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Sample records for bnfl

  1. BNFL - Action in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the National Curriculum in England and Wales gave the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) company the opportunity to develop a more structured involvement. Extensive research among teachers revealed how a high-tech company such as BNFL could make the best contribution, by funding the development of classroom materials which would encourage pupils to assess the advantages and disadvantages of technology. Five years later, BNFL's educational resources have gained substantial credibility

  2. Fuelling doubts over BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The House of Commons Select Committee on Energy has recently questioned the whole philosophy behind one of Britain's largest process plant operators, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The committee's criticisms and recommendations are of significance to more than just BNFL, whose 1988 turnover of Pound 839 million produced a Pound 100 million pretax profit for its owner, the government. For BNFL's fortunes are linked intimately with those of its customers, the nuclear power station operators. The members of Parliament are especially critical of BNFL's right to pass most of its cost increases on to its customers, which will make the nuclear power stations less attractive to investors when they are privatised. The committee also voices other serious concerns about BNFL's operations. These include worry about the future ownership of plutonium produced by BNFL from its customers' spent nuclear fuel; whether resultant nuclear waste is sent back to overseas customers; and the fate of the vast sums being put aside for future decommissioning of BNFL plant. (author)

  3. BNFL and environmental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) acknowledge a duty of care for the environment and aims to reduce the effects of its activities on the environment to as low as reasonably practicable. Its environmental policy statement is presented and its approach, investment policies and activities to implement this policy are outlined. The activities include energy efficiency, recycling, surveillance and research, conservation and open information. (UK)

  4. MOX fuel at BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, BNFL decided to use the expertise developed for the Fast Reactor project to enter the thermal MOX fuels market with the aim of becoming a world leader in thermal MOX supply and to return the products from its reprocessing business to its customers as MOX fuel. To reach this objective the company developed a two-stage strategy which involved: (a) Constructing a small-scale plant, the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF), on a short time-scale to produce commercial quality fuel for irradiation in commercial reactors, and (b) Constructing a small-scale plant, the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP), for bulk fuel supply. MOX production in the MOX Demonstration Facility at Sellafield began in October 1993 and, since that time, the plant has produced more than 10 tonnes of MOX for BNFL's customers. The MDF was constructed to produce LWR MOX fuel, using BNFL's patented Short Binderless Route (SBR) in order to gain operational and irradiation experience to support fuel supply from the 120te/yr Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). The first fuel from MDF was loaded into the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) Beznau 1 reactor in July 1994 and since that time the plant has been used continuously to provide more fuel for NOK and other customers. Construction of the SMP commenced in April 1994 against a fast-track programme designed to have the plant producing its first MOX fuel by the end of 1997. The SMP will be the most flexible MOX fabrication plant in the world, capable of producing PWR and BWR fuels using the SBR as the basis of the production process. (Author)

  5. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  6. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  7. Waste minimisation: The BNFL experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL provides nuclear fuel cycle services across the broad spectrum of activities including waste disposal either directly or though its subsidiaries. The implications of waste in terms of disposal costs and environmental impact are well known and have guided the BNFL waste minimization initiatives. These range from management action to reduce arisings through improvements to existing processes and technological solutions such as bagless transfer systems to an innovative R ampersand D programme to further minimize wastes

  8. BNFL Sellafield further public consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main issues raised during the further public consultation on the draft Sellafield authorisations for the discharge of radioactive wastes from the British Nuclear Fuel (BNFL) Sellafield site are outlined. An analysis of the categories and numbers of the 42,500 responses is made. The public consultation was based on five documents; a letter to consultees from the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF); the report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution and the Inspectorate of MAFF on their earlier consultation exercise; a paper by BNFL on the economic and commercial justification of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP); a statement of the Government's policy on reprocessing and THORP and a document prepared by BNFL on the environmental implication of THORP. (UK)

  9. BNFL/Siemens to merge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negotiations are being conducted on the creation of a joint venture between British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the German company Siemens. The venture would merge Siemens' nuclear fuel, engineering and construction services businesses with BNFL's Magnox and AGR fuel fabrication business which is based at Springfields in Lancashire. It would incorporate Siemens' share of Nuclear Power International, a joint venture with the French company Framatone which is developing the European Pressurised Water Reactor project, and its US subsidiary Siemens' Power Corp. BNFL's mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication business, its stake in the Dutch-German-UK uranium enrichment company Urenco and its nuclear waste reprocessing business would not be involved. There is already speculation that Siemens' greater input will lead to it taking a majority stake in what will be the world's second largest nuclear fuel manufacturer. Reaction to the news is reported. This has been muted in the United Kingdom, mixed in Germany and adverse in France because of the implications for the Siemens' Framatone collaboration. (UK)

  10. Meeting the challenge of BNFL's decommissioning programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the co-ordinated and integrated programme, adopted by BNFL, in the decommissioning of its radioactive plants. It examines BNFL's approach to the challenges posed by the eventual decommissioning of its 120 plants, its overall strategies, the constraints and the progress achieved to date, drawing on real experience from the 22 completed projects and the 24 projects currently underway. (author)

  11. Development of MOX manufacturing technology in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is successfully operating a small scale MOX fuel fabrication facility at its Sellafield Site and is currently constructing an advanced, commercial scale MOX facility to complement its existing LWR UO2 fabrication capability. BNFL's MOX fuel capability is fully supported by a comprehensive technology development programme aimed at providing a high quality product which is successfully competing in the market. Building on the experience gained over the last 30 years, is from the production of both thermal and fast reactor MOX fuels, BNFL's development team set a standard for its MOX product which is targeted at exceeding the performance of UO2 fuel in reactor. In order to meet the stringent design requirements the product development team has introduced the Short Binderless Route (SBR) process that is now used routinely in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and which forms the basis for BNFL's large scale Sellafield MOX Plant. This plant not only uses the SBR process for MOX production but also incorporates the most advanced technology available anywhere in the world for nuclear fuel production. A detailed account of the technology developed by BNFL to support its MOX fuels business will be provided, together with an explanation of the processes and plants used for MOX fuel production by BNFL. The paper also looks at the future needs of the MOX business and how improvements in pellet design can assist the MOX fabrication production process to meet the user demand requirements of utilities around the world. (author)

  12. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input

  13. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  14. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  15. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling

  16. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  17. The BNFL legal electronic dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Magnox Generation started a three year scheme in April 1996 to introduce Siemens Electronic Personal Dosimetry (EPD) systems into its reactor sites as part of an initiative to improve the control of doses and the accuracy of dose statistics and to record personal legal dose. Concurrent with the installation of the EPD systems a successful application was made to the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for approval of the BNFL dosimetry service to use the Siemens EPD Mk 1.2 for recording legal doses. This paper discusses the experiences of the BNFL dosimetry service in operating the approved dosimetry service since it's approval by the HSE in January 2000. (authors)

  18. BNFL Sellafield: post audit progress, December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of the safety audit at the Sellafield site was published in December 1986. In this, the Health and Safety Executive required British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to make improvements to the site and safety cases have had to be produced. These have now to be assessed by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. BNFL has undertaken programmes of maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of equipment. Much of this work was done in the shut-down maintenance period in the spring and summer. However, more work is needed to bring plants up a condition suitable for operating for the next ten years. BNFL have also started to decontaminate and decommission disused, contaminated, plants. This will generate a large amount of radioactive waste. BNFL have to build plants to containerise and encapsulate the waste prior to disposal. Waste disposal sites to complete the clean-up process are needed. The improvements to the engineering plants, to written procedures and to training, are reported. Changed attitudes are also noted. (U.K.)

  19. The BNFL technology centre at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the BNFL technology centre at Sellafield. Special emphasis is on the facility plan and construction, the high active hot-cells, the laboratories, the high energy interrogation facility, and the rigg hall. Further, the servicing well as the contract strategy are discussed

  20. How BNFL develops business in the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US environmental restoration and waste management business is an expanding market. BNFL has developed a strategy designed to build a US-based business while taking into account the many barriers to market entry and participation. The elements of this strategy (market understanding, communications, flexibility, niche market, selectivity, teaming and cost recovery) are briefly explained

  1. The status of BNFL's MOX project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the late 1980s BNFL decided to enter the MOX fuel fabrication business to support our reprocessing business and return the plutonium product to our customers in the useable form of MOX fuel. The first phase of the strategy was to gain some irradiation experience for MOX produced by our own Short Binderless Route (SBR) process. To achieve this the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) was built at Sellafield and 28 MOX fuel assemblies were produced up to 1998 that were loaded into PWRs in Europe. In 1994, BNFL started the construction of their large scale MOX production plant, SMP. The design and construction of the plant and supporting facilities was completed some years ago and the commissioning of the plant with uranium commenced around June 1999. In October 2001, the UK Government provided BNFL with the approval to operate SMP with plutonium. On 20 December 2001, the UK Regulators gave BNFL their approval to start plutonium operations. This paper summarises the approach used to commission SMP and describes some of the lessons learnt during the commissioning phase of the project and the start up of the plant with plutonium. An explanation of our experience obtaining a licence to operate the plant is provided together with a description of the changes we have made to ensure that the quality of the product from SMP can be guaranteed. Finally, the paper summarises the experience BNFL has gained during irradiating MOX fuel produced by the SBR process and explains how the data compares with that available for UO2 and supports the in reactor use of MOX fuel made in SMP. (author)

  2. R and D foresight for BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1960s the teaching and research of nuclear subjects in UK universities has almost terminally declined. Starting a few years ago, BNFL recognised that some proactive action was needed to address this situation. This paper examines BNFL's strategy of alliance with UK universities to reverse this downward spiral. The company has already established two centres of excellence (CoEs) - the Radiochemistry Centre of Excellence at Manchester University and the Centre of Excellence in Particle Science and Technology at Leeds University. The paper gives a brief insight into the setting-up of these two CoEs and their aims, and also discusses plans for a new School of Nuclear Science. (author)

  3. Flexibility of the BNFL dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To widen its range of spent fuel management services, BNFL entered the fuel storage market in 1995; entry was by acquisition rather than internal product development. The need for a transportable product was identified very early, but represents only the first phase of a philosophy of continuous improvement. Strong synergy exists between the new business area and existing fuel handling and transportation expertise, which has been of considerable assistance to the new business. (author)

  4. BNFL Annual Report and Accounts 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL)'s 1996 Annual Report documents the high quality, cost-effective nuclear fuel cycle services which the company offers both to customers in the United Kingdom and abroad. Performance in the fields of fuel manufacture and enrichment, fuel reprocessing and recycling, transport and waste management over the last year is described. Investment in research programs in areas of the Company's technological expertise is also covered, as well as its involvement in an increasingly competitive world market. (UK)

  5. Commander manipulator scoops prestigious mulit-million pound BNFL contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one Commander robotic arms are on order from INBIS (formerly Ricardo Hitec) and BNFL Engineering Limited (''BEL'', the engineering arm of parent company BNFL). The multi-million pound contract was won amid fierce competition from other well-known names in robotic engineering. The specially designed Commander manipulators will be engaged in remotely handling Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) in a suite of four BNFL ILW plants, which are currently either under construction or planned at Sellafield. The first Commander will delivered to BNFL's Sellafield Silo Emptying Project in January 1998. (Author)

  6. The design of cranes for BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of cranes for nuclear duties is based upon the operational requirements of the process and the need to withstand selected abnormal events. The functional requirements are first established and the design evolves in parallel with safety assessment to demonstrate that the criteria for the plant are satisfied. This paper reviews the design process from front end through to manufacture and installation demonstrating how the required integrity is achieved. Three BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Limited) cranes are referenced as examples of high integrity cranes. (author)

  7. Framework of the BNFL International Transport Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport has implemented and operates a fully Integrated Management System designed to meet the needs of BNFL's international transportation business for the safe transport of new and spent nuclear fuels throughout the world. The history, documented processes, documented system and audit are described. (author)

  8. Decommissioning policy and programme progress BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) reviewed decommissioning liabilities in 1988 and established a revised policy covering the technical and financial provisioning requirements for the next 100 years. At the Sellafield site the work programme has been steadily expanded over the past ten years and now includes all shutdown facilities. Of 26 projects identified, four have been completed and substantial progress made on the remainder. Approximately 35M pounds has been spent to date and a further 54M pounds financially sanctioned against the 390M pounds estimated for the programme. Project needs are leading a supporting development programme targeted at cost reduction and towards improving the quality of long-term estimates. The policy, programme and some of the projects are briefly described and an outline is given of some of the enhanced capabilities which have matured the capability for safe and cost effective decommissioning of fuel cycle facilities. (author) 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  9. Refurbishment of the BNFL Magnox reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magnox Reprocessing Plant was commissioned in 1964. Since then it has reprocessed more than 35,000 t of irradiated uranium metal fuel. The plant is subject to routine shutdowns to allow maintenance and project work to be undertaken. During the 1997 shutdown the opportunity was taken to replace several life limiting parts of the plant to ensure Magnox reprocessing capability well beyond the year 2010. This shutdown was the largest and most complex undertaken by Magnox Reprocessing, with a total committed value of 130 million UK pounds, 17.5 million UK pounds committed in the shutdown itself and the balance on installation, design and procurement preparing for the shutdown. The work was completed within safety targets, to programme and within budget. The lessons learned and experience gained have been fed into the methodologies and procedures for planning future project and shutdown work within BNFL. This report is part of the output from this process of continually improving performance. (author)

  10. Thermal fuel research and development facilities in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is committed to providing high quality, cost effective nuclear fuel cycle services to customers on a National and International level. BNFL's services, products and expertise span the complete fuel cycle; from fuel manufacture through to fuel reprocessing, transport, waste management and decommissioning and the Company maintains its technical and commercial lead by investment in continued research and development (R and D). This paper discusses BNFL's involvement in R and D and gives an account of the current facilities available together with a description of the advanced R and D facilities constructed or planned at Springfields and Sellafield. It outlines the work being carried out to support the company fuel technology business, to (1) develop more cost effective routes to existing fuel products; (2) maximize the use of recycled uranium, plutonium and tails uranium and (3) support a successful MOX business

  11. BNFL's new spent fuel transport flask - Excellox 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was formed in 1971 its transport service has safely moved spent light water reactor fuel from many locations abroad to its fuel handling plants at Sellafield in the UK. To support this business a number of types of flasks have been designed and used. One of the types used has been the Excellox family of water-filled flasks. To support future business opportunities a new flask, designed to meet the requirements of the new IAEA transport regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), has been developed. The flask will be a type B(U)F. This new flask design will maximise fuel carrying capacity to minimise transport costs. The design capacity of the new Excellox 8 flask is to be 12 pressurised water reactor or 32 boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. The objective of this BNFL project is to provide another economic spent nuclear fuel transport system, in support of BNFL transport business. (author)

  12. Remote handling and robotics at the BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a direct result of its interest in the use of robotics within active plants, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) has adopted a positive attitude toward both national and European initiatives in this area. During the early operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the process vessels and cell voids were monitored using simple pole and camera combinations. In 1985, BNFL embarked on the provision of a series of machines intended to satisfy the advancing needs for inspection while increasing the level of expertise within the company in this important area. DIMAN 1, DIMAN 2, RODMAN, REPMAN, and RAFFMAN remote handling and robotic machines are described

  13. An overview of retrospective occupational dosimetry at BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstruction of occupational radiation doses in BNFL has been shown to be feasible but has required a significant level of technical resources to cater for the complexity and range of the plants involved and is generally limited in scale of use because of the key requirement for detailed work history information in the dose reconstruction process. The main dose reconstruction work required in BNFL has involved neutron doses for litigation and Compensation Scheme purposes, reflecting the historical difficulties associated with personal neutron dosimetry. Early indications are that the level of reconstructed neutron dose is, in general, small compared to the recorded photon dose. (author)

  14. Continuous improvement of the BNFL transport integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated Management System of BNFL Transport and Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) is subject to continuous improvement by the application of established improvement techniques adopted by BNFL. The technique currently being used is the application of a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy, involving the identification of key processes, benchmarking against existing measures, initiating various improvement projects and applying process changes within the Company. The measurement technique being used is based upon the European Foundation for Quality Management Model (EFQM). A major initiative was started in 1996 to include the requirements of the Environmental Management Systems standard ISO 14001 within the existing integrated management system. This resulted in additional activities added to the system, modification to some existing activities and additional training for personnel. The system was audited by a third party certification organisation, Lloyds Register Quality Assurance (LRQA), during 1997. This paper describes the arrangements to review and update the integrated management system of BNFL Transport and PNTL to include the requirements of the environmental standard ISO 14001 and it also discusses the continuous improvement process adopted by BNFL Transport. (authors)

  15. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  16. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  17. Implementing knowledge management in BNFL - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the work that has been done within BNFL Environmental Services over the past 18 months to develop and implement a Knowledge Management framework within the business. The paper provides an overview of the approach used, lessons learnt and achievements to date. The conclusion is that the approach has delivered a framework that is scaleable and repeatable in alignment with the business strategy and that the required change in behaviour has started. The BNFL Environmental Services KM Team is now focussing its efforts on revising the framework for application in the new British Nuclear Group Project Services business. The short term goals are to embed Knowledge Management in business processes and to facilitate the creation of dynamic communities that will support the formation of the new business. (author)

  18. Development of the BNFL Vitrified Residue Transport Flask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNFL Vitrified Residue Flask has been designed by Nuclear Transport Limited (NTL), an associated company of BNFL. The body comprises a cylindrical shell and base manufactured from forged carbon manganese steel, with a stainless steel lid bolted to it. Silicon rubber neutron shielding is encapsulated in compartments at the flask ends and between the cooling fins. Removable shock absorbers are bolted to both ends, and two pairs of bolted trunnions are fitted for lifting and tie-down. The flask carries 21 vitrified residue containers in a support structure made up of 30 cast aluminium segments secured by a bolting system to the internal flask cavity. This assembled support structure forms seven circular channels to receive the vitrified residue containers. (J.P.N.)

  19. Research on irradiated fuel management and recycle in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy, and electricity in particular, in the twenty-first century will grow significantly. Power must be generated both at an affordable cost and with minimum impact on the environment. The Nuclear Industry can help to meet these needs. In order to maintain and improve its competitive position, the Nuclear Industry is developing new and improved technologies to respond to these demands. BNFL - as a leading fuel cycle company - is at the forefront of this development. This paper reviews how BNFL selects and develops the technologies needed to support its twenty-first century business requirements and how BNFL aims to maintain the recycling of irradiated fuel as the preferred option for customers. Some of the specific research programmes that BNFL is currently undertaking to meet future challenges are also discussed. These include both improvements to existing processes and novel methods for creating and separating radioactive materials. These programmes will lead to the simpler processes, minimised waste arisings and still provide inherent or demonstrable safety, and methods for the minimisation of wastes. The matching of technology capability to market demands is very important. These include future potential developments within nuclear power, (e.g. advanced reactor systems, including fast reactor systems, and partition and transmutation systems) as well as developments which may be of use from other industries (e.g. information technology). In addition there is an increasingly recognised need to integrate and simplify the whole of the nuclear fuel cycle. i. e. fuel manufacture, power generation, fuel reprocessing and waste disposal. Some of the options for this are outlined in this paper

  20. Research and technology programmes supporting waste management in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairhall, G.A.; Horner, A.M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Waste Management is a major activity of BNFL in the UK and at various locations internationally. To support these activities extensive programmes of Research and Technology have been undertaken for many years. This involves practical studies involving active and non-active work at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Extensive use is also made of theoretical and modelling techniques. Current work is aimed at underpinning and improving current operations supporting the design and safety cases of new plant and addressing waste management activities of the future including decommissioning. (authors)

  1. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance

  2. BNFL's waste R ampersand D programmes, strategic aims and developing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is involved in the full range of waste management activities across the nuclear fuel cycle. A waste management strategy has been implemented supported by an extensive and integrated R ampersand D programme which has enabled new plant and processes to be operated. R ampersand D is also carried out to support Company Development, develop and maintain core expertise and support external business opportunities. Examples of BNFL developed technologies are given

  3. BNFL experience of public engagement: expectations for risk policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL operates a range of nuclear facilities covering fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing operations and decommissioning activities. The paper explores the company's experiences in public communication and stakeholder involvement relating to nuclear and radiation issues. These range from the early establishment of Local Liaison Committees linked to each of the sites, through the introduction of public visitor centres at sites, the extensive involvement in formal consultation exercises, to the more recent involvement of a wide range of stakeholders in a process of dialogue to aid the decision making of the company on environmental affairs. In these activities there are some common themes which the company and the wider nuclear industry believes should be consistently brought to the attention of stakeholders and decision makers in order to support a balanced consideration of these issues. How, and indeed whether (and to what extent) these aspects are then factored into the overall decision process is subject to a changing dynamic within the developing expectations of society for a more transparent involvement in technological issues. (author)

  4. Internal dosimetry for uranium fuel manufacture at BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its Springfields Works, near Preston, UK BNFL manufactures uranium fuels and fuel intermediates, in a range of chemical and metallurgical processes. Uranium ore concentrate is converted to uranium metal for the Magnox reactors, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to uranium dioxide (UO2) for AGR and other oxide reactors, and various intermediate products are produced to meet customer requirements. Thus, uranium compounds with biological retention periods ranging from days (UF6) to years (UO2) are handled on multi-hundred, or thousand, tonne per year scales. Control and minimisation of workforce exposure is exercised primarily by engineered methods (e.g. total enclosures and high integrity plant), backed up by use of respiratory and other protective equipment. A high profile is given to good standards of housekeeping. Assessment of intake is by methods approved by HSE (NII) in the Approved Laboratory Statement on internal dosimetry. The principal method is assessment by use of continuous air sampling combined with occupancy. This is back up by routine personal air sampling (PAS) in selected relevant areas in which ceramic UO2 is handled. Further assurance is provided by programmed PAS in other areas and by systematic, and routine, urinalysis and whole-body monitoring of all relevant members of the workforce. The results of the above are presented in detail. (Author)

  5. Reactor decommissioning strategy: a new start for BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key points of BNFL Magnox Electric's revised waste management and reactor decommissioning strategy for the reactor sites are enlisted. Reactors will be defuelled as soon as practicable after shutdown. Predominantly Caesium contaminated plant will be dismantled when it is no longer needed. Cobalt contaminated plant such as boilers will remain in position until the reactors are dismantled, but appropriate decontamination technology will be regularly reviewed. All buildings except the reactor buildings will be dismantled as soon as practicable after they are no longer needed. Operational ILW, except some activated components, will be retrieved and packaged during the Care and Maintenance preparation period. All wastes will be stored on site, and handled in the long term in accordance with Government policy. Reactor buildings and their residual contents will be placed in a passive safe storage Care and Maintenance condition in a manner appropriate for the site. Contaminated land will be managed to maintain public safety. The reactors will be finally dismantled in a sequenced programme with a start date and duration to be decided at the appropriate time in the light of circumstances prevalent at that time. Currently, the Company is considering a sequenced programme across all sites, notionally beginning around 100 years from station shutdown, leading to a range of deferral periods. For provisioning purposes, the Company has costed a strategy involving reactor dismantling deferrals ranging from 85 to about 105 years in order to demonstrate prudent provisioning to meet its liabilities. A risk provision to reflect the potential for shorter deferral periods is included in the cost estimates. The end point for reactor decommissioning is site clearance and delicensing, based on the assumption that a reasonably practicable interpretation of the 'no danger' clause in the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended) can be developed. In line with Government policy, and taking

  6. Implementing knowledge management in BNFL - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2002, BNFL Environmental Services' executive signed off a two year programme of work to implement knowledge management within the business group. This was driven by the need for the business to be equipped to meet the challenges of the forthcoming commercialisation of the UK civil nuclear sector. From the outset the vision for knowledge management was to develop a framework that was scaleable, repeatable and aligned with the business strategy, ensuring that knowledge management activities would be robust to internal and external changes. It was also decided that knowledge management should be owned by the business, i.e. there would be no centralised knowledge management function. This ensures that the culture change is achieved and that best use is made of the knowledge within the business. The knowledge management framework is based around the good practice that BP developed, documented in 'Learning to Fly'. The knowledge management framework when seen from the 'business perspective' is presented. Whenever a task is undertaken there is an opportunity to learn before, during and after. This learning can be facilitated through the use of Peer Assists, After Action Reviews and Retrospects. The Knowledge Facilitators are responsible for ensuring that learning is applied to the right project at the right time and for the right reasons. Learning can be stored, retrieved and developed within the knowledge bank. One of the key features of the knowledge bank is that every area of it is owned by a Co-ordinator. The Coordinator is responsible for managing the knowledge through the life cycle. Both the Facilitators and Co-ordinators work to 'KM Action Plans' which ensure the knowledge management activities focus on key areas relevant to business strategy. The knowledge management framework was first implemented around the Nuclear Waste Management capability. It took nine months to implement the framework, the key lessons learnt were: - For business processes that

  7. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  8. Seismic technology of nuclear fuel cycle facilities: A view of BNFL's approach and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach BNFL employs in the seismic qualification of its nuclear fuel cycle facilities is described in this paper. The overall seismic qualification process from design to installation and commissioning is considered. The approach for new facilities, such as the Sellafield Mixed Oxide Fuel Plant and Windscale Vitrification Plant Line 3 currently under construction, is examined. (author)

  9. Objectives and scope of the joint funded BNFL/DOE product evaluation development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the Department of the Environment (DoE) initiated a joint funded development programme covering the product evaluation of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW). The programme has been managed by the Research and Development Department (R and DD) of BNFL, Sellafield under the control of the Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF). The objectives of the PETF programme are: (i) to define the characteristics of individual ILW streams arising at Sellafield and assess their suitability for direct encapsulation; (ii) to evaluate different matrices for each ILW and select the preferred options for further study; (iii) to produce a database of information for each ILW encapsulated in its preferred matrix, that satisfies the requirements of the waste management stages from the initial waste processing to disposal. This paper describes the scope of the PETF programme. It defines the anticipated timescale for completing each of the development phases and identifies the reports to be produced. (author)

  10. Taking it all back home 2: returning vitrified residues to BNFL's customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first shipment to Japan of 28 canisters containing vitrified residues arising from Cogema's reprocessing of Japanese spent fuel used a TN 28 V flask described in the September 1994 issue of NEI. Differences in the handling requirements between BNFL's reprocessing plant at Sellafield and Cogema's at La Hague have necessitated a different, but similar, design of flask for future shipments from the UK. (author)

