic Medical Centre (AMC) of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, it was decided to set up a research code committee. The first thing that was done was to define what were considered the most relevant types of scientific misconduct: falsification, plagiarism and invasion of privacy. The committee decided that prevention is better than cure and therefore developed a guideline for desirable behaviour, i.e. how to act scientifically with care and integrity, instead of a guideline on what not to do. The committee also proposed an ombudsman whose services are available to all participants in research in the AMC, and to whom misconduct can be reported. The research code is a loose-leaf system, since new issues will come to the fore and included issues will need to be changed. This committee has created a code that provides a firm basis for scientific integrity within the AMC.

  9. Has the commercialisation of medical research gone too far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Barker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has been complicit in the increasing role of commercial companies in research, which in turn have little incentive to share the benefits of research. As a result, huge swathes of medical research rely on commercialisation and related patent protection in order to thrive. There is a distinct lack of evidence that commercialisation has led to an improvement in public health, the claim of increased innovation simply does not have empirical support. Commercialisation has led to skewed benefits in favour of companies, whereby industry is using the public's resource without adequately paying for it, this imbalance may be seen as a form of exploitation. In this paper I argue that the skewed relationship between commercial and public interest needs to be addressed in order to ensure we meet healthcare needs of our patients in the future and ensuring the healthcare remains affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2841-2843

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKIN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP - VOLUME 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMIOS,N.

    2006-02-16

    Since the earliest days of ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics, there has been interest in strange particle production. Originally, an anomalously large strangeness production was believed to be a signature of the Quark Gluon Plasma. Now the flavor composition of the plasma as reflected in the ratios of abundances of strange and non-strange particles is believed by advocates to tell us the temperature and baryon number density of the Quark Gluon Plasma at decoupling. In addition, there are arguments that suggest that the abundances of strange particles might at intermediate energy or at non-central rapidity, signal the existence of a critical end point of phase transitions in the baryon number chemical potential temperature plane. The purpose of this workshop is to assess the current theoretical and experimental understanding of strangeness production for ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP (VOLUME 70)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACAK, B.; SHURYAK, E.; HALLMAN, T.; BASS, S.; DAVIDSON, R.

    2005-01-14

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was commissioned for heavy ion collisions and for polarized pp collisions in 2001. All principal components of the accelerator chain were operational by the 2003 RHIC run. Approximately 50 papers on RHIC experimental results have been published in refereed journals to date. This is a testament to the vast amount of exciting new information and the unprecedented analysis and publication rate from RHIC. A number of signals of creation of matter at extreme energy density, and of new physics in that matter, have been observed. The RHIC community has been heavily engaged in discussion about these signals, and about the appropriate level of proof for Quark Gluon Plasma discovery at the RHIC. In fact, such discussions were the subject of an earlier RBRC Workshop. One of the striking results from heavy ion collisions at RHIC is that the quark gluon plasma accessible appears to be strongly coupled. The properties of strongly coupled plasmas are of intense interest in the traditional Plasma Physics community, who have been developing tools to study such matter theoretically and experimentally. Despite the fact that one plasma interacts electromagnetically and the other through the strong interaction, there is tremendous commonality in the intellectual approach and even the theoretical and experimental tools. It is important to broaden the discussion of Quark Gluon Plasma discovery beyond possible signals of deconfinement to also encompass signals of plasma phenomena in heavy ion collisions. Thus it is imperative establish more direct contact among Nuclear, Plasma and Atomic physicists to share techniques and ideas. RHIC physicists will benefit from familiarity with typical plasma diagnostics and theoretical methods to study strongly coupled plasmas. Plasma and Atomic physicists may fmd new techniques parallel to the multi-particle correlations used in RHIC data analysis, and theoretical tools to study high energy density matter where the coupling constant is not small. The goal of this Workshop was to bring together experts at the forefront of theoretical and experimental work on strongly coupled systems in the three communities. From the variety and depth of the presentations at the workshop, we believe that we successfully fostered the exchange of information and ideas. Furthermore, many overlaps and possible exchanges of techniques were identified. Extremely interesting discussions took place, identifying possible avenues for further exchanges and interdisciplinary collaborations.

  12. Health services research in workers' compensation medical care: policy issues and research opportunities.

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelstein, J; Buchanan, J L; Dembe, A E; Stevens, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe some of the unique aspects of medical care offered under workers' compensation insurance systems and discuss the major policy considerations relevant to health services researchers undertaking investigations in this area. BACKGROUND AND FINDINGS: State-based workers' compensation (WC) insurance systems requiring employers to pay for medical care and wage replacement for workplace injuries and illnesses were first developed between 1910 and 1920 in the United States. Emp...

  13. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tømmerås Karin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  14. Cooling Scheme for BNL-Built LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Van Weelderen, R; Willen, E H; Wu, K C

    1999-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will provide four types of magnets, identified as D1, D2, D3 and D4, for the Insertion Regions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as part of an international collaboration. These magnets utilize the dipole coil design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, for performance, reliability and cost reasons. The magnet cold mass and cryostat have been designed to ensure that these magnets meet all performance requirements in the LHC sloped tunnel using its cryogenic distribution system. D1 is a RHIC arc dipole magnet. D2 and D4 are 2-in-1 magnets, two coils in one cold mass, in a cryostat. D3 is a 1-in-1 magnet, one coil in one cold mass, with two cold masses side by side in a cryostat. D1 and D4 will be cooled by helium II at 1.9 K using a bayonet heat exchanger similar to the main cooling system of LHC. D2 and D3 will be cooled by liquid helium at 4.5 K using a Two-Feed scheme. A detailed description of the cooling scheme for these magnets, their cryostats, spec...

  15. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  16. Research on medical image encryption in telemedicine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yin; Wang, Huanzhen; Zhou, Zixia; Jin, Ziyi

    2016-04-29

    Recently, advances in computers and high-speed communication tools have led to enhancements in remote medical consultation research. Laws in some localities require hospitals to encrypt patient information (including images of the patient) before transferring the data over a network. Therefore, developing suitable encryption algorithms is quite important for modern medicine. This paper demonstrates a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping, which uses the no-period and no-convergence properties of a chaotic sequence to create image chaos and pixel averaging. Then, the chaotic sequence is used to encrypt the image, thereby improving data security. With this method, the security of data and images can be improved.

  17. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions.

  18. Bioastronautics: optimizing human performance through research and medical innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    A strategic use of resources is essential to achieving long-duration space travel and understanding the human physiological changes in space, including the roles of food and nutrition in space. To effectively address the challenges of space flight, the Bioastronautics Initiative, undertaken in 2001, expands extramural collaboration and leverages unique capabilities of the scientific community and the federal government, all the while applying this integrated knowledge to Earth-based problems. Integral to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions in space is the reduction of risk of medical complications, particularly during missions of long duration. Cumulative medical experience and research provide the ability to develop evidence-based medicine for prevention, countermeasures, and treatment modalities for space flight. The early approach applied terrestrial clinical judgment to predict medical problems in space. Space medicine has evolved to an evidence-based approach with the use of biomedical data gathered and lessons learned from previous space flight missions to systematically aid in decision making. This approach led, for example, to the determination of preliminary nutritional requirements for space flight, and it aids in the development of nutrition itself as a countermeasure to support nutritional mitigation of adaptation to space.

  19. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  20. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and... Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on... clinical research training and medical education of the highest quality to each trainee. Frequency...

  1. Evaluating mastery of biostatistics for medical researchers: need for a new assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity

    2011-12-01

    Research training has enabled academic clinicians to contribute significantly to the body of medical research literature. Biostatistics represents a critical methodological skill for such researchers, as statistical methods are increasingly a necessary part of medical research. However, there is no validated knowledge and skills assessment for graduate level biostatistics for academic medical researchers. In this paper, I review graduate level statistical competencies and existing instruments intended to assess physicians' ability to read the medical literature and for undergraduate statistics for their alignment with core competencies necessary for successful use of statistics. This analysis shows a need for a new instrument to assess biostatistical competencies for medical researchers.

  2. Introduction to Medical Research Council Delivery Plan during 2009 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Medical Research Foundation is the Medical Research Council's (MRC) independently managed charity.It receives funds from the giving public to support medical research, training, public engagement and dissemination of knowledge.Since it was first established in 1920, the MRC has been able to accept charitable bequests, endowments and donations from the public to contribute towards the costs of the research that it undertakes.The MRC registered these charitable funds with the Charity Commission in the late 1960's and its charity - the Medical Research Foundation-has been successfully supporting medical research for over 80 years.

  3. Recurring themes arising during medical research ethics committee review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, E; Stanton, A; Vale, G; Smith, D

    2013-06-01

    A standard application form for the ethical review of health-related research studies has recently been adopted by many Irish medical research ethics committees. In order to assess the impact of the new form, we reviewed all comments made by the Beaumont Hospital Ethics Committee during two six-month periods, immediately prior to adoption of the new form (2010), and soon afterwards (2011). Neither volume nor comment type differed significantly between the two observation periods. Participant documentation (information leaflets and consent forms) accounted for the largest proportion of comments (2010; 44%, 2011; 37%). Other common areas prompting queries were study administration (7%), design (12%) and procedures (13%), participant selection and recruitmen (8%), and lastly data protection (9%). Because of these findings, the standard operating procedures of the committee have been revised--use of provided template participant documentation is strongly encouraged, and a "Recurring Review Themes" checklist is highlighted to all applicants.

  4. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces (Report 3). The US Army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V I; Ivchenko, I V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2012-12-01

    The US Army. The present article is the third part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first and the second parts have been published in the previous issuses of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Army. It is shown that in the US Army the medical and biological research is conducted and coordinated by the special US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. The following units are successively presented: US Army Institute of Surgical Research, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. The particular research programs conducting in the above mentioned institutions are presented.

  5. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  6. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  7. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings.

  8. Photodynamic research at Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Matthews, James Lester; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Aronoff, Billie L.; Judy, Millard M.

    1993-03-01

    We received our first CO2 laser at Baylor University Medical Center in December 1974, following a trip to Israel in January of that year. Discussion with the customs office of the propriety of charging an 18% import tax lasted for nine months. We lost that argument. Baylor has been using lasers of many types for many procedures since that time. About ten years ago, through the kindness of Tom Dougherty and Roswell Park, we started working with photodynamic therapy, first with hematoporphyrin I and later with dihematoporphyrin ether (II). In February 1984, we were invited to a conference at Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S.A. on medical applications of the free electron laser as part of the Star Wars Program. A grant application from Baylor was approved that November, but funding did not start for many months. This funding contributed to the development of a new research center as part of Baylor Research Institute. Many of the projects investigated at Baylor dealt with applications of the free electron laser (FEL), after it became available. A staff was assembled and many projects are still ongoing. I would like to outline those which are in some way related to photodynamic therapy.

  9. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  10. Screening for depression in medical research: ethical challenges and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Aisling M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the important role of depression in major illnesses, screening measures for depression are commonly used in medical research. The protocol for managing participants with positive screens is unclear and raises ethical concerns. The aim of this article is to identify and critically discuss the ethical issues that arise when a positive screen for depression is detected, and offer some guidance on managing these issues. Discussion Deciding on whether to report positive screens to healthcare practitioners is both an ethical and a pragmatic dilemma. Evidence suggests that reporting positive depression screens should only be considered in the context of collaborative care. Possible adverse effects, such as the impact of false-positive results, potentially inappropriate labelling, and potentially inappropriate treatment also need to be considered. If possible, the psychometric properties of the selected screening measure should be determined in the target population, and a threshold for depression that minimises the rate of false-positive results should be chosen. It should be clearly communicated to practitioners that screening scores are not diagnostic for depression, and they should be informed about the diagnostic accuracy of the measure. Research participants need to be made aware of the consequences of the detection of high scores on screening measures, and to be fully informed about the implications of the research protocol. Summary Further research is needed and the experiences of researchers, participants, and practitioners need to be collated before the value of reporting positive screens for depression can be ascertained. In developing research protocols, the ethical challenges highlighted should be considered. Participants must be agreeable to the agreed protocol and efforts should be made to minimise potentially adverse effects.

  11. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  12. Beam Loss Estimates and Control for the BNL Neutrino Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Wu-Tsung; Raparia, Deepak; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wei, Jie; Yung Lee, Yong; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW for a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. This increase in beam power is mainly due to the faster repetition rate of the AGS by a new 1.5 GeV superconductiong linac as injector, replacing the existing booster. The requirement for low beam loss is very important both to protect the beam component, and to make the hands-on maintenance possible. In this report, the design considerations for achieving high intensity and low loss will be presented. We start by specifying the beam loss limit at every physical process followed by the proper design and parameters for realising the required goals. The process considered in this paper include the emittance growth in the linac, the H-

  13. Injection and acceleration of Au31+ in the BNL AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer,W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, W.; Huang, H.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Thieberger, P.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, S.Y.; Zeno, K.; Omet, C.; Spiller, P.

    2008-06-23

    Injection and acceleration of ions in a lower charge state reduces space charge effects, and, if further elcctron stripping is needed, may allow elimination of a stripping stage and the associated beam losses. The former is of interest to the accelerators in the GSI FAIR complex, the latter for BNL RHIC collider operation at energies lower than the current injection energy. Lower charge state ions, however, have a higher likelihood of electron stripping which can lead to dynamic pressures rises and subsequent beam losses. We report on experiments in the AGS where Au{sup 31+} ions were injected and accelerated instead of the normally used Au{sup 77+} ions. Beam intensities and the average pressure in the AGS ring are recorded, and compared with calculations for dynamic pressures and beam losses. The experimental results will be used to benchmark the StrahlSim dynamic vacuum code and will be incorporated in the GSI FAIR SIS100 design.

  14. Self-experimentation and its role in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Allen B

    2012-01-01

    Although experimentation involving human volunteers has attracted intense study, the matter of self-experimentation among medical researchers has received much less attention. Many questions have been answered only in part, or have been left unanswered. How common is this practice? Is it more common among certain nationalities? What have been the predominant medical fields in which self-experimentation has occurred? How dangerous an act has this proved to be? What have been the trends over time? What is the future likely to bring?From the available literature, I identified and analyzed 465 documented instances of this practice, performed over the course of the past 2 centuries. Most instances occurred in the United States. The peak of self-experimentation occurred in the first half of the 20th century. Eight deaths were recorded. A number of the investigators enjoyed successful careers, including the receipt of Nobel Prizes. Although self-experimentation by physicians and other biological scientists appears to be in decline, the courage of those involved and the benefits to society cannot be denied.

  15. Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system.

  16. [Research on origin and evolution of Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D

    1996-05-01

    This encyclopedia was lost early in the Ming dynasty. The current edition was blockprinted by Wan's fifth generation grandson in 1654-1659, then comes the next edition of Zhang Tanyi Shilu Tang of Hanyang edition blockprinted in 1712. Next comes Hu Leuqing Wei Tang of Jinxi's edition blockprinted in 1724, which was interpolatedly reprinted by Fuwentang, Tongrentang. The latter was entitled Wan Mizhai's Medical Encyclopedia when blockprinted in 1741. After 1778, there was also a Zhongxintang edition with unknown printed time. The modern printed edition of Luotian revised edition was printed in 1981-1986. The above editions are verified by textual research and material books by describing their printing, edition features and mutual relationship between its origin and development. Errors of printing of some editions are also dealt with.

  17. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy... interested organizations, on medical policy issues that may be considered by the CDER Medical Policy Council (Council) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These comments will help the...

  18. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  19. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  20. [Research on medical data mining and its applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanzhen; Wang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    With the development of computer technology, medical data has developed from traditional paper pattern into electronic mode, which could effectively promote the medical development. This paper at first presents the status and characteristics of medical data mining. Then, it discusses the critical method of medical data mining in classification, clustering and prediction, respectively. The paper focuses on the application and assessment of five algorithms which are designed for medical data mining, including decision tree, cluster analysis, association rule, intelligent algorithm and the mix algorithm. Finally, this paper outlooks the data mining application in medical domain.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  3. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  4. The Research of Medical Safety Information Engineering in Hospital Application Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hao; Fan, Zhang; Li-nong, Yu; Jie, Wang; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-Explore and research the application effect of medical security information engineering in the hospital. Methods-Based on the real examples of the medical security hidden danger, the transportation module system of medical security is set up. By the all survival cycle's theory and IOP modeling method, four modules of structure model are developed, which are disposal of medical hidden danger. Results-The medical information system is developed, which includes four-in-one modules of structure model of integrated medical security transportation system, disputes evaluation system, protocol handling system, medical case analysis and handling system. And it is applied in the implementation of hospital management. Conclusions-The application of the research in the implementation of hospital management can find security hidden danger of hospital timely, the objective existence of medical disputes problems timely. And it can solve medical disputes timely and appropriately, and achieve ideal result, which is worth popularizing and applying in the hospital management.

  5. Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kölsch Heike

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles. We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy, diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound, and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma, various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B, and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the

  6. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARISA NABEIEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods: This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10. Results: In the first phase (NGT, 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26 and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52. In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities.

  7. Is qualitative research second class science? A quantitative longitudinal examination of qualitative research in medical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Shuval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. DESIGN: A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998-2007. The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator by all original research articles published (denominator. We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research. FINDINGS: A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007. The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012; and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, P<0.001. Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075. The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies

  8. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  9. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy.

  10. Optimize Use of Space Research and Technology for Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnifield, Nona K.

    2012-01-01

    systems, and cutting-edge component technologies to conduct a wide range of scientific observations and measurements. These technologies are also considered for practical applications that benefit society in remarkable ways. At NASA Goddard, the technology transfer initiative promotes matching technologies from Earth and space science needs to targeted industry sectors. This requires clear knowledge of industry needs and priorities and social demands. The process entails matching mature technologies where there are known innovation challenges and good opportunities for matching technology needs. This requires creative thinking and takes commitment of time and resources. Additionally, we also look at applications for known hot industry or societal needs. Doing so has given us occasion to host discussions with representatives from industry, academia, government organizations, and societal special interest groups about the application of NASA Goddard technologies for devices used in medical monitoring and detection tools. As a result, partnerships have been established. Innovation transpired when new products were enabled because of NASA Goddard research and technology programs.