  11. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's THORP Plant, which started active operations early in 1994, has contracts to reprocess 7000t(U) of fuel belonging to 33 customers in 9 countries in the UK, Europe and Japan during its first 10 years of operation. Contracts are in place or being negotiated, and further business sought after, with the expectation of extending THORP's operations well beyond the initial 10 years. An integrated data management service, for the fuel storage areas of BNFL's THORP Division, is being implemented to replace several, independent, systems. This Fuel Information Service (FIS) will bring the Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Safeguards Records together with the Operating Records into one database from which all Safeguards Reports will be made. BNFL's contractual and commercial data and technical data on the stored fuel, required to support the reprocessing business, will also be brought into the common database. FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the Materials Management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed oxide fuel manufacture and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  12. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated data management service for the fuel storage areas of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL's) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) Division has been implemented to replace several independent systems. This fuel information service (FIS) has brought the nuclear materials accountancy and safeguards records together with the operating records into one database from which all safeguards reports are made. The BNFL's contractual and commercial and technical data on the stored fuel, required to plan reprocessing campaigns, has also been brought into the common database. A commercially available software package, widely used in warehousing applications and the food and drugs industries, has been used as the basis of FIS. System enhancements and customization have been developed in partnership between THORP Division, BNFL IT Services, and the software supplier. The FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the materials management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business, including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed-oxide fuel manufacture, and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  13. Internationalisation of the BNFL fuel and waste treatment plant designs the challenges and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1970's BNFL has considerably expanded its range of fuel cycle plants, involving an investment of over US$7.5bn (55bn Won). This has included significant development of its Sellafield site with a wide variety of plants and processes to deal with spent fuel and development of its fuel fabrication facilities at the Spring fields Site. In contrast to reactors, fuel plants are constructed infrequently and it is therefore crucial to 'get it right first time'. The achievement of high levels of safety has been an important factor in the development of these facilities. BNFL has applied safety criteria which are as stringent as any other international safety criteria in terms of the extent to which radiation doses to plant workers and people off-site are minimised from both routine operations and possible fault conditions. Because the plant designs are established and supported by robust safety cases they are capable of being licensed overseas. The benefits of this are lower financial risk and shorter project timescales, due to avoiding the high design and safety case development costs (typically of the order of 20% of project cost) which are incurred in the production of a 'first of a kind' design. This paper briefly discusses the role of safety cases in the UK licensing process and the principle safety standards which are applied to BNFL plants and shows how they achieve high levels of safety by comparing them with equivalent IAEA and US based standards. It illustrates how the plants meet or exceed these safety standards by using specific data from existing safety cases supported by operational data where applicable. It discusses some of the important features of the UK approach to safety and licensing and emphasises the need to examine safety provisions on a case by case basis rather than adopting a prescriptive approach to implementing design provisions if cost effectiveness is to be achieved

  14. Monitoring of beach contamination following an incident at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria in November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report jointly produced by RCI/DOE and MAFF presents for the period from November 1983 to July 1984: 1) the monitoring programmes and techniques used by BNFL, DOE and MAFF; 2) the results of the monitoring programmes; 3) actions taken as a consequence of the monitoring results; 4) an outline of the position at the end of July 1984 when the Secretary of State for Environment announced, after consultation with MAFF, the DHSS and NRPB, withdrawal of advice to avoid unnecessary use of the beaches. (UK)

  15. Effects of interstitial moderation on the criticality safety of plutonium stores at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In criticality safety assessments it is usual for the contingent effect of flooding on the fissile system under study to be investigated. This is certainly the case in stores of plutonium in varying forms at the BNFL Sellafield site. The causes of flooding may vary but would always include the use of water in fighting fires. In this paper the potentially different effects on system reactivity of distributed interstitial moderation in the form of low density water, as might arise from the use of fire fighting foams or a leak of building heating steam, are investigated and the results presented. (Author)

  16. The use and operational experience of the Siemens Electronic Personal Dosimeter by BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Magnox Generation Business Group has for many years used personal film badges for the assessment of whole body external doses to personnel for legal dose record keeping purposes, but has supplemented these with electronic personal dose/dose-rate alarm dosemeters for real time dose control and As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) assessment / feedback purposes. We have recently introduced the Siemens Plessey Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD) into our nine Magnox Nuclear Power Stations for the monitoring and control of exposures to the workforce. At the same time, we also supply the same system to most of the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Power Stations (AGRs) which are operated by British Energy. BNFL has applied to the Health and Safety Executive (the UK Regulator) for approval to use the EPD and its associated systems for the statutory measurement and recording of doses to personnel. When received this will, for the first time, provide a fully integrated system that allows real time control of exposures utilising the results which will form the individual's legal dose record. This paper describes the principal features of the dosemeter and associated control, dose assessment and dose recording systems. It describes the technical and human factor issues encountered during the implementation of the project, and gives an outline of the proposed Approved Dosimetry Service. It will conclude with a review of benefits and options for its possible future use with other dosemeters. (author)

  17. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliam, D.S. [BNFL International Transport (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance.

  18. BNFL Lysimeter programme to investigate the leaching of radionuclides from low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, K.; Clegg, R.; Holmes, R.G.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Newton, G.W.A. [Newton Systems, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has initiated an experimental programme to measure the leaching behavior of radionuclides from various low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials using Lysimeters. The programme commenced in 1986 and to date 10 lysimeters have been commissioned. These have concentrated on simulating shallow trench conditions but a further programme is now planned to study concrete vault environments. The aim of the study is to provide information on leaching processes as part of the ongoing Drigg Near Field Programme, and also to yield input data for radiological assessment purposes. Towards this end, data have been gained from the lysimeters on basic chemistry, gas generation and radionuclide Release Coefficients. This paper concentrates on one of the lysimeters which has recently been decommissioned and for which interim analytical data are available. Some general comments are given on BNFL`s experience using lysimeters and their applicability as a rapid and effective technique for studying near field degradation processes.

  19. The necessity for scale up in R and D: Approach for waste immobilization in cement by BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full scale processing of nuclear wastes immobilized in cement utilizes a wide range of chemical and physical parameters. The success of this work however, involves many factors and material properties which are affected by the actual scaling up processes. The paper outlines the approach and experience gained by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to recognize and evaluate the major factors involved in order to successfully produce large scale stable products acceptable to the appropriate regulatory bodies and suitable for long term disposal

  20. Developments in safety and operations culture in BNFL's thorp reprocessing plant, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the best descriptions of Culture is 'how we do things around here'. In a stable organisation it is extremely difficult to change any type of culture, whether it is an operations, customer service or safety culture. To change culture one of two elements are essential. There must be either a significant external pressure felt by all in the organisation or a change in senior management, with authority to set a new direction for the organisation. BNFL had a unique opportunity through the commissioning and operation of the Thorp Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield to shape a new Safety and Operations Culture. Both the key elements for change were present. Thorp was a high profile flagship plant that had attracted multinational investment. It incorporated new technology. The workforce had volunteered to operate the plant. A strong senior management team was specially selected. The plant was being commissioned in an environment where there was significant opposition by 'anti nuclear' groups. It was essential to both BNFL and the wider international nuclear community that Thorp was commissioned and operated safely. A strong operating culture was developed with safety as the corner stone. The culture comprises three key components. Rigorous plant safety case and risk assessments before work commences and modifications to the plant occur; A high level of involvement by all levels of the workforce in both operations and safety matters; Strong supportive leadership which does not allow safety standards to be compromised and encourages open debate on how to improve. During commissioning and early operation of Thorp the robustness of the Safety and Operations Culture was demonstrated. On several occasions, despite intense commercial pressure, operations were halted until the situation was resolved both technically and procedurally. This paper describes how the Safety and Operations Culture was developed. The key factors for success include recruitment, team selection

  1. KAERI/BNFL/COGEMA joint cooperation on environmentally friendly nuclear fuel cycle option study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of 'KAERI/BNFL/COGEMA joint cooperation on environmentally friendly nuclear fuel cycle option study in Korea', the followings were studied. 1. Evaluation of environmental friendliness and of economic feasibility on the thermal neutron reactor type nuclear fuel cycle. 2. Evaluation of environmental friendliness on the future type nuclear fuel cycle. 3. Perspective of middle and long term electric power supply and of nuclear power plant constructionstes, development of device for the pretreatment of solid wastes, treatment of DU waste, analysis of the contaminated soil waste, induction of optimum conditions of coring from the 200L flexible waste forms, and long-term leaching test of 200L drum's waste form for the development of waste treatment and volume reduction technology, the characterization of waste formsenerated at KAERI. Therefore, radwastes are disposed of in a disposal site as solidified waste forms for its complete isolation from the human environment. The physicochemical properties of waste forms and the radionuclide concentration in waste forms should be evaluated for the radiological and structural safety of a disposal site, radionuclide type and solidification matrix, and it is difficult to carry out tests(for example, compressive strength, leaching rate, etc)with a full-scale waste forms. The waste classification and acceptance criteria is the result of technology development for characterization of waste and solidified waste forms. This treatment is carry out to low-cost and low-absorbed dose

  2. Analysis of the BFS-62 critical experiment. A report produced for BNFL (Joint European contribution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmark analysis for a hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was proposed during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce Calculational Uncertainties of LMFR Reactivity Effects'. Phase 5 of the benchmark focuses on validation of calculated sodium void coefficient distributions and integral reactivity coefficients by comparison with experimental measurements made in the critical facility BFS-62. The European. participation in Phase 5 of the benchmark analyses consists of a joint contribution from France (CEA Cadarache) and the UK (Serco Assurance Winfrith - sponsored by BNFL). Calculations have been performed using the ERANOS code and data system, which has been developed in the framework of the European collaboration on fast reactors. Results are presented in this paper for the sodium void reactivity effect based on calculated values of the absolute core reactivity. The spatial distribution of the void effect, determined using first order perturbation theory with the diffusion theory approximation, is also presented

  3. Changes in UO2 powder properties during processing via BNFL's binderless route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short Binderless Route (SBR) has been developed for Mixed Oxide fuel production in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). It is a compact process which enables good homogenisation of the Pu/U mixture and production of free flowing press feed materials. The equipment used to achieve this consists of an attritor mill to provide homogenization and a spheroidiser to provide press feed granules. As for other powder processes, the physical properties of the UO2 powder can affect the different process stages and consequently a study of some of these effects has been carried out. The aim of the work were to gain a better understanding of the process, to consequently optimize press feed material quality and to also maintain powder hold-up levels in the equipment at a minimum. The paper considers the effects of milling processes on powder morphology and powder surface effects, on the granulation process and also on powder and granule bulk properties such as pour, tap and compaction densities. Results are discussed in terms of powder properties such as powder cohesivity, morphology and particle size. UO2 powder derived from both the Integrated Dry Route (IDR) and the Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) Route are considered. Small (1 kg) scale work has been carried out which has been confirmed by larger (25 kg) scale trials. The work shows that IDR powder with differing morphologies and ADU powder can be successfully processed via the SBR route. (author). 4 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Aerial and liquid effluent treatment in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of pound 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated in January 1994. Since then, the whole of the plant has been progressively commissioned and moved towards full operational status. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met, concentrating mainly on aerial discharges. It describes the sub-division of the plant's ventilation system into a number of separate systems, according to the volume and source of the arising and the complexity of the treatment process. The dissolver off-gas, central off-gas, cell and building ventilation systems are described, together with the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. In addition wind tunnel tests were employed to assist dispersion modelling of the gases as they are discharged from the THORP stack. All the resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. (J.P.N.)

  5. BNFL's advertising phase II: 'We understand that you are a successful scientific company, but what do you actually do?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Last year, I presented a case study about the development of BNFL's advertising strategy and the challenges which we overcame since its launch in 1995. The case study this year will follow the progress of the strategy's second phase. It will begin by reiterating the role of advertising in the communications mix and the distinct part we believe it plays in building and retaining a strong corporate reputation amongst influential audiences within the UK. Our advertising to date has aimed to define BNFL's role in the nuclear sector and so detach the company from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. The case study will briefly summarise how effective we have been in achieving this objective through the first phase of television and press advertising. The presentation will concentrate, in particular, on the development of the second phase which has involved the production of a new television advertisement and a press and poster advertisement. Having introduced the key characteristics of the company to the UK population during the first phase through describing key scientific achievements, phase two concentrates on BNFL's core activity - recycling nuclear fuel. The presentation will outline the various development phases including concept research, our tough negotiations with the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITC) through to final production, testing and media scheduling. Generating positive attribution amongst the UK population is obviously the key success indicator. Equally, we believe that it is imperative to share such communications activity with another key stakeholder - our own employees. The case study will outline the phase of internal negotiations and substantiation through to the methods we adopted to ensure that employees saw the television advertisement before the UK population at large. The campaign was launched on

  6. The management of change in BNFL's UK group with particular reference to the restructuring of the health and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's UK group business involves reprocessing of uranium metal (Magnox) fuel, storage and dismantling of advanced gas rector (ceramic UO2) fuel, waste treatment and storage, decommissioning and electricity generation. These activities are carried out at three sites in the North West corner of England and Southern Scotland: Sellafield - all activities, Chapelcross -electricity generation, Drigg - waste storage. Achieving fundamental change in a well established nuclear business which is highly regulated is possible and can bring large benefits. The keys to success are leadership and commitment from all senior managers, involvement of all stakeholders and communication. It is essential to involve the regulator as a stakeholder. (author)

  7. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  8. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  9. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  10. Leukaemia and low dose radiation. Is there an association between leukaemia and cumulative external dose amongst the British Nuclear Fuel plc. (BNFL) workers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed examination of the BNFL leukaemia data is presented, for the period 1941-1995, using the recently assembled company wide BNFL epidemiological database and the BNFL leukaemia case-control data set. The association of this occupationally exposed cohort is examined with respect to both leukaemia mortality and leukaemia morbidity. The excess relative risk for total leukaemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia amongst the BNFL radiation workers was found to be 3.64 Sv-1 (90% CI -0.13-11.22); for Sellafield and Springfields this figure was 7.99 Sv-1 (90% CI 1.50-29.5) and -1.97 Sv-1 (90% CI<-2.23-6.11) respectively. A 14-20% increase in risk is noted when dosimetry adjusted for measurement error, is used to determine the excess relative risk. The association between leukaemia and cumulative external radiation is found to be particularly associated with the Sellafield plant; the Springfields plant gave consistently negative risk estimates. (author)

  11. Potential advantages and drawbacks of the thorium fuel cycle in relation to current practice: A BNFL view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium could extend the availability of nuclear fuel beyond the necessarily finite reserves of uranium ore, particularly if used in a thermal breeder system with the uranium-233 formed by transmutation serving as fissile content. The cycle produces virtually no plutonium, nor the other transuranic elements that contribute substantially to anxieties about the disposal of nuclear waste. Thorium-based fuels have therefore been proposed as a substitute for uranium, both in existing power reactors and in advanced systems such as the 'energy amplified,' with a sub-critical assembly of fissile and fertile material driven by an independent neutron source. The benefits and drawbacks of thorium need careful evaluation. A self-sustaining, breeding cycle should be possible with good neutron economy, but whether existing modern reactor types meet that condition is questionable, particularly at high fuel ratings where parasitic absorption by 233Pa tends to pre-empt decay to 233U. Radiation from thallium-208, formed in the decay of by-product 232U and 228Th, complicates storage and refabrication. Public perception would favour the cycles producing no transuranic elements and its particular capacity for consuming those already stocked; however, although they contribute largely to the long-lived content of nuclear waste, fission products also do likewise, and since the amounts of these are not greatly changed, any resulting improvement to long-term safety would by no means be decisive. BNFL has recently assessed the outstanding development requirements of the Thorex process. Commercial realisation would require a huge investment with no certainty of success. So far, the potential advantages do not seem likely to justify the risk, but the position is being kept under review in case the balance should be seen to shift. (author)

  12. UK regulatory perspective on the application of burn-up credit to the BNFL thorp head end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK the Health and Safety Executive, which incorporates the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), is responsible for regulation of safety on nuclear sites. This paper reports progress made in the application and development of a UK regulatory position for assessing licensee's plant safety caes which invoke the use of Burn-up Credit for criticality applications. The NII's principles and strategy for the assessment of this technical area have been developed over a period of time following expressions of interest from UK industry and subsequent involvement in the international collaborations and debate in this area. This experience has now been applied to the first main plant safety case application claiming Burn-up Credit. This case covers the BNFL Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) dissolver at Sellafield, where dissolved gadolinium neutron poison is used as a criticality control. The case argues for a reduction in gadolinium content by taking credit for the burn-up of input fuel. The UK regulatory process, assessment principles and criteria are briefly outlined, showing the regulatory framework used to review the case. These issues include the fundamental requirement in UK Health and Safety law to demonstrate that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), the impact on safety margins, compliance and operability procedures, and the need for continuing review. Novel features of methodology, using a ''Residual Enrichment'' and ''Domain Boundary'' approach, were considered and accepted. The underlying validation, both of criticality methodology and isotopic determination, was also reviewed. Compliance was seen to rely heavily on local in-situ measurements of spent fuel used to determine ''Residual Enrichment'' and other parameters, requiring review of the development and basis of the correlations used to underpin the measurement process. Overall, it was concluded that the case as presented was adequate. Gadolinium reduction

  13. Proof of evidence [BNFL 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the fuel cycle requirements of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station could be supplied by British Nuclear Fuels Limited. It is demonstrated that any facilities which may be required in the future could be provided from established technology. Evidence is presented in support of the responses which the Company has made to requests from the CEGB for guidance on the charges it should assume for some fuel cycle services in a variety of circumstances. Reference is made throughout to the fuel cycle needs of other possible future nuclear power stations as postulated by CEGB in its Statement of Case. (U.K.)

  14. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  15. PIE of BNFL's first commercially irradiated SBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assemblies containing SBR MOX fuel fabricated in the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Sellafield, were loaded into NOK's Beznau-1 reactor in 1994. The fuel was irradiated for 3 cycles to assembly average burnups of 33 MWd/kgHM and subsequently rods were extracted and sent for Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) at the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). This paper presents the detailed results of this PIE investigation so far. Comparisons are also made between the PIE results and predictions from the fuel performance code ENIGMA-B to place the PIE results in context. Overall it is shown that the performance of the SBR MOX fuel is good. (author)

  16. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  17. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  18. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Contractor accommodation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of accommodation for contractors working on the proposed EDRP at Dounreay is discussed. It is predicted that the contractors could be accommodated without the need for special arrangement and with no adverse effect on the tourist industry. (U.K.)

  19. Measurement and analysis of fission gas release from BNFL's SBR MOX fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.; Fisher, S. B.; Cook, P. M. A.; Stratton, R.; Walker, C. T.; Palmer, I. D.

    2001-01-01

    Puncture results are presented for seven SBR MOX fuel rods from the first prototypical commercial irradiation that was carried out in the Beznau-1 PWR. The rod average burn-up ranged from 31.2 to 35.6 MWd/kgHM. Comparison is made with the percentage of gas released from French MOX fuels and UO 2 fuel. The results show that in the burn-up range investigated, SBR MOX fuel and MIMAS MOX fuel perform similarly, releasing up to about 1% of the fission gas inventory. Comparisons with the Halden Criterion show that SBR MOX has the same release threshold as UO 2 and this suggests that the mechanisms of release in the two fuels are similar. This is further supported by calculations made with the ENIGMA fuel performance code. It is concluded that the apparent differences in fission gas release between SBR MOX and UO 2 fuel, at least in the early stages of release, can be explained by the higher temperatures experienced by MOX fuel.

  20. The design, supply and installation of ILW handling systems for BNFL's new encapsulated product store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc have under construction a store for intermediate level radioactive waste which has been immobilised by encapsulation in concrete within 500 litre stainless steel drums. The store is a large reinforced concrete structure split into two vaults each capable of housing 17,000 drums. The drums will be received from the encapsulation plants via a bogie transfer system in an underground tunnel passing under the store. Apertures in the tunnel roof of each vault allow an overhead crane to retrieve and stack the drums in a vacant location. The cranes, which are currently being commissioned, straddle their respective vaults and are remotely controlled from a control room in an existing neighbouring plant. Purpose designed maintenance areas into which the cranes will be occasionally withdrawn are being provided. A large sliding shield door will be used to close off the opening between the respective storage vault and the maintenance area for the radiation protection of personnel. The design and installation of the cranes and shield doors are described. (UK)

  1. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eureopean Demonstration Reprocessing Plant will be equipped with a comprehensive ventilation system to collect, and where appropriate treat, the various gaseous arisings from the plant as well as to provide a safe and comfortable working environment for the operators. The purpose of the treatment systems is to reduce the levels of those substances, both radioactive and non-radioactive, which would otherwise have an adverse effect on the environment if discharged without treatment. The ventilation system proposed for the main process areas and the associated treatment system is described. (author)

  2. Implementation document in support of transfer of LLW from Winfrith to BNFL at Drigg: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the arrangements, procedures and responsibilities in the collection, treatment, packaging, monitoring, labelling, preparation for transport and the transportation of Low Level Waste for disposal at Drigg. (author)

  3. An integrated approach to process information, nuclear materials control and accounting in BNFL's Thorp facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the integrated computer control system on British Nuclear Fuels' new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield. It explains the hierarchical structure and the role of the major components. The paper provides an outline description of the conventional Nuclear Materials Control and Accountancy and the on-line Near Real Time Materials Accountancy Systems

  4. Index to UKAEA, BNFL, MOD(PE) AWRE and recommended external standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal part of the document consists of an alphabetical index and numerical index to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment standards, engineering and general stores. Also included are: an index to Engineering Equipment Users Association handbooks and documents, members' specifications, codes of practice and handbooks; British Standard Codes of practice (for building, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering); UKAEA Standardisation Committee memoranda and metric guides; and miscellaneous documents. (U.K.)

  5. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: the transport of irradiated fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience in handling of irradiated fuel flasks by the British Railways Board is outlined. The steps taken to ensure the effective and safe transport of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste by rail are identified. It is concluded that the proposed rail transport link to the EDRP at Dounreay should prove practicable. (UK)

  6. Criticality aspects of BNFL irradiated fuel storage for dismantled CAGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive criticality survey calculations have been carried out to investigate the nuclear safety of dismantled CAGR fuel storage. The surveys considered fuel enrichment, storage can diameter, number and configuration of pins within each can, and configuration of storage cans within the fuel storage SKIP. The SKIP itself is contained within a secure outer container, which is stored in an array of similar units in a storage pond. The surveys were required to establish the criticality controls necessary for safe operation of the storage pond. Calculations were carried out using deterministic and Monte Carlo analysis techniques, and have been backed up by critical and sub-critical experiments carried out by the UKAEA in its DIMPLE facility

  7. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP waste management (excluding gaseous emissions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of radioactive wastes, produced as by-products of the operation of the proposed EDRP, is considered. The arisings of the various types of waste are discussed and an outline is presented of the research and development work being carried out in support of the management of the radioactive wastes. (U.K.)

  8. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Del Rosario, G. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Q. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  9. Developments in support of low level waste disposal at BNFL's Drigg Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued upgrading of low-level waste pretreatment and disposal practices related to the United Kingdom Drigg disposal site is described, noting the need to take into account operational safety, long term post-closure safety, regulatory and public acceptance factors

  10. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: General environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of the existing environment of the proposed EDRP site and its environs are presented. An assessment is made of the expected impact of the construction and operation of EDRP at the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment. Relevant extracts from the Environmental Impact Assessment, published by the Applicants, are included. (UK)

  11. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Risk targets and EDRP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full description is presented of the extent to which risk is controlled by the targets to be implemented in the proposed EDRP design, including a discussion of a particular accident sequence. Risk expressions and the usefulness of risk criteria are reviewed. Details are given of the accident consequence modelling as used by the UKAEA. Terrorist attack and sabotage are briefly discussed. (UK)

  12. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Safety aspects of EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the proposed EDRP is discussed, paying particular attention to the environmental impact in both normal operation, and in abnormal or accident conditions. The radiological exposure resulting from EDRP discharges during normal operation is estimated. Design measures for ensuring worker and public safety during both routine and non-routine operation are outlined. The strategy for considering unlikely but potentially more serious accidents in EDRP design is outlined. (U.K.)

  13. Development of an integrated strategy for the disposal of solid low level waste at BNFL`s Drigg site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, S.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1989-11-01

    During the past 12 months, the first phase of a major upgrading of disposal operations at Drigg has been completed. This has involved the introduction of waste containerization and orderly emplacement in open concrete vaults. A further phase over the next few years will involve the introduction of compaction of all suitable waste. While the current upgrade has clearly resulted in a major improvement in the visual impact and management control of the site, the desire to implement such an improvement on a timescale consistent with the short term need for new facilities at Drigg has not allowed sufficient time for a detailed assessment of the full implications of the proposed system. This paper describes the development of the strategy for upgrading the Drigg site, highlights improvements that have been implemented as the project has progressed and outlines major outstanding concerns, particularly in relation to long term site management, that may eventually lead to a requirement for further optimization of the overall strategy. Progress under the Drigg Technical Development Programme is reviewed with specific emphasis on the preliminary results of engineering studies aimed at defining an integrated strategy that will meet the requirements of both acceptable visual impact and long term site stability and safety.

  14. Implementation document in support of transfer of LLW from Winfrith to BNFL at Drigg: Pts. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of low level radioactive waste from Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC) to British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg is authorised under various sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. This authorisation is granted subject to a number of limitations and conditions which are specified in the Certificate of Authorisation. This implementation document shows how WTC intends to implement each of the conditions specified. Part 1 gives a general description of waste management practice at Winfrith. Part 2 describes how each relevant condition in the Certificate of Authorisation is met. (UK)

  15. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Concern about childhood leukaemia in the West of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date relating to the West of Scotland Cancer Registry Region, comprising 26 local government districts and containing 4 nuclear installations, are presented. The data relate to children aged 0-14 years. (UK)

  16. Feasibility Study for the Development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy-based Sensor for the BNFL-Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy must treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at five DOE sites. Technology development has been focused on the separation and removal of various radionuclides from the supernatant contained in the Hanford waste tanks

  17. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Aspects of Dounreay safety and local liaison relevant to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of safety at Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, including legislation, design safety, industrial safety and radiation monitoring procedures, are discussed. The arrangements for action in an emergency are outlined. Liaison between DNE and the local community, formal and informal, is summarised. (U.K.)

  18. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: PFR fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of PFR fuel reprocessing at Dounreay is given, including brief details of fuel assembly transport, dismantling, chemical separation processes and reprocessing experience. The origin of radioactive wastes from PFR reprocessing, and the types of radioactive waste are outlined. The management of radioactive waste, including storage, treatment and disposal is described. (U.K.)

  19. Progress report for 1983/84 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in paragraphs: introduction (arisings of intermediate-level radioactive waste); organisation and role of the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party; main objectives (to provide data on intermediate-level waste treatment systems and allow assessment of alternative processes); ILW process and flowsheeting studies; ILW product evaluation. (U.K.)

  20. Progress report for 1984/85 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report from the waste treatment and disposal working party is concerned with the management of intermediate-level radioactive waste arising from dismantled fuel assemblies, cladding removed from fuel cans, sludges from fuel cladding corrosion, flocs from liquid waste, ion exchange resins and solid wastes generated during reprocessing. It is proposed that these wastes be incorporated in a matrix for safe transport, storage and disposal and the objectives of the study are to evaluate waste products arising from the treatment of ILWS and to develop techniques to check the quality of the finished waste product. (UK)

  1. Development of a solution method for the differential equations arising in the biosphere module of the BNFL's suite of codes MONDRIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Thorne, M.C.; Thomson, J.G.; Paulley, A. E-mail: alan.paulley@bnfl.com

    2002-06-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc owns and operates the near-surface Drigg disposal facility for low level radioactive waste. The long-term performance of the site is modelled by a suite of computer codes called MONDRIAN. One of the modules of MONDRIAN deals with the transport of radionuclides through the environment, and this paper reports on the current status of this module (BIOS). We derive the basic set of working equations from first principles and show clearly how the approximate nature of the final equations is arrived at. This is done by an averaging process leading to compartments, in and out of which radionuclides, solids and water can flow. The equations allow radioactive decay chains and an arbitrary number of compartments. There is also the facility to deal with changes in the rate coefficients, thereby simulating different environmental states. It is also possible to include the creation of new compartments arising as a consequence of climatic variations. In addition to developing a new differential equation solver which is now incorporated in the BIOS module of MONDRIAN, we have demonstrated the relative efficiency of this in comparison with a previously employed differential equation solver and have compared the benefits with an alternative approach that restricted the solution to the case which required all the retardation factors to be equal. The comparison is based upon a 31 compartment biosphere model with an eight member radionuclide decay chain. Verification against the probabilistic assessment code MASCOT is also reported to further increase confidence.

  2. Development of a solution method for the differential equations arising in the biosphere module of the BNFL's suite of codes MONDRIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc owns and operates the near-surface Drigg disposal facility for low level radioactive waste. The long-term performance of the site is modelled by a suite of computer codes called MONDRIAN. One of the modules of MONDRIAN deals with the transport of radionuclides through the environment, and this paper reports on the current status of this module (BIOS). We derive the basic set of working equations from first principles and show clearly how the approximate nature of the final equations is arrived at. This is done by an averaging process leading to compartments, in and out of which radionuclides, solids and water can flow. The equations allow radioactive decay chains and an arbitrary number of compartments. There is also the facility to deal with changes in the rate coefficients, thereby simulating different environmental states. It is also possible to include the creation of new compartments arising as a consequence of climatic variations. In addition to developing a new differential equation solver which is now incorporated in the BIOS module of MONDRIAN, we have demonstrated the relative efficiency of this in comparison with a previously employed differential equation solver and have compared the benefits with an alternative approach that restricted the solution to the case which required all the retardation factors to be equal. The comparison is based upon a 31 compartment biosphere model with an eight member radionuclide decay chain. Verification against the probabilistic assessment code MASCOT is also reported to further increase confidence

  3. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C

  4. Progress report for 1987/88 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DoE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the programme where to evaluate potential waste products arising from the conditioning of intermediate-level radioactive wastes/high-level radioactive wastes, and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  5. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Review of the Scottish Health Service ISD report on 'Geographical distribution of leukaemia in young persons in Scotland 1968-1983'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scottish Health Service ISD Report is reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the statistical treatment of the data and its interpretation in relation to the location and frequency of occurrence of clusters of leukaemia identified in it. The sensitivity of cluster occurrence to the choice of sector boundaries and to the sub-division of the total time period of the study is considered, in general terms and by numerical experiment. (UK)

  6. Annual report and accounts 1984/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) work are covered in this report. The company offers a complete fuel cycle service from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. Each of the operations undertaken by BNFL (on five sites in northern England and southern Scotland) is explained and illustrated with photographs and drawings. The accounts show that in 1985 BNFL employed over 15,000 people and had a turnover of Pound545 million. (UK)

  7. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  8. Marjorie Higham: parish pump versus nuclear dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on one of the local personalities involved in the opposition to some of the practices by BNFL at the Sellafield plant and the Drigg disposal site in the UK. Her objections to a series of BNFL practices are detailed. In particular her latest dispute with the NIREX proposal for radioactive waste disposal is discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Sellafield - the achievements and lessons of 40 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's operations, which support a global nuclear fuel cycle business and serve many companies in Pacific Basin countries, have been the subject of refinement from 40 years of experience. Many of the Company's operating philosophies are consistent with the principles of sustainable development. The paper acknowledges the important role that the nuclear industry can play in satisfying energy demands within economies of diminishing natural resources and societies which are becoming increasingly concerned about their impact on the environment. It explains how reprocessing can meet many of the criteria of sustainable development through recycling and the optimization of resources. It describes how BNFL have reduced the impact of its operations on the environment through the treatment of discharges and the minimization and stabilization of wastes requiring disposal. The establishment of BNFL Engineering Ltd as an outlet to the world markets for BNFL's engineering expertise and technology is covered. The paper looks at the responsible approach that BNFL is taking to liabilities management ensuring that no surprises are left for future generations. BNFL's commitment to the present and future of nuclear electricity generation is illustrated in the extent to which it is committed to making it operations safer and more cost effective through investment in research and development. The paper describes BNFL's commitment to the development of its employees and to the development of the communities in which it operates. The paper considers how BNFL has met its many challenges and draws out examples of sustainable development in practice. (author)

  10. Annual report and accounts 1988/89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuel's (plc) (BNFL) operations over the year 1988/9 are reviewed. The financial position is presented and the accounts explained. These show that the year was one of growth. BNFL manufactures nuclear fuel and fuel products at Springfields near Preston, enriches uranium by a centrifuge process at Capenhurst near Chester, reprocesses and manages waste at Sellafield in West Cumbria and has a headquarters and engineering design facility at Risley near Warrington. BNFL also owns and operates two nuclear power stations at Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and at Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Each aspect of the company's activities is reviewed briefly and an overview given in reports of the Chairman and Chief Executive. Over 90% of BNFL's turnover is associated with the production of electricity by nuclear power. The government's decision to withdraw the nuclear power stations from the privatisation of the electricity supply industry has created uncertainty over the long-term position of BNFL. (UK)

  11. Health and safety annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on health and safety provides a review of the impact of the Comapny's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. New sections include safety auditing, emergency planning and health and safety research. BNFL operates five sites in north west England and southern Scotland. The head office and Engineering Design Centre is at Risley, near Warrington. Fuel is manufactured at Springfields near Preston, uranium is enriched for modern nuclear power stations at Capenhurst near Chester and spent fuel is reprocessed at Sellafield. BNFL also operate Calder Hall (Sellafield) and Chapelcross (Scotland) power stations and a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes at Drigg near Sellafield. Radiation sources and BNFL's radioactive discharge are first explained generally and then specifically for each BNFL site. Industrial and radiological safety within BNFL are described. (UK)

  12. Health and safety annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL operates 6 sites in the United Kingdom concerned with the nuclear fuel cycle. The annual report on occupational health and safety gives information on all aspects of health and safety within BNFL with special reference to radiation doses received by the workforce and radiation protection measures taken by the company. BNFL's safety policy is set out. Radiation doses to all workers have remained low. Other industrial accidents are also listed and its safety measures for transport, radioactive effluents and in the event of an incident, are mentioned briefly. (UK)

  13. Health, safety and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central theme of this 1990 Annual Report from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is that the health and safety of the public and protection of the environment are of primary concern. The report describes the fuel cycle for the production of radioactive materials used by the United Kingdom nuclear industry. Radiation protection measures undertaken by BNFL are explained as is their environmental research programme. Detailed attention is paid to the monitoring of effluent discharges into the environment and arrangements for radioactive waste disposal. The work of each BNFL site is described. The report finishes with a description of its occupational safety measures. (UK)

  14. Privatization and culture change: British Nuclear Fuels case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and explains the process of organizational change experienced by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) during the late 1980s. BNFL went through a major transformation in management values and practices to survive in the new business environment characterized by government deregulation and fiercer global market competition. The paper describes both the historical and the prevailing management behaviour as well as the strategy utilized by BNFL's top management in their change process. The key factor in the process of change seems to lie in top management commitment and a fully integrated set of actions involving different sub-systems of the organization. (author)

  15. Experience within international transport and direct rail services in meeting the IAEA requirement for a radiation protection programme(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport and Direct Rail Services have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in this business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations and supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. (author)

  16. Health and safety annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities and organisation of BNFL are reviewed in relation to the impact these activities have on the workforce, members of the general public and the environment, together with services for occupational safety within the company. (author)

  17. Internet - Workshop contribution proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL first launched itself on the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1995 to give free access to information on the company and our activities to interested parties and to try and counteract some of the misleading claims being put onto the web by various anti-nuclear organisations. Whilst fit for purpose 2 years ago the current site has not been developed further and as a result does not reflect the image of BNFL as a world class international company. The current site has however enabled us to ascertain how popular and useful a BNFL web site is for all our audiences. We are now using this knowledge to redevelop BNFL's web site and are aiming to re-launch in September 1997 with a whole new look and style which will set a precedent for further developments in the near future

  18. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  19. Annual report and accounts 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual Report for 1990/91, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) considers the year's results financially and in terms of scientific innovation. BNFL produces nuclear fuel for all United Kingdom (UK) power stations and is thus, indirectly responsible for the 20% of electricity generated by nuclear power. Since the privatization of the electricity generating industry in the United Kingdom, nuclear power has had an unresolved financial and commercial status. BNFL has still not considered negotiations with their two UK customers, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear so accounts presented include assumptions about fixed price contracts. Public relations has become a major issue for BNFL and the work of the Sellafield Visitors Centre is described in detail. (UK)

  20. Nuclear waste - perception and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author addresses the perceptual gap between the general public's attitude to nuclear waste disposal and British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) effort to convey the measures actually being taken and the scale of the problem. It is a matter of real concern to BNFL that as much as 80% of the British population believe there is no safe way to dispose of nuclear waste. By comparing the volumes of low-intermediate -and high-level radioactive wastes produced annually to those for industrial waste in general, the nuclear waste issue is shown to represent only a very small fraction of the national toxic waste issue. The building of specific plants for high-and low-level waste disposal is described as is a public relations programme undertaken in 1990 to improve awareness and factual information available about BNFL's commitment to safe waste disposal. The campaign targeted the West Cumbrian region and BNFL employees and has proved successful. U.K

  1. R. v. H.M. Inspectorate of Pollution and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, THORP, has been constructed to reprocess spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield. BNFL have existing authorisations for the emissions of liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes relating to its existing operations. In April 1993, BNFL applied to vary the authorisations to start testing operation of THORP. As the emissions were expected to be covered by existing authorisations BNFL wanted to start tests before formal authorisations were granted. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) stressed the need for formal application and for public consultation. Greenpeace challenged the granting by HMIP of variations so THORP could be operated on several grounds. Greenpeace's application for a judicial review was dismissed. (UK)

  2. Phase I and II Results from Sr and TRU Precipitation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNFL removal processes for strontium and transuranic components from the AN-102 and AN-107 supernate originally proposed are co-precipitation methods. In initial testing, the precipitates formed during the strontium and ferric nitrate additions were not filterable

  3. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the Energy Select Committee put questions to representatives of British Nuclear Fuels PLC (BNFL) about the annual report and accounts 1989-90. Questions concerned the late publication of the accounts, BNFLs role in the downfall of the nuclear privatisation, government assistance to the nuclear industry, the price BNFL charges for fuel reprocessing and the process of laser isotope separation of uranium. The committee also asked about the rate of return in BNFL's assets as a percentage, Sellafield's potential as a site for a deep repository for radioactive wastes and the 6000 boreholes that MREX will drill at Sellafield. The commercial case for reprocessing is made. Feasibility studies for possible new reactions at Sellafield and Chapel Cross have been carried out. On the whole the Energy Committee were satisfied with the replies from BNFL. (UK)

  4. Drigg: land burial of low activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Drigg site in West Cumbria is described. British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) uses this site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste from Sellafield and other sources. The physical nature of low level waste is highly heterogeneous, but it must all be treated so as to be insoluble in water and not readily flammable. The report concludes with a description of how BNFL recovers the capital outlay of the Drigg disposal site from its customers. (UK)

  5. Annual report and accounts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item consists of the Annual Report and Accounts of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) for 1995 and a public relations document explaining the company's work in the United Kingdom nuclear power industry. BNFL has many years' experience in nuclear fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, waste management, decommissioning and transport of nuclear materials, and provides services to other organizations worldwide based on this expertise, making it an important export earner for the United Kingdom. (UK)

  6. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume

  7. It tells you where we want to go and not where we've been

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, up to now, BNFL's current visual identity was, amongst other things, dated, fragmented, inconsistent and poorly maintained. Quite simply, the existing identity did NOT say where we were going - only where we had been. The research also revealed three interesting conclusions regarding BNFL as a company name. It was clearly a very strong brand but there was distinct confusion over the acronym BNFL and the full registered company name of British Nuclear Fuels plc. In addition, 'British' was felt to be too restrictive for a company focused upon a broad international marketplace and the word fuel implied we concentrate purely on the fuel cycle, dismissing our unrivalled achievements in areas, such as engineering, fluorochemicals and environmental clean-up. The solution was to promote the company as BNFL and de-emphasise the use of the full company name during all promotional activity. So, where did we go from here? We developed three options for testing. Firstly the existing BNFL logo, secondly a refined and more modem version of the existing BNFL logo and finally a complete change of logo. We were also keen to establish the strength of the three options in relation to other well known and respected identities

  8. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  9. Department of Energy: monitoring and control of British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was set up in 1971 to take over the nuclear fuel production and reprocessing activities of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority with the Department of Energy (as majority shareholder) being responsible for the monitoring and control of BNFL's activities. BNFL's activities include the production of nuclear fuel, uranium enrichment, and the transportation and reprocessing of spent fuel. Its major capital investment includes the construction of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) due for completion in 1992. This study examined the effectiveness of the Department's arrangements for monitoring and control and for safeguarding the Government's investment in the company, the arrangements for examining BNFL's capital investment programme and the extent to which the Department's main aims have been achieved. The examination was restricted to the financial performance. The National Audit Office found evidence to suggest that BNFL's financial performance has not kept pace with the general performance level of British Industry. Future success and performance will depend on the success of the THORP plant. (U.K.)

  10. Application of model based predictive control to a solvent extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL) is the most experienced nuclear fuel company in the world, having supplied nuclear fuel cycle services in the UK and overseas for over forty years. BNFL is one of only two companies in the world that is able to offer nuclear fuel manufacture, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management services. In addition to its work for the UK Nuclear Power Programme, BNFL has developed a substantial export business with nuclear power plant operators in Western Europe, Japan and North America, which now accounts for 18% of the annual turnover. BNFL's plants re situated in North West England and Southern Scotland. Nuclear fuel and fuel products are manufactured at Springfields near Preston; uranium enrichment by the centrifuge process is carried out at Capenhurst, near Chester; reprocessing and waste management services are provided at Sellafield, West Cumbria. The Company's headquarters and engineering design facilities are based at Risley, near Warrington. BNFL also owns and operates two (MAGNOX) nuclear power stations-Calder Hall, on the Sellafield site, the Chapelcross, near Dumfries in Southern Scotland

  11. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel from Japan to Europe in Japanese territorial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 90 % of nuclear fuel irradiated in Japanese nuclear power stations is transported to UK and France for reprocessing. Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd (PNTL), a subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), owns and operates its own fleet of 5 purpose built ships specially designed for the transport of flasks containing irradiated fuel from Japan to Europe. These vessels sail to Japan on 8 to 10 voyages per year from the BNFL's Marine Terminal at Barrow in UK via Cherbourg Port in France. On arrival in Japan empty flasks are delivered to Japanese nuclear power stations, and full flasks are collected for the return journey to Europe. Whilst the probability of a serious flask incident involving the release of radioactivity is very small, it is nevertheless important to plan for such an emergency. In the case of an incident BNFL will provide an emergency response. If an incident occurs in Japanese territorial waters, the initial response will be provided by Nuclear Services Company (NSC), who are based in Japan (the head office in Tokyo, Tokai Office in Ibaraki Prefecture and Tsuruga Office in Fukui Prefecture) and contracted to BNFL to provide a similar response to that available from UK. This paper describes the communication links which have been established between UK and Japan and the internal communication within Japan. It also describes the emergency equipent held in Japan, the training of teams and the results of exercises jointly carried out with BNFL. (J.P.N.)

  12. THORP - still time to stop it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) applied for a revised site discharge authorisation in April 1992. It will apply to all discharges from existing Magnox reprocessing, and from new plants such as EARP (The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant) and THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant). BNFL's application will be considered by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). As part of the reauthorisation process BNFL has to demonstrate that it has complied with the Government's policy on radioactive waste management. The cornerstone of this policy is that any practice producing radioactive waste must be justified. This means that ''the need for the practice must be established in terms of its overall benefit''. However reprocessing is not justified. Consequently, any level of additional radiation exposure from future discharges cannot be considered acceptable. HMIP should refuse to grant a new authorisation for the site. (author)

  13. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  14. Public understanding - can we make an atom of difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author exposes the British Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (BNFL)'s progress in improving the level of public understanding about the company's activities. It is shown that BNFL is at the forefront of seeking to improve the credibility and acceptability of nuclear power within the United Kingdom. Its position was born out of necessity, because of Sellafield. In response to the distorted public perception and the bad publicity surrounding the nuclear industry, BNFL organized a concerted information and education program, supported by a strong management commitment, to demystify Sellafield and redress the balance of public opinion. The aim was to enable the general public to make an intelligent cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry

  15. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Hawkins, G.; Milverton, P. [UKAEA, Solid Waste Services Section, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  16. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  17. Marching into MOX (Thorpe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom government's recent statement about THORP, British Nuclear Fuel's (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, is examined. The statement was issued after the completion of an enquiry into the health and safety aspects of THORP which did not address some of the major issues such as the possibility of proliferation arising from increased plutonium stockpiles and the risk of accidents. The statement fully supports BNFL's assessment of the economics of THORP leaving it to BNFL and its customers to work out if THORP will be profitable. It makes light of any fears about proliferation yet these issues are shown to be important. The article recommends getting as much nuclear waste material into safe long-term dry storage as soon as possible - THORP and reprocessing postpone this strategy. (UK)

  18. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  19. Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

  20. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item covers a meeting held between members of the United Kingdom government's energy committee and representatives of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to discuss their Annual Report and Accounts for the year 1988-89. The committee explored the reasons for escalating predictions of the costs of nuclear power and why decommissioning costs are so difficult to estimate accurately so as to include them in cost per kilowatt hour of generated electricity. The relationship between BNFL and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) was explored, as was the MoD's relationship with the United States Department of Defense. BNFL's financial position should improve when the thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield becomes operational, and the Chapelcross and Calder Hall reactors may contribute income from electricity generation. (UK)

  1. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from UK to continental Europe by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in the framework of a study for the European Commission in collaboration with the GRS (Germany and BNFL (United Kingdom), relates to the evaluation of the safety associated to the maritime transport of vitrified wastes from the United Kingdom towards Europe. With this intention, a travel of 1000 nautical miles (1852 km) was considered and a detailed analysis of the boat used by BNFL has been realized in order to elaborate a fault tree, for scenarios able to generate mechanical and thermal stresses significant on the transport packages (type B-packages). (A.L.B.)

  2. Mechanical handling systems in the Sellefield vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has over 40 years experience in the design, construction and operation of nuclear reprocessing plants and of waste management. Many of these plants have required extensive mechanical handling systems, the handling and control systems designed and developed for the Sellafield Vitrification Plant and Product Store are described. These systems are now fully operational and illustrate many of the features and techniques developed by BNFL for nuclear package handling. Utilisation of these systems and similar systems in other Sellafield Plants has demonstrated notable advantages in ease/flexibility of operations, product quality and costs. (author)

  3. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  4. Relations with local communities: 'a lot of happy faces and a lot of hard work'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations programme of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is described. It includes: involvement in the economic regeneration of the regions in which its sites are located; providing resource materials to schools; funding of university posts, contract research and studentships; community involvement through such things as support of organisations/charities concerned with community and welfare, health issues, renewal and cultural activities, sponsorship. Branding and attribution in its community and sponsorship programmes is aimed at achieving recognition for BNFL as a quality, caring and responsible company. (UK)

  5. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  6. NEATER robot carries out remote contamination monitoring of high-level vitrified waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NEATER Nuclear Engineered Robot, has been successfully installed during a planned shutdown in the High Level Waste Plant at British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site. The robot swabs vitrified waste containers to ensure they are free of surface contamination before they are put into store. Engineering of the NEATER Robot system was carried out by the Remote Handling and Robotics Department of AEA Technology (RHRD), working closely with BNFL. The success of the NEATER robot system demonstrates how planned use of mock up trials can minimise difficulties encountered during active commissioning and give increased confidence of successful installations. (author)

  7. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  8. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1980-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published from 1980 to 1982 inclusive. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA), BNFL Information Series 15 (CA) and BNFL Information Series 23 (CA), which covered the periods 1895 to 1970, 1970 to 1974, and 1975 to 1979 respectively. After bibliographies and books and pamphlets, the main list is arranged chronologically under the headings, Reports, Journal articles, and Conference papers. Items omitted from the earlier bibliographies or received too late for inclusion in this, have been listed separately. There are author, report number and subject indexes. (U.K.)

  9. Expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Utilising the emergency planning cycle for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a world leader in the transport of radioactive material (RAM) British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and its subsidiary Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) recognise the importance of adopting the emergency planning cycle. The emergency response arrangements prepared and maintained in support of the International Transport business have been developed through this cycle to ensure that their emergency response section may achieve its aim and that the business unit is able to respond to any International Transport related incident in a swift, combined and co-ordinated manner. This paper outlines the eight key stages of the planning cycle and the experience that BNFL has gained in respect of its emergency response activities

  11. Implications for providers of nuclear power plants, materials and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL does not agree with the IEA business prediction showing a decline in the share of electricity generated by nuclear power over the next 20 years. On the contrary BNFL believes that lifetime extension and continued new build will help maintain or even increase the share of electricity generated by nuclear power. One reason why new nuclear build programmes have been reduced is because existing reactors are operating for longer and at higher performance than ever before. As reactor lifetimes are extended new business opportunities will emerge concerning the upgrading of different systems from nuclear control systems to steam turbines. (A.C.)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1980 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1980. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL)-sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  13. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design

  14. Legal screw turns on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal action against British Nuclear Fuel Limited is summarised. The cases result from the effects of BNFL's activities at its Sellafield site. The three types of cases currently being pursued are outlined. The first concerns lowered value for property because high levels of radioactivity were found in the houses. The second concern cases of high rates of leukemia found near Sellafield. Over 30 families with affected children are suing BNFL. The third set relates to local farmers who have difficulty in selling their farms because of high levels of radioactivity found in the area and who are claiming for economic loss. (author)

  15. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on the

  16. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its

  17. The THORP project - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is an international company offering a nuclear fuel service. BNFL owns and operates facilities for the storage and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and treatment of wastes arising, at the Sellafield site in West Cumbria. In 1974, BNFL announced its intention to undertake the Company's largest ever project, the provision of a new, integrated reprocessing facility known as THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant). The purpose of THORP is to recover uranium and plutonium from spent oxide fuel that has been irradiated in nuclear reactors used for the generation of electricity. The plant has been designed to high standards to avoid jeopardising the safety of any person on or off site as a result of its operation. This paper provides an overview of the project outlining some of the major aspects, encompassing the history of the project, environmental impact, safeguards/accountancy, commercial information, the use of the products in mixed oxide fuel and the development of the THORP workforce. It concludes that the large investment made in plant, equipment and people, will ensure that the radiological impact of THORP's operations on the environment is insignificant, and that as the radioactive commissioning of THORP is proceeding successfully, that there is increasing confidence within, and external to, BNFL that THORP will be a commercial and environmental success for Britain. (Author)

  18. Health effects of low-level radiation: ethical issues for patients and workforces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light of recent media-driven furores concerning the sensitive matter of patient consent, and the new legislation that impinges upon this issue, the nature of ethical practices for epidemiological research needs to be looked at anew. This paper considers the present landscape, with particular reference to the nuclear workforce and BNFL's current practice in this regard. (author)

  19. Small Column Testing of Superlig 639 for Removing 99Tc from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for pretreating Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superligregsign639 (SL-639) in a dual column system for removing technetium-99 (99Tc) from the aqueous fraction of the waste. This sorbent material has been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report documents the results of testing the SL-639 sorbent with diluted waste [Na+] ∼ 5 M from Tank 241-AN-107 (an Envelope C waste, abbreviated AN-107) at Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The equilibrium behavior was assessed with batch contacts between the sorbent and the waste. Two AN-107 samples were used: (1) an archived sample from previous testing and (2) a more recent sample collected specifically for BNFL. A portion of the archive sample and all of the BNFL sample were treated to remove Sr-90 and transuranic elements (TRU). All samples had also been Cs decontaminated by ion exchange (IX), and were spiked with a technetium-95m (95mTc) pertechnetate tracer, 95mTcO4-.The TcO4- and total Tc Kd values, assumed equal to the 95mTc and 99Tc Kd's, respectively, are shown in Table S1. Values are averages of duplicates, which showed significant scatter. The total Tc Kd for the BNFL sample is much lower than the TcO4-, indicating that a large fraction of the 99Tc is not pertechnetate

  20. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  1. Niobia-doped UO2 fuel manufacturing experience at British nuclear fuels Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Fuel Division has made niobia doped fuel for over twenty years in its Springfields Research and Development facilities. This paper reviews this experience together with feedback from successful in-reactor and laboratory tests. Recent experience in qualifying and manufacturing niobia doped fuel pellets for a European PWR will be described. (author)

  2. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg

  3. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yearsley, Roger; Duerden, Susan [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom). National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal; Streatfield, Ian [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); Bennett, David [Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002.