  11. The BNL fan-atomized burner system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a continuing interest in the development of advanced oil burners which can provide new capabilities not currently available with pressure atomized, retention head burners. Specifically program goals include: the ability to operate at firing rates as low as 0.25 gph; the ability to operate with very low excess air levels for high steady state efficiency and to minimize formation of sulfuric acid and iron sulfate fouling; low emissions of smoke, CO, and NO{sub x} even at very low excess air levels; and the potential for modulation - either staged firing or continuous modulation. In addition any such advanced burner must have production costs which would be sufficiently attractive to allow commercialization. The primary motivation for all work sponsored by the US DOE is, of course, improved efficiency. With existing boiler and furnace models this can be achieved through down-firing and low excess air operation. Also, with low excess air operation fouling and efficiency degradation due to iron-sulfate scale formation are reduced.

  12. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high gradient acceleration and state of the art free electron lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 to 100 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps Nd:YAG laser and a 100 mJ, 10 ps CO{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high brightness electron beams. The AFT's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the High power laser will begin operation this year. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-09-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users` facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF`s experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  14. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility and experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL is a users' facility for experiments in Accelerator and Beam Physics. The ATF provides high brightness electron beams and high-power laser pulses synchronized to the electron beam, suitable for studies of new methods of high-gradient acceleration and state-of-the-art Free-Electron Lasers. The electrons are produced by a laser photocathode rf gun and accelerated to 50 MeV by two traveling wave accelerator sections. The lasers include a 10 mJ, 10 ps ND:YAG laser and a 500 mJ, 10 to 100 ps C0{sub 2} laser. A number of users from National Laboratories, universities and industry take part in experiments at the ATF. The experimental program includes various laser acceleration schemes, Free-Electron Laser experiments and a program on the development of high-brightness electron beams. The ATF's experimental program commenced in early 1991 at an energy of about 4 MeV. The full program, with 50 MeV and the high-power laser will begin operation this year.

  15. Medical Conditions Differentially Affect the Development of IADL Disability: Implications for Medical Care and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Sylvia E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determined independent effects of nine self-reported medical conditions on the likelihood of developing specific instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) disabilities at three points in time. Various medical conditions differentially affect each specific IADL disability, and each IADL disability has its own set of predictors, which, in…

  16. Medical Science: A Milestone in Scientific Field and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dear SirI am writing in context of the first issue of Medical Science published recently. First I would like to congratulate the editor in Chief in particular for taking this initiative to start this esteemed journal. Medical Science is a peer reviewed multidisciplinary journal which publishes articles from various fields like medical, dental, nursing and allied health. I read with great interest the first issue of Medical Science which consists of five articles 1. The Editorial- Preface to first edition [1]2. Impact of Gender, Nationality and Drawbacks in Medical Profession as a Predictor of Future Career Specialization among Medical Students3. Use of computer among medical students: A cross sectional study4. Application of Binary Regression analysis in the prescription pattern of Antidepressants5. Teaching Communication Skills: A five year experience from a private medical school of NepalThe First edition was primarily focused on medical education. Article by Kumar S has showed that the use of computer is very important in life. It has exhibited that the use of computers are increasing in medical education technology. All the medical students should learn use computers as most of the laboratory investigations, X rays, open heart surgeries, C arm in Orthopaedic Surgeries are done with the help of computers. Even computer is needful for presenting any paper in the conferences by using power point presentations. So a medical student should learn computer because it will be useful for them in future [2].Article by Roy B et.al on drawbacks in medical profession is written with lot of effort. The article has showed that how proper steps can be taken to choose the future career of a medical student and what are the drawbacks of different specialties of medical profession [3].Teaching communication skills article is from a different field. It an article from Pharmacology. The article has demonstrated that Communication with the patients always remains

  17. Roles of Medical Record and Statistic Staff on Research at the Tawanchai Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaranit, Rumpan; Chantachum, Vasana; Lekboonyasin, Orathai; Pradubwong, Suteera

    2015-08-01

    The medical record and statistic staffs play a crucial role behind the achievements of treatment and research of physicians, nurses and other health care professionals. The medical record and statistic staff are in charge of keeping patient medical records; creating databases; presenting information; sorting patient's information; providing patient medical records and related information for various medical teams and researchers; Besides, the medical record and statistic staff have collaboration with the Center of Cleft Lip-Palate, Khon Kaen University in association with the Tawanchai Project. The Tawanchai Center is an organization, involving multidisciplinary team which aims to continuing provide care for patients with cleft lip and palate and craniofacial deformities who need a long term of treatment since newborns until the age of 19 years. With support and encouragement from the Tawanchai team, the medical record and statistic staff have involved in research under the Tawanchai Centre since then and produced a number of publications locally and internationally.

  18. Evaluation of medical research performance – position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Societies in Germany (AWMF held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here.Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third

  19. SCIENTIFIC PRESENTATION. 7TH MEETING OF THE MANAGEMENT STEERING COMMITTEE OF THE RIKEN BNL COLLABORATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE,T.D.

    2001-02-13

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkysho,'' (RIKEN) The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong 'interactions, including hard QCD/spin physics, lattice QCD and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) physics through nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The Director of RBRC is Professor T. D. Lee. The first years were dedicated to the establishment of a theory group. This has essentially been completed consisting of Fellows, Postdocs, and RHIC Physics/University Fellows, with an active group of consultants. The center also organizes an extensive series of workshops on specific topics in strong interactions with an accompanying series of published proceedings. In addition, a 0.6 teraflop parallel processor computer has been constructed and operational since August 1998. It was awarded the Supercomputer 1998 Gordon Bell Prize for price performance. An active experimental group centered around the spin physics program at RHIC has subsequently also been established at RBRC. It presently consists of five Fellows, one Postdoc and several scientific collaborators with more appointments being expected in the near future. Members and participants of RBRC on occasion will develop articles such as this one, in the nature of a status report or a general review.

  20. SCIENTIFIC PRESENTATION. 7TH MEETING OF THE MANAGEMENT STEERING COMMITTEE OF THE RIKEN BNL COLLABORATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.D.

    2001-02-13

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkysho,'' (RIKEN) The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including hard QCD/spin physics, lattice QCD and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) physics through nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The Director of RBRC is Professor T. D. Lee. The first years were dedicated to the establishment of a theory group. This has essentially been completed consisting of Fellows, Postdocs, and RHIC Physics/University Fellows, with an active group of consultants. The center also organizes an extensive series of workshops on specific topics in strong interactions with an accompanying series of published proceedings. In addition, a 0.6 teraflop parallel processor computer has been constructed and operational since August 1998. It was awarded the Supercomputer 1998 Gordon Bell Prize for price performance. An active experimental group centered around the spin physics program at RHIC has subsequently also been established at RBRC. It presently consists of five Fellows, one Postdoc and several scientific collaborators with more appointments being expected in the near future. Members and participants of RBRC on occasion will develop articles such as this one, in the nature of a status report or a general review.

  1. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bell JS; Enlund H; Vainio K

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication...

  2. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  3. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. de Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for m

  4. 21 CFR 801.125 - Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Directions for Use § 801.125 Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices for use in teaching, law enforcement, research, and analysis. 801.125 Section 801.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  5. 10 CFR 50.21 - Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and development facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 104 licenses; for medical therapy and research and...; for medical therapy and research and development facilities. A class 104 license will be issued, to an..., manufacture, produce, transfer, acquire, possess, or use. (a) A utilization facility for use in...

  6. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    the practitioner treating the patients are often left out. ADHD treatment was not mentioned other than medication, and the medications were often...series of approved and disapproved waiver applications was reviewed from the U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine waiver database to describe general ...uniformed per- sonnel chiefs and surgeons general of the services, the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), the Assistant Secretary of

  7. A five-watt G-M/J-T refrigerator for LHe target at BNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L. X.; Wang, L.; Addessi, L.; Miglionico, G.; Martin, D.; Leskowicz, J.; McNeill, M.; Yatauro, B.; Tallerico, T.

    2002-05-01

    A five-watts G-M/J-T refrigerator was built and installed for the high-energy physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. A liquid helium target of 8.25 liters was required for an experiment in the proton beam line at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of BNL. The large radiation heat load towards the target requires a five-watts refrigerator at 4.2 K to support a liquid helium flask of 0.2 meter in diameter and 0.3 meter in length, which is made of Mylar film of 0.35 mm in thickness. The liquid helium flask is thermally exposed to the vacuum windows that are also made of 0.35 mm thickness Mylar film at room temperature. The refrigerator uses a two-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler for precooling the Joule-Thomson circuit that consists of five Linde-type heat exchangers. A mass flow rate of 0.8˜1.0 grams per second at 17.7 atm is applied to the refrigerator cold box. The two-phase helium flows between the liquid target and liquid/gas separator by means of a thermosyphon. This paper presents the system design as well as the test results including the control of the thermal oscillation.

  8. eRHIC Design Study: An Electron-Ion Collider at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenauer, E C; Bazilevsky, A; Boyle, K; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Brooks, S; Brutus, C; Burton, T; Fazio, S; Fedotov, A; Gassner, D; Hao, Y; Jing, Y; Kayran, D; Kiselev, A; Lamont, M A C; Lee, J -H; Litvinenko, V N; Liu, C; Ludlam, T; Mahler, G; McIntyre, G; Meng, W; Meot, F; Miller, T; Minty, M; Parker, B; Pinayev, I; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Stratmann, M; Sichtermann, E; Skaritka, J; Tchoubar, O; Thieberger, P; Toll, T; Trbojevic, D; Tsoupas, N; Tuozzolo, J; Ullrich, T; Wang, E; Wang, G; Wu, Q; Xu, W; Zheng, L

    2014-01-01

    This document presents BNL's plan for an electron-ion collider, eRHIC, a major new research tool that builds on the existing RHIC facility to advance the long-term vision for Nuclear Physics to discover and understand the emergent phenomena of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory of the strong interaction that binds the atomic nucleus. We describe the scientific requirements for such a facility, following up on the community wide 2012 white paper, "Electron-Ion Collider: the Next QCD Frontier", and present a design concept that incorporates new, innovative accelerator techniques to provide a cost-effective upgrade of RHIC with polarized electron beams colliding with the full array of RHIC hadron beams. The new facility will deliver electron-nucleon luminosity of $\\sim10^{33} cm^{-2}sec^{-1}$ for collisions of 15.9 GeV polarized electrons on either 250 GeV polarized protons or 100 GeV/u heavy ion beams. The facility will also be capable of providing an electron beam energy of 21.2 GeV, at reduc...

  9. Foregrounding possibilities and backgrounding exploitation in transnational medical research projects in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Today medical research funded by resourceful commercial companies and philanthropic organizations increasingly takes place in much less resourceful settings across the globe. Recent academic studies of this trend have observed how global inequalities have shaped the movements of this research......, and how human subjects who make their blood and bodies available are at risk of exploitation. In Lusaka, people expressed their fears of being used by transnational medical research projects in various idioms of concern. While such concerns were always latent, people were generally eager to join...... inherent in transnational medical research projects are intertwined with scenarios of possibility....

  10. Patients, privacy and trust: patients' willingness to allow researchers to access their medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Pritts, Joy L; Neblo, Michael A; Kalarickal, Rosemarie J; Creswell, John W; Hayward, Rodney A

    2007-01-01

    The federal Privacy Rule, implemented in the United States in 2003, as part of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), created new restrictions on the release of medical information for research. Many believe that its restrictions have fallen disproportionately on researchers prompting some to call for changes to the Rule. Here we ask what patients think about researchers' access to medical records, and what influences these opinions. A sample of 217 patients from 4 Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities deliberated in small groups at each location with the opportunity to question experts and inform themselves about privacy issues related to medical records research. After extensive deliberation, these patients were united in their inclination to share their medical records for research. Yet they were also united in their recommendations to institute procedures that would give them more control over whether and how their medical records are used for research. We integrated qualitative and quantitative results to derive a better understanding of this apparent paradox. Our findings can best be presented as answers to questions related to five dimensions of trust: Patients' trust in VA researchers was the most powerful determinant of the kind of control they want over their medical records. More specifically, those who had lower trust in VA researchers were more likely to recommend a more stringent process for obtaining individual consent. Insights on the critical role of trust suggest actions that researchers and others can take to more fully engage patients in research.

  11. The U.S. Public's Investment in Medical Research: An Evolving Social Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, Stephen J; Dev, Anurupa; Bonham, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Medical researchers and their institutions are operating under extraordinary financial stress. More than a decade after completion of the 5-year doubling of the National Institutes of Health budget, the medical research community must confront a significant loss in National Institutes of Health purchasing power and downward pressures in federal discretionary spending. In part, this trend results from a federal budget stalemate over the growth in entitlement programs, particularly spending on medical care. This article considers the changing nature of the federal investment in medical research and the potential for medical researchers and institutions conducting the full spectrum of research to improve health system performance and health equity. In our view, continued federal investments reflect an evolving social contract for research serving the public good; the term contract is used metaphorically to represent a figurative, implicit agreement between the scientific community and the public's representatives in government. Under this conceptual contract, the American people--who are ultimately the funders of research, research training and infrastructure--expect outcomes that lead to better health, security or other benefits. The evolving contract includes expectations for more accountability, transparency, sharing of results and resources, and better integration of research systems and cultures that used to take pride in boundaries and distinctions. We outline here some of the major movements of organizations realigning to social support, which are increasingly essential to sustain public investment in medical research.

  12. Research Ideas for the Journal of Health & Medical Economics: Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and managin

  13. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  14. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Ameduri Marco; Al-Thani Al-Anoud M; Al-Thani Mohammed H; Mamtani Ravinder; Chouchane Lotfi; Sheikh Javaid I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such ch...

  15. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell JS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication compliance, adherence or persistence. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health was invited to nominate policies and documents related to medication adherence. A narrative review of medication counselling practices and professional service delivery through Finnish community pharmacies was undertaken.Results: Medication adherence was a theme integrated into obligatory and elective courses for bachelors and masters degree students. The literature search identified 33 English language peer-reviewed research articles reporting medication compliance, adherence or persistence published since the year 2000. Policy documents of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health recognise that poor medication adherence may lead to sub-optimal treatment outcomes, and encourage patient participation in treatment decision making. Adherence practice in Finnish pharmacies has been strongly linked to the development of medication counselling services. Conclusions: Adherence research and education has focused on understanding and addressing the contextual factors that contribute to medication non-adherence. Adherence practice in community pharmacies has tended to focus on medication counselling and programs specific to particular disease states. Medication adherence is a topic that is integrated into courses for bachelor’s and master’s level pharmacy students in Finland.

  16. Toward a medical anthropology of sensations: definitions and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Howes, David; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we outline the importance of a medical anthropology of sensations for theories of psychopathology and psychological healing. We define what is meant by ;sensation' (differentiating monomodal and polymodal sensations) and describe some of the mechanisms that generate and amplify sensations. We propose the heuristic use of the concepts of sensation schemas, sensation interpretants, and sensation scripts. We argue against the naive assumption that sensation experience is the same across cultures. Finally, we consider how healing may occur through 'sensation semiosis.'

  17. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization - KVM-based infrastructure services at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortijo, D.

    2011-06-14

    Over the past 18 months, BNL has moved a large percentage of its Linux-based servers and services into a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) environment. This presentation will address our approach to virtualization, critical decision points, and a discussion of our implementation. Specific topics will include an overview of hardware and software requirements, networking, and storage; discussion of the decision of Red Hat solution over competing products (VMWare, Xen, etc); details on some of the features of RHEV - both current and on their roadmap; Review of performance and reliability gains since deployment completion; path forward for RHEV at BNL and caveats and potential problems.

  18. Pion-nucleus total cross-section data from LAMPF and BNL. [Neutron and proton radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    New measurements of pion-nucleus total cross sections were made at LAMPF and BNL. The results from LAMPF include measurement of the difference of the rms neutron and proton radii of /sup 48/Ca to be 0.08 +- 0.02 and that of /sup 18/O to be 0.19 +- 0.02. The BNL measurements provide a new phenomenology on the downshift and spreading of the (3-3) resonance in nuclei from the first data on heavy nuclei. A new technique for handling the Coulomb effects in total cross section measurements is discussed.

  19. [Research and development of medical case database: a novel medical case information system integrating with biospecimen management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shiyang; Mu, Yuan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Peijun; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Bing; Yi, Lujiang

    2010-04-01

    To meet the needs of management of medical case information and biospecimen simultaneously, we developed a novel medical case information system integrating with biospecimen management. The database established by MS SQL Server 2000 covered, basic information, clinical diagnosis, imaging diagnosis, pathological diagnosis and clinical treatment of patient; physicochemical property, inventory management and laboratory analysis of biospecimen; users log and data maintenance. The client application developed by Visual C++ 6.0 was used to implement medical case and biospecimen management, which was based on Client/Server model. This system can perform input, browse, inquest, summary of case and related biospecimen information, and can automatically synthesize case-records based on the database. Management of not only a long-term follow-up on individual, but also of grouped cases organized according to the aim of research can be achieved by the system. This system can improve the efficiency and quality of clinical researches while biospecimens are used coordinately. It realizes synthesized and dynamic management of medical case and biospecimen, which may be considered as a new management platform.

  20. "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Bionic Man Meet the Bionic Man Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents The ... medical imaging, visit www.nibib.nih.gov "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research The National Institute of Biomedical ...

  1. Symposium 'methodology in medical education research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25 to 26 2013 at Charité, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on “Research in Medical Education” as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium’s evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  2. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Regina Taquette; Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo; Adriana de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized t...

  3. [Financing medical research in the Netherlands: start taking care of the future now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J P

    2002-07-20

    Less money is spent on medical research in the Netherlands than in other industrialised countries, even though Dutch science, and certainly Dutch medical science, scores qualitatively among the best in the world. Part of the explanation is that a relatively large part of scientific research in the Netherlands is financed directly by the government. As a result of several rounds of cutbacks in government spending, that were executed each time by cutting research that performed less well, the remaining research groups are at high qualitative level and highly competitive. In countries that surpass the Netherlands, there is an important second stream of government funding via Medical and Health Research Councils. In the same countries, the pharmaceutical industry also provides more money for medical research. The other side of the coin is that medical research in those countries seems more or less 'for sale'. Too heavy dependence on market oriented research leads to doubts regarding the independence of medical research. International observers judged that the direct financing of research by government in the Netherlands was an enormous bonus since it leads to flexibility to start new topics and at the same time stability of positions. However, a major concern for Dutch science is that there are too few possibilities to attract and hold promising young people. It is especially difficult to keep promising young women; though this is true for all industrialised countries, the Netherlands lags behind its major competitors as far as the position of women in the higher ranks of science is concerned. These problems will have to be solved by stimulation programmes for young researchers and flexibility of the higher echelons. The educational system must not be directed only at the production of more doctors for medical practice, but also at sufficient scientific training for these doctors so that they will be able to comprehend new developments. The ordinary daily practice of

  4. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  5. Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

    2008-10-07

    The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and

  6. Burden of anxiety disorders in pediatric medical settings: prevalence, phenomenology, and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B

    2010-10-01

    The current review describes the phenomenology of several common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents as they present in medical settings. Anxiety disorders and associated features in children are described, along with epidemiology, functional impairment, common somatic complaints, medical comorbidity, health care utilization, and presentation in general and in specialty pediatric medical settings. Recommendations for clinical management in pediatric settings are presented, and evidence-based interventions and emerging treatments for pediatric anxiety disorders are described. The review concludes with a discussion of future research directions that may lead to increased recognition and improved management of anxiety disorders in pediatric medical settings.