  4. New era of LLW disposal at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With low level solid waste now being packed in drums and containers and placed in the Pound 8.6M ''new era'' concrete vault at Drigg, development and improvement work continues across the 30 year old BNFL site four miles southeast of Sellafield. (Author)

  5. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002

  6. Health and safety annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1989 annual report on Health and Safety in BNFL is intended to give the public a general review of the impact of the Company's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. The activities at Sellafield, Springfields, Chapelcross, Drigg and Capenhurst are outlined, together with sections on medical services and transport, and radiation monitoring of workforce and the environment. (author)

  7. The development of B.N.F.L.'S MOX fuel supply business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 BNFL developed a strategy to become one of the world leading MOX fuel suppliers. This strategy involved the design, construction and operation of a small scale demonstration plant known as the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and a large scale facility known as the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). To support the development of these facilities, BNFL developed a new MOX fuel fabrication process known as the Short Binderless Route (SBR). Since the 1990 decision was made, the company has successfully built, commissioned and operated the MDF, and has designed, built and is in the process of commissioning the 120 t(HM)/year SMP. The scale of the business has thus developed significantly and the direction and prospects for the future of the business are clear and well understood, with the focus being on the use of BNFL technology to produce quality MOX fuel to meet customers' requirements. This paper reviews the development of BNFL's MOX business and describes the technology being used in the state of the art SMP. The paper also explains the approach taken to commission the plant and how key safety features have been incorporated into the design. Up to date information on the performance of Short Binderless Route fuel is provided, and the future development of the business is discussed. (author)

  8. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  9. Annual report on occupational safety 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents detailed information on occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for 1989 and data compared with the previous year. Routine monitoring, non-radiological safety and 'incidents' are discussed and 'statutory' whole-body exposures, nuclear incidents, lost-time accidents, and types of injury are tabulated. (author)

  10. Gearing up to gain more fuel business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the over-capacity in the fuel market, BNFL has invested in new manufacturing plant. Behind the design of their New Oxide Fuel Complex is high technology and a new philosophy. This article considers the wisdom of this investment. (Author)

  11. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  13. Progress report for 1986 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper covers progress during 1986 under the joint BNFL/MOD/DoE funded PCM Working Party studying the management, treatment and immobilization of plutonium contaminated materials. Development is reported under each of seven main programme headings including reduction of arisings, Pu measurement, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, liquid effluent treatment, sorting and packaging, PCM immobilisation and engineering objectives. (author)

  14. Siamese twins - nuclear weapons and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical development of nuclear weapons and civil nuclear power is summarized. The initiative by President Eisenhower in launching the 'atoms for peace' programme is mentioned, and the intentions and shortcomings of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are outlined. The developments in individual countries are discussed under the headings: who has the bomb (query); nuclear flashpoints; the nuclear state; BNFL's involvement. (U.K.)

  15. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  16. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of magnox-clad fuel at BNFL Sellafield. After irradiation and pond storage, the fuel is decanned producing magnox swarf and associated debris. Headings are: introduction - origin and arisings; characterisation; alternative encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  17. Analysis of transport logistics and routing requirements for radioactive waste management systems with respect to a minimum power scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the transport logistics associated with disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL, in accordance with a 'Minimum Power Scenario'. Transport by road and rail is analysed, as in previous reports; use of coastal shipping however has not been included but has been replaced with a combined road/rail option. (author)

  18. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  19. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  20. Estimates of post-closure risk in regulatory decision making: environment agency issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency of England and Wales (the Agency) is responsible for the authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low-level radioactive waste at a disposal facility near the village of Drigg on the Cumbrian coast, in north-west England. In accordance with Government Policy, the Agency periodically reviews authorizations for the disposal of radioactive waste. The Agency intends to commence its next review of the Drigg authorization in 2003/4. To inform its decision making, the Agency required BNFL to submit new safety cases for the Drigg disposal facility in September 2002. These have been received from BNFL and made publicly available (via national public registers): - The Operational Environmental Safety Case considers the impacts of the facility on the environment and the public in the period whilst the site remains operational and under institutional control, which BNFL estimates might be 2150. - The Post-Closure Safety Case considers the long-term environmental impacts of the facility after 2150 and includes a Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment, which is a risk assessment. This paper deals with estimates of post-closure risk, it specifically excludes the operational phase and regulatory controls thereon. The paper summarises work undertaken by the Agency to consider potential regulatory actions against different levels of risk in relation to the risk target set out in the published regulatory guidance. The work was undertaken principally in preparation for review of BNFL's Drigg post-closure safety case and authorization. (authors)

  1. Advertising is magic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the

  2. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  3. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  4. Progress in MOX fuels fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL made its first MOX fuel in 1963 which was loaded into the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor at Sellafield in the UK. During the 1970's and 1980's, the Company gained significant experience of manufacturing fast reactor MOX fuel for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor at Dounreay in the North of Scotland. In 1989, BNFL took the decision to enter the thermal MOX production market and adopted a two stage approach. The first stage was to construct the small scale MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Sellafield which has now operated successfully for almost 4 years having made MOX fuel for our European customers. The second stage of the Company strategy was to construct the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). This plant which is at present being commissioned, will be the most up-to-date, flexible and automated MOX fabrication plant in the world with a production capacity of 120 te/yr (HM). (author)

  5. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by Kd measurements with SuperLigregsign 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  6. UK Nuclear power plants - aspiring to world-class performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an approach to achieving world-class operation of the UK nuclear power stations. Although focused on the activities of British Energy, it is important to appreciate that in nuclear safety issues British Energy works closely with BNFL Magnox Generation (both were part of the original nationalised CEGB) and many of the initiatives described are similar to those adopted by that company. Initially, British Energy adopted a definition of 'world-class nuclear performance' based on the upper decile of a subset of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) performance indicators which are measured on all plants. Working closely with BNFL Magnox Generation and WANO Paris Centre, the peer review programme and the optimum use of operating experience have been identified as the key high-level enablers which, if adopted, will ensure that the detailed attributes and behaviours necessary to achieve world-class performance will be deployed. (author)

  7. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management at British Nuclear Fuel's (BNFL) Sellafield and Drigg sites has been assessed using an audit of solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste, undertaken by a joint inspection team from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Inspectorate of Pollution. The conditions of waste storage and record keeping observed by the team are reported for each solid waste facility. Radioactive waste management was found to be variable, with a number of storage facilities less than satisfactory. BNFL were shown to be making strenuous efforts to rectify this. Record keeping was found to be satisfactory for all current and recent waste storage. Historic waste accumulations, however, have yet to be quantified and characterised. (UK)

  8. Annual report and accounts 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a complete nuclear fuel cycle service at its five sites in N.W. England and southern Scotland. This covers fuel manufacture (at Springfields), uranium enrichment (at Capenhurst), reprocessing (at Sellafield), reprocessing engineering (at Risley) and the operation of two nuclear power stations (at Chapelcross and Calder Hall). BNFL employs over 16,000 people and had a turnover of over Pound600 million in 1986. The report covers all aspects of the Company's work and is illustrated with photographs and diagrams. It highlights the work of some individuals who work in a variety of areas for the company. Safety and environmental protection are emphasised. The accounts are set out in detail with notes of explanation on the balance sheet. (UK)

  9. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  10. The organisation and the costs of the decommissioning nuclear plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK electricity consumers have paid provisions for decommissioning since before 1980 but by 2002, there were still negligible funds available to pay for decommissioning civil nuclear facilities. By then, the two major UK nuclear companies, British Energy and British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), were both effectively bankrupt. This paper examines: the pre-2002 provisions for decommissioning and how they were lost; the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, a new public body which took over ownership of BNFL's facilities including the duty to manage their decommissioning and how it expects to carry out and fund decommissioning of its sites; how the re-launched British Energy will contribute to decommissioning its eight plants; and government plans for collecting decommissioning provisions for any new plants.

  11. Peaceful plutonium: the THORP nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent court decision has upheld the United Kingdom Government's decision to authorize the commissioning of British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL's) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Challenged as uneconomic and environmentally unsound, the author argues against these charges. White uranium is not expensive enough to make recycling necessary, the author argues its importance so as not to waste natural resources. In addition BNFL hope to offer over five thousand jobs to the ailing UK job market when THORP opens as well as offering Pound 500 million profit. It is also argued that plutonium, rather than constituting an environmental hazard, could and should be used to produce cheap electricity, without the environmental hazards caused by coal or oil-fired power plants. (UK)

  12. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy

  13. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; JP Bramson; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; MA Mann; MJ Steele; RT Steele; RG Swoboda; MW Urie

    2000-05-17

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K{sub d} measurements with SuperLig{reg_sign} 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  14. Introduction to Papers 3-5. The UK industry's strategy for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management policies and strategies of the main radioactive waste producers in the UK, namely the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA are summarised. Three papers will be published in the Proceedings of this Conference, giving details, for the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA of individual policies and strategies outlining how they have developed and are being implemented. An overview of the strategy for each type of waste with some examples of the approach being followed, is given. The key elements of radioactive waste management policy and strategy are set down by the Government, in various White Papers, and the detailed Industry strategy is consistent with these, indeed it is determined largely by them. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1974 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1974. Waste arising at the UKAEA Reactor Development Laboratory at Windscale and Reactur Fuel Element Laboratory at Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of through BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of gaseous radioactive waste from all UKAEA establishments have been far below the working limits agreed with the Authorising Departments, and further details are not included in this report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges and disposal is given. The principles underlying the control of the discharge of radioactive waste to the environment are summarised in an Appendix to the report. (U.K.)

  16. Radioactive lobsters put squeeze on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels is facing a new controversy over its Sellafield Works in Cumbria. Levels of the radioactive isotope technetium-99 in lobsters close to the works have risen 40-fold since 1993 -and now far exceed EC standards for contamination of food after a nuclear accident. Radioactive doses to local seafood consumers have been rising steeply since BNFL commissioned a new enhanced actinide removal plant (EARP) in 1994. The Environment Agency has now asked BNFL to consider ways of reducing technetium-99 discharges from the plant - but the company is also under pressure to maintain throughput to meet the safety concerns of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and avoid disrupting the reprocessing of spent Magnox reactor fuel. (UK)

  17. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.K. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy.

  18. Statement of nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight incidents were reported. Three mothers (two at BNFL's Sellafield Reprocessing Plant and one at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories) had been contaminated and received more than the annual dose limit. At the Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment, Cs124 and Cs137 had been washed off the outside of a flask onto the ground. At the BNFL Springfields works a discharge of a solution of natural uranium had occurred to the site foul drain. At the Drigg storage and disposal site a leak from a storage tank was reported. In the other three cases no radioactive release occurred. There was a loose coupling on a tiebar of a fuel stringer at Heysham-I reactor, water beneath a pipeline discharging from Harwell Laboratory was found not to be contaminated and at Dungeness-B a fuel assembly was dropped to the bottom of the reactor during refuelling. (UK)

  19. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the UK results of the 1992 environmental monitoring programme carried out by the U.K. Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food's Directorate of Fisheries Research. The report is presented under the following headings: (1) tabular presentation of liquid and solid waste discharges, (2) BNFL plants, (3) UKAEA, (4) nuclear power stations, (5) Defence establishments, (6) Amersham International plc, (7) Channel Islands monitoring, (8) Chernobyl considerations, (9) natural radionuclides. (UK)

  20. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; ie Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross works; Springfields works and Ulnes Walton disposal site; Capenhurst works. Included is assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. (author)

  1. Separate individual control systems come together at EP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At BNFL's EP2 radioactive waste encapsulation plant in the UK, eight area supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADAs) and one central SCADA are being installed to provide computer-controlled processing of waste drums. The individual systems are all autonomous, minimizing the effect they have on other areas of the process. At the same time, they are part of an integrated system which provides effective communication between the various areas. (author)

  2. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  3. Access to the Scotland-England interconnector. Consultation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL and National Power have separately asked that I determine their requests that capacity on the Scotland-England Interconnector be made available to them by ScottishPower. ScottishPower has asked that I approve all of the capacity available to its transmission business as being reserved to its own Generation Wholesale Division. This consultation paper invites views on these applications and the wider issues raised

  4. Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) Report for 1994. Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the ninth in a series of annual reports, presents a description of MAFF's monitoring programmes for radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales. Results are presented for specific Nuclear Electric sites, BNFL sites, UKAEA sites, Amersham International, Aldermaston, the Isle of Man, non-nuclear industrial sites, landfill sites and some other minor sites. A summary of the results by radionuclide is also given. (UK)

  5. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching

  6. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  7. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley Warrington Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  8. An investigation into the role of colloids at a low-level waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, P.; Allinson, S.J.; Beckett, K.; Baines, K. [Loughborough Univ., Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Chemistry; Eilbeck, A. [Environmental Risk Assessments, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services, BNFL, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Trivedi, D. [Environmental Risk Assessments, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services, BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    To assess the possible effect of colloids on radionuclide transport in and around the BNFL owned low-level radioactive waste site at Drigg near Sellafield in Cumbria, UK, samples of groundwaters were extracted from the near-field, i.e. from the trenches and from the far-field, i.e. outside the trenches to determine the properties of the groundwaters with respect to the physical characterisation of the waters, colloid population, colloid characterisation and radionuclide loading of colloids. (orig.)

  9. Near-field/far-field interface of a near-surface low level radioactive waste site

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ian R.; S. Boult; Graham, J.; Hand, V. L.; Humphreys, Paul; Trivedi, D. P.; Warwick, P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and Modelling studies have been used to investigate the biogeochemical processes occurring at the interface zone between the near-field and far-field of the Drigg Low- Level radioactive Waste (LLW) trenches. These have led to a conceptual model of interface biogeochemistry, which has subsequently been modelled by the BNFL code known as the Generalised Repository Model (GRM). GRM simulations suggest that as organic rich leachate migrates into the far-field, iron III minerals such ...

  10. Integrating microbiology into the Drigg Post-closure radiological safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ian R.; Humphreys, Paul; Pettit, C.; Small, J.

    2001-01-01

    BNFL owns and operates the UK.s principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial act...

  11. Small Column Testing of Superlig 639 for Removal of 99Tc from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DL Blanchard; DE Kurath; BM Rapko

    2000-06-28

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for pretreating Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig(reg.sign)639 (SL-639) in a dual column system for removing technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) from the aqueous fraction of the waste. This sorbent material has been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report documents the results of testing the SL-639 sorbent with diluted waste [Na{sup +}] {approx} 5 M from Tank 241-AN-107 (an Envelope C waste, abbreviated AN-107) at Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The equilibrium behavior was assessed with batch contacts between the sorbent and the waste. Two AN-107 samples were used: (1) an archived sample from previous testing and (2) a more recent sample collected specifically for BNFL. A portion of the archive sample and all of the BNFL sample were treated to remove Sr-90 and transuranic elements (TRU). All samples had also been Cs decontaminated by ion exchange (IX), and were spiked with a technetium-95m ({sup 95m}Tc) pertechnetate tracer, {sup 95m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}.The TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and total Tc K{sub d} values, assumed equal to the {sup 95m}Tc and {sup 99}Tc K{sub d}'s, respectively, are shown in Table S1. Values are averages of duplicates, which showed significant scatter. The total Tc K{sub d} for the BNFL sample is much lower than the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, indicating that a large fraction of the {sup 99}Tc is not pertechnetate.

  12. Annual report and accounts 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report and Accounts starts with the years' highlights followed by the Chairman's Review and Chief Executive and Company Reviews. After a general introduction to BNFL's: operations several aspects are looked at in rather more detail; fuel and engineering, reprocessing, technical and planning and corporate affairs including public relations and personnel. The Directors' and Auditors' reports come next, then the accounts with relevant balance sheets and financial statistics. (UK)

  13. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  14. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters

  15. Automatic orbital TIG-welding of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, manual welding techniques have been employed for shop and site fabrication of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). This Paper describes an evaluation programme carried out to develop welding procedures for both 18Cr-13Ni-1Nb and 18Cr-10Ni low carbon stainless steel small bore tubing, the type of equipment used, and the modifications required for application to shop and site environments. (author)

  16. Commercial MOX fuel production - the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines the design of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). This plant is being designed and constructed by BNFL as a highly automated MOX fabrication facility with capability to manufacture PWR and BWR fuel assemblies. Additionally, it will be possible to make pellets for other reactor types (e.g. Fast Reactor and AGR). The design philosophies incorporated to achieve the stringent safety standards for modern nuclear plant design are identified. (author)

  17. Health and Safety annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Health and Safety Report for BNFL, data showing improvements in radiological and conventional safety are given. Other aspects discussed are emergency planning, the level of incidents, occupational health services, litigation and the compensation scheme, the transport of radioactive materials, research covering transgenerational epidemiology, mortality and cancer studies, genetics and radiobiology, and dosimetry, and finally a summary of radioactive discharges and environmental data. (UK)

  18. RADCONTAB 1.0: a look-up tables tool for radiological assessment of contaminated land on Nuclear Licensed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes a simple electronic spreadsheet 'look-up tables' tool (RADCONTAB version 1.0), developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to facilitate the radiological assessment of land affected by existing 'historic' radioactive contamination on UK Nuclear Licensed sites. The specification and design of the tool have been subject to open consultation and peer review. The tool with accompanying guide is now freely available on the internet. (note)

  19. A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are given about the cases of cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale Works, BNFL during the period 1950 to 1974. The number of cancers of these types expected to occur in the working population at Windscale has been estimated for the same period. For none of these types is the observed number of cancers significantly different at the 95% confidence level from that expected. (author)

  20. Analysis of irradiated Magnox fuel for fission product and actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methods used for, and the results obtained from, chemical and isotopic analysis of four Magnox fuel samples of known irradiation history. The analysis of this material was carried out in conjunction with CEGB, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories and BNFL. The data obtained was used to evaluate the accuracy of fuel composition as predicted by computer codes such as RICE (Reactor Inventory Code). (author)

  1. Memento. Maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan; Memento. Le transport maritime des combustibles MOX d'Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan represents the last of the 3 steps of transport of the nuclear fuel reprocessing-recycling program settled between ORC (Japan), BNFL (UK) and Cogema (France). This document summarizes the different aspects of this program: the companies concerned, the physical protection measures, the US-Japan agreements (accompanying warship), the in-depth safety, the handling of MOX fuels (containers and ships), and the Japan MOX fuel needs. (J.S.)

  2. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    2000-04-19

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters.

  3. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the aquatic environmental monitoring programme performed during 1988 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's (MAFF's) Directorate of Fisheries Research (DFR). Radioactivity measurements are made in aquatic organisms and environmental materials in the vicinity of nuclear establishments including BNFL, UKAEA, nuclear power stations operated by the electricity boards, defence establishments and Amersham International. A summary of estimated public radiation exposures in 1988, relating to liquid radioactive waste discharges from nuclear establishments is presented. (UK)

  4. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The graphite waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance to other phase II studies. (UK)

  5. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of magnox-clad fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The magnox swarf, with its associated debris, retrieved from previous operations has corroded to a sludge. Headings are: introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  6. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. HEPA filters are used on all THORP ventilation streams to prevent egress of active and potentially active particulate matter from the plant. Headings are: general information (origin and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation (U.K.)

  7. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises during the storage, in multi-element bottles (MEB), and removed of LWR fuel elements in Sellafield feed ponds, in the form of crud and filter-aid. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation risk in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the death rate caused by cancer among the personnel of UKAEA and BNFL, as well as among the population of siscale not far from a radiochemical plant in Sellafield, are given. It is shown that the amount of cancer cases among the personnel is lower than that typical for British population as a whole, cases of leucosis in Siscale are not connected with the releases from the radiochemical plant

  9. BTC the UK focus for nuclear fission R and D in the post NDA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNFL Technology Centre at Sellafield, UK, will provide the focal point for nuclear fission R and D in the UK for the 21. Century. The facility provides a range of non-active, trace active, plutonium active and high active facilities enabling NSTS to support the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's remit to manage the UK's nuclear legacy and other requirements. The facilities also provide an environment for academic research and foster the development of University Alliances

  10. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities

  11. Chief Constable's annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the UKAEA constabulary, its personnel, administration and training, are all covered in this report. The crimes recorded at the UKAEA and BNFL sites are analysed. Traffic problems, transport and communications are covered. Miscellaneous police functions (eg lost property), the constabulary social activities and visitors to nuclear establishments are mentioned. The report ends with a policy statement on the aims and objectives of the constabulary. The report covers 1986. (U.K.)

  12. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  13. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  14. Annual report on occupational safety 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on occupational safety relating to the Company's employees for the year 1985, and compares data with figures for the previous year. The following headings are listed: principle activities of BNFL, general policy and organisation, radiological safety, including whole body, skin and extremity, and internal organ doses, non-radiological safety, incidents reportable to the health and safety executive. (U.K.)

  15. BTC the UK focus for nuclear fission R and D in the post NDA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNFL Technology Centre at Sellafield, UK, will provide the focal point for nuclear fission R and D in the UK for the 21th Century. The facility provides a range of non-active, trace active, plutonium active and high active facilities enabling NSTS to support the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's remit to manage the UK's nuclear legacy and other requirements The facilities also provide an environment for academic research and foster the development of University Research Alliances. (Author)

  16. Providing Radiation Protection Experts in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EEC Directive on Qualified Experts in Radiation Protection has been implemented in the United Kingdom by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99). These Regulations require Radiation Employers to appoint suitable Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) who must be consulted in certain circumstances when starting work with, or using ionising radiations. Radiation Protection Advisers have to have a current certificate of competence and, to gain one of these, must have demonstrated their competence in one of two ways either by achieving a National Vocational Qualification in Radiation Protection Practice or by being Certificated by an Assessing Body. Assessing Bodies have to be recognised by the Health and Safety Executive, who undertake a rigorous assessment process to determine whether the proposed Assessing Body is fit to undertake RPA Assessments. By July 2003, only two such Assessing Bodies had been approved in the UK. These two Assessing Bodies are ? RPA 2000 a company established by the four leading Radiation Protection Professional Societies in the UK for assessing anyone in the UK as Radiation Protection Advisers, And ? BNFL established by BNFL to assess the competence of BNFL's own Radiation Protection Advisers. This paper will describe the standards against which Radiation Protection Advisers are assessed, the manner in which each of these two Assessing Bodies carry out the assessment process and their experience to date. The way in which Radiation Employers carry out the appointment process will also be described. Potential future developments of the Assessment Process and standards will also be discussed. (Author)

  17. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  18. The implications of plant design on the life-time costs for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilising the experience gained during many years of design and project management of nuclear plant, BNFL is now approaching the final stages of the construction and commissioning of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in the UK. The paper uses the SMP project to highlight the benefits of these experiences, in particular addressing the implications of the approach to plant design on life time costs. In addition to providing BNFL with a state of the art, commercial scale MOX fuel fabrication facility, the construction of this 120 tHM/yr facility, which is currently in the advanced stages of commissioning, represents a significant demonstration of the design and project management skills of BNFL Engineering Ltd. As well as meeting the main process requirements, the plant design incorporates the highest standards of safety, together with input from the future plant operators and potential customers. As befits a commercial scale plutonium handling facility, SMP also incorporates material accountancy and security provisions that will meet all international requirements. Design, construction and commissioning of this complex and highly automated plant, has benefited from a totally integrated approach to design and documentation that considers not only project implementation but also overall lifetime costs. In addition, project management techniques, developed over many years of major project construction at Sellafield, have been utilised in order to ensure successful project implementation against a background of significant technical challenge and 'fast track' timescales. (author)

  19. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  1. Development and Presentation of the Drigg Post-Closure Safety Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Eugene; Watts, Len; Grimwood, Paul [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Drigg is an operational facility for the near-surface disposal of solid low level radioactive waste (LLW). The disposal facility is located in Cumbria, north-west England, near the Sellafield nuclear site, and is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorisation granted by the UK Environment Agency. Periodically the Drigg authorisation is subject to formal regulatory review. The current regulatory guidance, 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' (the GRA) was published in 1997 and contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which the Environment Agency will consider applications for disposal authorisation. BNFL has undertaken to produce an updated Drigg postclosure safety case (PCSC) in September 2002 to support the next authorisation review. In preparation for this, BNFL published a 'Status Report on the Development of the 2002 Drigg PCSC' in March 2000. This paper discusses the main components of the Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case will be a systematic, post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However the main focus of this paper is on the other main components of the PCSC which are presented in conjunction with the PCRSA to make a complete and integrated safety case. In addition other confidence building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed, in particular communications with the stakeholders.

  2. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL's own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures

  3. Development and Presentation of the Drigg Post-Closure Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drigg is an operational facility for the near-surface disposal of solid low level radioactive waste (LLW). The disposal facility is located in Cumbria, north-west England, near the Sellafield nuclear site, and is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorisation granted by the UK Environment Agency. Periodically the Drigg authorisation is subject to formal regulatory review. The current regulatory guidance, 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' (the GRA) was published in 1997 and contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which the Environment Agency will consider applications for disposal authorisation. BNFL has undertaken to produce an updated Drigg postclosure safety case (PCSC) in September 2002 to support the next authorisation review. In preparation for this, BNFL published a 'Status Report on the Development of the 2002 Drigg PCSC' in March 2000. This paper discusses the main components of the Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case will be a systematic, post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However the main focus of this paper is on the other main components of the PCSC which are presented in conjunction with the PCRSA to make a complete and integrated safety case. In addition other confidence building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed, in particular communications with the stakeholders

  4. Nuclear processing - a simple cost equation or a complex problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has extensive experience of nuclear processing plant from concept through to decommissioning, at all stages of the fuel cycle. Nexia Solutions (formerly BNFL's R and D Division) has always supported BNFL in development of concept plant, including the development of costed plant designs for the purpose of economic evaluation and technology selection. Having undertaken such studies over a number of years, this has enabled Nexia Solutions to develop a portfolio of costed plant designs for a broad range of nuclear processes, throughputs and technologies. This work has led to an extensive understanding of the relationship of the cost of nuclear processing plant, and how this can be impacted by scale of process, and the selection of design philosophy. The relationship has been seen to be non linear and so simplistic equations do not apply, the relationship is complex due to the variety of contributory factors. This is particularly evident when considering the scale of a process, for example how step changes in design occurs with increasing scale, how the applicability of technology options can vary with scale etc... This paper will explore the contributory factor of scale to nuclear processing plant costs. (authors)

  5. A lot of happy faces and a lot of hard work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business is selling in ever more competitive markets, under continuous pressure to innovate, improve quality, reduce costs. The nuclear industry is of course no exception to this change. During 1994, BNFL continued to demonstrate this support and commitment to the community through a range of corporate, divisional and site initiatives, amounting to a spend of some 5 million pounds. This funding was spread across education and university links, employee secondment, community involvement and sponsorship and urban regeneration. The commercial activities of BNFL support jobs and generate income which benefits both local and national communities. However, the Company acknowledges that in order to play its full part as a good corporate citizen, it should put something back into the communities from which it draws its workforce and licence to operate. Thriving local, regional and national communities are good for BNFL, in terms of long-term survival, short-term income generation, general well-being and for staff recruitment retention and motivation. Community involvement activities should, therefore, be viewed as 'enlightened self interest'. Against this background, the first action from our strategy review is that the prime area for community involvement will be the North West of England as a whole, with the areas in which we operate as a major employer targeted for specific action

  6. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-02-08

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract.

  7. Development and validation of the ENIGMA code for MOX fuel performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENIGMA fuel performance code has been under development in the UK since the mid-1980s with contributions made by both the fuel vendor (BNFL) and the utility (British Energy). In recent years it has become the principal code for UO2 fuel licensing for both PWR and AGR reactor systems in the UK and has also been used by BNFL in support of overseas UO2 and MOX fuel business. A significant new programme of work has recently been initiated by BNFL to further develop the code specifically for MOX fuel application. Model development is proceeding hand in hand with a major programme of MOX fuel testing and PIE studies, with the objective of producing a fuel modelling code suitable for mechanistic analysis, as well as for licensing applications. This paper gives an overview of the model developments being undertaken and of the experimental data being used to underpin and to validate the code. The paper provides a summary of the code development programme together with specific examples of new models produced. (author)

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment for back-end facilities: Improving the treatment of fire and explosion scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield are a key component of the International business of BNFL. The operations carried out at the site extend from the receipt and storage of irradiated fuel, chemical reprocessing, plutonium and uranium finishing, through mixed oxide fuel production. Additionally there are a wide range of supporting processes including solid waste encapsulation, vitrification, liquid waste evaporation and treatment. Decommissioning of the site's older facilities is also proceeding. The comprehensive range of these activities requires that the safety assessment team keeps up to date with developments in the field, as well as conducting and sponsoring appropriate research into methodologies and modelling in order to deliver a cost effective, timely service. This paper will review the role of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) in safety cases for operations at Sellafield and go on to describe some areas of PRA methodology development in the UK and in which BNFL is a contributor. Finally the paper will summarise some specific areas of methodology development associated with improving the modelling of fire and explosion hazards which are specific to BNFL. (author)

  9. Discharge reductions-value for money?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Nuclear Liabilities Management Authority White Paper, the UK Government and the Regulators have signalled a commitment to further improving the operation of the regulatory regime and to its operating within the principles of proportionality, transparency, consistency and accountability which underpin the Government's approach to regulation in general. Particular emphasis is placed upon ensuring that there is greater consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection; and an open and transparently applied regulatory system. The paper uses the historical record of radioactive discharges from BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing site in the UK and seeks to identify what have been the key drivers for change, particularly over the past 20 years of significant discharge reductions. The paper examines the current context for ongoing and future discharges from the site, and the incorporation of the use of the concepts of best practicable environmental option and best practicable means. Intergovernmental commitments such as the OSPAR Sintra and Bremen statements and the developing UK policy framework are also considered, together with BNFL's work with a wide range of 'green' stakeholders. The paper outlines the principal components of BNFL's decision-making processes for discharge control and abatement; and how these interact with the relevant external pressures. It then analyses whether the overall drivers and outcomes align with the declared desire of the UK Government to ensure that the taxpayer receives value for money in the new national arrangements for managing historic nuclear liabilities

  10. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract

  11. Two new research melters at the Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) complex leader in the development of vitrification technology. To maintain and expand this SRTC core technology, two new melter systems are currently under construction in SRTC. This paper discusses the development of these two new systems, which will be used to support current as well as future vitrification programs in the DOE complex. The first of these is the new minimelter, which is a joule-heated glass melter intended for experimental melting studies with nonradioactive glass waste forms. Testing will include surrogates of Defense Waste processing Facility (DWPF) high-level wastes. To support the DWPF testing, the new minimelter was scaled to the DWPF melter based on melt surface area. This new minimelter will replace an existing system and provide a platform for the research and development necessary to support the SRTC vitrification core technology mission. The second new melter is the British Nuclear Fuels, Inc., research melter system (BNFL melter), which is a scaled version of the BNFL low-activity-waste (LAW) melter proposed for vitrification of LAW at Hanford. It is designed to process a relatively large amount of actual radiative Hanford tank waste and to gather data on the composition of off-gases that will be generated by the LAW melter. Both the minimelter and BNFL melter systems consist of five primary subsystems: melter vessel, off-gas treatment, feed, power supply, and instrumentation and controls. The configuration and design of these subsystems are tailored to match the current system requirements and provide the flexibility to support future DOE vitrification programs. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the unique design challenges represented by these two new melter systems

  12. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg: individual reports in order of building number. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An audit was carried out of the solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Sellafield and Drigg sites of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to establish the state of waste management. The audit was undertaken by a joint team of inspectors from the HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and HM Inspectorate of Pollution in line with their respective responsibilities for regulation of the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The report records each solid waste facility and the conditions of storage observed by the team. The report reflects the views of the audit team. It should not be read as the definitive HMIP or NII judgement of the site's performance on waste matters. This continues to be based upon day to day interaction between allocated site inspectors and site managers. However, the recommendations of the team have been endorsed by HMIP and NII and accepted by BNFL. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the aims and extent of the audit, the method of working and the findings and recommendations made. The reports on individual buildings are presented in Volume 2. These describe the waste management arrangements observed by members of the audit team. Where shortcomings are identified these have been brought to the attention of BNFL, and to the nominated site inspectors of HMIP and NII, in order that appropriate action may be considered to rectify the position. Where observations have lead to specific recommendations, these are indicated in Volume 2 at the point of arising. The recommendations are presented in full in Volume 1. Volume 1 also includes the overall conclusions of the audit and the recommendations which have been made as a result of the observations described in Volume 2. (UK)

  13. Nuclear decommissioning: Funding arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This statement describes the United Kingdom's approach to funding civil nuclear decommissioning activities and explain proposed changes to the current arrangements. The UK has nuclear operators both in the private and public sectors and the approach to decommissioning funding differs. British Energy (BE), which operates a fleet of AGR power stations and a PWR, is in the private sector. On privatization, a segregated fund was established to cover BE's future decommissioning costs. Money paid into the fund is invested and the accumulated assets used to meet future decommissioning and cleanup costs. The precise amount of money that will be required to cover decommissioning costs is not an exact science. That is why the performance of the segregated fund is reviewed at five yearly intervals, at which stage BE's annual contribution can be adjusted as appropriate. To ensure that the fund is managed effectively and investments are made wisely, the fund is managed by independent trustees jointly appointed by the Government and the company. So far, the fund is performing as expected and it is on target to cover BE's decommissioning costs. Operators in the public sector include British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). BNFL operates the fleet of Magnox power stations, a number of which are in various stages of decommissioning. BNFL also operates Sellafield (reprocessing, MOX and other operations) and Springfields (fuel manufacture). UKAEA is responsible for decommissioning the UK's former research reactor sites at Dounreay, Windscale (Cumbria), Harwell and Winfrith (Dorset). Under current arrangements, taxpayers meet the cost of decommissioning and cleanup at UKAEA sites; taxpayers will also meet the costs associated with the decommissioning of Magnox power stations from 2008 onwards

  14. Nineteenth annual report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report includes a review of the RWMAC's work in 1998-1999 and its work programme and further it presents operational and administrative issues; future work programme; the Select Committee enquiry and the development of future policy. The document discusses issues on achieving a consensus and research on long-term management of radioactive waste; radioactive waste management at the UKAEA Dounreay Nuclear Site; radioactive particles at UKAEA Dounreay; radioactive contamination of pigeons from BNFL Sellafield; authorisations for the disposal and discharge of radioactive wastes; implementation of the basic safety standards directive; small users of radioactive materials.

  15. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  16. Sellafield: boom or bombshell?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building work at the Sellafield reprocessing plant is reviewed. BNFL is about halfway through its programme to build new plants for reprocessing and storing spent nuclear fuels. Most money is being spent on THORP, the thermal oxide reprocessing plant, but vitrification and encapsulation plants are also being built. All the construction work has provided employment for many workers, many from outside the area but also local labour which has altered the local job market. However, problems are envisaged when the construction programme is complete in 1992 and the number of jobs greatly reduced. Unemployment and economic depression are forecast. (U.K.)

  17. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  18. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for an environmental monitoring programme performed during 1980 by the Fisheries Radiobiological Loaboratory. The programme was set up to verify the satisfactory control of liquid radioactive waste discharges from UK nuclear establishments to the aquatic environment. The results showed that all exposures were well within the ICRP-recommended limit for members of the public. Discharges from BNFL's Sellafield Site gave rise to the highest exposures. The collective effective dose equivalent to the UK population from liquid radioactive discharges in 1980 was 100 man-Sv, a reduction from 130 man-Sv reported for 1979. (U.K.)

  19. National report for United Kingdom. 32nd annual meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors, Vienna, 18-19 May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the UK nuclear industry has now completed the transition from state to private ownership. The UK continues to support international development of fast reactor technology, mainly through participation in the European Fast Reactor collaboration, with all funding provided by BNFL. Inactive commissioning is about to begin on the PFR Sodium Disposal Plant, which includes a caesium removal plant. The defuelling machine is being refurbished to permit the control and shutdown rods to be removed. No further reprocessing of fuel has taken place. (author)

  20. Reprocessing: counting the cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sellafield reprocessing plant of BNFL in Cumbria is discussed. The paragraphs cover the following aspects: the contamination on the beach from the radioactive effluent; Government statement about the contamination; television programme about incidence of children's cancer; comparison with contamination of Channel Island coast from French reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague; comparative exposure of workers at Sellafield and the French plant; the principle that discharges should be 'as low as reasonably achievable'; isotope composition of spent reactor fuel; economics of reprocessing (reference to PWR and fast reactors); thermal oxide fuel reprocessing plant (THORP) operational dose. (U.K.)

  1. Automated {sup 99}Tc analysis in AW-101 and AN-107 ``diluted feed'' matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OB Egorov; DE Kurath

    2000-03-29

    A process monitor is needed by British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. (BNFL Inc.) to measure total {sup 99}Tc levels in column effluents during technetium removal from the aqueous fraction of the Hanford high-level tank wastes. The monitor must achieve detection limits of 1 x 10{sup {minus}8}Ci/mL (0.6 {micro}g/mL). Measurements must be done in near real time, with an analysis frequency of {approximately}15 min. The monitoring technology must be sufficiently simple and robust for unattended continuous operation in the plant settings.

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the liquid, airborne and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Works and sites for 1982, i.e. Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. At no time during 1982 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the above Works exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. (U.K.)

  3. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on discharges and disposal of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Company Works and Sites during 1981. At no time during 1981 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes at any of the Works or Sites exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Similarly, environmental monitoring studies have shown that the radiation doses to the most highly exposed group of the general population were significantly lower than the dose limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  4. MEAD (part II)--Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for 137Cs and Pu(α) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further afield in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea

  5. MEAD (part II)-Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C N; Goshawk, J A; Charles, K; McDonald, P; Leonard, K S; McCubbin, D

    2003-01-01

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for (137)Cs and Pu(alpha) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further a field in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea. PMID:12782473

  6. MEAD (part II)--Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.N.; Goshawk, J.A.; Charles, K.; McDonald, P. E-mail: paul.mcdonald@westlakes.ac.uk; Leonard, K.S.; McCubbin, D

    2003-07-01

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for {sup 137}Cs and Pu({alpha}) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further afield in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea.

  7. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  8. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  9. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  10. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  11. Radiological safety issues for spent fuel wet storage (ponds) facility decommissioning at U.K. Magnox Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decommissioning of the Trawsfynydd Cooling Ponds was phased with the initial contract awarded for Ponds Furniture Removal. The ambitious programme timescale, planned number of workers, and hostile radiological environment for both external and internal dose provided a challenge to the Contractor and BNFL alike. Dose management techniques proved critical in controlling the exposure of personnel in a number of ways. These were daily dose recording and review, occupancy management, distancing, and use of temporary shielding. Waste management covered the packaging of waste stream containers and minimisation of ILW generation by development of a unique assay and sentencing technique. This paper briefly addresses these issues as part of a constrained decommissioning objective. (author)

  12. Packaging for transport and disposal of low level waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid low level waste (LLW) disposal operations at the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Drigg site are currently being upgraded. A major feature of this upgrade is the introduction of waste compaction, containerisation and orderly emplacement of packages in concrete lined trenches (vaults). This paper summarises the current status of the upgrade with particular emphasis on progress towards specification of a product container design that is consistent with the overall aim of achieving long term post-closure site stability and will also meet the requirements for transport to Drigg through the public domain under the conditions of the 1985 IAEA Transport Regulations. (author)

  13. Leaching studies of low-level waste as input to radiological assessment at the Drigg disposal site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the period of operation of the low-level waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, several radiological assessments have been carried out. This paper discusses data requirements for such an assessment and in particular describes a project to measure the leaching behaviour of wastes. This project, jointly set up by the staff of BNFL and Environmental Safety Centre at Harwell, began in 1985. The objectives were to determine the processes operating within the waste disposal trenches at Drigg and conditions affecting them. The paper describes the installation and operation of the first of a series of lysimeters designed to simulate conditions in current trenches. (author)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  15. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  16. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  17. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  18. Summary of Testing of SuperLig 639 at the TFL Ion Exchange Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2000-12-19

    A pilot scale facility was designed and built in the Thermal Fluids Laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center to test ion exchange resins for removing technetium and cesium from simulated Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW). The facility supports the design of the Hanford River Protection Project for BNFL, Inc. The pilot scale system mimics the full-length of the columns and the operational scenario of the planned ion exchange system. Purposes of the testing include confirmation of the design, evaluation of methods for process optimization and developing methods for waste volume minimization. This report documents the performance of the technetium removal resin.

  19. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen Magnox plants, fourteen AGRs and one PWR were in operation in 2002 with a total capacity of 12 GW(e). Around 22% of the UK's electricity was generated by nuclear power. A complete fuel cycle is provided by BNFL, both for the home market and for export. No mining or milling of uranium ore takes place in the UK. Westinghouse operates a conversion facility at its Springfields plant near Preston, where uranium ore concentrate is converted to UF6 for customers. The uranium ore concentrate to UF6 conversion line has a capacity of 6000 t U/a. A conversion line for uranium ore concentrate to UF4, an intermediate stage in Magnox fuel production, has a capacity of 10 000 t U/a. Urenco operates a commercial centrifugal enrichment plant at Capenhurst. This plant has a capacity of 2300 t SWU/a. Westinghouse Springfields fabricates a number of different types of fuel. Current production capacities are Magnox (1300 t U/a), AGR (260 t U/a). The UKAEA fabrication plant for material test reactor fuel is currently in operation at Dounreay to discharge historical contracts for the manufacture of fuel elements. Once these historical contracts have been discharged the fabrication plant will be shut down pending decommissioning. BNFL operates a small scale MOX fuel demonstration facility at Sellafield that has a capacity of 8 t HM/a. This facility will only be used for development purposes in the future. The commercial scale MOX plant commenced Pu commissioning at the end of 2001 and has a capacity of 120 t HM/a. Quantities of UO2 powder are exported to foreign fabricators. BNFL operates a Magnox fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, which has an operational capacity of 1500 t HM/a. The thermal oxide reprocessing plant is also operated at Sellafield and has an operational capacity of 1200 t HM/a BNFL operates spent fuel storage pools at Sellafield for both AGR and LWR fuels. The pools have a total capacity of 8000 t HM. A spent fuel dry storage facility (capacity 700 t HM) is in

  20. Radioactive waste management. UK policy examined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom. Topics considered at the conference included the UK Radioactive Waste Inventory, radioactive waste management and disposal strategies in the European Community, radioactive waste disposal in the Federal Republic of Germany, environmental options for waste disposal and storage, marine disposal, public opinion, the reduction of BNFL discharges, planning aspects, the ALARA principle, air pollution from fossil-fuel power plants, United Kingdom government policy with regard to radioactive wastes, and the role of the media in the public over the UK nuclear industry

  1. Annual report and accounts 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman's review summarizes the company achievements over the year 1986/7, especially having met all customer requirements by reaching every production target. This also gave improved financial results. Increased public support for nuclear power was also set as one of BNFL's targets. Each main area of operation is looked at: fuel supply, including fuel manufacture at Springfields, enrichment at Capenhurst and spent fuel management at Sellafield. The accounts show an operating profit of Pound 196 million on a turnover of Pound 792 million. (UK)

  2. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-05-17

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  3. The decommissioning of the Latina nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolla, G. [Eur Ing., Dir., Plant Activities Co-ordination, Sogin (Italy); Macci, E. [Eur Ing., Decommissioning Planning Manager, Sogin (Italy); Craik, J.F.D. [C. Eng., Decommissioning Manager, Bradwell and Hinkley A, BNFL (United Kingdom); Walkden, P. [C Eng., Development Manger, BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Over the past year, a revised decommissioning programme, drawing upon the combined experience of the two companies, has been developed for the Latina NPP. This has been achieved despite a very demanding time-scale. Theoretical and practical experiences from both Sogin and BNFL's operations in North America and Europe have been used to quantify liabilities and progress the planning process to the point where Sogin have been able to define their funding requirements for Latina with their stakeholders. The project has demonstrated, based on real experience and data, that the Latina NPP can be decommissioned economically for a known cost within the timescale set by the Italian Government. (author)

  4. Dissolver repair in Sellafield Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sellafield plant, England operated by BNFL, has for many years provided a Magnox fuel-reprocessing capability. Two dissolver vessels were originally built. The first (or South) dissolver vessel operated from 1964 to 1978, when it was taken out of service owing to corrosion penetration and general wear. The second (North) dissolver was then brought into service and has operated continuously since that time. Subsequent post-operation inspection of the South dissolver has identified areas in the North vessel which could prove life-limiting. Additional inspections have therefore been required together with a strategy for emergency repair, should this become necessary. (Author)

  5. The commercial application of near real time materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near Real Time Materials Accountancy (NRTMA) is the leading edge technical solution employed by BNFL for in-process verification and timely detection of anomalies. It facilitates Safeguards inspection without intrusion and safeguards interim assurance without a monthly plant shut down. NRTMA is operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp), and is an intrinsic element in the safeguards and nuclear materials control and accountancy arrangements for the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). The Company is committed to utilize the extensive range of design, analytical and diagnostic tools which have been developed as a modular materials control toolkit provided by the NRTMA System. (author)

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  7. Measurement and analysis of MOX physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of physical properties measurements has been carried out on MOX fuel manufactured using the Short Binderless Route (SBR) by BNFL and on MOX fuel manufactured using the MIMAS process by Belgonucleaire. The programme includes the following work: Determination of the meeting point of MOX fuel; the measurement of the thermal expansion of MOX fuel; determination of the thermal diffusivity of MOX fuel. This paper will describe the programme of measurements and summarize the results obtained as well as analyzing the results in comparison with previous published work, where applicable. (author). 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  8. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  9. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  10. CONFIRM: Collaboration on Nitride Fuel Irradiation and Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium free nitride fuels are investigated as a potential fuel applied to waste transmutation in accelerator driven systems. In the European 5. FP CONFIRM project, four (Pu,Zr)N helium bonded fuel pins will be fabricated at PSI and then irradiated to high burnup at Studsvik in 2003/2004. (Am,Zr)N pellets will be manufactured and characterised at ITU. In addition, nitride safety analysis and fuel modelling is performed at KTH, AEA-T, CEA and BNFL. In the present contribution, the work program of CONFIRM is reviewed. Some initial results from activities on safety analysis and fuel modelling are also presented. (author)

  11. Modifications to River Protection Project (RPP) Level -0 Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic

  12. For sale: 7 AGR stations and a brand new PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britain's seven AGR stations and the Sizewell B PWR will pass to private ownership under the UK government's plan to privatise the two nuclear generators, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear, sometime next year. Under the new set-up, the two generators will become operating subsidiaries of a holding company which will be headquartered in Scotland. The companies' ageing Magnox gas-cooled reactors will remain in a separate public sector company before being transferred to British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) at the time of privatisation. (author)

  13. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  14. Experimental modelling of thermal hydraulic characteristics of a convection cooled dry store for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is constructing solid intermediate level waste encapsulation plants and product stores for operation commencing in 1990. Some of the encapsulated waste will be stored in a dry stone which will be force cooled by air. The thermal hydraulics of the store have been experimentally studied by using small scale water-filled models. The experiments have shown that for the operating range of parameters, natural convection will be an important mechanism for removing heat from the waste product. Detailed numerical analysis (still to be validated) indicates that natural convection will have a beneficial effect on the distribution of coolant within the store. (author)

  15. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  16. The JASON reactor: from core removal to fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeley, P.; Williams, A.; Lockwood, R. [Defence College of Electromechanical Engineering, Nuclear Dept., HMS SULTAN (United Kingdom); Raymond, B.; Spyrou, N. [Surrey Univ., Dept. of Physical and Electronic Sciences (United Kingdom); Auziere, P. [AREVA NC, Treatment Business Unit, 78 - Velizy (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 10 kW JASON Argonaut reactor was operated at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, London, between 1962 and 1996. After initial cooling in the core, the MTR type fuel (80% enriched U{sup 235}) was dry stored on site before transport in 1998 to BNFL, Sellafield for interim wet storage. Arrangements for reprocessing of the fuel at AREVA NC, La Hague are now in progress and this paper will describe various aspects of the storage, transfer, monitoring, and the treatment at La Hague plant. The radioactive waste resulting from the processing of these used fuels will be conditioned into a suitable package for return to UK.

  17. Enigma fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enigma fuel performance code has been developed jointly by BNFL and the CEGB's Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. Its development arose from the need for a code capable of analysing all aspects of light water reactor (LWR) fuel behaviour which would also provide a suitable framework for future submodel development. The submodels incorporated into Enigma reflect the significant progress which has been made in recent years in modelling the important physical processes which determine fuel behaviour. The Enigma code has been subjected to an extensive programme of validation which has demonstrated its suitability for LWR performance analysis. (author)

  18. Advances in reprocessing technology to minimise nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsible and effective management of nuclear wastes generated throughout the nuclear fuel cycle is the key element underpinning the current and future credibility of the industry. This paper presents an overview of the development of existing Purex reprocessing technology in the context of minimising waste streams arising from spent fuel reprocessing. These developments are presented in relation to BNFL's Thorp facility, designed for the reprocessing of oxide fuels. The paper proceeds to discuss potential opportunities for further waste reductions offered by radical reprocessing technologies, such as molten salts conditioning. (author)

  19. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas BWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  20. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The site ion exchange effluent plant will remove Cs and Sr from active liquid effluents using Mud Hills clinoptilolite. Approximately 40 to 50 m3 of spent ion exchanger will be generated each year together with 7.5 m3 of filter sand. Headings are: introduction; characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  1. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies, which consist of fuel pins held inside a graphite sleeve by means of stainless steel support grids and braces. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  2. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste occurs as the product of the process to remove carbon-14 from the THORP dissolver off-gas using a caustic scrubber. The carbon dioxide released during fuel dissolution is ultimately fixed as barium carbonate. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  3. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas PWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  4. NTL 11 spent fuel flask - meeting the challenge of regulatory and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, the NTL11 flask type will have been responsible for transporting a total of 1500 tonnes of heavy metal in the form of spent fuel. Excluding domestic transports in France and the UK, this represents 25% of the total European spent fuel transported for reprocessing since the flasks came into service in 1977. Approximately 40% of the total for the flask type will have been transported to BNFL's Sellafield facility, the remainder to Cogema at La Hague. The NTL11 flask can justifiably be described as being the workhorse of BNFL's European spent fuel transport business. The NTL11 flask started life under the ownership of Nuclear Transport Limited, an associate company of BNFL, and in recent years the original fleet of five flasks has been absorbed into the BNFL inventory. A recent build programme has seen a further four flasks added to the fleet, an expedient measure to cope with the additional transport requirements imposed by the need to meet the June 2005 deadline for the removal of contracted fuels from Germany. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting the package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet regulatory changes, or the challenges posed by the regulators. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible those margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. The NTL11 flask was designed around the reactor and fuel characteristics prevailing in the 1970's. Over the lifetime of the flask the responsible engineering teams have faced and met the successive challenges to develop the capability of the Package to face the changing requirements of the industry and the Transport Regulations. Both

  5. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  6. Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 as received materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 30406/29274 Task 5.0. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the as received materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent process testing and to provide data to support permit application activities. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities, and whenever possible, analyses were performed to SW-846 equivalent methods and protocols

  7. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ''Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids

  8. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  9. Sellafield stories life in Britain's first nuclear plant

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Sellafield Stories is the largest Oral History Project conducted in the UK. It was started by Jenni Lister, of Cumbria Record Office & Local Studies Library, and was funded by the BNFL. Through the personal life stories of 30 people who lived, worked and built the complex SELLAFIELDS STORIES tells the true story of the Sellafields Nuclear Plant that has been at the heart of the Nation's story for the last 60 years. First set up in the aftermath of World War II to develop Britain's nuclear weapons, it was not until 1957 that it was given over to nuclear power, kick starting a revolution

  10. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has recently applied to Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the regulatory authorities in the United Kingdom for a revision of its authority to discharge liquid wastes from its Sellafield fuel reprocessing site. BNFL requires this new authorisation to enable it to start operation of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). This report analyses the radiation exposure received by members of the public from radioactive waste discharges from Sellafield. HMIP and MAFF have claimed that the proposed discharges will mean lower doses for the local critical group of fish and shellfish consumers, Friends of the Earth (FoE) present data to show the doses will increase. The evidence from monitoring data and a realistic estimate of consumption of local seafood shows an annual average dose which could exceed the ICRP's 1mSv annual dose limit. FoE's view is that the risk to the public and the environment is unacceptably high and further discharges from Sellafield should not be authorised. (UK)

  11. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  12. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  13. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  14. Constructing 3D CAD models of complex structured environments using a scanning laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the plant operated by British Nuclear Fuels Plc. (BNFL) dictates that most of the maintenance and decommissioning has to be performed robotically. In order to perform tasks robotically in an efficient and safe manner an accurate three dimensional volumetric model of the operating environment is required. There are several measurement systems available, employing different techniques, discussed later, that could be employed to map an environment. Following a review of these options, BNFL Engineers concluded that these would be unsuitable for the envisaged operations. Consequently, British Nuclear Fuels initiated a joint project with UK Robotics, formerly Advanced Robotic Research Ltd (ARRL), to investigate the technology and techniques that would be required to construct 3D CAD models of plant environments. The project delivered a prototype modelling system known as AEMS, Advanced Engineering Modelling System. This is being further refined by UK Robotics into a product called Architect to be launched in 1996. This paper describes the techniques and technologies developed during the project and experience gained using the system on plant at Sellafield. (UK)

  15. Constructing 3D CAD models of complex structured environments using a scanning laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the plant operated by British Nuclear Fuel Plc. (BNFL) dictates that most of the maintenance and decommissioning has to be performed robotically. In order to perform tasks robotically in an efficient and safe manner an accurate three dimensional volumetric model of the operating environment is required. There are several measurement systems available, employing different techniques, discussed later, that could be employed to map an environment. Following a review of these options, BNFL Engineers concluded that these would be unsuitable for the envisaged operations. Consequently, British Nuclear Fuels initiated a joint project with UK Robotics, formerly Advanced Robotic Research Ltd (ARRL), to investigate the technology and techniques that would be required to construct 3D CAD models of plant environments. The project delivered a prototype modelling system known as AEMS, Advanced Engineering Modelling System. This is being further refined by UK Robotics into a product called Architect to be launched in 1996. This paper describes the techniques and technologies developed during the project and experience gained using the system on plant at Sellafield. (UK)