  7. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  8. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods: We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a workstudy graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results: The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion: An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  9. Four motivations for charitable giving: implications for marketing strategy to attract monetary donations for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1988-06-01

    Medical research foundations can compete more effectively for charitable dollars by being aware of motivations for giving when designing marketing strategy. The study tests the extent to which the motives of reciprocity, income, career, and self-esteem predict monetary giving to medical research. The results indicate that reciprocity and income motives are significant predictors of giving, as are household assets and age. Interpretation of these results leads to several suggestions for marketing strategy.

  10. Recruiting for health, medical or psychosocial research using Facebook: Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Thornton; Batterham, Philip J; Daniel B. Fassnacht; Frances Kay-Lambkin; Calear, Alison L.; Sally Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting participants is a challenge for many health, medical and psychosocial research projects. One tool more frequently being used to improve recruitment is the social networking website Facebook. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that have used Facebook to recruit participants of all ages, to any psychosocial, health or medical research. 110 unique studies that used Facebook as a recruitment source were included in the review. The majority of studies used a cross-sec...

  11. Emerging medical informatics research trends detection based on MeSH terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Peng-Hui; Yao, Qiang; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Shi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the research trends of medical informatics over the last 12 years. A new method based on MeSH terms was proposed to identify emerging topics and trends of medical informatics research. Informetric methods and visualization technologies were applied to investigate research trends of medical informatics. The metric of perspective factor (PF) embedding MeSH terms was appropriately employed to assess the perspective quality for journals. The emerging MeSH terms have changed dramatically over the last 12 years, identifying two stages of medical informatics: the "medical imaging stage" and the "medical informatics stage". The focus of medical informatics has shifted from acquisition and storage of healthcare data by integrating computational, informational, cognitive and organizational sciences to semantic analysis for problem solving and clinical decision-making. About 30 core journals were determined by Bradford's Law in the last 3 years in this area. These journals, with high PF values, have relative high perspective quality and lead the trend of medical informatics.

  12. Conceptualising spirituality for medical research and health service provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenig Harold G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The need to take account of spirituality in research and health services provision is assuming ever greater importance. However the field has long been hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity about the nature of spirituality itself. We do not agree with the sceptical claim that it is impossible to conceptualise spirituality within a scientific paradigm. Our aims are to 1 provide a brief over-view of critical thinking that might form the basis for a useful definition of spirituality for research and clinical work and 2 demystify the language of spirituality for clinical practice and research.

  13. Research on Supporting Functions of the Information Technology on Electronic medical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Promote further utilization of information technology in quality control of the electronic medical record and provide forceful technological supports for medical quality control. Method: research existing problems in quality control of electronic medical record at present, put forward that the information technology should be used sufficiently, integration with other systems should be completed, quality control rules should be built and quality control time should be set and finally point out the key construction element of information technology to provide supports. Result: the article points out that further utilization of information technology in quality control of EMR should start from the standard, structuralized and paperless electronic medical record, construction of the communication platform and application of high technology. Conclusion: it is of great significance to promote improvement of quality control level of the electronic medical record and improve continuously medical quality.

  14. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  15. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    research associates. The PI and the research team have published over 10 journal articles and over 50 conference proceedings and over 50 symposiums...reflections. Optical interference filters with center wavelength at 5322 or 632.82 nm are used in front of the ICCD to suppress the plasma self- luminescence ...wavelength at 532 ± 2 nm was used in front of the ICCD to suppress the plasma jet self- luminescence . The shadow of the laser induced plasma falls onto

  16. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    suicide , depression, and post - traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that impact the psychological health of service members. Our research findings are...from the study, researchers have come to understand the risk factors such as suicide , depression, and post - traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that...the Comfort’s recent mission, and to implement post -deployment surveys at the end of the mission in order to better understand the burden of

  17. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Genomics Department is currently working on creation and testing of a user-friendly bio-informatics software package. This creation will be deployed in...Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International and Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, held the...an animal research component. NAMRU-6’s leading role as an accredited institution in animal research and Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia as

  18. Crozer-Chester Medical Center Burn Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    dermatotoxidt:y following treatment for diabetic nephropathy . Although other members of the dihydropyridine c.’llcium channel blockers have been reported to... Treatment Center has been under contract with the U.S. Army Institute for Surgical Research in conjunction with the Army Burn Center since 2007 to...research in civilian populations to combat populations. The Nathan Speare Regional Burn Treatment Center was under contract with the U. S. Army

  19. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  20. The Value of Learning, Researching and Publishing in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Dickinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The skills required of a doctor are multiple, extendingacross several domains of performance: diagnosticthinking, organisation and management skills,communicating through verbal means with patients andother health care workers, writing, and a variety ofpsychomotor skills. These skills build on knowledge,and also require personal characteristics. Entry criteriafor medical schools ensure a certain level of intelligenceand knowledge, but are less able to distinguish othercapabilities. The education process must not onlyincrease knowledge but all these other characteristics.Assessment must measure all of them, to the extentpossible, to encourage students to learn more than justthe facts, and ensure that graduates are capable ofdeveloping into good doctors. This is emphasised byRuedy in his review of assessment methods

  1. Trends analysis on research articles in the korean journal of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee; Kwon, Hyojin

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the chronological changes and progress in medical education research in Korea and to identify the less investigated topics that need further study and improvement with regard to methodological quality. Of the 590 articles that were published from 1989 to 2010 in the Korean Journal of Medical Education, 386 original research papers were extracted for the analysis. The extracted papers were systematically reviewed using 2 analysis schemes that we developed: one scheme was designed to classify research topics, and the other determined the methodology that was used. The main results were as follows: The most popular research areas were curriculum, educational method, and evaluation in basic medical education; in contrast, studies that addressed postgraduate education, continuous professional development, and educational administration were less frequent; The most frequently studied topics were clinical performance/skills evaluation, clerkship, curriculum development, and problem-based learning, Quantitative studies predominated over qualitative studies and mixed methods (265 vs. 95 vs. 26). Two hundred forty papers were descriptive, cross-sectional studies, and 17 were experimental studies. Most qualitative studies were non-participation observational studies. In conclusion, there has been dramatic growth in the extent of medical education research in Korea in the past two decades. However, more studies that investigate the graduate medical education and the continuous professional development should be performed. Moreover, robust experimental designs and methods should be applied to provide stronger evidence that can practice best-evidence medical education.

  2. Opinions of children about participation in medical genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Sozanska, B.; Madden, D.; Kosmeda, A.; Debinska, A.; Danielewicz, H.; Boznanski, A.; Detmar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to evaluate children's opinions about their participation in a large research project. Methods: Polish children between 6 and 14 years of age completed a questionnaire about their participation in the Polish Gabriel study (which aims to identify genetic and environmental caus

  3. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.

  4. OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2007-04-01

    A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil.

  5. Research on interpolation methods in medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei-Sen; Yang, Xiao-Li; Tang, Jing-Tian

    2012-04-01

    Image interpolation is widely used for the field of medical image processing. In this paper, interpolation methods are divided into three groups: filter interpolation, ordinary interpolation and general partial volume interpolation. Some commonly-used filter methods for image interpolation are pioneered, but the interpolation effects need to be further improved. When analyzing and discussing ordinary interpolation, many asymmetrical kernel interpolation methods are proposed. Compared with symmetrical kernel ones, the former are have some advantages. After analyzing the partial volume and generalized partial volume estimation interpolations, the new concept and constraint conditions of the general partial volume interpolation are defined, and several new partial volume interpolation functions are derived. By performing the experiments of image scaling, rotation and self-registration, the interpolation methods mentioned in this paper are compared in the entropy, peak signal-to-noise ratio, cross entropy, normalized cross-correlation coefficient and running time. Among the filter interpolation methods, the median and B-spline filter interpolations have a relatively better interpolating performance. Among the ordinary interpolation methods, on the whole, the symmetrical cubic kernel interpolations demonstrate a strong advantage, especially the symmetrical cubic B-spline interpolation. However, we have to mention that they are very time-consuming and have lower time efficiency. As for the general partial volume interpolation methods, from the total error of image self-registration, the symmetrical interpolations provide certain superiority; but considering the processing efficiency, the asymmetrical interpolations are better.

  6. Attitudes, understanding, and concerns regarding medical research amongst Egyptians: A qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat May

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research must involve the participation of human subjects. Knowledge of patients' perspectives and concerns with their involvement in research would enhance recruitment efforts, improve the informed consent process, and enhance the overall trust between patients and investigators. Several studies have examined the views of patients from Western countries. There is limited empirical research involving the perspectives of individuals from developing countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of Egyptian individuals toward medical research. Such information would help clarify the type and extent of concerns regarding research participation of individuals from cultural, economic, and political backgrounds that differ from those in developed countries. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 Egyptian individuals recruited from the outpatient settings (public and private at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. Thematic analysis followed. Results All individuals valued the importance of medical research; however most would not participate in research that involved more than minimal risk. Individuals were comfortable with studies involving surveys and blood sampling, but many viewed drug trials as being too risky. All participants valued the concept of informed consent, as they thought that their permission to be in a research study was paramount. Many participants had discomfort with or difficulty in the understanding several research concepts: randomization, double-blind, and clinical equipoise. Trust in the physicians performing research was important in deciding to participate in clinical research. The small sample size and the selection bias associated with obtaining information from only those who agreed to participate in a research study represent limitations in this study. Conclusion Overall, individuals in our sample recognize

  7. Research Ethics Education in Post-Graduate Medical Curricula in I.R. Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravanfard, Nazila; Khorasanizadeh, Faezeh; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-08-16

    Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 post-graduate programs in medical sciences in I.R. Iran. We qualitatively studied the curricula by education level, including the Master and PhD degrees and analyzed the contents and the amount of teaching allocated for ethics training in each curriculum. We found no research ethics training in 72 (58%) of the programs. Among the 53 (42%) programs that considered research ethics training, only 17 programs had specific courses for research ethics and eight of them had detailed topics on their courses. The research ethics training was optional in 25% and mandatory in 76% of the programs. Post-graduate studies that were approved in the more recent years had more attention to the research ethics training. Research ethics training was neglected in most of the medical post-graduate programs. We suggest including sufficient amount of mandatory research ethics training in Master and PhD programs in I.R. Iran. Further research about quality of research ethics training and implementation of curricula in the biomedical institutions is warranted.

  8. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon

    2017-02-01

    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting.

  9. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  10. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    learning techniques for developing statistical models of expected health trajectories that were the product of high stress . Suicide risk is one...potential, and unfortunate, product of high stress . ” In the future, this tool could help prevent service members at risk for suicide from falling...As well as] academic and cross-service collaborations and our research teams are harnessing techniques, approaches, and perspectives from

  11. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 8, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Hospital. Construction on the new conference building will commence and the completion of our state of the art insectary in our research site in the jungle...Cambodia, Egypt , Kenya, Peru and the United States. Surveillance of the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance will be a crucial part of...performance of 13 classes of antibiotics. Of the regions tested, isolates from Egypt harbored the greatest circulating diversity of aminoglycoside and

  12. Military Medical Research in Support of National Instruments of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    The USMHRP is conducting ongoing research in the identification, surveillance, and early warning for diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis ...highly effective vaccines for yellow fever, meningococcal meningitis , encephalitis, and adenovirus caused respiratory disease – all deadly diseases...along with tuberculosis and malaria, and further illustrates the obligation of this kind of resources to support the NSS.44 The additional PEPFAR funding

  13. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario.

  14. Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Parris Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

  15. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment.

  16. Supporting Medical Students to Do International Field Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen; Parr, Jennifer; Ullah, Zafar; Omar, Maye

    2014-01-01

    Field research can benefit medical students' learning through experiential engagement with research and personal exposure to foreign health systems. However, the off-campus nature of the activity raises challenges for teachers. This article presents a case study that illustrates the benefits and challenges of organising a field research…

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are five Bulgarian medical universities in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. A major priority of medical universities is to encourage research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Projects are managed by the participating organizations called “beneficiaries”. Beneficiaries develop projects, apply for finances and if approved they implement those projects.Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the organizational structure of research project activities on the macro level and on the micro level in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the separate elements of the organizational structure and to analyze the relations and interaction between them we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: During the last six years there was a significant increase in the number and the overall annual financial value of the projects performed at medical universities in Bulgaria. The reasons for such increase are: managers realizing the advantages of and benefits from the implementation of research projects ensuring high quality modernization of research units’ equipment and facilities; access to innovative technologies; development of interdisciplinary relations, etc. Benefits arising from improved results motivate us to consider as appropriate some additional investments aimed at increasing the number of team members and further optimization of the currently existing structures (research centers in charge of research with the purpose of achieving even better results in this particular field. Conclusion: The role of research project activities in medical universities’ research field is of vital importance for the educational institutions’ success. Taking into consideration the changed conditions, European possibilities and the highly competitive environment, realizing this aspect will be essential for the

  18. Barriers and challenges in researches by Iranian students of medical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Anbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health sciences research (HSR is an essential part of improving health care which plays a critical role in the field of medicine and clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess barriers to the research by students of medical sciences as well as to find out effective strategies for management of student researches in Iranian universities. Materials and Methods: This study utilized a hybrid design with quantitative and qualitative analytical approaches conducted on 627 students in six schools of medical sciences in two universities in Central Province in Iran from April to December, 2012. Questionnaires were distributed among researcher and non-researcher students to find barriers to the research. These barriers were approved and validated by similar studies and strategies using the Delphi technique on 36 students. Results: The most important barriers among researcher students were institutional barriers (3.3 ± 1.3, but in non-researcher students they were individual barriers (3.6 ± 1.7. The majority of barriers to involvement in the research among researcher students appeared to be time, lack of access to electronic resources and prolongation of the process of buying equipment. In addition, the greatest barriers among non-researcher students included the lack of time, scientific writing skills, and access to trained assistants. Conclusion: The results showed the issue of attitudes towards compulsory research as a component of critical scholarship in the curriculum of medical courses. Moreover, employment of the research experts can be helpful for research training in schools of medical sciences.

  19. Expanding research on the racial disparity in medical treatment with ideas from sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    While hundreds of studies document racial differences in the use of medical procedures in the United States, by comparison little is known about the causes of these differences. This gap in knowledge should serve as a call to sociologists who, drawing on their disciplinary tradition of studying inequality, could improve understanding of the disparity. This article offers suggestions about how medical sociologists in the USA might bring sociology to the study of racial disparities in medical treatment. The article begins by reviewing the existing approaches to understanding the racial disparity in medical treatment. After considering the extant research and its limits, the article goes on to describe how a few specific concepts from sociology - cultural capital, social networks, self-presentation and social distance, all framed in a race critical framework - and more diverse methodological approaches can advance studies of the racial disparity in medical treatment.

  20. A research agenda for moving early medical pregnancy termination over the counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Grossman, Daniel; Jackson, Emily; Castleman, Laura; Brahmi, Dalia

    2017-03-19

    Given the overall safety profile and increasing availability of medical pregnancy termination drugs, we asked: would the mifepristone-misoprostol regimen for medical termination at ≤10 weeks gestation meet U.S. FDA regulatory criteria for over-the-counter (OTC) approval, and if not, what are the present research gaps? We conducted a literature review of consumer behaviors necessary for a successful OTC application for medical termination ≤10 weeks and identified crucial research gaps. If we were to embark on a development program for OTC or more generally, self-use of medical termination, the critical elements missing are the label comprehension, self -selection and actual use studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Engaging nurses to strengthen medication safety: Fostering and capturing change with restorative photographic research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Marck, Patricia Beryl; Atila, Elisabeth Gulden; Cassiani, Silvia Helena de Bortoli

    2015-12-01

    We used participatory photographic research methods adapted from the field of ecological restoration to engage Brazilian intensive care unit nurses in a critical review of medication safety in their work environment. Using focus groups, practitioner-led photo walkabouts with photo narration, and photo elicitation focus groups in iterative phases of data collection and analysis, nurses developed and implemented several practical and cultural improvements for their unit. Participants focussed on organizing the medication room for efficient workflow and accessible supplies, improving reporting practices, and reconsidering how they could manage safety issues in their unit and in the hospital as a whole. Our results demonstrated that restorative photographic research methods enabled participants to (re)think and redesign their work environment in keeping with several recommended practices for improving medication management. It also validated the need for continuous evidence-informed improvements if nurses hope to optimize medication safety in the complex systems of intensive care.

  2. New trends in nuclear data research for medical radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear reaction cross section data are of great significance in optimisation of production routes of radionuclides. This article deals with some newer aspects of data research related to production of both standard and novel radionuclides. The recent work to standardise the known data is discussed and new measurements with regard to further optimisation of production routes of some commonly used radionuclides are mentioned. Attempts to increase the specific activity of some reactor-produced radionuclides through the use of charged-particle induced reactions are outlined. The jeopardy in the supply of {sup 99m}Tc via a fission-produced {sup 99}mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is considered and its possible direct production at a cyclotron is briefly discussed. Regarding the novel radionuclides, development work is presently focussed on non-standard positron emitters for diagnosis and on low-range highly ionising radiation emitters for internal radiotherapy. Recent nuclear reaction cross section measurements related to the production of the two types of radionuclides are briefly reviewed and some anticipated trends in nuclear data research are considered. (orig.)

  3. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  4. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrow Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.

  5. The Medical Research Council (UK)/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS--'25 years of research through partnerships'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    2015-02-01

    For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south.

  6. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ross JS; Blount KL; Ritchie JD; Hodshon B; Krumholz HM

    2015-01-01

    Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate po...

  7. Supporting Medical Research on Chronic Diseases using Integrated Health Monitoring Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Krukowski, Artur; Vogiatzaki, Emmanouela; Charalambides, Marios; Chouchoulis, Michalis

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes combined experiences in developing e-Health platforms and services with respect of supporting medical research into the causes and relationships among physiological parameters and health problems concerning different chronic diseases, from cardiovascular to stroke, epilepsy, and others. The Personal Health Records (PHR) is presented as new technological approaches aimed at standardizing electronic management of medical information between the patient and its physicians, a...

  8. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  9. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  10. MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc., bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc., algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc., molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc., yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc., higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc. and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc..

  11. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  12. Educational strategies aimed at improving student nurse's medication calculation skills: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Medication administration is an important and essential nursing function with the potential for dangerous consequences if errors occur. Not only must nurses understand the use and outcomes of administering medications they must be able to calculate correct dosages. Medication administration and dosage calculation education occurs across the undergraduate program for student nurses. Research highlights inconsistencies in the approaches used by academics to enhance the student nurse's medication calculation abilities. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the literature available on effective education strategies for undergraduate student nurses on medication dosage calculations. A literature search of five health care databases: Sciencedirect, Cinahl, Pubmed, Proquest, Medline to identify journal articles between 1990 and 2012 was conducted. Research articles on medication calculation educational strategies were considered for inclusion in this review. The search yielded 266 papers of which 20 meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 5206 student nurse were included in the final review. The review revealed educational strategies fell into four types of strategies; traditional pedagogy, technology, psychomotor skills and blended learning. The results suggested student nurses showed some benefit from the different strategies; however more improvements could be made. More rigorous research into this area is needed.

  13. Artificial gravity in space and in medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardus, D.

    1994-01-01

    The history of manned space flight has repeatedly documented the fact that prolonged sojourn in space causes physiological deconditioning. Physiological deterioration has raised a legitimate concern about man's ability to adequately perform in the course of long missions and even the possibility of leading to circumstances threatening survival. One of the possible countermeasures of physiological deconditioning, theoretically more complete than others presently used since it affects all bodily systems, is artificial gravity. Space stations and spacecrafts can be equipped with artificial gravity, but is artificial gravity necessary? The term "necessary" must be qualified because a meaningful answer to the question depends entirely on further defining the purpose of space travel. If man intends to stay only temporarily in space, then he must keep himself in good physical condition so as to be able to return to earth or to land on any other planetary surface without undue exposure to major physiological problems resulting from transition through variable gravitational fields. Such a situation makes artificial gravity highly desirable, although perhaps not absolutely necessary in the case of relative short exposure to microgravity, but certainly necessary in interplanetary flight and planetary landings. If the intent is to remain indefinitely in space, to colonize space, then artificial gravity may not be necessary, but in this case the consequences of long term effects of adaptation to weightlessness will have to be weighed against the biological evolutionary outcomes that are to be expected. At the moment, plans for establishing permanent colonies in space seem still remote. More likely, the initial phase of exploration of the uncharted solar system will take place through successive, scope limited, research ventures ending with return to earth. This will require man to be ready to operate in gravitational fields of variable intensity. Equipping spacecrafts or space

  14. Barriers and challenges in researches by Iranian students of medical universities

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Anbari; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi; Rahmatollah Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health sciences research (HSR) is an essential part of improving health care which plays a critical role in the field of medicine and clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess barriers to the research by students of medical sciences as well as to find out effective strategies for management of student researches in Iranian universities. Materials and Methods: This study utilized a hybrid design with quantitative and qualitative analytical approaches conduct...

  15. Restriction on animal experimentation for medical education and research: pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot have been written and discussed about animal experiments and ethics. Still there is too much confusion among academicians and researchers about the future of use of animals in biomedical research and up to what extent their use in laboratory, research institutions, and medical colleges. This article highlighted and discussed about various aspects of this burning issue along with several pros and cons. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 388-390

  16. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research; Proteccion radiologica en la investigacion medica y biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la, E-mail: andres@orasen.co.cuES [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation.

  17. MIRASS: medical informatics research activity support system using information mashup network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, M L M; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A; Nabi, Mohamed; Ibraheem, Rabiu

    2014-04-01

    The advancement of information technology has facilitated the automation and feasibility of online information sharing. The second generation of the World Wide Web (Web 2.0) enables the collaboration and sharing of online information through Web-serving applications. Data mashup, which is considered a Web 2.0 platform, plays an important role in information and communication technology applications. However, few ideas have been transformed into education and research domains, particularly in medical informatics. The creation of a friendly environment for medical informatics research requires the removal of certain obstacles in terms of search time, resource credibility, and search result accuracy. This paper considers three glitches that researchers encounter in medical informatics research; these glitches include the quality of papers obtained from scientific search engines (particularly, Web of Science and Science Direct), the quality of articles from the indices of these search engines, and the customizability and flexibility of these search engines. A customizable search engine for trusted resources of medical informatics was developed and implemented through data mashup. Results show that the proposed search engine improves the usability of scientific search engines for medical informatics. Pipe search engine was found to be more efficient than other engines.

  18. The challenge of comparative health policy research for applied medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C E

    1984-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical anthropologists can work in settings outside of academia to effect policy and that this work can simultaneously contribute to scientific knowledge and to the discipline of anthropology. In doing this, I first discuss the concept of policy and bind these ideas within the framework of health policy. Then I discuss the roles of anthropologists in the health policy field and the problems of selecting issues for research and the concern about the dichotomy between pure and applied research. Finally, I review some key health policy issues in American society and discuss how medical anthropologists can work toward practicing their craft in practical ways.

  19. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otstavnov Stanislav Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports. Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource. The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.

  20. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  1. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameduri Marco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  2. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-27

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  3. Researchers' experience with project management in health and medical research: Results from a post-project review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Elizabeth J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Project management is widely used to deliver projects on time, within budget and of defined quality. However, there is little published information describing its use in managing health and medical research projects. We used project management in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project (2006-2008 http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy and in this paper report researchers' opinions on project management and whether it made a difference to the project. Methods A national interdisciplinary group of 20 researchers, one of whom was the project manager, formed the Steering Committee for the project. We used project management to ensure project outputs and outcomes were achieved and all aspects of the project were planned, implemented, monitored and controlled. Sixteen of the researchers were asked to complete a self administered questionnaire for a post-project review. Results The project was delivered according to the project protocol within the allocated budget and time frame. Fifteen researchers (93.8% completed a questionnaire. They reported that project management increased the effectiveness of the project, communication, teamwork, and application of the interdisciplinary group of researchers' expertise. They would recommend this type of project management for future projects. Conclusions Our post-project review showed that researchers comprehensively endorsed project management in the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project and agreed that project management had contributed substantially to the research. In future, we will project manage new projects and conduct post-project reviews. The results will be used to encourage continuous learning and continuous improvement of project management, and provide greater transparency and accountability of health and medical research. The use of project management can benefit both management and scientific outcomes of health and medical research projects.

  4. Multipacting simulation and test results of BNL 704 MHz SRF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu W.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Cullen, C. et al

    2012-05-20

    The BNL 704MHz SRF gun has a grooved choke joint to support the photo-cathode. Due to the distortion of grooves at the choke joint during the BCP for the choke joint, several multipacting barriers showed up when it was tested with Nb cathode stalk at JLab. We built a setup to use the spare large grain SRF cavity to test and condition the multipacting at BNL with various power sources up to 50kW. The test is carried out in three stages: testing the cavity performance without cathode, testing the cavity with the Nb cathode stalk that was used at Jlab, and testing the cavity with a copper cathode stalk that is based on the design for the SRF gun. This paper summarizes the results of multipacting simulation, and presents the large grain cavity test setup and the test results.

  5. NEUTRINO SUPER BEAM FACILITY FOR A LONG BASELINE EXPERIMENT FROM BNL TO HOMESTAKE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KAHN,S.

    2002-10-21

    An upgrade to the BNL Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) could produce a very intense proton source at a relatively low cost. Such a proton beam could be used to generate a conventional neutrino beam with a significant flux at large distances from the laboratory. This provides the possibility of a very long baseline neutrino experiment at the Homestake mine. The construction of this facility would allow a program of experiments to study many of the aspects of neutrino oscillations including CP violations. This study examines a 1 MW proton source at BNL and a large 1 megaton detector positioned at the Homestake Mine as the ultimate goal of a staged program to study neutrino oscillations.

  6. STATUS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTOR MAGNET R AND D AT BNL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; COZZOLINO,J.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; ET AL.

    2004-01-22

    We report the status and test results of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) cable and magnet R&D at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). If successful, this will enhance the performance and reduce the cost of operation of magnets that must absorb a large amount of energy. The need for developing this technology has been seen in a number of high field magnet applications for high energy colliders, and a medium field application in the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The likelihood of the future use of HTS is improving because of the availability of longer and more uniform length tapes and cables and because of the ongoing construction and test experience at BNL and elsewhere. The design of a super-ferric quadrupole, that must survive the very high radiation environment of RIA, and operate at 20-40 K, is also presented.

  7. MEDICAL SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN AZERBAIJAN FROM BIOETHICAL DEVELOPMENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    VUGAR, MAMMADOV; KERIM, MUNIR; LALA, JAFAROVA

    2017-01-01

    Azerbaijan is a modern, rapidly developing democratic country at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country is currently harmonizing its national legislation with international norms, and reforming its national scientific and medical. Higher standards of medical research and education will enhance public health and protect human rights to life and health that are specified in Azerbaijan Constitution. In order to raise its medical research and education to international standards, Azerbaijani scientists and authorities are studying the experience of other countries and taking measures to implement international standards and norms in the country’s national legislation. Cooperation with the WHO, UNESCO and other international and foreign organizations, both on regional and global level is creating steps to achieve this goal. These steps include, for example, creation of the Azerbaijan unit of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and teaching bioethics based on UNESCO’s Bioethics Core Curriculum. Another step is providing research fellowship for young Azerbaijani professionals to study at leading medical research and educational centers around the world including Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital in the USA, and Koc University in Turkey. A complementary step is the development of local bioethical research, including its legal, ethical and scientific foundations. Adherence to ethical principles in different spheres of life is currently one of the most challenging social and professional issues, especially, this is true with the development of new medical technologies in recent decades and the development of new ethical and legal standards, issues involving different areas of health and medicine and their relation to human rights. Bioethics in Azerbaijan is developing as an important field that deals with universal moral principles within the context of both national laws and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

  8. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  9. BNL program in support of LWR degraded-core accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, T.; Greene, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two major sources of loading on dry watr reactor containments are steam generatin from core debris water thermal interactions and molten core-concrete interactions. Experiments are in progress at BNL in support of analytical model development related to aspects of the above containment loading mechanisms. The work supports development and evaluation of the CORCON (Muir, 1981) and MARCH (Wooton, 1980) computer codes. Progress in the two programs is described in this paper. 8 figures.

  10. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  11. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities.

  12. From theory to application and back again: implications of research on medical expertise for psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoffrey

    2005-03-01

    Research directed at an understanding of medical expertise is about 30 years old, and many developments in this literature parallel progress in cognitive psychology. Over the past 15 years or so, this research became much more closely identified with particular psychological theories. Initial forays into medicine were essentially direct applications of methods developed in the psychology lab to the more natural domain of medicine, with varying degrees of success. These attempts were followed by a second wave that took the psychological theories themselves more seriously in a more thoughtful application of psychological methods to the medical domain. I will argue in the present paper that the methods and theories used in the study of medical expertise have advanced to the point that there is some reverse flow and they are providing a unique and valuable perspective on the nature of thinking.

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  14. The Effect of the General Data Protection Regulation on Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background The enactment of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will impact on European data science. Particular concerns relating to consent requirements that would severely restrict medical data research have been raised. Objective Our objective is to explain the changes in data protection laws that apply to medical research and to discuss their potential impact. Methods Analysis of ethicolegal requirements imposed by the GDPR. Results The GDPR makes the classification of pseudonymised data as personal data clearer, although it has not been entirely resolved. Biomedical research on personal data where consent has not been obtained must be of substantial public interest. Conclusions The GDPR introduces protections for data subjects that aim for consistency across the EU. The proposed changes will make little impact on biomedical data research. PMID:28235748

  15. Sir Edward Mellanby (1884-1955) GBE KCB FRCP FRS: nutrition scientist and medical research mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    Edward Mellanby used the experimental method to investigate medical problems. In 1918, working at King's College for Women, London, he provided conclusive evidence that rickets is a dietary deficiency disease due to lack of a fat-soluble vitamin [D]. In Sheffield he demonstrated that cereals, in an unbalanced diet, produced rickets due to the phytic acid content reducing the availability of calcium. Mellanby became Secretary of the Medical Research Council (1933-49) but continued his research by working at weekends. In the 1930s he campaigned for the results of nutritional research to be used for the benefit of public health. During World War II he acted as a scientific adviser to the War Cabinet and had a strong influence on the food policy which maintained successfully the nutrition of the population during the shipping blockade. Mellanby was a formidable person but with sagacity he promoted new research and guided the expansion of the organization.

  16. What is the reward? Medical students’ learning and personal development during a research project course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Möller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, the outcome of medical students’ research projects has mainly been assessed in terms of scientific publications, whereas other results important for students’ development have been less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate medical students’ experiences of learning as an outcome of the research project course. Method: Written reflections of 50 students were analyzed by manifest inductive content analysis. Results: Three categories emerged: ‘thinking as a scientist’, ‘working as a scientist’, and ‘personal development’. Students became more aware about the nature of knowledge, how to generate new knowledge, and developed skills in scientific thinking and critical appraisal. Unexpectedly, effects on personal characteristics, such as self-confidence, self-discipline, independence, and time management skills were also acknowledged. Conclusions: We conclude that individual research projects enhance research-specific skills and competencies needed in evidence-based clinical work and are beneficial for personal and professional development.

  17. Research Policy in the Training of Professionals in Medical Sciences. A Reflective Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mur Villar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The academic environment must become the main way of involving students in the research movement, as part of the social mission of the university. This paper aims to discuss the substantive functions of the university and the development of the university curriculum, emphasizing on undergraduate research activity. It reflects on research policy in the training of professionals in medical sciences. Some observations that may contribute to the integration of the research activity in the training process of professionals in coordination with the whole process are made.

  18. Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Alex HS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical statistical errors in submitted manuscripts. Findings The Editors-in-Chief and statistical reviewers of the 38 medical journals with the highest impact factor in the 2007 Science Journal Citation Report and the 2007 Social Science Journal Citation Report were invited to complete an online survey about the statistical and design problems they most frequently found in manuscripts. Content analysis of the responses identified major issues. Editors and statistical reviewers (n = 25 from 20 journals responded. Respondents described problems that we classified into two, broad themes: A. statistical and sampling issues and B. inadequate reporting clarity or completeness. Problems included in the first theme were (1 inappropriate or incomplete analysis, including violations of model assumptions and analysis errors, (2 uninformed use of propensity scores, (3 failing to account for clustering in data analysis, (4 improperly addressing missing data, and (5 power/sample size concerns. Issues subsumed under the second theme were (1 Inadequate description of the methods and analysis and (2 Misstatement of results, including undue emphasis on p-values and incorrect inferences and interpretations. Conclusions The scientific quality of submitted manuscripts would increase if researchers addressed these common design, analytical, and reporting issues. Improving the application and presentation of quantitative methods in scholarly manuscripts is essential to advancing medical research.

  19. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  1. Air conditioning a vaccine laboratory. [Connaught Medical Research Laboratory, Toronto, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross J.

    1976-05-01

    In 1974, the new Bacterial Vaccine Building of Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto, Canada, was opened to produce such vaccines as pertussis, typhoid, paratyphoids, and cholera and such toxoids as staphylococcus, diphtheria, and tetanus. It also produces other medicinal products. The layout of the complex and the air conditioning system necessary in all zones are described and schematically shown. (MCW)

  2. Comparative effectiveness research and the psychology of medical practice: the vicissitudes of knowledge implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassirer, Jerome P; Wong, John B

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research should provide much-needed information about the benefits and risks of different current treatment options in the community. Taking the perspective of medical care providers, we consider many of the psychological, social and behavioural hurdles to implementation of comparative effectiveness analyses and explain why these obstacles should not be ignored.

  3. Research on application for integer wavelet transform for lossless compression of medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Li, Quan; Long, Quan

    2003-09-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on using lifting scheme to construct integer wavelet transform whose purpose is to realize the lossless compression of images. Then researches on application of medical image, software simulation of corresponding algorithm and experiment result are presented in this paper. Experiment shows that this method could improve the compression ration and resolution.

  4. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  5. A Diagnostic Analysis of Erroneous Language in Iranian Medical Specialists’ Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Gholami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As English has increasingly become the lingua franca in science and international journals require native- like academic writing standards from nonnative researchers, there is more pressure on nonnative scholars to write their research articles more accurately and appropriately in English.This study was conducted to determine the most-occurring language-related errors which Iranian medical authors/ researchers commit while trying to have their research published in international English journals. Also, this article seeks to provide useful guidelines to reduce such linguistic mistakes.Methods: The present study investigated the most common language-related errors in Iranian medical specialists' research articles. To this end, the first drafts of 60 published research articles in medical sciences were cross-checked against their peer-reviewed published versions in order to identify the most frequent non-target language forms which received discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions by peer editors.Results: The findings revealed that the editors had surprisingly dealt with discoursal errors more than any other linguistic aspects of these research articles. This was followed by lexical replacements. In third place were grammatical improvements, where erroneous structures mostly related to tenses, usage of articles and prepositions, and agreement between verbs and nouns were treated. The least common revisions were on the mechanics of academic writing, consisting of hyphenating, spelling, case lettering, spacing, and spacing with commas.Conclusion: Although most of the Iranian medical authors/researchers enjoyed a good level of proficiency in English, their manuscripts required discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions before publication in credited international journals.

  6. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Medical Students' Perspectives on the Engagement in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Durham, Jo; Whittaker, Maxine A; Win, Ni Ni; Aung, Kyan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2015-07-01

    Engaging students in active learning lies at the center of effective higher education. In medical schools, students' engagement in learning and research has come under increasing attention. The objective of this study was to synthesize evidence on medical students' perspectives on the engagement in research. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Overall, 14 observational studies (with 17 data sets) were included. In general, many studies did not use the same questionnaires and the outcome measurements were not consistently reported; these presented some difficulties in pooling the results. Whenever data permitted, we performed pooled analysis for the 4 education outcomes. A Bayesian meta-analytical approach was supplemented as a measure of uncertainty. A pooled analysis showed that 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57%-11.07%; I2: 95.2%) of those students who engaged in research (while at the medical school) had positive attitudes toward their research experiences, whereas 49.5% (95% CI: 36.4%-62.7%; I2: 93.4%) had positive attitudes toward the study of medical sciences, 62.3% (95% CI: 46.7%-77.9%; I2: 96.3%) had self-reported changes in their practices, and 64% (95% CI: 30.8%-96.6%; I2: 98.5%) could have published their work. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. We acknowledged the caveats and the merit of the current review. Findings showed that engagement in research resulted in favorable reactions toward research and academic learning. Future well-designed studies using standardized research tools on how to engage students in research are recommended.