  16. The development and enhancement of safety culture within an evolving organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of the knowledge gained from reviewing safety culture and conducting attitude surveys. The review of past safety performance and measures taken to improve is also discussed. The findings from the safety attitude survey conducted on the Sellafield Site in 1991 , provided BNFL management with information to confirm that the changes to the way safety was being managed were broadly correct, and that the commitment of BNFL to total quality management was the correct strategy for improvement of safety. It also provided the opportunity for management to think about safety as part of the management process, rather than as a separate specialist subject or part of nuclear design engineering. Local Safety Culture Review were conducted, paying attention to the area's sub-culture, how it interacts within the site, identifies its cultural strengths and weaknesses, whilst at the same time involving the management and workforce, aiding them to recognize their own organisation. Recommendations were then be written which the plant/department managers agreed with, owned and were fully committed to implementing. The difficulty of changing attitudes and culture should not be underestimated. The paper concludes that the direct involvement of the workforce and management, with full control over the development and performance of actions required to improve safety culture is vital to the success of the change process. It is important to fit the solutions to the culture under development to gain improvement, and only by demonstrating benefit to the workforce an the changes/enhancements be maintained. (author)

  17. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  18. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  19. International performance indicators and the UK Nuclear Electricity Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the 1990's the UK electricity supply industry has undergone major changes moving from a wholly owned public utility to that of a multi company based activity, resulting in a fiercely competitive marketplace. In such a competitive market, where commercial pressures influence day to day decision making, it has been suggested that safety considerations could, in such an environment, be compromised. Safety is, and always has been, the number one priority and commercial considerations always come second in this respect. In the UK there are currently two companies generating electricity commercially by nuclear means, British Energy and BNFL Magnox Generation. The two companies cooperate and liaise with each other in a number of areas, one such area is in the field of performance indicators. Whilst this paper primarily presents a British Energy perspective, much of the content also applies to BNFL Magnox Generation and the principles described are essentially the same for both companies. The paper describes how internationally comparable performance indicators form part of the UK nuclear electricity generators' performance enhancing measures to monitor and improve safety performance within the context of an increasingly competitive market. The paper focuses primarily on five clearly comparable WANO Performance Indicators and shows how these indicators spearhead a suite of indicators that are used collectively in the companies' drive to improve their respective safety performance and as a consequence operational performance against the world's best performing reactors. (author)

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  1. A sorption study of 85Sr, 137Cs and 227Th onto glacial sand as part of an interlaboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of radionuclide batch sorption tests have been carried out on core material from boreholes on the BNFL Drigg site, Cumbria, as part of an intercomparison exercise with BNFL, Sellafield. This report describes the nature of the materials used, the method and the results of the BGS side of the interlaboratory exercise. Another report will describe the intercomparison. These experiments formed part of a wider programme of laboratory tests by BGS to ascertain the sorption properties of the Drigg sands and silts as an information base for designing artificial in-situ radionuclide migration experiments on site at Drigg. Three radionuclides were used, 85Sr, 137Cs, and 227Th. Interestingly, although sorption of strontium was about 15 times less than for thorium, the pattern of sorption as a function of borehole depth i.e. mineralogical composition, was very similar. Sorption of 137Cs was found to be non-linear, depending strongly on caesium concentration in the groundwater. Isotherm fits were used to determine the energy of sorption in the ion exchange process, the mechanism responsible for uptake. There is a need for a standard batch sorption method to be in common use. (author)

  2. Reconstructing the history of 14C discharges from Sellafield: Part 1--atmospheric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C specific activities, above ambient background levels, were determined in individual tree-rings (corresponding to the years 1950-1999) sectioned from an oak tree that was felled in autumn 1999, from a location 1.5 km east of the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria, north-west England. The data were used to produce a new, improved, reconstruction of Sellafield's annual atmospheric 14C discharges between 1951 and 1999, using the most reliable discharge data set (1994-1999) as the primary basis for the determination of a new calibration factor that relates excess 14C activity in individual tree rings to the annual discharge during the corresponding year. The results indicate that the current British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) estimate of total 14C discharges to the atmosphere prior to 1978 is significantly overestimated, while the current estimate of total 14C discharges after 1978 is very similar to that determined in this study. In this study, the total activity of 14C discharged to the atmosphere from Sellafield between 1951 and 1999 is estimated to be 259±63 TBq (at 2 std. dev.). The BNFL current estimate is 360 TBq

  3. Nested Fixed-Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks

  4. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  5. Control and tracking arrangements for solid low-level waste disposals to the UK Drigg disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg disposal site has been the principal disposal site for solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in the United Kingdom since 1959. It is situated on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometers to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives LLW from a wide range of sources including nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle activities, defense activities, isotope manufacture, universities, hospitals, general industry and clean-up of contaminated sites. This LLW has been disposed of in a series of trenches cut into the underlying clay layer of the site, and, since 1988, also into concrete lined vault. The total volume of LLW disposed of at Drigg is at present in the order of 800,000m3, with disposals currently approximately 25,000m3 per year. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site. To meet operational and regulatory requirements, BNFL needs to ensure the acceptability of the disposed waste and be able to track it from its arising point to its specific disposal location. This paper describes the system that has been developed to meet these requirements

  6. Remediating Sellafield - A New Focus for the Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, N. D.

    2003-02-24

    The structure of the ownership and management of nuclear liabilities on civil sites in the United Kingdom is undergoing fundamental change. The UK Government will take responsibility for the liabilities on the UKAEA, BNFL Sellafield and Capenhurst sites and the Magnox Generation sites. When fully implemented the accountability for long term strategy will rest with the new Government Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), and contracts will be placed on M&O contractors to manage the site and implement the liabilities discharge plans. At Sellafield whilst the commercial reprocessing and MOX contracts continue, it is clear that the overall focus of the site has changed to remediation. Until the NDA is established the task of undertaking the planning is the responsibility of BNFL. To address this task the Site Remediation Team has been established. The production of the Sellafield Lifecycle Baseline Plan requires the existing long term decommissioning and waste management plans (primarily produced for provisioning purposes) together with several other specific strategies to be combined and developed into a coordinated and optimized plan for the remediation of the Sellafield Site, recognizing the ongoing reprocessing, MOX manufacture and long term fuel storage activities. An important principle within the plan is to achieve early hazard reduction whilst demonstrating value for money. The paper will address the scale of the remediation challenge and the process being followed to develop the necessary strategy. The paper will appeal to those involved in managing remediation of large, complex and interdependent nuclear sites.

  7. Remote sensing of intertidal sediment bound radionuclide storage, remobilization and deposition: Case study in the Ribble Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intertidal environments of the Irish Sea are spatially complex and dynamic systems. The ability to understand and monitor these environments is fundamental to a variety of industrial, regulatory and government bodies. Intertidal estuarine environments often represent sinks and sources for industrial discharges. The ability to map the fate of these discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring and is critical in understanding their redistribution. This study focuses on the Ribble estuary, Lancashire, UK, which is accumulating elevated radionuclide concentrations discharged under license from BNFL Sellafield and Springfields. This paper presents the results from a series of investigations which demonstrate: i) that conventional airborne remote sensing using the Airborne Thematic Mapper (flown by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council) combined with sophisticated image analysis and ground truthing could be used to quantitatively map intertidal specific activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from BNFL Sellafield (r2>0.8); and ii) that time series imagery flown over tidal sequences can be used to identify sources of radionuclide bearing sediments, characterise the hydrodynamic features of the estuary and quantify fluxes of sediment and radionuclides over tidal cycles. (author)

  8. Corrosion prevention and control at Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) has established at Sellafield fuel management strategies and a pond water chemistry which ensures minimal corrosion of stored irradiated fuels. An extensive R and D programme evaluated materials for the Thermal oxide reprocessing plant (Thorp). Drawing on 35 years experience with Magnox reprocessing, the stainless steels selected for Thorp were nitric acid grade 18-10L and 304L with 310L used to construct fuel dissolvers. Thorp makes extension use of zirconium where minimal corrosion is required, e.g. heat transfer surfaces and demisting column packing. To augment the materials selection procedures, BNFL has instituted a policy of remote inspection and on line corrosion monitoring for its reprocessing plants. Facilities for remote repair are also being developed. Decommissioning of plant may involve corroded and degraded structures. Methods have been developed for the non-destructive examination of concrete and rebars to aid decommissioning scheduling. High level and intermediate level radioactive waste, arising from the reprocessing operations, will be stored at Sellafield until a final disposal policy is formulated. Corrosion resistant container materials have been selected for all major waste streams. A concurrent R and D programme is aimed at understanding the corrosion mechanisms pertinent to reprocessing plants and seeking improved methods and materials. (author)

  9. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  10. The development of an ergonomics standard for the design of operator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)

  11. Realising the organisational learning opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of proactive safety management is learning lessons from unforeseen events. As BNFL has expanded and extended its nuclear services to many more sites, the potential for organisational learning has grown, but sharing through informal networking has become progressively harder. This potential problem has been solved by implementing formalised company-wide arrangements to turn incidents and accidents into organisational learning opportunities through a system called 'Learning from Experience' (LFE). LFE enables event causes and corrective actions to be identified and shared across all BNFL's sites, initially in the UK but ultimately throughout the world. The result is prevention of events having similar causes, and development of a learning culture which breaks down the barriers to adopting best practice'. Key aspects of the system are: Applying root cause analysis to all significant events; Logging all events, their causes and corrective actions onto a Company-wide database; Screening the database regularly by locally appointed Feedback Co-ordinators trained in identifying learning opportunities and knowledgeable of their own business area, and; Placing and tracking actions to prevent similar events at local Event Review Meetings. The paper describes the implementation and initial experience in operation of the LFE system, which is seen as a significant step towards becoming an expanding and learning company with no accidents or incidents. (author)

  12. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 2: Solid waste retrieval facilities -- Phase 1, detail design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 2 provides the complete set of the Detail Design drawings along with a listing of the drawings. Once approved by WHC, these drawings will be issued and baselined for the Title 3 construction effort.

  13. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  14. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1979 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1979. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. To facilitate an appreciation of the standard of safety achieved, the discharges are, where appropriate, shown as a percentage of those authorised. In the case of atmospheric discharges no quantitative limits are yet specified in the authorisations, but the results and estimates of discharges from stacks are compared with Derived Working Limits (DWL's) (i.e. a limit derived from the dose limits recommended by The International Commission on Radiological Protection in such a way that compliance with it implies virtual certainty of compliance with the relevant dose limits). Environmental monitoring results are also compared with appropriate DWL's. The principles underlying the control of the discharge of radioactive waste to the environment are summarised in an Appendix to the report. (author)

  15. Preservation and re-use of nuclear knowledge in the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services group within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has been developing a programme of work since 2001 aimed at preserving knowledge for current and future use within the UK nuclear industry. The initial focus was on the key technologies for which knowledge needed to be preserved for current use and in order to keep the nuclear option open. The programme has been extended to incorporate operational knowledge of nuclear plants. The main company knowledge base - Corporate Memory - is utilized to capture explicit knowledge and underpins the knowledge preservation process. Corporate Memory is a knowledge base containing 240,000 scientific and technical reports written over the last 60 years. These reports, written mainly by BNFL staff, cover company plants and projects. The knowledge base is being developed to encompass the UK nuclear industry, and includes reports from organisations such as UKAEA and AEAT that have worked in partnership with BNFL. Corporate Memory also preserves material published by BNFL in the public domain, typically conference papers and journal articles, which often present state-of-the-art descriptions of plants, processes and technologies. The knowledge preservation process commences with the strategic identification of key specialists within each technology or nuclear plant. This is followed by an interview with the nominated individuals, who typically have 20-30 years experience within the UK nuclear industry. Each individual is asked during the course of a 1 hour interview to identify, from within their written output, those documents which contain knowledge regarded as being key for the future of the industry. By adding their specialist knowledge to the key documents, a permanent marker is inserted within database entries, which will assist future generations to identify important work undertaken by their predecessors. Specialist knowledge sets the context within which the work was carried

  16. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO2 and PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO2 rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % 235U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO2 and PuO2-UO2 rods containing 4.31 wt % 235U and 2 wt % PuO2 in natural UO2 respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in 235U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel

  17. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  18. Recycled uranium: An advanced fuel for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of recycled uranium (RU) fuel offers significant benefits to CANDU reactor operators particularly if used in conjunction with advanced fuel bundle designs that have enhanced performance characteristics. Furthermore, these benefits can be realised using existing fuel production technologies and practices and with almost negligible change to fuel receipt and handling procedures at the reactor. The paper will demonstrate that the supply of RU as a ceramic-grade UO2 powder will increasingly become available as a secure option to virgin natural uranium and slightly enriched uranium(SEU). In the context of RU use in Canadian CANDU reactors, existing national and international transport regulations and arrangements adequately allow all material movements between the reprocessor, RU powder supplier, Canadian CANDU fuel manufacturer and Canadian CANDU reactor operator. Studies have been undertaken of the impact on personnel dose during fuel manufacturing operations from the increased specific activity of the RU compared to natural uranium. These studies have shown that this impact can be readily minimised without significant cost penalty to the acceptable levels recognised in modem standards for fuel manufacturing operations. The successful and extensive use of RU, arising from spent Magnox fuel, in British Energy's Advanced Gas-Cooled reactors is cited as relevant practical commercial scale experience. The CANFLEX fuel bundle design has been developed by AECL (Canada) and KAERI (Korea) to facilitate the achievement of higher bum-ups and greater fuel performance margins necessary if the full economic potential of advanced CANDU fuel cycles are to be achieved. The manufacture of a CANFLEX fuel bundle containing RU pellets derived from irradiated PWR fuel reprocessed in the THORP plant of BNFL is described. This provided a very practical verification of dose modelling calculations and also demonstrated that the increase of external activity is unlikely to require any

  19. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise

  20. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  1. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  2. A model for the bioaccumulation of 99Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of 99Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for 99Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged 99Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of 99Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of 99Tc in lobsters

  3. The training of criticality safety assessors at British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, graduate new entrants joining BNFL Sellafield join a Management Trainee Training/Appraisal Scheme. The purpose of this scheme is that within the context of a real job, the Trainee should undergo structured training and be given the opportunity to develop both personally and professionally. As part of this scheme each Trainee has a Structured Experience Programme which is devised to fulfil the requirements of the individual, the Department, the Site and the Professional Body to which the Trainee aspires. This paper outlines the Management Trainee Training/Appraisal system and also the Structured Experience Programme which is used to train Criticality Safety Assessors in the Nuclear Safety Assessment Section at Sellafield. To date, over 80 assessors have benefited from this programme including 24 assessors from other companies. (author)

  4. Dodewaard fuel supply agreement - a model for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Agreement between the Utility GKN and the Fuel Supplier BNFL has eliminated any Utility imposed penalty clauses for fuel failure due to operational conditions and, consequently, there are no restrictions imposed by the Fuel Supplier on the reactor operational manoeuvres. The result is that the Utility can now decide if the risk of fuel clad failure during a reactor power ramp outweighs the financial loss due to slower ramp rates. It is the Utility and not the Fuel Supplier who is in the best position to make this judgment provided adequate operational experience and computer codes are available to quantify the risk. The paper discusses the reactor operational experience, including the fuel failure rate and the confirmation of PCI failure by post irradiation examination. It establishes the practicality of the Agreement for the Dodewaard reactor and suggests such arrangements could be beneficial to other Utilities. (author)

  5. KWL annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application for decommissioning comprises the shutdown of the plant, methods for safe shielding of the nuclear section, and a modification in the utilization of the conventional plant sections. The planning documents are worked out by the Nuklear-Ingenieur-Service GmbH, Hanau. The activities for the Euratom research programmes have been completed by KWL. The final report on the determination of the activation of the biological shield is available. The processing of the enriched uranium originating from unirradiated FE as well as the conversion to UF6 has been terminated. All spent fuel elements have been transported to BNFL. The joint works management of KWL and the VEW-power plant Emsland has been rearranged. (DG)

  6. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  7. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  8. WWER fuel performance update and recent modelling efforts in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent operational statistics for Loviisa WWER power plants are given. Loviisa 2 runs on JSC TVEL and Loviisa 1 on BNFL/Westinghouse fuel. No leaking fuel rods are reported in 2000-2004. The pool side examination campaigns on fuel from two lead test assemblies provided by JSC TVEL and BHFL/Westinghouse are qualitatively discussed. Fortum would like to seek an increased discharge burnup limit in the future. Further hot-cell examinations on TVEL fuel have been performed in Studsvik. Arrangement of national Finnish reactor safety research programmes is discussed. Three examples of fuel model development that are part of such a programme at VTT are mentioned: application of the thermal hydraulic-fuel performance model combination FRAPTRAN-GENFLO, fission gas release model development in ENIGMA, and mechanical model development in the USNRC codes FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN. For general information, a concise status of the construction of the fifth reactor in Finland is given

  9. Taking it all back home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing contracts stipulate that Cogema's and BNFL's foreign customers will take back their vitrified residues to ensure subsequent storage themselves. National policies have been defined by those customers for the interim storage on return. Belgium and Japan have chosen to store them in glass canisters in air-cooled pits - at Mol and at Rokkasho-mura, respectively (similar to their current stores at the reprocessing plants) -while Germany and Switzerland have opted to use storage flasks. Aware of the need for vitrified residue return, almost 10 years ago Transnucleaire began developing a new model of flask to suit the various needs of the utilities concerned. Named TN 28 V in view of its basic payload of 28 vitrified waste canisters, this flask is currently being manufactured in two versions: one for the routine transport of glass-containing canisters and another for their transport followed by a long period of interim storage. (author)

  10. Reactor decommissioning in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to summarise BNFL's experience with regard to recent developments in reactor decommissioning and demonstrate how commercial projects in crucial areas of strategy development, project implementation and site restoration are beginning to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with this important aspect of the nuclear power generation industry. Although the reactor decommissioning market cannot yet be regarded as mature, the key elements of strategy development, waste treatment, dismantling and delicensing have been separately demonstrated as achievable. Together with the implementation of the right organisation, and the developing technology, the risks are being reduced. As more decommissioning projects are delivered, the risks will be reduced further and the confidence of the regulator in the process will improve. This paper sets out to demonstrate this viewpoint. (author)

  11. Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository

  12. Team offers to privatize mobile waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executives from four companies with mobile nuclear waste measurement systems announced today that they intend to form Mobile Characterization Services, Inc. (MCS) to provide privatized services to the Department of Energy (DOE). BNFL's Pajarita Scientific Corporation (PSC), Canberra Industries, Inc., NFT, Inc. and V.J. Technologies told DOE officials that they would provide mobile certification services on a unit cost basis for transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Characterization is required to certify that the shipped wastes are acceptable for final disposal in WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. State-of-the-art, waste measurement capability would be provided to ensure an efficient schedule of waste shipments from DOE sites to WIPP

  13. Experimental studies on the dynamics of radionuclide transport in soils and plants: an investigation of the effects of soil type and chemical form. Appendix A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main report (ANS 364) describes a greenhouse study on the distribution of added radioisotopes within pots containing soils and plants. The soils were sampled from two UK nuclear energy sites: (a) close to the CEGB installation at Sizewell, Suffolk; and (b) inside the perimeter of the BNFL establishment at Sellafield, Cumbria. Information on these soils is given in Appendices A and B. The time dependent behaviour of the radioisotopes has been investigated using I-125 and I-131 and by means of four harvests after administration of the radioisotopes. Relevant data are contained in Appendix C. Data for the watering of the pots, and temperature and humidity of the greenhouses, are given in Appendix D. (U.K.)

  14. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  15. Applications of virtual reality in Magnox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current state of use of VR-based simulation tools to assist the design, development and implementation of a range of complex projects within BNFL Magnox Generation. VR systems are used throughout the life cycle of a project. As a conceptual design tool, parametric techniques have been used to optimize limb lengths of a manipulator used for detailed in-reactor inspection. Extensive path planning is carried out off-line, allowing the rehearsal phase to concentrate on difficult issues such as interactions with the work site. During the rehearsal and site implementation phases, the use of a real-time display of a manipulator working in a simulated reactor environment supplements the views from surveillance cameras. Finally, use of output from the VR system can support the quality assurance and documentation aspects of a task by providing further evidence that the correct components have been inspected/repaired. (author)

  16. Oxide fuel fabrication facility - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, British Nuclear Fuels, Fuel Division, made a significant strategic decision to replace old plant in the oxide fuels manufacturing area. The decision was made against the fundamental objective of a Fuel Division determined to remain in the nuclear fabrication business with a facility to ensure secure supply to its customers, and build on its 40+ years fuel fabrication experience to become a major player in the international arena of nuclear fuel fabrication. The New Oxide Fuel Complex is a facility that considers the 90s issues of technology, environment, general public acceptance worker protection and commercial viability and provides BNFL, and its workforce, with a show-piece plant to take them with confidence into the 21st century. (author)

  17. The leakage of radioactive liquor into the ground, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Windscale, 15 March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 15 March 1979 radioactive liquor of recent origin was confirmed to be present in the ground adjacent to the Buffer Storage Plant Building B212 at the Windscale and Calder Works in Cumbria of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. BNFL's initial investigations to identify the source of this leakage were closely followed by an investigation carried out by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate into how control of the radioactive liquor came to be lost and whether there had been any breaches of licence conditions or of the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. This report presents the findings of these investigations and concludes by outlining the actions taken and the requirements placed on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (author)

  18. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three incidents were reported in April-June 1993. The first was on the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) site at Sellafield and concerned leakage of 0.5 TBq of alpha activity from plutonium contaminated waste stored in a steel drum. This was subsequently double contained and moved so it could be inspected regularly. No contamination of personnel occurred. The second concerned the leakage of thorium liquor from a pipe at the UKAEA's Thorium reprocessing plant at Dounreay. Two temporary repairs were made and no personnel were contaminated. The third was at the Sellafield site where a small quantity (5 mls) of plutonium containing liquor had leaked from a package and released alpha activity. The bags were temporary containment of engineering debris which may have had sharp edges. The bags had been piled up and one of the bags had torn. Recommendations were made following inquiries into each of the incidents to improve procedures and prevent similar incidents occurring. (UK)

  19. The application of research and technology in the Highly Active Liquor storage and treatment facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Sellafield nuclear site, Highly Active Liquor (HAL) produced from Magnox and Oxide reprocessing operations is evaporated and interim stored in the Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) complex prior to vitrification in one of three Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) processing lines. These plants are integral to the current commercial activities at Sellafield and also in safely discharging liabilities in the future. The management and operation of HALES and WVP are subject to significant regulatory and public scrutiny and there is the requirement to deliver a reduction in the HAL volumes stored in HALES in accordance with a regulator imposed HAL stock reduction specification. In delivering the required reduction BNFL has faced a number of technical and operational challenges which have resulted in the development and execution of significant programmes of research and development and technical and engineering projects. The key challenges faced are briefly presented. (author)

  20. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  1. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, S.P. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Preston (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  2. Expanding nuclear horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels' new thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield, in the North West of England, is a testimony to the company's intelligent use of computers and to the power of shared information in the design and construction of plant. BNFL Engineering (BE) has succeeded in creating an impressive marriage between off-the-shelf materials control and CAD systems and its own in-house information systems. Now the company is embarking on a pioneering marketing push of its own know-how gained by a team that has a unique range of skills - from design and construction of plant, through operation to final de-commissioning. This article looks particularly at computer systems and software. (author)

  3. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A. [BNFL, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Green, D. [ICI Chemical Polymers Ltd, Billingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  4. Integrating microbiology into the Drigg post-closure radiological safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL owns and operates the UK's principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial activity plays a significant role in the development of the repository environment. Consequently, microbial processes are integrated into many aspects of the Drigg Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA). This begins with the identification and screening of relevant features, events and processes, through supporting research, engineering designs and finally integration into radiological safety assessment modelling. This paper outlines how and where microbiology is integrated into the Drigg PCRSA and indicates areas of active research. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  5. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  6. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  7. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday, 29 April 1985, taken at the Council Offices, Whitehaven, Cumbria Cumbrians opposed to a radioactive environment (CORE); The six parish councils committee; Copeland Borough Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains a memorandum submitted by Cumbrians Opposed to a Radioactive Environment (CORE), under the headings: introduction; the Windscale Site (reactors and reprocessing plant); Windscale - wastes arising from reprocessing; low-level waste and Drigg; on the matter of Drigg; marine discharges; intermediate-level waste; high-level waste; foreign waste (spent fuel); Calder Hall (decommissioning waste). An addendum deals with problems associated with continued alpha discharges. The Committee called in and examined a witness from CORE, on matters relating to their memorandum. Memoranda submitted by the Six Parish Councils Committee and by Copeland Borough Council are also reproduced, together with minutes of evidence taken during the examination of witnesses from these bodies, covering the general area of the management of radioactive wastes from the BNFL Sellafield plant. (U.K.)

  8. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  9. Burnup effects of MOX fuel pincells in PWR - OECD/NEA burnup credit benchmark analysis -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burnup effects were analyzed for various cases of MOX fuel pincells of fresh and irradiated fuels by using the HELIOS, MCNP-4/B, CRX and CDP computer codes. The investigated parameters were burnup, cooling time and combinations of nuclides in the fuel region. The fuel compositions for each case were provided by BNFL (British Nuclear Fuel Limited) as a part of the problem specification so that the results could be focused on the calculation of the neutron multiplication factor. The results of the analysis show that the largest saving effect of the neutron multiplication factor due to burnup credit is 30 %. This is mainly due to the consideration of actinides and fission products in the criticality analysis

  10. The status of spent fuel management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. All the Magnox reactors previously belonging to Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited have been retained in a new publicly-owned company, Magnox Electric plc, which is currently planned to be merged with British Nu- clear Fuels (BNFL). The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by Nuclear Electric Limited (NE) and Scottish Nuclear Limited (SN) who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue. NE has recently signed a contract covering the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allows for both reprocessing and long term storage as required. Taken with SN's contracts signed in 1995 this means that all AGR spent fuel will now be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or storage. Spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site

  11. Windscale: a case history in the political art of muddling through

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter concentrates mainly upon those factors which preceded and eventually led to the Windscale Inquiry (into the BNFL proposal to construct a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel from reactors using oxide fuels). This will help to illustrate some of the many covert themes which permeated the Inquiry as an exercise in conflict-management, and hopefully should assist in the understanding of the limitations of this form of decision-making process. The chapter will conclude with a comment upon the role of the Inquiry in the wider political context of the British energy 'debate' and upon the likely implications of the Inquiry for future decision-making ventures on similar technological developments. (author)

  12. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  13. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear now for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the need for clean, safe, and reliable energy and highlights the current energy review being undertaken by the UK government. Concern is expressed at the increasing reliance being placed on imported gas and the risk to security of supply. BNFL believe that nuclear power provides safe, clean and secure electricity and should be a key component of future sustainable energy supply strategies. An overview of new designs, the AP1000 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor, are provided with an explanation of the potential benefits each can offer developed and developing countries. Reviews of progress made in the US and Finland on waste disposal are highlighted. Finally the paper discusses how the nuclear industry has developed from safe to sustainable over its fifty-year history. (author)

  15. The THORP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A question asked about the government's justification for proceeding with THORP reprocessing plant (Thermal Oxide reprocessing plant) at BNFL's Sellafield site, (British Nuclear Fuels plc) gave rise to a debate which lasted twelve minutes and which is reported verbatim. The arguments in favour of THORP were largely economic and for the employment THORP provided. Those against did not want Britain to become a dumping ground for nuclear waste. Most of the spent fuels for reprocessing is to come from overseas, much of it from Japan. However the waste products will be returned for permanent storage or disposal to the country of origin. Reprocessing to obtain plutonium for fast breeder reactors was also mentioned. (UK)

  16. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Pt. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project was to reconstruct a chronology of past 14C levels in atmospheric CO2 in the vicinity of the Sellafield reprocessing plant by measuring the 14C in individual tree rings from trees felled at a number of sites. The profile obtained from the results reflects the build up of the plant operations and related aerial emissions and a conversion of the tree ring records to past annual aerial discharges of 14C has been attempted. This is compared with values provided from recent estimates of aerial emissions. The effect of dispersion along a coastal transect to a distance of 30km from BNFL Sellafield has also been studied. Comparable, but attenuated profiles to the inland sites are observed although the major peaks are not precisely mirrored along the transect. This is attributed to greater year to year variation due to sea breezes. (author)

  17. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  18. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  19. The media treatment of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that newspapers, radio and television news work, is explained so that reporting of nuclear stories can be better understood. The media's attitude to what makes a story newsworthy is explained. This, coupled with a chronology of the rise of the anti-nuclear lobby, is used to explain why some stories have been given prominence. The secretive and evasive attitude of the nuclear industry coupled with poorly communicated information about leaks etc have contributed to a lack of trust and made the public more aware and concerned with nuclear matters. This has sometimes led to unbalanced reporting by the media. The coverage of the Chernobyl reactor accident is examined. Some general points about the openness of BNFL and the government's reporting of nuclear incidents are made. (UK)

  20. Namibia's nuclear nightmare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since July 1987 Liverpool dock workers refused to handle shipments of Namibian and South African uranium. They are hoping to extend the blockade to other ports in Britain. The recipients of the uranium hexafluoride, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have had to find other routes for their shipments of uranium. The main argument for not allowing access to Namibian uranium is to protect Namibia's natural resources, but it is also a stand against aparteid. URENCO, a uranium enrichment consortium with British participation is accused by the United Nations Council for Namibia of processing Namibian uranium at its Dutch plant. Writs have been served but it may be 1989 before the hearings take place. An effective blockade is called for throughout Britain. The routes by which movement of uranium from South Africa takes place is shown schematically. (UK)

  1. Atomic Energy Bill (second reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bill contains a number of unrelated proposals. The first would increase the financial limit imposed on British Nuclear Fuels plc by Acts of Parliament to Pound 2,000 million in line with current investment plans. The second would enable the Health and Safety Executive to recover the costs of nuclear safety research which it sponsors, from nuclear site licensees and applicants for licences. The next two proposals make minor technical amendments to the rules on insurance cover for meeting third party compensation claims in the event of nuclear incidents. Finally, the Bill would enable the United Kingdom to ratify the International Convention on Assistance in the case of nuclear accident or radiological emergency (mutual assistance convention). The Bill was debated for half an hour and is reported verbatim. In particular the financing of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at BNFL's Sellafield site was discussed. Questions on vitrification of radioactive wastes were raised. (U.K.)

  2. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  3. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth report is the result of the Committee's review of the dosimetric, epidemiological and other scientific data relating to the Sellafield Site and the village of Seascale, together with other relevant advances in scientific knowledge, that have become available since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. The review was undertaken in response to a request by Government, made to the Committee in September 1989 and recorded as a commitment in answer to a Parliamentary Question regarding COMARE's work programme which included: ''an update and review of cancer incidence in young people in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, in the light of emerging epidemiological work commissioned by Government in 1984 and other relevant work''. [Hansard 10 January 1990, Col 662]. In this report, we review all of the data which has become available since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report and we report our findings and conclusions to Government. (author)

  4. BET is active on Sellafield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several companies, all part of BET Plant Services are carrying out work at the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) site at Sellafield, Cumbria, on one of the largest construction projects in Europe. The main development scheme is the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) buildings. One of the BET companies has the contract to paint the inside of the fuel storage ponds. It will also coat the surfaces of the MASWEP (Medium Active Solid Waste Encapsulation Plant) complex. Other work includes insulation and fire prevention installation. Scaffolding at the EARP (Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant) site is being provided on a common user basis so all the contractors can use the scaffolding and share the cost. Temporary office and living accommodation blocks have been provide by another BET company. (author)

  5. Import/export of irradiated fuel and radioactive waste to and from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report considers the hazard, risks and consequences arising from the traffic of large consignments of radioactive materials into the United Kingdom by sea. The materials involved are irradiated fuel imported from Japan and continental Europe, plutonium nitrate from the UKAEA fast reactor facility at Dounreay, and the future export of vitrified high-level (HLW) and other radioactive wastes from the BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant. All of these materials, if accidentally released to the atmosphere near centres of population, could result in very significant health injury consequences. The quantities of irradiated fuel and future vitrified HLW are assessed. The hazard presented by the radioactive materials is identified and the risks of accident at sea or in berth are assessed. (author)

  6. Minimising the risk in nuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel reprocessing processes at the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield plant are described. A complex computer system has been developed to handle nuclear fuel from the time of entering the fuel handling plant from the reactor to storage and decanning of the uranium rods. This reduces human error in the safety systems. The software package (ASPIC -automated sequencing package for industrial control) is an interpretive language providing fast sequence control to the plant. It is designed to run on a PDP 11 series mini computer. For example, when the spent fuel arrives it is transfered from special transport flasks into containers. This takes place in the inlet cells, which are totally protected by 8 foot thick walls, using three sequence controllers which use computer logic units and termination and signal conditioning assemblies. Each stage of the process is similarly controlled by the computer. (U.K.)

  7. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Technetium from Savannah River Site Tank 44 F Supernate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Hanford River Protection Project waste Treatment facility design contracted to BNFL, Inc., a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 4 F waste solution was treated for the removal of technetium (as pertechnetate ion). Interest in treating the SRS sample for Tc removal resulted from the similarity between the Tank 44 F supernate composition and Hanford Envelope A supernate solutions. The Tank 44 F sample was available as a by-product of tests already conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as part of the Alternative Salt Disposition Program for treatment of SRS wastes. Testing of the SRS sample resulted in considerable cost-savings since it was not necessary to ship a sample of Hanford supernate to SRS

  8. Assessment of the behaviour of irradiated graphite fuel sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite sleeves from fuel elements irradiated in the CAGR's at Hinkley Pt B and Hunterston 'B' reactors have been examined by the CEGB at Winfrith and BNL and by AEA/BNFL at Windscale as part of the national CAGR post-irradiation examination programme. Many of the properties which are affected by fast neutron damage and/or coolant interactions are relevant to the sleeve's performance in reactor and are monitored routinely. The results from these measurements are reviewed and the overall conclusion is that the sleeves are behaving very much as predicted, providing confidence in the methodology applied to new designs of sleeves and for increasing the target irradiation of fuel to 24GWd/t. (author)

  9. Critical and sub-critical measurements with 3.0% enriched uranium oxide pins in a boron-steel walled CAGR skip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of BNFL, a series of sub-critical assemblies, related to the long-term storage of dismantled CAGR fuel clusters, was included in a programme of experiments with 3.0% enriched uranium oxide pins in a CAGR skip in the Dimple reactor. The Modified Source Multiplication technique (MSM) was used to obtain the negative reactivity of each sub-critical assembly relative to a small negative reactivity imposed on a critical configuration. Neutron sources were placed at or near the centre of the skip and count rates were measured with neutron detectors at a range of locations. Eigen-value and source-mode calculations were used to predict the corrections for each detector to allow for the departure from the point-model approximation

  10. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  11. Computer-based training at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL) operate the United Kingdom's spent-fuel receipt, storage, and reprocessing complex at Sellafield. Spent fuel from graphite-moderated CO2-cooled Magnox reactors has been reprocessed at Sellafield for 22 yr. Spent fuel from light water and advanced gas reactors is stored pending reprocessing in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant currently being constructed. The range of knowledge and skills needed for plant operation, construction, and commissioning represents a formidable training requirement. In addition, employees need to be acquainted with company practices and procedures. Computer-based training (CBT) is expected to play a significant role in this process. In this paper, current applications of CBT to the filed of nuclear criticality safety are described and plans for the immediate future are outlined

  12. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  13. Introducing autonomy to robotic manipulators in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Advanced Robotics Research Centre was set up in 1988 to provide a forum for the development and transfer to industry of the technology of Advanced Robotics. In the area of robot manipulators, research has been carried out into increasing the low-level autonomy of such devices e.g. reactive collision avoidance, gross base disturbance rejection. This groundwork has proven the feasibility of using advanced control concepts in robotic manipulators, and, indeed, indicated new areas of robot kinematic design which can now be successfully exploited. Within the newly defined BNFL Integrated Robotics Programme a number of joint projects have been defined to demonstrate this technology in realistic environments, including the use of advanced interactive computer simulation and kinematically redundant manipulators. (author)

  14. A description of the ENIGMA fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the main features and characteristics of the ENIGMA code developed by BNFL and CEGB is given. A general description as well as some specific sub-models are presented. One of the characteristics of this code is its fully-modular conception. Each submodel treats a well identified basic mechanism. This detailed, semi-empirical formulation of physical models contributes to reducing the number of tuning parameters. The advantage of such a modular construction is the easy replacement of a model if a less empirical one becomes available, or if shortcomings in current models are discovered. The code can be run on a PC equipped with a transputer. An extensive programme of code assessment is currently underway. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  15. Thermal performance modelling with the ENIGMA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ENIGMA fuel performance code has been used within BNFL to license UO2, gadolinia and MOX fuels. The validation of ENIGMA has been extensive with over 500 rod irradiations covering thermal performance, fission product release, dimensional changes and clad corrosion to burn-ups of over 80 MWd/kgHM. The high burn-up thermal performance of the code is illustrated using a selection of validation data covering UO2, gadolinia and MOX fuels. A brief description of the model changes made to address the thermal performance in these fuel types is presented with particular attention given to the modelling of the thermal conductivity degradation and 'rim effect' in high burn-up fuel. (author)

  16. Corrupt to the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries do not have the facilities necessary to process their nuclear waste. They have to export it to another country with suitable facilities. Some countries in Europe both export their own waste and import other peoples. This situation is described with details of facilities available and current practices of who sends what where. The problem of nuclear waste processing and disposal has led to corruption and widespread malpractice, in particular in West Germany and Belgium. Although not involved with these scandals Britain will receive large amounts of spent nuclear fuel once the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) is ready at BNFL's site at Sellafield. Britain will then have to deal with companies and countries whose record on the transportation of nuclear waste is bad. (U.K.)

  17. Romanian program for SEU/RU fuel manufacturing at nuclear site Pitesti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohai, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania-Pitesti (Romania); Andrei, G. [Nuclear Fuel Plant, Romania-Pitesti (Romania)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing burnup allows a utility to get the same kWh output with a reduced tonnage of fissile material. This provides a saving not only in the cost of fuel fabrication but also in the cost of disposal of the spent fuel. The cost of disposal of spent fuel is two to four times higher than that of fuel fabrication. Recovered Uranium (RU) Cycle is a way to improve Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) from LWR spent fuel processing. Uranium from LWR spent fuel reporcessing contains 0.9 - 1.2% U-235 (depending on the fuel history: reprocessing, burnup, reactor type) compared to 0.72% U-235 in natural Uranium. An international collaboration between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) was established to use RU.

  18. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

  19. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  20. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction: discharges of [liquid, solid] radioactive waste; methods of analysis and of presentation and interpretation of results; British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield, Cumbria (the fish and shellfish consumption pathway; external exposure; porphyra/ laverbread pathway; other surveys); Springfields, Lancashire; Capenhurst, Cheshire; Chapelcross, Dumfriesshire); United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset; Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establish-ment, Caithness); nuclear power stations operated by the electricity boards (Berkeley, Gloucestershire and Oldbury, Avon; Bradwell, Essex; Dungeness, Kent; Hartlepool, Cleveland; Heysham, Lancashire; Hinkley Point, Somerset; Hunterston, Ayrshire; Sizewell, Suffolk; Trawsfynydd, Gwynedd; Wylfa, Gwynedd; naval establishments; Amersham International plc; Channel Islands monitoring; summary and conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. Neutron activation analysis technique for the investigation of environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron activation technique is described which does not require specialized apparatus or immediate access to irradiation facilities, but is sufficiently sensitive to measure 129I at the levels encountered around the BNFL nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in west Cumbria, UK. The method allows analysis of a wide range of media and is therefore well suited to environmental investigations. One such application is described in which the deposition pattern of 129I in west Cumbria has been measured, and hence the importance of transfer from sea as a route of terrestrial contamination has been assessed. The current program of research is also described briefly. This involves measurement of 129I in a range of media important in the human food chain and aims to elucidate transfer mechanisms. 4 references, 2 figures

  2. UK-Russian collaboration high level waste immobilization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent social changes in Russia have opened up many opportunities for business collaboration. To build on this, in 1992 British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) concluded and signed an agreement with the Russian ministry MINATOM to collaborate on a wide range of topics relevant to the international nuclear industry. These covered the such subjects as developing national regulatory frameworks, sharing operational experiences and practices, and establishing collaborative R and D programmes. One outcome of the agreement with MINATOM has been the setting up of a number of collaborative R and D projects with the V.G. Kholpin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg. This paper presents the results from one of these joint programmes, and describes the mutual benefits that can be obtained from such collaborative work. (authors)

  3. A dynamic compartmental food chain model of radiocaesium transfer to Apodemus sylvaticus in woodland ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to quantify the activity concentrations of 137Cs in Apodemus sylvaticus (the woodmouse) in two woodland sites, Lady Wood and Longrigg Wood, adjacent to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. A deterministic dynamic compartmental food chain model was also constructed to predict 137Cs activity concentration [Bq kg-1 dry weight (dw)] in A. sylvaticus on a seasonal basis given the activity concentrations in its diet. Within the coniferous woodland site (Lady Wood), significant differences were found between seasons (Px/2.3 Bq kg-1 dw) being attributed to mycophagy. Fungal concentrations ranged from 2-3213 Bq kg-1 dw. The modelled activity concentrations fell between the confidence intervals of the observed data in four of the six seasonal cohorts sampled. Disparities between predicted and observed activity concentrations are attributed to uncertainties surrounding the fundamental feeding ecology of small mammals

  4. Leukaemia cluster in the Dueren district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whenever a sudden increase in the local leukaemia rate occurs, the underlying causes are frequently searched for in vain. In the absence of scientific research, speculation abounds. How clusters come about is a question difficult to answer, in the marshes of the river Elbe, where an allegedly unreported accident at the Kruemmel Nuclear Power Station was said to have been the cause, as in Sellafield, where a connection was said to exist with BNFL and has meanwhile been disproved, or in the Dueren District, where the geographical distribution of the cases encountered makes the nuclear installations of the Juelich Research Center an unlikely culprit. The reasons for the diseases summarized under the generic term of leukaemia can vary just as much as the symptoms. No valid statistical survey is possible because of the very small number of cases generally encountered. (orig.)

  5. The nuclear power in the UK electricity market: from a limited future to eternal life and back again?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.

    2002-07-01

    In 1990, the privatisation of the British electricity supply industry revealed how uneconomic Britain's nuclear power plants were. The nuclear sector was withdrawn from privatisation and it seemed likely that by 2000, most of Britain's nuclear power plants would be closed. However, operating costs were dramatically reduced and in 1996, most of the nuclear plants were privatised in British Energy. Nuclear output made an important contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the future looked secure for the existing plants. However, the early success of British Energy was based on an inflated wholesale electricity price and by 2000, British Energy was struggling to cover its costs. The British government is now conducting a review of energy policy. The economic case for new nuclear power plants is poor but the need to meet greenhouse gas emission targets and the influence British Energy and BNFL may ensure the long-term future of the existing plants. (author)

  6. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  7. The role of opinion research in communications programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirex is a company financed by the UK nuclear industry to dispose of intermediate and some long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The company has no responsibility for high-level radioactive waste. Most low-level waste is disposed of at a shallow site owned by BNFL, one of Nirex's shareholders. At Nirex, we use opinion research in a number of ways: as a map to guide communications programmes; to set baselines and targets to isolate issues of concern to our publics. The Company carries out market research covering three key audiences: the general public, politicians, and journalists. For Nirex, opinion research is a map. It guides our communication programmes in dealing with our key audiences. Without it, we would be driving blind. Opinion research allows us to isolate key issues for communication. It also allows us to measure performance and to see which initiatives are successful and which are not

  8. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3)

  9. In-reactor performance of prototype SBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the international Callisto experiment, BNFL have undertaken the base irradiation, ramp testing and post-irradiation examination of two fuel rods, manufactured by BNFL's Short Binderless Route (SBR) for MOX fuel. Although of only short (lm) length, the rods were in other respects of standard PWR geometry. Base irradiation was performed in the Callisto loop of the BR2 reactor and achieved burn-ups of 17 GWd/tM, 28 GWd/tM peak pellet, at moderate to high power levels. No problems were encountered during base irradiation, confirmed by intermediate examination. In a separate BR2 capsule, a ramp test was then performed on one of the two rods. Again, the rod showed no problems and was discharged intact. The ramp test conditions employed were somewhat more onerous than the level corresponding to the best-estimate failure level for standard UO2 fuel. The survival of the rod confirms the general observation that the PCI failure resistance of MOX fuel is superior to that of standard UO2. The irradiation has been followed by a detailed programme of non-destructive and destructive hot-cell examinations on both of the rods. Profilometry, ECT and gamma-scanning confirmed the overall satisfactory performance of the rods and the absence of incipient damage. Puncture testing and gas analysis showed the fission gas release levels in both the ramped and unramped rods to be in line with what would be expected for a UO2 rod. The satisfactory microstructure of the fuel was confirmed via optical ceramography and autoradiography. This paper will describe the fuel manufacture, base irradiation and ramp test conditions, and will provide a summary of the results of the PIE programme. (author)

  10. Analysis of spent ion exchange media: Superlig 639 and Superlig 644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig(reg.) materials for the removal of 137Cs and 99Tc from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The cesium-selective Superlig(reg.) 644 (SL-644) and the technetium-selective Superlig(reg.) 639 (SL-639) have been evaluated in tests with actual waste samples. These materials have a finite processing lifetime in the plant and will need to be disposed of. The composition and level of residual radionuclide contamination is important for assessing various disposal pathways for the Superlig(reg.) materials. This report contains the results of analyses of subsamples of the SL-639 and SL 644 materials that have been used in small column testing of actual waste samples at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory. The wastes that have been tested include samples from Tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-107. The analyses of the spent resins include inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for metals, cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury, gamma energy analysis (GEA) for radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for selected metals and radionuclides. While these results provide an indication of the analyte concentrations that may be left on the spent resin, they do not fully represent the concentrations that may be found after extended plant processing with additional load/elute cycles and different waste compositions. BNFL estimates that the SL-644 may last for 100 load/elute cycles with Envelope A and C wastes and 20 cycles with Envelope B wastes. The number of useable load/elute cycles for the SL-639 is not well defined, but is likely on the order of hundreds

  11. A high burnup cycle in a PWR utilizing Gadolinia burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Design Calculations and Safety Submissions for the Sizewell 'B' PWR, now under construction in Suffolk, England, are being made on the assumption that the reactor will be operated on a 12 month three batch fuel cycle scheme giving 33 GWd/t discharge burnup. Fuel cycle economic studies carried out by BNFL for PWRs have shown that there are significant economic benefits to be obtained from increasing the discharge burnup to 40 GWd/t and beyond. This has provided an incentive for the study of high burnup PWR fuel cycles, from which a four batch fuel cycle has emerged as a strong candidate, well favoured to the requirements of the UK. 12 month fuel cycles would be well suited to the annual load demand characteristics of the UK Grid System, with the minimum demand occurring in the summer months, and would also fit in well with statutory maintenance requirements. In advance of a decision as to whether to adopt a 12 month four batch fuel cycle scheme for Sizewell 'B', BNFL have carried out detailed calculations for such a fuel cycle in order to assist the decision making process. This paper describes a 12 month equilibrium fuel cycle for a typical four loop PWR of 3400 MW(th) output in which a partial low leakage loading pattern is used in conjunction with gadolinia burnable poison. The gadolinia is required to control the radial power peaking factor. The paper also demonstrates that the principal safety related characteristics of the fuel cycle are compatible with present safety limits. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Environmental Risk Assessments, Risley (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. (Author)

  13. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom was conducted. In 1985, the low-level waste [LLW] site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL] was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep into which a miscellany of rubbish-some in drums, some raw-was tipped, with a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content was seen. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. The recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety. Drigg was re-visited in June 1989. In place of the open clay trenches, carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers were found. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellafield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions had been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. Discharges of alpha and beta radiation are now around one per cent of the peak discharges of the 1970s and monitoring of shellfish has confirmed that this has been carried forward into a reduced exposure for the public. (author)

  14. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. PMID:15607782

  15. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry was conducted into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. In April 1985, during that inquiry, the low-level waste (LLW) site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep contained a miscellany of rubbish - some in drums, some raw - with but a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. Recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety; measures would be taken to meet criticisms of what was seen. Drigg was revisited in June 1989. The solid waste encapsulation plant (EP1) which is currently nearing completion at Sellafield was also seen. Carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers replaced open clay trenches. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellefield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions have been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. (author)

  16. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, the Netherlands' only reactor, the 449 MW(e) PWR at Borssele, provided 3.6 TW·h of electricity, equivalent to 4% of domestic electricity output. Two successive governments ordered the Borssele nuclear power plant to shut down by December 2003, earlier than had originally been foreseen. However, the Government that came into office at the beginning of August 2002 has agreed to postpone closure of this plant, as it said 'taking into account the Kyoto obligations, it would not be sensible to close Borssele prematurely'. The new Cabinet will consult with the owner of the plant to seek an agreement on continuing its operation, taking into account its economic and technical lifetime. Uranium enrichment is carried out by Urenco Nederland B.V., which is located in Almelo. Urenco Nederland is owned by the multinational company Urenco Ltd, which is located in Marlow (UK) and which has three shareholders holding equal shares: Ultra Centrifuge Nederland (UCN) in the Netherlands, Uranit (Germany) and BNFL. The Government of the Netherlands owns 99% of the shares in UCN. The current capacity of Urenco Nederland is 1850 t SWU/a. However, in 1999 the company obtained a licence to expand its capacity to 2500 t SWU/a, for which a fifth enrichment plant has been built at the Almelo site. In early 2003 a new nuclear licence was issued to increase capacity to 2800 t SWU/a. Urenco uses advanced gas ultracentrifuge technology for the enrichment of uranium. Spent fuel is being reprocessed at the BNFL reprocessing facility in the UK and at the Cogema reprocessing facility in France

  17. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations (137Cs, 230Th, and 239240Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137Cs and 239240Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 600 Bq kg-1 for 239240Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg-1. The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides (137Cs and 239240Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme

  19. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  20. Windscale Report: a nuclear apologia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government representatives have pointed repeatedly with pride to Britain's longest nuclear planning inquiry, The Windscale Inquiry, as a model of open examination of a sensitive nuclear proposal. The official Report of the Windscale Inquiry, published in March 1978, bears little relationship to the proceedings of the Inquiry, according to the author. Instead, the Report is a heavy-handed nuclear apologia, he says, so clumsily one-sided as to provoke unease even among many Britons previously unmoved by the issue which gave rise to the inquiry. Windscale, built following WW II to produce plutonium for Britain's nuclear weapons, is now operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. In 1973, BNFL began to plan construction of a new full-scale oxide-fuel reprocessing plant. Protests delayed construction until the inquiry was planned and the inquiry team was formulated in March 1977. When the Inquiry ended, the inspector closeted himself to write the Report. The Report recommended that the oxide fuel reprocessing plant be built immediately. BNFL had asserted that the proposed thermal oxide reprocessing plant, THORP, was necessary for the management of spent fuel from British and other nuclear plants; that it was desirable for ''energy conservation,'' by recovering uranium and plutonium for re-use; that radioactive emissions within and outside the plant would pose no hazard; and that the servicing of foreign customers would not increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, but would rather help to persuade other countries not to reprocess their own fuel. The inspector agreed without qualification and with emphasis. In doing so he made no attempt even to describe the detailed evidence on either side, or to discuss the cases advanced by objectors. The author discusses the principal conclusions of the report and cites its futility

  1. Radiological protection and related features of large nuclear environmental restoration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique features of three nuclear environmental restoration projects being undertaken by BNFL Inc. in the USA are summarized . These projects incorporate proven treatment technologies, designs, and operational practices to ensure that the workers, the public and the environment are protected from radioactive and hazardous materials. The successful operations of BNFL in the United Kingdom underpin these projects, where world-class safety performance is essential. The River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant at the Department of Energy (DOE) site in Washington state is being designed and constructing initiated by BNFL Inc. and its subcontractors. This project will volume reduce and immobilize radioactivity in the approximately 55.5 million gallons of radioactive waste that is stored in 177 underground tanks as a result of processing large quantities of spent fuel for 46 years. Thirty-two tanks are leaking. The site is located approximately 250 feet above an aquifer whose water migrates to the Columbia River, which provides a major source for crop irrigation and fresh water fishing for 3 miles downstream of the site. These are three main process buildings: (1) pretreatment; (2) low-activity waste treatment and (3) high-level waste treatment. Design incorporating proven technologies provide efficient waste volume reduction and vitrification in remotely operated facilities where waste-processing streams could produce significant unmitigated dose rates. Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant, at the DOC site in southern Idaho, is underway in a region where average winter temperature are + degF and snowfall occurs approximately 40 days/yr. This project will retrieve, volume reduce, and immobilize approximately 2.3 million cubic feet of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste that has been stored in various containers in above ground facilities for up to 29 years. Much of the waste is covered with soil. Waste containers are remotely retrieved