  7. Abstracts from the Proceedings of the Research in Continuing Medical Education Session of the 2007 Spring Meeting, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Craig M.

    2007-01-01

    The following abstracts were peer-reviewed for presentation and publication. They were edited by Craig M. Campbell, MD, chairman, Research Committee, Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education.

  8. Research on Practice Carrier and Method Formed by Medical Humanistic Spirit for Medical Students: Tianjin Medical University as a Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Geng, Xin; Su, Zhenxing; Wang, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    Medical humanistic quality is an indispensable quality that eligible doctors should possess, and medical humanism is strongly advocated and carried forward by contemporary medicine. These are commonly understood worldwide, and formed by reflection on medicine and medical education. Cultivation of medical humanism requires in-depth discussions of…

  9. WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE OPERA TIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT SERVICE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A T THE MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAMED AFTER A.F . TSYB – BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL STATE BUDGET INSTITUTION "NATIONAL MEDICAL RESEARCH RADIOLOGICAL CENTER” OF T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Savina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Operative Information Support Service for Scientific Research of the Medical Radiological Research Center named after A. F. Tsyb — Branch of the FSBI «National Medical Research Radiological Center” of the RF Health Ministry presented a report on providing off-budget support for scientific activities over the period from 1993 to 2014 using domestic and foreign information resources. The dynamics of employee activities in institutional sectors with aim to receive financial support for fundamental and applied scientific research on a competitive and non-competitive basis was given. The analysis of the obtained data indicated that a multi-channeling in off-budget funding was formed. It also showed to some extent a situation at the open market of grants in the field of medical radiology, radiobiology, and radiation epidemiology among leading investors in intellectual products.

  10. ADHD Medication and Social Self-Understanding: Social Practice Research with a First Grade in a Danish Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Karen-Lis; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the contradictions, dilemmas, and struggles in a Danish primary school practice involved in medicating children diagnosed with ADHD. It draws on a social practice research study of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD, who was medicated against his will. It focuses on his struggles when being medicated, and…

  11. Moving beyond "It Worked": The Ongoing Evolution of Research on Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on Problem-Based Learning in medical education has undergone an evolutionary process from initial proof of concept studies through critiques of the original methods and beyond. Initial studies focused on whether or not the instructional method was effective for medical students and the goals of medical education. Despite much movement…

  12. Good Publication Practice for Communicating Company-Sponsored Medical Research: GPP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Wendy P; Wager, Elizabeth; Baltzer, Lise; Bridges, Dan; Cairns, Angela; Carswell, Christopher I; Citrome, Leslie; Gurr, James A; Mooney, LaVerne A; Moore, B Jane; Peña, Teresa; Sanes-Miller, Carol H; Veitch, Keith; Woolley, Karen L; Yarker, Yvonne E

    2015-09-15

    This updated Good Publication Practice (GPP) guideline, known as GPP3, builds on earlier versions and provides recommendations for individuals and organizations that contribute to the publication of research results sponsored or supported by pharmaceutical, medical device, diagnostics, and biotechnology companies. The recommendations are designed to help individuals and organizations maintain ethical and transparent publication practices and comply with legal and regulatory requirements. These recommendations cover publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations (oral or poster) at scientific congresses. The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals invited more than 3000 professionals worldwide to apply for a position on the steering committee, or as a reviewer, for this guideline. The GPP2 authors reviewed all applications (n = 241) and assembled an 18-member steering committee that represented 7 countries and a diversity of publication professions and institutions. From the 174 selected reviewers, 94 sent comments on the second draft, which steering committee members incorporated after discussion and consensus. The resulting guideline includes new sections (Principles of Good Publication Practice for Company-Sponsored Medical Research, Data Sharing, Studies That Should Be Published, and Plagiarism), expands guidance on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' authorship criteria and common authorship issues, improves clarity on appropriate author payment and reimbursement, and expands information on the role of medical writers. By following good publication practices (including GPP3), individuals and organizations will show integrity; accountability; and responsibility for accurate, complete, and transparent reporting in their publications and presentations.

  13. Perspective: medical education research and the institutional review board: reexamining the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna C; Durning, Steven J; Gruppen, Larry D; Olson, Marianne E; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Higgins, Patricia A

    2011-07-01

    Medical school and residency training curricula across the country have undergone extensive revisions and, much like clinical quality improvement (QI) initiatives, require assessments of new programs. Because sharing knowledge is a hallmark of academic medicine, program evaluation may come under the purview of the institutional review board (IRB); however, the distinction between QI and research is often unclear. And yet a medical education (ME) inquiry can be designed according to either paradigm. The purpose of this article is to bring IRBs and ME researchers closer to a shared understanding of key concepts underlying human participation in research and QI activities, and to consensus on the application of these concepts. The current QI discourse provides a useful framework for making this distinction; the authors identify key theoretical principles and practical considerations derived from this work that are relevant to ME and training, such as the application of the regulatory definition of human subject research to ME inquiries. For ME inquiries defined as human subject research, and therefore subject to IRB review, this article explores the application of the human research regulations to ME research. It concludes with practical suggestions for institutions, IRBs, and ME researchers, which range from formal procedures for making the QI versus research distinction, to instruction in study design and development and the human subject regulatory implications. The intent is to promote a discussion that will result in greater consensus and a more consistent application of the regulatory framework.

  14. E-book for Knowledge Management in Scientific Research Conducted in the Medical Sciences Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oramis Sosa Palacios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The training of students enrolled in the Medical Sciences graduate program (residents includes research activities such as research projects, the final paper of the specialty, scientific events and scientific publications. Knowledge gaps in residents lead to problems seen in both the poor quality of the research project and the final paper of the specialty and in the lack of autonomy to make decisions, affecting their overall training. An electronic book aimed at residents was created for knowledge management in scientific research. The first version was designed using the Crheasoft 2.0 program. It consists of: presentation, start modules, list of topics and complementary information. It comprises condensed knowledge on: research management, research methodology, statistics, information management, computer science, linguistics and language. This e-book contributes to the execution of research activities and promotes learning independence.

  15. Analysis of 10-Year Training Results of Medical Students Using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Satoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Narushi; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Matsumoto, Kumiko; Ota, Tomoyuki; Thuzar, Moe

    2016-06-01

    Background In this article, we reviewed the training results of medical students using the Microvascular Research Center Training Program (MRCP), and proposed an ideal microsurgical training program for all individuals by analyzing the training results of medical students who did not have any surgical experience. Methods As of 2015, a total of 29 medical students completed the MRCP. In the most recent 12 medical students, the number of trials performed for each training stage and the number of rats needed to complete the training were recorded. Additionally, we measured the operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students after it became a current program. Results The average operating time upon finishing stage 5 for the recent six medical students was 120 minutes ± 11 minutes (standard deviation [SD]). The average vascular anastomosis time (for the artery and vein) was 52 minutes ± 2 minutes (SD). For the most recent 12 medical students, there was a negative correlation between the number of trials performed in the non-rat stages (stages 1-3) and the number of rats used in the rat stages (stages 4-5). Conclusion Analysis of the training results of medical students suggests that performing microsurgery first on silicon tubes and chicken wings saves animals' lives later during the training program. We believe that any person can learn the technique of microsurgery by performing 7 to 8 hours of training per day over a period of 15 days within this program setting.

  16. X-ray microtomography of porous media at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, B. [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This session is comprised of pertinent information about the historical aspects, current status of research, technical achievements, and future plans in X-ray computed microtomography at Brookhaven National Laboratories. An explanation with specifications and diagrams of X-ray instrumentation is provided. Several high resolution 3-D color images of reservoir rock drill cores and other materials are included.

  17. Attitudes toward medical and genetic confidentiality in the Saudi research biobank: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris

    2016-03-01

    Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy.

  18. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA.

  19. Decisions by Finnish Medical Research Ethics Committees: A Nationwide Study of Process and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina; Virtanen, Jorma I; Regushevskaya, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Review by research ethics committees (RECs) is the key in medical research regulation. Data from meeting notes and project summaries were abstracted from all projects submitted in 2002 (n = 1,004) and 2007 (n = 1,045) to the official medical RECs in Finland. Data from consecutive submissions were combined per project. When comparing RECs, logistic regression was used to adjust for application characteristics. The number of projects handled varied notably by REC. In the first handling, 85% of applications in 2002 and 77% in 2007 were approved, while 13% and 20% were tabled. For 61% of the projects, the review time was 89 days, and 6% had 6 months or longer. The variation by REC in approval rates, number of handlings, or long review times was not explained by project characteristics. In the last handling, 94% of the projects in both years were approved or concluded not to need a statement from that REC. The most common reason for tabling or not approving an application was patient autonomy, usually centered on the patient leaflet. The next most common reasons were requests for further information and dissatisfaction with the scientific aspects of the project. The reasons classified as "ethics" in the narrow sense were rare. The REC focus was to assure that researchers follow the various rules on medical research and to improve the quality of research and project documents. REC considerations could be divided into decisions based on ethics and recommendations covering other aspects.

  20. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers ...

  1. Unlearning and Relearning from Medical Education Research: Teacher Education Research in the Pursuit of Teacher Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have increasingly paid attention to how practitioners can access and utilize research knowledge, but the field still has been unable to create a research tradition and corresponding diffusion model that directly and uniformly influences teachers' practice. One reason for this is the contested status of teaching as a…

  2. Mapping the author gender-distribution of disease-specific medical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Peter; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2016-01-01

    This short paper responds to a recent call for attention to the “diversity challenge” in biomedical research, specifically with regard to gender diversity. The lack of diversity can be limiting for the progression of knowledge production, a viewpoint shared by both the European Commission......, the League of European Research Universities and the National Institute of Health. We study the gender distribution of authors in medical research, specifically mapped to disease-classifications using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) found in PubMed Medline. The dataset consists of 1,542,050 papers......, spanning from 2008-2015, with full author gender and disease classification, with metadata from PubMed and author affiliation information from Web of Science. The combination of information on disease and gender allows us to map diversity issues to specific diseases. Our hypothesis is that one...

  3. [Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM) medical students' attitudes to research and learning: 1984-1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot-Kleinman, D; Nobigrot-Streimbleinsky, M; Galván-Huerta, S C

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates, after a 10-year period, the attitudes of medical students towards research and learning at the National University of Mexico (UNAM), and tries to determine the role that experiences obtained during academic years could play in orienting these attitudes. Results indicate that all four groups of participant students,--1st and 4th-5th grades, in 1984 and in 1994--show slightly positive attitudes towards research and learning. No significant attitude changes were observed after the 10-year period in students who enter medical school nor in those who begin clinical practice. Besides, it was found a significant correlation between these two attitudinal factors. Some possible explanations for these results are discussed, as well as some steps that could help to promote positive attitudes towards research and learning.

  4. Medical records for animals used in research, teaching, and testing: public statement from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.

  5. A guide for medical information searches of bibliographic databases - psychiatric research as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhönen, Johanna; Isohanni, Matti; Nieminen, Pentti; Miettunen, Jouko

    2009-09-01

    Information overload, demanding work with strict time limits, and the extensive number of medical bibliographic databases and other research sources all underline the importance of being able to search for up-to-date information effectively. Medical journals play a key role in providing access to the latest information in medicine and health and bibliographic databases play an important role in accessing them. This paper sheds light on the role of the information search process and discusses how to approach key medical bibliographic databases and information sources, using the field of psychiatry as an example. Because of an increasing amount of information, the constant renewal within the discipline and a variety of services available, those seeking information must precisely define what kind of information they are looking for and from which sources the information needed may be found.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E

    2011-06-01

    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  7. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; HEISER,J.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

    2003-04-01

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east

  8. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality.

  9. Action research to promote medical students' motivation in an English for Specific Purposes class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Nasser, Hayedeh

    2014-01-01

    Action research is an attempt to seek immediate solutions to the problems experienced in educational settings. In this type of research, teachers are the researchers who intend to make instant reforms to develop, and improve their teaching styles and reflect on pedagogical practices. The purpose of this study was to conduct an action research to tackle the problem of students' low motivation in English classes at the medical school of Iran University of Medical Sciences in fall 2010. Participants of this study were 98 third-semester ESP students of medicine. To reform the situation and promote students' motivation to participate in classes more actively and eagerly, the researchers changed the syllabus by applying Kemmis and McTaggart's (1988) cyclical model of action research, and adopting task-based teaching. Data was collected by means of interviews with both teachers and students to determine the changes to be made in the syllabus, classroom observations to monitor students' behavioral changes, and a questionnaire to assess students' attitudes towards the changes. This research study had a number of valuable outcomes the most important of which was a change in classroom behavior of the students.

  10. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  11. Safety in home care: A research protocol for studying medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easty Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is an ongoing global priority, with medication safety considered a prevalent, high-risk area of concern. Yet, we have little understanding of the supports and barriers to safe medication management in the Canadian home care environment. There is a clear need to engage the providers and recipients of care in studying and improving medication safety with collaborative approaches to exploring the nature and safety of medication management in home care. Methods A socio-ecological perspective on health and health systems drives our iterative qualitative study on medication safety with elderly home care clients, family members and other informal caregivers, and home care providers. As we purposively sample across four Canadian provinces: Alberta (AB, Ontario (ON, Quebec (QC and Nova Scotia (NS, we will collect textual and visual data through home-based interviews, participant-led photo walkabouts of the home, and photo elicitation sessions at clients' kitchen tables. Using successive rounds of interpretive description and human factors engineering analyses, we will generate robust descriptions of managing medication at home within each provincial sample and across the four-province group. We will validate our initial interpretations through photo elicitation focus groups with home care providers in each province to develop a refined description of the phenomenon that can inform future decision-making, quality improvement efforts, and research. Discussion The application of interpretive and human factors lenses to the visual and textual data is expected to yield findings that advance our understanding of the issues, challenges, and risk-mitigating strategies related to medication safety in home care. The images are powerful knowledge translation tools for sharing what we learn with participants, decision makers, other healthcare audiences, and the public. In addition, participants engage in knowledge exchange

  12. 医疗大数据研究进展%Review of medical big data research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 杨艳利; 冯云霞

    2016-01-01

    This article firstly introduces the concept, types and application fields of medical big data, and then introduces sources and current storage strategies on different platforms of medical big data. Secondly, we enumerate current state of existed medical big data mining and analyzing methods through cases, and research application state of big medical data in fields of clinical diagno-sis, health management, and other related instances. Finally, we concluded the article by summari-zing achievements of medical big data mining and challenges faced in the future.%从医疗大数据的基本概念、种类及其各领域的应用出发,介绍医疗大数据的来源和现阶段医疗健康数据在不同平台的存储策略及技术;通过实例列举医疗大数据的挖掘处理方法和研究分析现状,并对医疗大数据在医药研发、临床诊断、健康管理等领域的应用情况进行调研;对医疗大数据挖掘的成果及其面临的挑战进行总结。

  13. The use of radioisotopes in medicine and medical research, Australia 1947-73

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korszniak, N

    1994-12-01

    On March 31, 1994, an article appeared in the Melbourne Age claiming that after the Second World War `hundreds of people were injected with radioactive materials in medical experiments that continued in Australian hospitals until the 1960s. Similar reports subsequently appeared in other newspapers and on the television and radio news. The archival records held at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) pertaining to the medical uses of radioisotopes during the period 1947-1973 have been examined to ascertain the nature of radioisotope use, and in the case of experimental procedures, any ethical considerations. The material examined indicates that the distribution and medical use of radioactive isotopes was stringently controlled by the Radio-isotope Standing Committee (established by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 1947 to oversee this area) until its disbandment in 1973, when the responsibility for regulation of the use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes in Australia passed to the Therapeutic Goods Administration. A database, showing details of over 500 radioisotope use in Australia between 1947-1973 is given in Appendix III . (author) refs., tabs.

  14. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dae Young, E-mail: evee0914@chollian.net [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Eun Joo [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sora [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 445 Gil-dong Kangdong-Gu, Seoul 134-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010.

  15. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  16. Radiation dosimetry for NCT facilities at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Greenberg, D.D.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-12-31

    Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) is a 3 mega-watt (MW) heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for medical and biological studies and became operational in 1959. Over time, the BMRR was modified to provide thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies. NCT studies have been performed at both the epithermal neutron irradiation facility (ENIF) on the east side of the BMRR reactor core and the thermal neutron irradiation facility (TNIF) on the west side of the core. Neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry performed from 1994 to the present in both facilities are described and the results are presented and discussed.

  17. Recruiting for health, medical or psychosocial research using Facebook: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Thornton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting participants is a challenge for many health, medical and psychosocial research projects. One tool more frequently being used to improve recruitment is the social networking website Facebook. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that have used Facebook to recruit participants of all ages, to any psychosocial, health or medical research. 110 unique studies that used Facebook as a recruitment source were included in the review. The majority of studies used a cross-sectional design (80% and addressed a physical health or disease issue (57%. Half (49% of the included studies reported specific details of the Facebook recruitment process. Researchers paid between $1.36 and $110 per completing participants (Mean = $17.48, SD = $23.06. Among studies that examined the representativeness of their sample, the majority concluded (86% their Facebook-recruited samples were similarly representative of samples recruited via traditional methods. These results indicate that Facebook is an effective and cost-efficient recruitment method. Researchers should consider their target group, advertisement wording, offering incentives and no-cost methods of recruitment when considering Facebook as a recruitment source. It is hoped this review will assist researchers to make decisions regarding the use of Facebook as a recruitment tool in future research.

  18. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Kurihama medical and addiction centre-a profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Tomomi; Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center began to conduct research and to provide medical care for alcohol-related problems in 1963, when special alcoholism treatment wards were established in Japan for the first time. At first, the provision of medical care to patients was prioritized. However, training courses for specialists were initiated in 1975, and the Department of Clinical Research was established in 1984, which led to the formation of the present management structure in which the centre's staff are shared by three departments: Medical Care, Clinical Research and Education and Information. The Department of Medical Care provides specialized treatment for alcohol use disorders and medical services for other conditions, including behavioural addictions such as internet addiction and gambling disorder, as well as dementia and other psychiatric disorders. The Departments of Clinical Research and Education and Information are engaged mainly in specialized activities related to alcohol. The Department of Clinical Research conducts research on the epidemiology of alcohol use, the effects of alcohol on health and the treatment of alcohol use disorders in Japan, in cooperation with universities and other research institutions. The Department of Education and Information fosters the human capacity to achieve the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of alcohol-related problems and the dissemination of information on alcohol. The centre also performs alcohol-related problem prevention activities, government consultations and international collaborative research and personal exchanges, thereby functioning as a central institution for alcohol policy-based medical services and research in Japan.

  19. Research on psychoactive plants at Mexico’s National Medical Institute, 1888-1915

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabia, Angélica Morales; Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios en Ciencias y Humanidades, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Reynoso, Mariana Ortiz; Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present essay is to analyze the work performed at the National Medical Institute (NMI) with a group of plants remarkable for containing significant psychoactive principles. The studies on the NMI conducted up to the present time did not analyze in depth the place those substances had in the Institute’s research agenda. For that reason we sought to identify the medicinal plants studied at NMI together with their active principles, the diseases to which they were experimentally a...

  20. Status, challenges and facilitators of consumer involvement in Australian health and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.

  1. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Girish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.

  2. Is it really all about the money? Reconsidering non-financial interests in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Concern about financial conflicts crowds out sufficient consideration of other interests that may bias research conduct. Regulations, institutional policies, and guidance from professional bodies and medical journals all primarily focus on financial ties. But why? Economic gain is not the only powerful influence. This article argues that we under-prioritize non-financial interests in the regulation of medical research. It critiques the usual reasons given for regulating financial and non-financial interests differently - that the interests contrast in terms of tangibility, that financial interests are optional, and that financial interests can be efficiently carved out as a discrete area of focus. Moreover, disparate regulatory treatment seems inattentive to the very similar social and psychological forces that animate the bias effect of both financial and non-financial interests and fails to account for how financial and non-financial interests synergistically interact. Under-prioritization of non-financial interests threatens to erode public trust and creates negative spillover effects that weaken financial conflicts regulation. Optimal regulation requires a more integrated, balanced, and proportionate response to secondary interests in medical research.

  3. Teaching and Assessing Reflecting Skills among Undergraduate Medical Students Experiencing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Kamath, Ullas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Reflection is the integral component of lifelong learning. Hence, there is a need for incorporating opportunities for students in the curriculum, to develop these skills. Aim To evaluate the feasibility of incorporating teaching-learning activity on reflection early in the undergraduate medical curriculum using research experience as a context, and, to determine whether the reflective skills of students improve upon training. Materials and Methods The study was experimental with test and control groups and was conducted at Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. Senior batch of medical students in the second year of the course, about to complete their research project were considered as the test group and subsequent junior batch which was in middle of the research activity was the control. The test group was provided with a teaching-learning activity on reflection. Following this, students were asked to write reflective summary on experience of doing research. The control group who did not receive any training on reflection were also requested to write reflective summaries. Reflective summaries were graded by two authors independently using a newly developed rubric. Later, the grades were designated with scores. Perspective regarding this teaching-learning activity was collected from the test group. Feasibility was examined during teaching-learning activity and assessment. Mean reflective summary scores of control and test groups were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared using independent samples t-test. A p-value of teaching-learning activity lasted for two hours. It took an average of five minutes for researchers to assess each reflective summary. There was a statistically significant (pTeaching and assessing reflecting skills among students using research experience as context was feasible. This study demonstrated that students acquire better reflecting skills after undergoing training.

  4. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beamline at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. W. [Residence, 25 Rhododendron Circle, Asheville, NC (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. The use of the AGS complex at BNL has been explored for a muSR facility previously. Here we report simulations of a beamline with a target inside a solenoidal field, and of an orbit feed-back system with single muon beam positioning monitors based on technology available today

  5. US-Japan collaboration in the construction of the BNL superconducting muon storage ring and inflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The US-Japan collaboration in the contraction of a BNL muon storage ring for the g-2 experiment (E821) is described from the viewpoint of Japanese collaborators. Japan has contributed in the production of the pole pieces made of a vacuum-melted Ultra-Low Carbon Steel, Al-stabilized Nb/Ti superconductors for the superferric storage ring dipole coils, including technology transfer, and the development of a sophisticated superconducting inflector for muon injection. All of above items seem to be essential techniques to pursue accurate and detailed muon g-2 experiments. Recent experimental results are also mentioned in the latter part of this report. (author)

  6. Design and Data Model of the BNL Archive and Dissemination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, J.; Osterer, L.

    1977-03-01

    The BNL Archive and Dissemination (BNLAD) System was designed to operate on a homogeneous distributed data base in a computer network. Its primary function is to present a uniform logical and physical view of already existing sequential files of data, so that these files can be accessed at any node of a computer network where the BNLAD System is operable. The architecture of the system, based on a subset of PL/I (the host language), is presented. The Data Model, i.e. the information content of the data base as it is viewed by the users, of the BNLAD System is discussed by means of examples. 7 figs.

  7. The Nordic medical birth registers--a potential goldmine for clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Krebs, Lone; Klungsøyr, Kari

    2014-01-01

    The Nordic medical birth registers have long been used for valuable clinical research. Their collection of data for more than four decades offers unusual possibilities for research across generations. At the same time, serum and blotting paper blood samples have been stored from most neonates. Two...... large cohorts (approximately 100 000 births) in Denmark and Norway have been described by questionnaires, interviews and collection of biological samples (blood, urine and milk teeth), as well as a systematic prospective follow-up of the offspring. National patient registers provide information...

  8. Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaka, M M

    2012-09-01

    Correlation is a statistical method used to assess a possible linear association between two continuous variables. It is simple both to calculate and to interpret. However, misuse of correlation is so common among researchers that some statisticians have wished that the method had never been devised at all. The aim of this article is to provide a guide to appropriate use of correlation in medical research and to highlight some misuse. Examples of the applications of the correlation coefficient have been provided using data from statistical simulations as well as real data. Rule of thumb for interpreting size of a correlation coefficient has been provided.

  9. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Olid Anna

    2012-08-01

    find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training.

  10. The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo

    2017-02-09

    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted.

  11. Research on the Present Status of the Five-Year Medical Training Program in Chinese Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…

  12. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described.

  13. [The Centre for Medical Research and Health in Niamey, Niger. The new CERMES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-01-01

    After 20 years under the umbrella of the Organisation de Coordination et de Coopération pour la lutte contre les Grandes Endémies (organization for coordination and cooperation against major endemic diseases), the Centre de Recherche sur les Méningites et les Schistosomoses (the meningitis and schistosomiasis research center) has been placed under the Niger Ministry of Public Health. It has become the Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (medical and health research center) and thus keeps its acronym, CERMES. In 2008, CERMES became a full member of the Institut Pasteur International Network. Its main research interests include meningitis, malaria, and interactions between health, environment, and climate. CERMES also works in the areas of public health and health training. Here, 12 years after the creation of the new CERMES, we present its main research results, as well as the challenges and opportunities it faces.

  14. Electronic medical records (EMRs), epidemiology, and epistemology: reflections on EMRs and future pediatric clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer-term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research.

  15. New Brookhaven chief seeks cross-cutting research

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory will pursue opportunities for promoting commercial development of energy systems and other technologies while focusing on the lab's primary mission of basic science research, according to the incoming BNL director, Praveen Chaudhari (1 page).

  16. 医学生同理心的研究进展%Research Progress of Medical Students' Empathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琴飞; 张亚林

    2011-01-01

    As one of medical personnel necessary qualities, Empathy gets more and more attention in the medical field. This article discussed foreign and domestic research progress of empathy in medical students, ijlustrated the deficiency of empathy research in domestic medical students, and the significance of empathy in improving medical relationship. In recent years , the domestic medical relationship is growing tension, medical students are the subject of future medical relationship,we should intensify the research and cultivation of empathy in medical students , establish good foundation for better medical relationship.%同理心作为医务人员必备素质乏一,越来越受到医疗领域的关注.探讨了国外以及国内关于医学生同理心的研究进展,阐述了国内在医学生同理心研究方面的不足以及同理心在改善医患关系方面的重要性,为应对国内的紧张医患关系,加大对医学生同理心研究和培养的力度,为将来更好的医疗关系打好基础.

  17. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  18. Research-Oriented Series: A Portal into the Culture of Biomedical Research for Junior Medical Students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M.; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M.; Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Albali, Nawaf H.; Ali, Alaa A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the…

  19. Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S; Mayya, Shreemathi S

    2015-01-01

    Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, pdesign decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 pdesigns has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, presearch seems to have made no major progress regarding using correct statistical analyses, but error/defects in study designs have decreased significantly. Randomized clinical trials are quite rarely published and have high proportion of

  20. Study on scientiifcity of medical research papers%谈医学科技论文的科学性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽萍

    2015-01-01

    科学性是对医学科技论文学术质量的基本要求。医学科技论文是否具有科学性是决定其是否可被采用的最基本和最重要的条件,只有通过科学性的审核,才能谈及稿件的其他方面,如创新性等,现对与医学科技论文科学性相关的几个问题进行探讨,引起编辑与作者对医学科技论文科学性的重视,更好地提高作者撰写医学科技论文的水平及医学期刊的学术水平。%Scientificity is a basic requirement for quality of medical research papers. Scientificity is the most essential and important requirement to decide acceptance of medical research papers, the other aspects of medical research papers can be mentioned only after audit of scientificity, such as innovativeness;, the study wil explore several problems related to scientificity of medical research papers, draw attentions from editors and authors for scientificity of medical research papers, and further improve the level of writing medical research papers and academic level of medical research papers.

  1. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  2. Clinical and translational research capacity building needs in minority medical and health science Hispanic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities.

  3. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined.

  4. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates.

  5. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords.

  6. Medical chemical engineering the research; Iyo kagaku kogaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Kiyotaka [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    He taking the chemical-engineering technique as a weapon, it participates in research and education over the perennial in the field of medical chemical engineering, medical engineering, bioengineering, and the excellent research result has been raised. Moreover, leading research result is raised in these research field which are the interdisciplinary field between medicine and chemical engineering, and the considerable contribution in these fields has been done. He enables the new development of the dialysis technology by advancing the research first of all from the viewpoint of hemodialysis film, hemodialyzer and three of the patient pharmacokinetics, in respect of dialysis technology in the artificial kidney, and developing the original dialysis system enables optimum dialysis treatment. Next, he on the oxygen which is the feed which is the most important for the organism, it originally crosses, and the gas is run in figuring hollow yarn lattice in the hollow yarn inside, and it is clarified that the system for washing the blood outside is advantageous, and it has succeeded in the development of the more efficient artificial lung. And, the artificial gill is examined from the original idea, which takes in the oxygen by using of a film in the oxygen carrier (the substitution blood), as intermediary. Next, he some of the phenomenon in the blood plasma viscosity of patient with renal failure or are measured and the relationship between blood plasma viscosity and disease state is clarified, and the knowledge which is useful for the diagnosis has been obtained. And, it is examined that the quantity that the hydrophobic drug is adsorbed in the albumin differs in normal subject and dialysis patient, and the system for deciding chemical administration quantity to the dialysis patient is being found. Next, in research progress of the above, various measuring technique are devised, and remarkably the research advances. For example, the considerable contribution for

  7. Virtual microscopy in medical research: Open European Nephrology Science Center (OpEN.SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thomas; Beil, Michael; Schmidt, Danilo; Dietel, Manfred; Lindemann, Gabriela

    2007-03-01

    The amount and heterogeneity of data in biomedical research, notably in transnational research, requires new methods for the collection, presentation and analysis of information. Important data from laboratory experiments as well as patient trials are available as images. Thus, the integration and processing of image data represent a crucial component of information systems in biomedical research. The Charité Medical School in Berlin has established a new information service center for kidney diseases and transplantation (Open European Nephrology Science Centre - OpEN.SC) together with the German Research Agency (DFG). The aims of this project are (i) to improve the availability of raw data, (ii) to establish an infrastructure for clinical trials, (iii) to monitor the occurrence of rare disease patterns and (iv) to establish a quality assurance system. Major diagnostic procedures in medicine are based on the processing and analysis of image data. In diagnostic pathology, the availability of automated slide scanners provide the opportunity to digitize entire microscopic slides. The processing, presentation and analysis of these image data are called virtual microscopy. The integration of this new technology into the OpEN.SC system and the link to other heterogeneous data of individual patients represent a major technological challenge. Thus, new ways in communication between clinical and scientific partners have to be established and will be promoted by the project. The technological basis of the repository are web services for a scalable and adaptable system. HL7 and DICOM are considered the main medical standards of communication.

  8. Access to the energy system network simulator (ESNS), via remote computer terminals. [BNL CDC 7600/6600 computer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A W

    1976-08-15

    The Energy System Network Simulator (ESNS) flow model is installed on the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) CDC 7600/6600 computer facility for access by off-site users. The method of access available to outside users is through a system called CDC-INTERCOM, which allows communication between the BNL machines and remote teletype terminals. This write-up gives a brief description of INTERCOM for users unfamiliar with this system and a step-by-step guide to using INTERCOM in order to access ESNS.

  9. The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator: White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Mayes, Christopher; Patterson, Ritchie; Sagan, David; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Berg, Scott; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brooks, Stephen; Brown, Kevin; Fischer, Wolfram; Hao, Yue; Meng, Wuzheng; Méot, François; Minty, Michiko; Peggs, Stephen; Ptitsin, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The Cornell-BNL FFAG-ERL Test Accelerator (C$\\beta$) will comprise the first ever Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based on a Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) lattice. In particular, we plan to use a Non Scaling FFAG (NS-FFAG) lattice that is very compact and thus space- and cost- effective, enabling multiple passes of the electron beam in a single recirculation beam line, using the superconducting RF (SRF) linac multiple times. The FFAG-ERL moves the cost optimized linac and recirculation lattice to a dramatically better optimum. The prime accelerator science motivation for C$\\beta$ is proving that the FFAG-ERL concept works. This is an important milestone for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) plans to build a major Nuclear Physics facility, eRHIC, based on producing 21 GeV electron beams to collide with the RHIC ion beams. A consequence of the C$\\beta$ work would be the availability of significantly better, cost-effective, compact CW high-brightness electron beams for a plethora of scientific inves...

  10. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED DURING THE PROCESSING OF THE BNL ERL 5 CELL ACCELERATING CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURRILL,A.

    2007-06-25

    One of the key components for the Energy Recovery Linac being built by the Electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Department is the 5 cell accelerating cavity which is designed to accelerate 2 MeV electrons from the gun up to 15-20 MeV, allow them to make one pass through the ring and then decelerate them back down to 2 MeV prior to sending them to the dump. This cavity was designed by BNL and fabricated by AES in Medford, NY. Following fabrication it was sent to Thomas Jefferson Lab in VA for chemical processing, testing and assembly into a string assembly suitable for shipment back to BNL for integration into the ERL. The steps involved in this processing sequence will be reviewed and the deviations from processing of similar SRF cavities will be discussed. The lessons learned from this process are documented to help future projects where the scope is different from that normally encountered.

  11. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  12. Performance curves of medical researchers during their career: analysis of scientific production from a retrospective cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Antoine; Herquelot, Eléonore; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Malbezin, Muriel; Claris, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish the pattern of change in individual scientific production over the career of medical researchers. Design Retrospective cohort based on prospectively collected data in a hospital information system. Setting Multicentre university hospital in France. Participants Two distinct populations of 1835 researchers (full professors vs non-academic physicians) having produced 44 723 publications between 1995 and 2014. Main outcome measures Annual number of publications referenced in Medline/PubMed with a sensitivity analysis based on publications as first/last author and in high impact journals. The individual volume of publications was modelled by age using generalised estimating equations adjusted for birth cohort, biomedical discipline and academic position of researchers. Results Averaged over the whole career, the annual number of publications was 5.28 (95% CI 4.90 to 5.69) among professors compared to 0.82 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89) among non-academic physicians (pcareer (0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.06). The non-academic physicians experienced a slower pace of learning curve at the beginning of their careers (42.38, 95% CI 25.37 to 70.81) followed by a smaller increase in the annual number of publications (1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.51). Conclusions Compared to full professors, non-academic physicians had a poor capacity to publish, indicating a low productivity when medical doctors have limited time or little interest in undertaking research. This finding highlights the potential for rethinking the missions of medical doctors towards an enlargement of scientific prerogatives in favour of progress in global knowledge. PMID:28237957

  13. Publication rate and PhD enrolment following a medical pre-graduate research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Okkels, Niels; Christensen, Mette Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the 1990s, the publication and PhD recruitment rates following the Danish pre-graduate research programme (PGRP) in medicine were 54% and 33%, respectively. Updated estimates are unknown. METHODS: All medical students enrolled in the PGRP at the Faculty of Medicine, Aarhus......, PGRP completion time and years in medical school at the time of PGRP initiation. Supervisors were described by sex, title, position and affiliation. Calculations were tested by the chi-squared test; p ...: Fast completion of the PGRP and early enrolment in the programme were associated with scientific publishing and PhD recruitment. The publication rate has remained stable over time. FUNDING: Authors were funded by their individual affiliations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  14. Publication rate and PhD enrolment following a medical pre-graduate research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Okkels, Niels; Christensen, Mette Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the 1990s, the publication and PhD recruitment rates following the Danish pre-graduate research programme (PGRP) in medicine were 54% and 33%, respectively. Updated estimates are unknown. METHODS: All medical students enrolled in the PGRP at the Faculty of Medicine, Aarhus......% of the overall 224 papers, and 90% were original articles. Publication was positively associated with completion of the PGRP in related to enrolment in the PGRP after fewer years in medical school. CONCLUSIONS......: Fast completion of the PGRP and early enrolment in the programme were associated with scientific publishing and PhD recruitment. The publication rate has remained stable over time. FUNDING: Authors were funded by their individual affiliations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  15. Early-career researchers in medical applications @ CERN | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Discover how technological advances for high-energy physics have become essential tools for modern medicine. CERN seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, and this mission naturally contributes to advancing the frontiers of technology. State-of-the-art techniques developed for particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing have applications beyond the high-energy physics community in the medical field. These applications now have an essential role in clinical practices and medical research centres: from imaging devices, accelerator-technology dedicated to cancer therapy, to simulations and data science tools. This knowledge transfer from the high energy physics community to innovation in other fields is an inherent component of CERN’s mission and culture. It fuels scientific collaboration and technological advances, and drives innovation. In addition, it motivates future generations of scientists, and contributes to the public awareness of the impact of fu...

  16. Research and Realization of Medical Image Fusion Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new medical image fusion technique is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstruction. After reconstruction, the three-dimensional volume data is normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way and intercepted through setting up cutting plane including anatomical structure, as a result two images in entire registration on space and geometry are obtained and the images are fused at last.Compared with traditional two-dimensional fusion technique, three-dimensional fusion technique can not only resolve the different problems existed in the two kinds of images, but also avoid the registration error of the two kinds of images when they have different scan and imaging parameter. The research proves this fusion technique is more exact and has no registration, so it is more adapt to arbitrary medical image fusion with different equipments.

  17. A proposal for quality standards for measuring medication adherence in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann Bartley; Amico, K Rivet; Bova, Carol; Womack, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    A decade after widespread recognition that adherence to medication regimens is key to antiretroviral effectiveness, considerable controversy remains regarding a "gold standard" for adherence measurement. Each adherence measurement approach has strengths and weaknesses and each rests on specific assumptions. The range of assumptions regarding adherence measurement and the diversity with which each approach is implemented strongly suggest that the evaluation of a particular measure outside of the context in which it was used (e.g. the study's operational protocol) may result in undeserved confidence or lack of confidence in study results. The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of best practices across commonly used measurement methods. Recommendations regarding what information should be included in published reports regarding how adherence was measured are provided to promote improvement in the quality of measurement of medication adherence in research.

  18. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  19. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  20. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  1. Nurturing educational research at Dartmouth Medical School: the synergy among innovative ideas, support faculty, and administrative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, David W; Carney, Patricia A

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, Dartmouth Medical School has increased its commitment to educational research within the school, and in collaboration with other schools across the country. Passionate faculty members with ideas and expertise in particular curricular areas are one critical component needed for a successful educational research program. Other components include an atmosphere that fosters research collaborations and mentoring, and various types of institutional support structures. This same model has effectively supported basic science and clinical research for decades. Because of the complexities involved in studying medical education, Dartmouth Medical School has invested in support structures for educational grant and manuscript development, financial support for pilot projects and partial salary support for investigators and key staff members, and other support targeted toward specific research projects. Ultimately, the goal is to use the results of the school's educational research projects to improve the curriculum through cycles of hypothesis development and testing, providing evidence for subsequent curricular change. When some research findings are relevant and applicable for use in other medical schools, that is an additional benefit of the educational research process. In this report, the authors describe the development of Dartmouth Medical School's infrastructure for supporting educational research, which has helped to accelerate the educational research productivity teaching faculty now enjoy. The authors also address some of the challenges that they anticipate in the near future.

  2. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  3. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. Van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL AID RENDERING AT SARATOV SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF TRAUMATOLOGY AND ORTHOPEDICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Shulgina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the peculiarities of organization of high technology medical aid rendering at Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. Profiles and volumes of high technology medical aid and its order during 2006-2007 are presented.

  5. 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award Honors Prof.TU You-you for the Discovery of Artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award honors a scientist who discovered artemisinin and its utility for treating malaria.Prof.TU You-you (China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,Beijing) transformed an ancient Chinese healing method into the most powerful antimalarial medicine currently available that has saved millions of lives across the globe,especially in the developing world.

  6. Key Considerations for the Success of Medical Education Research and Innovation Units in Canada: Unit Director Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of…

  7. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  8. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Geskin

    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1 how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2 research objectives and goals for NGS, (3 workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4 storage capacity and unmet needs, (5 available and anticipated funding resources, and (6 future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs.

  9. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geskin, Albert; Legowski, Elizabeth; Chakka, Anish; Chandran, Uma R; Barmada, M Michael; LaFramboise, William A; Berg, Jeremy; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs.

  10. 医学科研管理中的创新分析%Medical Research Management Innovation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫少伟

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the management of innovation in medical research. Methods:We analyzed the medical research management innovation analysis and management innovation to promote medical research and effective strategies. Results:The medical research management innovations include Innovative consciousness and motivation, innovation goals, innovation, and promote innovative medical research management measures include a guide 2 through innovative medical research management policies and regulations, to create a good atmosphere for innovation. Conclusion:medical research management can effectively integrate scientific and technological achievements in medical research, enabling dynamic creative activities responsibilities and objectives for the research and development of the medicine has a very important significance.%目的:探讨医学科研管理中的创新。方法:分析了医学科研管理中的创新分析和推动医学科研管理创新的有效策略。结果:医学科研管理中的创新包括创新意识、创新动机、创新目标、创新能力,推动医学科研管理创新的措施包括1、通过政策法规引导医学科研管理创新2、营造良好的创新氛围。结论:医学科研管理能够有效整合医学科研的科技成果,从而实现责任和目标的创造性动态活动,对于我国医学科研发展有着非常重要的意义。

  11. A brief history of the evolution of the medical research article

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTA, MONICA MIHAELA

    2015-01-01

    Given the current importance of publishing medical research articles in high-impact international journals, this article briefly presents key moments in the evolution of this reporting genre for a better understanding of the diachronic changes that have shaped it into a highly useful tool for creating and spreading knowledge, as well as for establishing academic hierarchies at both individual and institutional level. Therefore, focus will be placed not only on the evolution of its structure and purpose, but also on issues such as knowledge construction, knowledge claims, writer-reader interaction and the appropriate writing conventions and rhetorical strategies required for successful scientific communication. PMID:26733758

  12. Results of a randomized trial in children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia : Medical Research Council AML12 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Brenda E. S.; Webb, David K. H.; Howman, Andrew J.; De Graaf, Siebold S. N.; Harrison, Christine J.; Wheatley, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Medical Research Council Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 12 (MRC AML12) trial (children) addressed the optimal anthracenedione/anthracycline in induction and the optimal number of courses of consolidation chemotherapy. 504 children (

  13. Students’ perspectives of undergraduate research methods education at three public medical schools in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Ian Guyton; Buwembo, William; Joseph, Ruberwa; Peter, Kawungezi; Bajunirwe, Francis; Mwaka, Erisa Sabakaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students’ views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Methods This was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at student's responses to an open ended section of a questionnaire on their views on undergraduate teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Qualitative phenomenological data analysis was done with a bias towards principles of adult learning. Results Students appreciated the importance of learning research methods and biostatistics as a way of understanding research problems; appropriately interpreting statistical concepts during their training and post-qualification practice; and translating the knowledge acquired. Stressful teaching environment and inadequate educational resource materials were identified as impediments to effective learning. Suggestions for improved learning included: early and continuous exposure to the course; more active and practical approach to teaching; and a need for mentorship. Conclusion The current methods of teaching research methods and biostatistics leave most of the students in the dissonance phase of learning resulting in none or poor student engagement that results in a failure to comprehend and/or appreciate the principles governing the use of different research methods. PMID:27642414

  14. Confidentiality in preclinical Alzheimer disease studies: when research and medical records meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jalayne J; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-02-25

    Clinical trials to advance the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) may expose research subjects to discrimination risks. An individual enrolled in a research study that uses positive test results from amyloid PET imaging or CSF measures of β-amyloid 42 as inclusion criteria has biomarkers indicative of AD pathology. If insurers and employers learn this information, it could expose subjects to discrimination. Unfortunately, current legal and regulatory mechanisms are not sufficient to protect against harms that have significant consequences for subjects. Existing law that prohibits employment and insurance discrimination based on genetic status does not apply to amyloid biomarkers or any other biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Gaps in legal protections fail to protect research subjects from discrimination by long-term care and disability insurers. This risk is particularly concerning because individuals with AD dementia ultimately need long-term care services. To maximize subject protections and advance valuable research, policymakers, investigators, and research institutions must address shortcomings in the design of the electronic medical record, revise laws to limit discrimination, and develop practices that inform research participants of risks associated with loss of confidentiality.

  15. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberse, Janneke Elisabeth; Pittens, Carina Anna Cornelia Maria; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Broerse, Jacqueline Elisabeth Willy

    2012-10-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products development. A four-phase approach was developed to stimulate needs-articulation concerning future medical products for a broad range of patient groups covering 15 disease domains. 119 (expert) patients and 92 non-patient representatives were consulted using interviews and focus groups. In a facilitated way, patients appeared capable and willing to provide input useful for an advisory process. A broad range of medical products was defined serving different purposes. This study showed two dilemmas: first, finding a balance between a predefined focus and being sufficiently broad to enable patients and patient representatives to contribute, and second, finding a balance between relevance for many patients groups and saturation of data for a lower number of patient groups. By taking the context of patients' daily life as starting point patient groups provided new insights. The predefined focus was sometimes perceived as constraining. The GR considered the articulated needs constructive and incorporated patients' input in their advice to the Minister of Health.

  16. The Medical Home and Care Coordination in Disaster Recovery: Hypothesis for Interventions and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David M; Redlener, Irwin; Gracy, Delaney

    2015-08-01

    In postdisaster settings, health care providers encounter secondary surges of unmet primary care and mental health needs that evolve throughout disaster recovery phases. Whatever a community's predisaster adequacy of health care, postdisaster gaps are similar to those of any underserved region. We hypothesize that existing practice and evidence supporting medical homes and care coordination in primary care for the underserved provide a favorable model for improving health in disrupted communities. Elements of medical home services can be offered by local or temporary providers from outside the region, working out of mobile clinics early in disaster recovery. As repairs and reconstruction proceed, local services are restored over weeks or years. Throughout recovery, major tasks include identifying high-risk patients relative to the disaster and underlying health conditions, assisting displaced families as they transition through housing locations, and tracking their evolving access to health care and community services as they are restored. Postdisaster sources of financial assistance for the disaster-exposed population are often temporary and evolving, requiring up-to-date information to cover costs of care until stable services and insurance coverage are restored. Evidence to support disaster recovery health care improvement will require research funding and metrics on structures, processes, and outcomes of the disaster recovery medical home and care coordination, based on adaptation of standard validated methods to crisis environments.

  17. [Clinical Research VII. Systematic search: how to look for medical documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2012-01-01

    In the process of responding to questions generated during medical care, the number of articles appearing in the search is so vast that a strategy must be considered. This article describes the process to find and select the information to help us respond the needs of our patients. The judgment of the quality and relevance of the answer depends on each reader. Initially you have to look in places where there is medical arbitration for publications, reasons why we recommend PubMed. Start the search once the acronym PICO breakdown, where P is for patients, I intervention, C comparator and O outcome or result; these words are used as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and are linked with Boolean terms (and, or, and not). The acronym PICO shares components with the classical model of the Architecture of the Research described by Dr. Alvan R. Feinstein. A good search should participate in the response to our question in the first 20 articles, if it does not happen, the search must be more specific with the use of filters.

  18. New result on K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} from BNL E787

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REDLINGER,G.

    1999-06-21

    E787 at BNL has reported evidence for the rare decay K{sup +} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, based on the observation of one candidate event. In this paper, we present the result of analyzing a new dataset of comparable sensitivity to the published result.

  19. A silicon multiplicity detector system for an experiment on the interaction of antiprotons with nuclei at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Empl, A.; Mutchler, G.S.; Toshkov, S. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Bonner Nuclear Labs.); Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J. (City Coll., New York, NY (Unit

    1991-01-01

    A Large Angle Multiplicity Detector (LAMD) system has been developed and used at the BNL experiment E854: Antiproton Nucleus Interactions. This system performed well with an energetic antiproton beam. Charged particle multiplicity distributions from pbar annihilations were measured. We discuss the design and performance of the LAMD system in this paper. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  20. A silicon multiplicity detector system for an experiment on the interaction of antiprotons with nuclei at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Empl, A.; Mutchler, G.S.; Toshkov, S. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Bonner Nuclear Labs.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J. [City Coll., New York, NY (United States); Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Peaslee, D.C. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A Large Angle Multiplicity Detector (LAMD) system has been developed and used at the BNL experiment E854: Antiproton Nucleus Interactions. This system performed well with an energetic antiproton beam. Charged particle multiplicity distributions from pbar annihilations were measured. We discuss the design and performance of the LAMD system in this paper. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  1. A silicon multiplicity detector system for an experiment on the interaction of antiprotons with nuclei at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Empl, A.; Mutchler, G.S.; Toshkov, S. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Bonner Nuclear Labs.); Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A Large Angle Multiplicity Detector (LAMD) system has been developed and used at the BNL experiment E854: Antiproton Nucleus Interactions. This system performed well with an energetic antiproton beam. Charged particle multiplicity distributions from [bar p] annihilations were measured. The authors discuss the design and performance of the LAMD system in this paper.

  2. Big Data in medical research and EU data protection law: challenges to the consent or anonymise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Menno; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Biesaart, Monique C I H; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    Medical research is increasingly becoming data-intensive; sensitive data are being re-used, linked and analysed on an unprecedented scale. The current EU data protection law reform has led to an intense debate about its potential effect on this processing of data in medical research. To contribute to this evolving debate, this paper reviews how the dominant 'consent or anonymise approach' is challenged in a data-intensive medical research context, and discusses possible ways forwards within the EU legal framework on data protection. A large part of the debate in literature focuses on the acceptability of adapting consent or anonymisation mechanisms to overcome the challenges within these approaches. We however believe that the search for ways forward within the consent or anonymise paradigm will become increasingly difficult. Therefore, we underline the necessity of an appropriate research exemption from consent for the use of sensitive personal data in medical research to take account of all legitimate interests. The appropriate conditions of such a research exemption are however subject to debate, and we expect that there will be minimal harmonisation of these conditions in the forthcoming EU Data Protection Regulation. Further deliberation is required to determine when a shift away from consent as a legal basis is necessary and proportional in a data-intensive medical research context, and what safeguards should be put in place when such a research exemption from consent is provided.

  3. Proposal for a European Public Health Research Infrastructure for Sharing of health and Medical administrative data (PHRIMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgun, Anita; Oksen, Dina V; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Ganslandt, Thomas; Buchan, Iain; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cunningham, James; Gjerstorff, Marianne L; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Nikolski, Macha; Verger, Pierre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Masella, Cristina; Lettieri, Emanuele; Bertele, Paolo; Salokannel, Marjut; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Persoz, Charles; Chêne, Geneviève; Ohmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, health and medical administrative data is increasingly accumulating on a national level. Looking further than re-use of this data on a national level, sharing health and medical administrative data would enable large-scale analyses and European-level public health projects. There is currently no research infrastructure for this type of sharing. The PHRIMA consortium proposes to realise the Public Health Research Infrastructure for Sharing of health and Medical Administrative data (PHRIMA) which will enable and facilitate the efficient and secure sharing of healthcare data.

  4. A study of electronic medical record supporting role on medical research%电子病案对医学科研的支撑作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡胜利; 冯骏; 郭伟; 丁悦峰; 曹玮琪

    2015-01-01

    目的 促进病案信息的深度挖掘利用,为临床科研及医院管理提供有力支撑.方法 研究病案信息利用率较低的原因,提出需建设全结构化的无纸化电子病案,最后指出电子病案为科研提供支撑的关键建设要素.结果 指出建设无纸化电子病案要从存储结构化、建设病案系统、与数据仓库等技术相结合入手,同时实现门诊和住院病历互通、建设区域医疗、完善随访系统,最后指出实现的关键技术.结论 这对促进病案的利用率,提高病案对科研的支撑力度,推动医学的发展和进步,提升医院的软实力有着十分重要的意义.%Objective Promote the use of medical record information, the depth of excavation,provide strong support for clinical research and hospital management.Methods Medical Record Information lower utilization reasons put forward need to build the whole structure of the paperless electronic medical records, electronic medical records for research concluded that the key to building elements to provide support.Results Pointed out that the construction of paperless electronic medical records from the storage structure of the building medical record systems, and data warehouse technology combined start, outpatient and inpatient medical records while achieving interoperability, building regional health care, improve follow-up system, and finally pointed out the key technical implementation.Conclusions It is to promote the utilization of medical records, medical records for research to improve support efforts to promote development and progress of medicine and enhance the hospital's soft power has great significance.

  5. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  6. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gill; Austin, Christopher P; Balapure, Anil K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bucher, John R; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Fowle, John R; Kavlock, Robert J; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A; Muotri, Alysson R; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved.

  7. Analysis of Requirements for the Medication Profile to Be Used in Clinical Research: Protocol Feasibility Studies and Patient Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A “Medication Profile,” the information about the medicines a person is using and has used, is a core part of many electronic health record systems and summaries. However, there is little objective research into the data elements that the profile should contain to support the uses it must serve. With the increasing emphasis on secondary uses of electronic health information, as well as supporting the requirements to support direct to patient care, the Medication Profile should also support the requirements from clinical research. However, there is little, if any, description of these available. This paper describes an analysis of a set of study eligibility criteria that was undertaken to investigate which medication-related data elements would be required to support two clinical research use cases: the parameters to query a patient’s Medication Profile to assess their suitability for entry into a trial (patient recruitment and the parameters to query a set of Medication Profiles in a data warehouse to assess whether the eligibility criteria as described would yield a reasonable cohort of patients as potential subjects (protocol feasibility. These medication-related data elements then become information requirements that a Medication Profile should ideally meet, in order to be able to support these two uses in the clinical research domain.

  8. Impact of Professional Student Mentored-Research Fellowship on Medical Education and Academic Medicine Career Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Terry; Kelly, Thomas H.; Starnes, Catherine P.; Sawaya, B. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Context This study explores the long-term impact of the Professional Student Mentored Research Fellowship (PSMRF) program at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) on medical students’ research productivity and career paths. Methods Demographic characteristics, academic profiles, number of publications and residency placements from 2007-2012 were used to assess 119 PSMRF graduates against a comparison cohort of 898 UKCOM (non-PSMRF) students. Results PSMRF students had higher MCAT scores at admission (31.5 ± 0.6 vs. 30.6 ± 0.2, p = 0.007) and achieved higher USMLE Step 1 scores (228 ± 4.2 vs. 223 ± 1.5, p = 0.03) than comparison group. PSMRF students were more likely to publish Pubmed-indexed papers (36.7% vs. 17.9%, p < 0.0001), achieve AOA status (19.3% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.0002) and match to top 25 U.S. News and World Report residency programs (23.4% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.008). A greater proportion of PSMRF fellows matched to top tier competitive specialties (23% vs. 14.2%, p= 0.07), however this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The PSMRF program shows a significant increase in enrollment, as well as positive associations with indicators of success in medical school and subsequent quality of residency program. PMID:25996460

  9. Systems Medicine: The Application of Systems Biology Approaches for Modern Medical Research and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential development of highly advanced scientific and medical research technologies throughout the past 30 years has arrived to the point where the high number of characterized molecular agents related to pathogenesis cannot be readily integrated or processed by conventional analytical approaches. Indeed, the realization that several moieties are signatures of disease has partly led to the increment of complex diseases being characterized. Scientists and clinicians can now investigate and analyse any individual dysregulations occurring within the genomic, transcriptomic, miRnomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels thanks to currently available advanced technologies. However, there are drawbacks within this scientific brave new age in that only isolated molecular levels are individually investigated for their influence in affecting any particular health condition. Since their conception in 1992, systems biology/medicine focuses mainly on the perturbations of overall pathway kinetics for the consequent onset and/or deterioration of the investigated condition/s. Systems medicine approaches can therefore be employed for shedding light in multiple research scenarios, ultimately leading to the practical result of uncovering novel dynamic interaction networks that are critical for influencing the course of medical conditions. Consequently, systems medicine also serves to identify clinically important molecular targets for diagnostic and therapeutic measures against such a condition.

  10. Gender in medical ethics: re-examining the conceptual basis of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Elisabeth; Biller-Andorno, Nikola; Boos, Margarete; Sommer, Christina; Wiesemann, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Conducting empirical research on gender in medical ethics is a challenge from a theoretical as well as a practical point of view. It still has to be clarified how gender aspects can be integrated without sustaining gender stereotypes. The developmental psychologist Carol Gilligan was among the first to question ethics from a gendered point of view. The notion of care introduced by her challenged conventional developmental psychology as well as moral philosophy. Gilligan was criticised, however, because her concept of 'two different voices' may reinforce gender stereotypes. Moreover, although Gilligan stressed relatedness, this is not reflected in her own empirical approach, which still focuses on individual moral reflection. Concepts from social psychology can help overcome both problems. Social categories like gender shape moral identity and moral decisions. If morality is understood as being lived through actions of persons in social relationships, gender becomes a helpful category of moral analysis. Our findings will provide a conceptual basis for the question how empirical research in medical ethics can successfully embrace a gendered perspective.

  11. A combined model for pseudorapidity distributions in Cu-Cu collisions at BNL-RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhjin; Huang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions come from leading particles and those frozen out from the hot and dense matter created in collisions. The leading particles are conventionally supposed having Gaussian rapidity distributions normalized to the number of participants. The hot and dense matter is assumed to expand according to the unified hydrodynamics, a hydro model which unifies the features of Landau and Hwa-Bjorken model, and freeze out into charged particles from a space-like hypersurface with a proper time of Tau_FO . The rapidity distribution of this part of charged particles can be derived out analytically. The combined contribution from both leading particles and unified hydrodynamics is then compared against the experimental data performed by BNL-RHIC-PHOBOS Collaboration in different centrality Cu-Cu collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 and 62.4 GeV, respectively. The model predictions are in well consistent with experimental measurements.

  12. Parameters Optimization for a Novel Vacuum Laser Acceleration Test at BNL-ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lei; Zhou, Feng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new VLA theory model which has revealed that the injection electrons with low energy and small incident angle relative to the laser beam are captured and significantly accelerated in a strong laser field. For the further step for verifying the novel-VLA mechanics, we propose to use the BNL-ATF Terawatt CO2 laser and a high-brightness electron beam to carry out a proof-of-principle beam experiment. Experiment setup including the laser injection optics and electron extraction system and beam diagnostics is presented. Extensive optimized simulation results with ATF practical parameters are also presented, which shows that even when the laser intensity is not very high, the net energy gain still can be seen obviously. This could be prospect for a new revolution of vacuum laser acceleration.

  13. NRC-BNL Benchmark Program on Evaluation of Methods for Seismic Analysis of Coupled Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokshi, N.; DeGrassi, G.; Xu, J.

    1999-03-24

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  14. NRC-BNL BENCHMARK PROGRAM ON EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF COUPLED SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU,J.

    1999-08-15

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems.

  15. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  16. Studies of material properties under irradiation at BNL Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    CERN Document Server

    Simos, N; Ludewig, H; Mokhov, N; Hurh, P; Misek, J

    2012-01-01

    Effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been under study using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV Linac. The primary objectives of the study that includes a wide array of materials and alloys ranging between low and high-Z are to (a) observe changes in physio-mechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identify possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain material seize to maintain integrity, (c) study the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) correlate radiation damage effects of different species such as energetic protons and neutrons on materials by utilizing reactor and particle accelerator experience data. These objectives are specifically being addressed in the latest material irradiation study linked to the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). Observations on irradiation effects on m...

  17. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  18. Situational judgement tests in medical education and training: Research, theory and practice: AMEE Guide No. 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Ashworth, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Why use SJTs? Traditionally, selection into medical education professions has focused primarily upon academic ability alone. This approach has been questioned more recently, as although academic attainment predicts performance early in training, research shows it has less predictive power for demonstrating competence in postgraduate clinical practice. Such evidence, coupled with an increasing focus on individuals working in healthcare roles displaying the core values of compassionate care, benevolence and respect, illustrates that individuals should be selected on attributes other than academic ability alone. Moreover, there are mounting calls to widen access to medicine, to ensure that selection methods do not unfairly disadvantage individuals from specific groups (e.g. regarding ethnicity or socio-economic status), so that the future workforce adequately represents society as a whole. These drivers necessitate a method of assessment that allows individuals to be selected on important non-academic attributes that are desirable in healthcare professionals, in a fair, reliable and valid way. What are SJTs? Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are tests used to assess individuals' reactions to a number of hypothetical role-relevant scenarios, which reflect situations candidates are likely to encounter in the target role. These scenarios are based on a detailed analysis of the role and should be developed in collaboration with subject matter experts, in order to accurately assess the key attributes that are associated with competent performance. From a theoretical perspective, SJTs are believed to measure prosocial Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs), which are shaped by socialisation processes that teach the utility of expressing certain traits in different settings such as agreeable expressions (e.g. helping others in need), or disagreeable actions (e.g. advancing ones own interest at others, expense). Are SJTs reliable, valid and fair? Several studies, including good

  19. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  20. An Evaluation of Community-Based Action Research Program for Medical Undergraduates in Rural Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain the learners’ reaction to a community-based action research program in a rural setting of Pondicherry. Methods: Both quantitative (post-then-pre rating and qualitative (response to open ended questions feedback from 125 medical students exposed to this program was obtained. Mean values were calculated for pre and post self-rating on skills acquired by the students in retro-pre feedback. The content analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken. Results: There was significant improvement in their perceived abilities to follow basic steps in carrying out research such as – problem identification, literature search, drafting a proposal, preparation of questionnaire, data collection, analysis and its reporting. Our approach could contribute to development of cognitive, social-emotional and vocational domains of the students. Conclusions: Overall, our community-based action research program is taking a shape and getting mainstreamed in the exiting curriculum. It could sensitize students to basic steps in research and contributed to their cognitive, social-emotional and vocational development. Further work is needed to increase its scope and intensity to achieve the development of cultural, moral and ethical domains.

  1. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  2. Proceedings of the 2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium. Volume 2. Operational and Medical Track: Abstracts and Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    care systems and delivery of care in a developing country and practice empiricism -based medicine while being exposed to unique medical conditions not...i.e., AWACS, JSTARS). Yet, concerns regarding negative changes in psychological health effecting performance and readiness are abundant. However...no empirical studies have been conducted to officially screen for PTSD, clinical levels of psychological distress, and other changes in psychological

  3. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Assessment for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, J P; Fox, K J

    2008-03-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary Laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, and in selected energy technologies. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal Year 2008 spending was $531.6 million. There are approximately 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Development at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred from the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. To be a premier scientific Laboratory, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research and renew its research agenda. The competition for LDRD funds stimulates Laboratory scientists to think in new and creative ways, which becomes a major factor in achieving and maintaining research excellence and a means to address National needs within the overall mission of the DOE and BNL. By fostering high-risk, exploratory research, the LDRD program helps

  4. Predictors of High Motivation Score for Performing Research Initiation Fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD Curricula During Medical Studies: A Strobe-Compliant Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlova, Eva; Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Antonelli, Arnaud; Hadjadj, Samy; Marechaud, Richard; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Roblot, Pascal; Braun, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Translational research plays a crucial role in bridging the gap between fundamental and clinical research. The importance of integrating research training into medical education has been emphasized. Predictive factors that help to identify the most motivated medical students to perform academic research are unknown. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 315 medical students, residents and attending physicians, using a comprehensive structured questionnaire we assessed motivations and obstacles to perform academic research curricula (ie, research initiation fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD). Independent predictive factors associated with high "motivation score" (top quartile on motivation score ranging from 0 to 10) to enroll in academic research curricula were derived using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing Master 1 curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.49-9.59; P = 0.005) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.01-6.47; P Research Master 2 curriculum were: "attending physician" (OR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.86-11.37; P = 0.001); "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.51-11.23; P = 0.006); "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.91-6.46; P = 0.0001); and "male gender" (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.25; P = 0.04). Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing PhD curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 5.94; 95% CI, 2.33-15.19; P = 0.0002) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.46-4.77; P = 0.001). This is the first study that has identified

  5. WE-AB-204-03: Increasing Access to Medical Physics Education and Research Excellence (AMPERE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, W

    2016-06-01

    Many efforts have been made to increase diversity in the science workforce. In order for us to be competitive in innovation and ingenuity we need to reach out to any source of intellectual talent. Having greater diversity can only increase the creativity in medical physics. In order for students to succeed academically they need role models and mentors with whom they can identify. Literature has shown that racial and ethnic diversity has both direct and indirect positive effects on the educational outcomes, career advancement and motivation of students. Diversity not only focuses on race, ethnicity and gender, but it can also include socioeconomic status, sexual orientation and more. Underrepresented populations have had low numbers over the years not only in medical physics but also in the sciences in general. With the rapidly changing face of our country we need to address how we attract and train the next generation of scientists to stay competitive. It is necessary to examine the role that diversity and inclusion play in the long term goals of institutions, workplaces and classrooms. To increase innovation we must engage people from all walks of life with different perspectives and life experiences to solve the problems that we will face. Diversity should be viewed as a strategy to achieve our goals instead of acts of good citizenship. Many of today's businesses and corporations have discovered that embracing diversity prepares future leaders in today's global market. This lecture will provide insight to how differences within our society can drive innovation. We will provide an overview of the role diversity and inclusion plays in the clinic, education and research to develop the future workforce in medical physics.

  6. Introducing undergraduate medical teaching into general practice: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andy; Robling, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Following the publication of Tomorrow's Doctors and as a result of increasing numbers of students recruited to medical school it is necessary to involve more general practitioners (family physicians) in undergraduate medical education. Students have responded positively regarding experiences in general practices with a broad spectrum of clinical conditions to be seen and greater involvement in clinical decision-making. This action research study followed a small group general practice in South Wales through the required preparation for undergraduate medical education and its first year of teaching. Preparatory work for the practice focused mainly on summarizing patient notes, setting up a practice library and arranging accommodation for the students. Members of the Primary Health Care Team (PHCT) found that having students in the practice gave them a sense of achievement and enhanced self-worth. Individuals within the practice felt more confident in their professional role and the team ethic within the practice was strengthened. Doctors' anxieties regarding the adequacy of their clinical skills proved unfounded. Patients were reported to feel more included in their care and to have enjoyed hearing their condition being discussed with the students. Students valued the one-to-one teaching, seeing common illnesses and a variety of consulting styles. It is hoped that this paper will be of value to those responsible for recruiting GP practices into undergraduate teaching. It demonstrates benefits for the primary health care team in terms of improved morale and sense of professional self-worth. Patients felt more involved in their care. Generalization from these findings is limited by only one practice having been involved. Undergraduate teaching offers advantages, particularly in terms of professional self-esteem and team morale.

  7. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  8. The Themes, Institutions, and People of Medical Education Research 1988-2010: Content Analysis of Abstracts from Six Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at providing an overview of the most common themes of research into medical education. Changes in frequency of occurrence of these themes over time and differences between US and European journals were studied. The most productive institutions and researchers in the field were examined. A content analysis was carried out on…

  9. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  10. Association of Research Self-Efficacy with Medical Student Career Interests, Specialization, and Scholarship: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S. Beth; Prayson, Richard A.; Dannefer, Elaine F.

    2015-01-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal…

  11. Acquiring evidence-based medicine and research skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum: three different didactical formats compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, M.; de Boer, M.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools have recently witnessed a call for authentic research activities that equip students with the skills required for evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research. Because it is not always possible to make such activities available as a part of the curriculum, evaluating the effectiveness

  12. Workforce, learners, competencies, and the learning environment: Research in Medical Education 2014 and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel C; Robins, Lynne; Gruppen, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    Medicine in the United States is changing as a result of many factors, including the needs and demands of 21st-century society. In this commentary, the authors review the 2014 Research in Medical Education (RIME) articles in the context of these changes and with an eye toward the future. The authors organized the 12 RIME articles into four broad themes: career development and workforce issues; competency and assessment; admissions, wellness, and the learning environment; and intended and unintended learning. Although the articles represent a broad range of issues, the authors identified three key take-home points from the collection: (1) Schools may be able to address the looming shortage of primary care physicians through admission selection criteria and targeted curricular activities; (2) better understanding of the competencies required to perform complex physician tasks could lead to more effective ways to teach and assess these tasks; and (3) the intended and unintended learning that take place in the medical learning environment require careful attention in order to produce physicians who are both skilled enough and well enough to meet the needs of society.

  13. Raising awareness of the hidden curriculum in veterinary medical education: a review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L

    2014-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.

  14. The International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF) - an example of research methods and language in describing 'social functioning' in medical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Medical research ventures into the area of social life with a holistic approach to health and disabilities. However, the specific language developed for this kind of research in the 'ICF' model (adopted by the UN) loses sight of the very phenomena it aims at describing. By contrast, based...

  15. Building Research Capacity of Medical Students and Health Professionals in Rural Communities: Leveraging a Rural Clinical School's Resources to Conduct Research Skills Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Kaye E.; Moffatt, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on a project where the objective was for the Rural Clinical School, The University of Queensland, Australia, to design an acceptable model of research skills workshops for medical students and rural health professionals. Eight, interactive research skills workshops focused on skill development were conducted in rural Queensland,…

  16. Research and development of metals for medical devices based on clinical needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hanawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research and development of metallic materials used for medicine and dentistry is reviewed. First, the general properties required of metals used in medical devices are summarized, followed by the needs for the development of α + β type Ti alloys with large elongation and β type Ti alloys with a low Young's modulus. In addition, nickel-free Ni–Ti alloys and austenitic stainless steels are described. As new topics, we review metals that are bioabsorbable and compatible with magnetic resonance imaging. Surface treatment and modification techniques to improve biofunctions and biocompatibility are categorized, and the related problems are presented at the end of this review. The metal surface may be biofunctionalized by various techniques, such as dry and wet processes. These techniques make it possible to apply metals to scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  17. Research and development of metals for medical devices based on clinical needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanawa, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The current research and development of metallic materials used for medicine and dentistry is reviewed. First, the general properties required of metals used in medical devices are summarized, followed by the needs for the development of α + β type Ti alloys with large elongation and β type Ti alloys with a low Young's modulus. In addition, nickel-free Ni-Ti alloys and austenitic stainless steels are described. As new topics, we review metals that are bioabsorbable and compatible with magnetic resonance imaging. Surface treatment and modification techniques to improve biofunctions and biocompatibility are categorized, and the related problems are presented at the end of this review. The metal surface may be biofunctionalized by various techniques, such as dry and wet processes. These techniques make it possible to apply metals to scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  18. [Practice and research into multi-unit teaching of Medical Genetics.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shao-Ling; Xu, Si-Bin; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Ping; Lin, Ai-Qin

    2010-10-01

    In order to fully arise the enthusiasm of students in active learning and promote their development, we attempted such multiple class teaching methods in teaching medical science of genetics as elaboration of the basic theory of genetics, synopsis on the advance of this field, application of multimedia teaching, case-based teaching, role-play change in class teaching, instructions on writing of reviewing articles and academic assessment by diverse examination. The results suggest that multiple teaching methods can greatly enhance the efficiency of class teaching and comprehensively cultivate the academic ability of the students as well as improve the quality of teachers. Compared with the conventional class teaching, students are much interested in giving lessons by case-based study, CAI teaching and role change of teachers and students in class teaching, which resulted in improvement of self-disciplined study of students, problem settlement, class performance, awareness of the importance of scientific research and reinforcement of team work.

  19. First operation of the medical research facility at the NSLS for coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.; Gmuer, N.; Chapman, D.; Garrett, R.; Lazarz, N.; Moulin, H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Thompson, A.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Zeman, H.D. (Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee, 38163 (US)); Brown, G.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Morrison, J.; Reiser, P

    1991-01-01

    The Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF) at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been completed and is operational for human coronary angiography experiments. The imaging system and hardware have been brought to SMERF from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory where prior studies were carried out. SMERF consists of a suite of rooms at the end of the high field superconducting wiggler X17 beamline and is classified as an Ambulatory health Care Facility. Since October of 1990 the coronary arteries of five patients have been imaged. Continuously improving image quality has shown that a large part of both the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery can be imaged following a venous injection of contrast agent. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C B; Willems, Dick L

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or reviewing paperwork provided by investigators. However, because of a lack of guidelines and evidence, institutions have had little guidance in setting up their programmes. To help institutions make the right choices, we used interviews and document analysis to study how and why 11 US institutions have set up their monitoring programmes. Although these programmes varied considerably, we were able to distinguish two general types. 'Compliance' programmes on the one hand were part of the institutional review board office and set up to ensure compliance with regulations. Investigators' participation was mandatory. Monitors focused on documentation. Investigators could be disciplined, and could be obliged to take corrective actions. 'Quality-improvement' programmes on the other hand were part of a separate office. Investigators requested to be monitored. Monitors focused more on actual research conduct. Investigators and other parties received feedback on how to improve the research process. Although both types of programmes have their drawbacks and advantages, we argue that if institutions want to set up monitoring programmes, quality improvement is the better choice: it can help foster an atmosphere of trust between investigators and the institutional review board, and can help raise the standards for the protection of human subjects.