  2. United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom currently has ten operational nuclear power plants with another nine undergoing decommissioning. The operation and decommissioning of the Magnox Reactors is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority whilst the day-to-day operation is currently run by the two Parent Body Organizations Magnox North (Oldbury, Yr Wylfa, Hunsterton A, Chapecross and Trawsfynydd) and Magnox South (Bradwell, Berkeley, Dungeness A, Hinkley Point A and Sizewell A). Oldbury was scheduled to cease generation at the end of 2008 and Yr Wylfa by the end of 2010 but Oldbury continues to operate and a lifetime extensions is possible for Yr Wylfa. The AGRs and the PWR at Sizewell B are operated by British Energy. The ten operational reactors generate approximately 11 GW to the UK electricity mix, which is about 15% of the total UK requirement, down from a peak of 26% in 1997. Following an announcement early in 2008 by the government, with support from the main opposition party, it is expected that new nuclear plants will be built in the UK as soon as possible. Two new designs, the Westinghouse AP1000 and the Areva EPR, are currently undergoing a Generic Design Assessment by the UK regulator, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Decommissioning of the Magnox NPPs is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). They also own the liability of Capenhurst Fuel Enrichment Plant, Springfields Fuel Manufacturing Plant, the research reactor sites at Harwell and Winfrith, the fusion research centre at Culham, the Fast Reactor research centre at Dounreay and Sellafield. Privatization of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA) and the subsequent closure of many national laboratories, together with the transfer of the liability for the decommissioning of the Magnox sites from BNFL to the NDA resulted in the re-organization of BNFL. The BNFL Research and Technology division was rebranded as

  3. Office of River Protection (ORP) Monthly Performance Report for September 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) had an outstanding year. The most significant accomplishments that occurred throughout fiscal year (FY) 2000 include the following: On April 24,2000, DOE ORP received BNFL Inc. B-1 deliverables and CHG completed Phase 1 Part B-2 Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP), to demonstrate the ability to provide waste feed to be treated/stored in a long-term disposal facility. The RTP consisted of key enabling assumptions, critical risks, waste handling actions, financial and schedule risk analysis, staffing plans, a project execution plan, and a resource loaded schedule. The Department determined that the BNFL Inc. proposal was unacceptable in many areas and essentially shifted the financial risk from BNFL Inc. back to the Federal government; thus a key benefit of privatization was lost. On May 8,2000, the Secretary announced that the privatization contract be terminated. In the interim, the Department directed the onsite Tank Farm Contractor, CHG, to continue the design work scope for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant until a new waste treatment contract is awarded. DOE ORP released its request for proposals (RFP) for a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization contractor on August 31,2000 and is on schedule to meet award of the contract by January 15,2000. CHG successfully reached 1,000,000 safe work hours without a lost workday injury or illness on Wednesday, September 23,2000. The record was initiated on May 23,2000 and took 114 days to achieve. All Tri-Party Agreement and Consent Decree milestones scheduled for the fiscal year were completed. Along with meeting all enforceable agreement milestones, nineteen out of twenty Performance Incentives (PIS) were successfully completed. The 20 PIS comprised of 114 specific deliverables, of which 107 were met. In addition to the 20 scheduled PIS, six accelerated activities were completed. Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen generation was successfully mitigated this fiscal year, including a series of

  4. SRP Meeting: North west regional conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SRP North West Regional Conference was held in the Education Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust in Manchester on the subject of Ionising Regulations 1999 (IRR99) two years on. The Chairman for the morning session was David Abbott from BNFL and for the afternoon was Anne Walker from Christie Hospital. Dr Joanne Nettleton, a HM Principal Specialist Inspector (Radiation) in the Field Operations Directorate, explained the view of the HSE. She outlined that the IRR99 have been in force since January 2000 after a comprehensive consultation exercise. The results that have been seen to date are, not surprisingly, no increase in exposure levels, an increased profile of radiation protection and an improved standing of RPAs. The SRP run a Continuing Professional Development scheme as a personal aid to maintain an adequate level of professionalism, demonstrate competence and as a guide to employers for them to maintain a professional Radiation Protection Service. There are currently over 300 people using the SRPs CPD scheme. They have also detailed a new mentoring system. In conclusion RPA 2000 is successfully meeting the needs of RPAs in the UK and the portfolios of evidence are improving. Overall, the SRP CPD scheme is effective and cheap. David Owen, Radiological Protection Manager responsible for policy and strategy issues in this field, gave a summary of the operation of the BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme, of which he is Secretary to the Management Board. The BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme is recognised by the HSE and has a number of subtle differences from the RPA 2000 scheme. RPAs advise on the restriction of exposure, designation of area, local rules, selection of the RPS, the training of the RPS and other staff, hazard identification, risk assessment, facility design, contingency planning, waste management and transport and any other matters relating to ionising radiation. Becoming an RPA within the medical sector is not easy. Firstly there is two years basic training

  5. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  6. Investigating radionuclide bearing suspended sediment transport mechanisms in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Sellafield has been authorised to discharge radionuclides to the Irish Sea since 1952. In the aquatic environment the radionuclides are adsorbed by sediments and are thus redistributed by sediment transport mechanisms. This sediment is known to accumulate in the estuaries of the Irish Sea. BNFL Springfields is also licensed to discharge isotopically different radionuclides directly to the Ribble estuary. Thus there is a need to understand the sediment dynamics of the Ribble estuary in order to understand the fate of these radionuclides within the Ribble estuary. Estuaries are highly dynamic environments that are difficult to monitor using the conventional sampling techniques. However, remote sensing provides a potentially powerful tool for monitoring the hydrodynamics of the estuarine environment by providing data that are both spatially and temporally representative. This research develops a methodology for mapping suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing. The first hypothesis, that there is a relationship between SSC and 137Cs concentration is proven in-situ (R2=0.94), thus remotely sensed SSC can act as a surrogate for 137Cs concentration. Initial in-situ characterisation of the suspended sediments was investigated to identify spatial and temporal variability in grain size distributions and reflectance characteristics for the Ribble estuary. Laboratory experiments were then performed to clearly define the SSC reflectance relationship, identify the optimum CASI wavelengths for quantifying SSC and to demonstrate the effects on reflectance of the environmental variables of salinity and clay content. Images were corrected for variation in solar elevation and angle to give a ground truth calibration for SSC, with an R2=0.76. The remaining scatter in this relationship was attributed to the differences in spatial and temporal representation between sampling techniques and remote sensing. The second hypothesis

  7. Managing the nuclear legacy n the UK: Progress towards the establishment of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical revision of the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. Its proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Action' published on 4 July 2002. This calls for the formation of a new organisation, originally referred to as the Liabilities Management Authority, but since renamed the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty-one UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing as well as those associated with the UK's fast reactor programme based at Dounreay. The challenge is to decommission and dismantle these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remedy the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. This paper is concerned with the work of the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) in preparing the way for the NDA and what it has achieved in its first eighteen months. The following issues are addressed: The Liabilities Management Unit and its remit (which presents the LMU Functional Groups and their responsibilities); Acquiring a detailed

  8. Practice of fuel management and outage strategy at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant generates almost 40% of Hungarian electricity production at lowest price. In spite of this fact the reduction of operational and maintenance costs is one of the most important goal of the plant management. The proper fuel management and outage strategy can give a considerable influence for this cost reduction. The aim of loading pattern planning is to get the required cycle length with available fuel cassettes and to keep all key parameters of safety analysis under safety limits. Another important point is production at profit, where both the fuel and spent fuel cost are determining. Earlier the conditions given by our only fuel supplier restricted our possibilities, so at the beginning the fuel arrangement changing was the only way to improve efficiency of fuel using. As first step we introduced the low leakage core design. The next step was the 4 years cycle using of some cassettes. By this way nearly half of 3 years cycle old cassettes remained in the core for fourth cycle. In the immediate future we want to use profiled cassettes developed by Russian supplier. Simultaneously we will load new type of WWER cassettes with burnable poison developed by BNFL Company. Hereby we can apply more BNFL cassettes for four years cycle even more. Both cost of fuel and number of spent fuel can be reduced besides keeping parameters under safety limits. The Hungarian in service inspection rules determine that every four year we have to make a complete inspection of reactor vessel. Therefore earlier we had two types of outages. Every 4 years we planned a long outage with 55-65 days duration and normal ones with about 30-35 days duration between the long ones. During the normal outages this way did not give us enough room to utilise the shortest possible critical path determined by works on reactor. Some years ago we changed our outage strategy. Now we plan every 4 years a long outage, and between them one normal and two short ones. As a result the

  9. Depleted uranium: A study of its uses in the UK and disposal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Bob

    2002-03-01

    Full text: The Environment Agency recently published a contract R and D report, by John Jackson of Alan Martin Associates, on depleted uranium (DU). The report documents a scoping study on the uses of DU; the civil non-nuclear applications for DU were a particular focus of the scoping study. The study was commissioned following a series of DU related incidents, including the crash of the Korean Airlines' Boeing 747 at Stansted in late 1999. There had also been an assertion in the Guardian (21 August 2000) that as much as 50 tonnes of DU is lying in UK scrapyards. The report confirms that the quantities referred to in the Guardian are groundless. The report provides information and guidance to the Agency's staff who regulate radioactive substances in England and Wales. The report does not attempt to review the health effects of DU (separate health studies have been carried out by the Royal Society and others). A range of non-nuclear uses of DU are identified in the report: Transportable shielded containers for radioactive sources, Aircraft counterbalance weights, Piling equipment (civil engineering), Radiation shielding (hospitals, universities, etc), Armour piercing ammunition, Uranium catalysts, and Ceramic glazes. The report concludes that there is, in total, less than 50 tonnes of DU in use in the UK outside of military and nuclear applications. The report identifies the aircraft salvage and recycling industry as having a significant risk of DU being lost from regulatory control. (Awareness and vigilance need to be maintained; in February 2001 in Ohio, USA, 53 tonnes of aluminium ingots from an aircraft recycling operation were found to be contaminated with DU from counterweights that had not been segregated prior to smelting.) The report highlights the absence of a UK disposal route for substantial quantities of DU. The BNFL site at Drigg cannot accept DU because in its undiluted state it is categorised as intermediate level waste. Whilst redundant DU

  10. Critical impact energies for scabbing and perforation of concrete target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the influences of the relative target thickness (H/d) on those critical impact energies, at which local damage of various forms in concrete targets are initiated, are explored. The empirical formulae developed in the R3 Impact Assessment Procedure [BNFL, 2003. Reinforced Concrete Slab Local Damage Assessment, R3 Impact Assessment Procedure, vol. 3, Appendix H. Magnox Electric plc and Nuclear Electric Limited] are rationalized by different methods. A dimensional analysis was conducted to identify influential non-dimensional numbers, which were subsequently employed in the analyses of the experimental results relevant to scabbing and perforation by flat nosed missiles. The relationships between the non-dimensional impact energy 12MV02/(d3f) at failure and the non-dimensional target thickness H/d are presented for all of the relevant experimental data in the ''World Impact Data'' collection [Bainbridge, P., 1988. World Impact Data-S.R.D. Impact Database Version Pre 3i, CCSD/CIWP(88)107(P)]. This collated hundreds of experimental data on local damage in concrete targets due to missile impact from various sources of nuclear industries, as well as experimental data from the UK electrical power industry used to develop empirical formulae in the R3 Impact Assessment Procedure [BNFL, 2003. Reinforced concrete slab local damage assessment, R3 Impact Assessment Procedure, vol. 3, Appendix H. Magnox Electric plc and Nuclear Electric Limited]. The experimental data in Bainbridge [Bainbridge, P., 1988. World Impact Data-S.R.D. Impact Database Version Pre 3i, CCSD/CIWP(88)107(P)] are compared with empirical and semi-empirical formulae for scabbing and perforation in order to examine the effects of H/d on the critical non-dimensional impact energy for these two local failures. An analytical formula based on a penetration-plugging model is employed to give the relationship between the critical impact energy and target thickness for perforation by a flat

  11. Preservation and re-use of nuclear knowledge in the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    documents in knowledge repositories and tacit form within individuals. There is also a strong element of know-how, so difficult to capture within formal systems, but often providing the key to unlock a particular operational problem. British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL], as it moves towards the new dawn for the UK nuclear industry in April 2005, is re-shaping itself to meet the challenges presented by this major change. It has re-structured in order to be able to focus on the business needs of nuclear decommissioning and site remediation. However, BNFL recognises that there is still a need to ensure that the UK government keeps the new nuclear build option open. This has resulted in the establishment of a small Energy Unit, looking into different aspects of energy policy. (author)

  12. Decisions in the balance. The need for a public inquiry over THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 64,000 individuals, 112 local authorities, and the Governments of ten countries are worried about the proposal to open THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant), a British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) plant in Cumbria which is destined to receive and treat nuclear waste from all over the world. Experts cannot agree about the benefits of the project, and even its business prospects are in doubt. There are plenty of reasons to believe that massive radioactive contamination of the environment, increased deaths from cancer, and a legacy of dangerous waste will result from THORP. What will come out of THORP, if it opens, will present far greater disposal problems than what will go into it. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel actually mixes the radioactivity into many different chemical and physical forms, spreading the contamination through everything involved in the process - solvents, acids, containers, filters etc. According to a report by the Consulting Engineer John Large, the effect is to increase the volume of nuclear waste by as much as 189 times compared with the original spent fuel. Some of this waste - that contaminated with plutonium - remains radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years, leaving Britain a legacy of life-threatening waste management problems for generations to come. Only a public inquiry can get to the bottom of the complex issues involved in THORP. And only an independent public inquiry can truly fulfil our Government's own policy demands with respect to this kind of decision. In the Government's Respond to the Environment Committee's report, 1986, it is their stated policy to prove 'justification' for radioactive waste production. This means the Government cannot authorise increases in radioactive discharges without being sure that the benefits of the process outweigh the risks. With THORP, BNFL want to increase its radioactive discharges into the environment by staggering amounts. Their own figures show there will be a 1100

  13. Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on the safety of nuclear fuel cycle intermediate storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CSNI Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety held an International Topical Meeting on safety aspects of Intermediate Storage Facilities in Newby Bridge, England, from 28 to 30 October 1997. The main purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the technical issues on the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities (intermediate storage). Titles of the papers are: An international view on the safety challenges to interim storage of spent fuel. Interim storage of intermediate and high-level waste in Belgium: a description and safety aspects. Encapsulated intermediate level waste product stores at Sellafield. Safety of interim storage facilities of spent fuel: the international dimension and the IAEA's activities. Reprocessing of irradiated fuel and radwaste conditioning at Belgoprocess site: an overview. Retrieval of wastes from interim storage silos at Sellafield. Outline of the fire and explosion of the bituminization facility and the activities of the investigation committee (STAIJAERI). The fire and explosion incident of the bituminization facility and the lessons learned from the incident. Study on the scenario of the fire incident and related analysis. Study on the scenario of the explosion incident and related analysis. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Dry interim storage of spent nuclear fuel elements in Germany. Safe and effective system for the bulk receipt and storage of light water reactor fuel prior to reprocessing. Receiving and storage of glass canisters at vitrified waste storage center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. Design and operational experience of dry cask storage systems. Sellafield MOX plant; Plant safety design (BNFL). The assessment of fault studies for intermediate term waste storage facilities within the UK nuclear regulatory regime. Non-active and active commissioning of the thermal oxide

  14. A review of vortex amplifier design in the context of Sellafield nuclear operations - 16063

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortex amplifiers have for over 30 years been used to ensure containment of glove-box ventilation in the event of a barrier breach, the most likely such breach being damage to the glove itself. Containment is achieved using fluidic principles to control the glove-box depression and ventilation rate under both normal and emergency conditions; in the event of such a breach vortex amplifiers can switch quickly between these two states without recourse to electrical, pneumatic or manual intervention. This paper begins by summarising the developments in vortex amplifier design used at the Sellafield site by successive companies engaged in fuel technology, reprocessing and decommissioning (British Nuclear Fuels PLC (BNFL), BNFL Engineering Limited, British Nuclear Group and Sellafield Limited). The main reasons for design changes have been practical issues of set-up, cleaning, filter and waste minimisation, and space limitations. The development culminates in the use of a smaller version of the vortex amplifier (VXA) which is a nearly exact geometrical scaling of its predecessor and which has been standard design for over a decade. Initial use of this device, the mini-VXA, led to a substantial increase in the amount of inert gas needed to maintain the required oxygen-depletion conditions within the glove-box, implying some escape of oxygen into the glove-box. The use of the mini-VXA introduced practical issues relating to (i) its control characteristics and (ii) the reverse flow of air in the supply port. Comparison with the published design specification demonstrates that the geometrical scaling process has led to a slightly hysteric characteristic. Tests conducted by the authors indicate (i) that the origin of the escaping oxygen is the control air feeding back through the supply ports and (ii) that a prototype chamber and orifice plate arrangement between the glove-box and mini- VXA significantly reduces the inert gas demand in normal usage. This prototype arrangement

  15. Britain's nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the mid 1980s the Labour Party's position and clear intention was to phase out nuclear generated power in the UK. BNFL's reprocessing business was singled out for particular criticism. Many argued that this sounded the death knell for an industry with a legacy of negative public opinion and no commercial future. How against this background then was the Rt. Hon Tony Blair able, on 9 June 1999, to state that 'If we were to question the continued operation of Thorp, I think that would not be right. Thorp is an operation with orders now valued at some 12 billion pounds, it provides 6000 skilled jobs, it indirectly supports many more... I do not support the case of those who would like us to abandon Thorp?' Furthermore, in June 1999 the Royal Society stated that, 'it is vital to keep the nuclear option open' and in October of the same year the House of Commons Trade Industry Select Committee went further and advised, 'a formal presumption be made now for the purposes of long-term planning that new nuclear plant may be required in the course of the next two decades'. On 13 July 1999, the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Rt. Hon Stephen Byers, announced a possible sale of up to 49% of BNFL by a Public Private Partnership. Dare we view this as the genesis of a nuclear renaissance for the United Kingdom? This clear change in political attitude towards the nuclear option has come about as a result of a concerted public and government relations effort over the past ten years. That said, many barriers remain if we are to meet the challenge of delivering new nuclear build in the UK. Public opinion may allow new build but only if the industry demonstrates a track record of safety and environmental stewardship. There will always be the 'not in my back yard' argument so we must be a good neighbour and, most importantly of all, a long-term solution must be found for the disposal of nuclear waste. If the stage is set for the nuclear renaissance, the industry

  16. A technical and economic comparison of the conversion of natural and oxide reactor reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will examine the requirements for UF6 conversion of natural and reprocessed uranium. It will compare the design and operation of the projected BNFL ECHO reprocessed uranium conversion plant with existing natural uranium plant. Conversion of reprocessed uranium from oxide fuelled reactors gives rise to substantially higher gamma dose rates than with natural uranium, principally because of the effects of the daughter products of U-232. As a result substantial shielding, coupled with changes in handling methods, are needed. These effects are more pronounced with uranium that has been exposed to high burnup, long pre-reprocessing cooling times or prolonged storage after reprocessing. Conversion of reprocessed uranium generates waste products and streams that are more highly active than those arising from natural uranium. These wastes need special attention or treatment; final disposal of the wastes is more demanding because of the higher inventory of radionuclides. A conversion plant handling reprocessed uranium will of necessity have a smaller throughput than one for natural uranium because of the relative sizes of the two markets. In addition the dimensions of some key items in a reprocessed plant are limited because of the need to accommodate U-235 assays in excess of 1%, requiring the entire plant to be designed and operated to avoid the chance of a criticality event. This lower throughput when compared with a natural plant adversely affects the unit costs. Variations in isotope concentrations between different batches and campaigns can lead to increased costs if the availability of the plant is reduced as a result. This effect depends on the economic judgement of the plant operator and the range of feed materials being processed. All of the effects will increase the costs of conversion of reprocessed compared to natural uranium. BNFL is using its expertise to minimise the effect of these additional costs, but the need for a dedicated plant inevitably

  17. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the IFA-651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Cheon, Jin Sik; Oh, Je Yong; Sohn, Dong Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Two MOX fuel rods, which were fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, have been irradiated in the HBWR from June, 2000 in the framework of OECD-HRP together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is basic in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods has been developed based on neutron physics results and DEPRESS program. The developed subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight under-prediction at the outer part of the pellet above the burnup of 20 MWd/kgHM. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. 24 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. A swedish dose passport - contractors point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Atom is situated in Vasteras approximately 100 km west from Stockholm. The company is owned by BNFL. The two largest divisions are the Nuclear Fuel Operations and The Global Reactor Services division. The Nuclear fuel operations manufacture fuel for BWR and PWR reactors. The raw material used is Uranium hexafluoride, which is converted to Uranium dioxide powder through wet AUC-process. The concession is 600 tonnes of UO2, per year. Last year the production. was approximately 900 fuel elements. There is also a control rod production line within the fuel factory. Last year the production of control rods was approximately 160. The Global Reactor Services Division performs tests on different types of equipments used in nuclear power plants. In addition there is also a well-established service structure that provides a wide range of field services, for instance sipping of fuel elements. The total amount of people working in Vasteras is currently around 800. The majority of those, work at the fuel factory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the somewhat awkward situation for our employees when working as external personnel on German nuclear installations. Our Swedish personnel are currently using German dose passports. Since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 this is in contradiction to the EU-directives. Hence, Westinghouse Atom has applied for a license for the use of Swedish dose passports in Germany. The amount of people performing service jobs in Germany is approximately 80 persons. (authors)

  19. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally the case for closing the nuclear fuel cycle is based on the strategic value of the uranium and plutonium recovered by reprocessing spent fuel. The energy content of 1 t of spent fuel varies from 10,000 to 40,000 t of coal equivalent depending on the reactor type from which the spent fuel arises. Recycling in fast reactors would increase these values by a factor or roughly 40. Reprocessing in the UK has its roots in the technology developed during and after the 1939-45 war to provide plutonium for defence purposes. At BNFL's Sellafield site in northern England the commercial reprocessing of spent fuel has been undertaken for over 30 years with a cumulative throughput of over 30,000 tU. Over 15,000 tU of the uranium recovered has been recycled and some 70% of all the UK's AGR fuel has been produced from this material. As a consequence the UK's bill for imported uranium has been reduced by several hundred million pounds sterling. This report discusses issues associated with reprocessing, uranium, and plutonium recycle

  20. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  1. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear power, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rubric reports on 12 short notes about sociological and environmental aspects of nuclear power in France and other countries: the epidemiological inquiry widened to all French nuclear sites; the sanitary and radioecological effects of nuclear activities in Northern Cotentin (France); the WONUC (World National Council of Nuclear Workers) anger with the French government about the shutdown of Superphenix reactor; the new more informative promotional campaign of Electricite de France (EdF) for nuclear power; the scientific and research prices attributed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to its searchers; the creation of a committee of inquiry in the French senate for the careful examination of the economical, social and financial consequences of the shutdown of Superphenix; the 31.2% increase of CEA-Industrie benefits for 1997; the decrease of nuclear contestation in Germany; the French-German communication efficiency during the Fessenheim accident simulation in October 7, 1997; the 3.5% increase of CO2 emissions in the USA; the decommissioning of 3 Russian reactors for military plutonium production; Greenpeace condemnation for abusive purposes against British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) and its activities at Sellafield (UK). (J.S.)

  3. Phase II test plan for the evaluation of the performance of container filling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHMC will provide tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from Hanford's waste tanks. Concerns about the ability for ''grab'' sampling to provide large volumes of representative waste samples has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. Preferred concepts for filling sample containers that meet RCRA organic sample criteria were identified by a PHMC Decision Board. These systems will replace the needle based sampling ''T'' that is currently on the sampling system. This test plan document identifies cold tests with simulants that will demonstrate the preferred bottle filling concepts abilities to provide representative waste samples and will meet RCRA criteria. Additional tests are identified that evaluate the potential for cross-contamination between samples and the ability for the system to decontaminate surfaces which have contacted tank wastes. These tests will be performed with kaolidwater and sand/water slurry simulants in the test rig that was used by AEAT to complete Phase 1 tests in FY 1999

  4. Recent UK experience of involving the public in decisions on radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When considering applications for authorization of radioactive discharges from nuclear sites, it is normal practice for UK regulators to consult widely and seek comments from the public, local and national interest groups, other regulators and stake-holders. At present, the Environment Agency is revising and further extending its public consultation arrangements. The Agency is currently considering applications from BNFL for authorizations for radioactive waste disposals, including discharges, from eight Magnox power stations in England and Wales. The process for considering these applications has included the most resource-intensive nuclear consultation exercise undertaken by the Agency to date. It has used elements form the Agency's new consultation arrangements, including an extended consultation period, a wider range of ways for people to access consultation documents and make responses, and a programme of public meetings and surgeries during the consultation period. The Agency has also taken the opportunity of consulting on its new multi-media certificate of authorization. While the Agency's decision making process is not yet complete, its experience so far of introducing these new features into its process is described. (authors)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB)

  6. The development of a package for the transport of new mixed oxide fuel assemblies within Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels in commercial reactors has increased significantly over the past 10 years as an effective way of using stocks of plutonium produced from reprocessing uranium fuels. Now, with advances in fuel design MOX can give performance approaching that of enriched uranium fuel. To meet demand from European and Japanese utilities, British Nuclear Fuels are currently building a large scale plant at Sellafield to assemble MOX fuels. This required a new transport package to be developed capable of carrying high specification fuels to customers in Europe whilst complying with the latest 1996 IAEA ST-1 Transport Regulations. This package is known as Euromox and currently under development to enter service in 2003. Relatively few packages exist for the transport of MOX fuels and Euromox is the first designed by BNFL for shipments to Europe. Euromox has provided several technical challenges in its development arguably exceeding those typically encountered during the development of new packages for irradiated fuel transports. (author)

  7. Radionuclide behaviour in a coniferous woodland ecosystem in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am, in food chains in a semi-natural woodland has been investigated and doses to the ecosystem due to the presence of these radionuclides of anthropogenic origin have been assessed. The woodland is located within 1 km of the coastal British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria (O.S. Grid Reference: NY 037045) and has received an input of radionuclides primarily through atmospheric discharges from the Sellafield site throughout its operational history of more than 40 years. Deposition has been enhanced by interception by the canopy, such that deposits in the woodland are significantly higher than adjacent pasture land. Within the wood, deposition is greatest along the front (or leading) edge in relation to aerosols transported to the woodland from Sellafield, due to the 'edge effect'. Despite the high radionuclide deposits, relatively low uptake and mobility within the ecosystem was observed. Estimated doses to the ecosystem at around 2 mGy a-1, were dominated by external irradiation and were well below the levels thought to be necessary to harm terrestrial ecosystems. A provisional conclusion at this stage is that the measures taken to control emissions from Sellafield in line with radiological protection standards for humans have also been adequate to protect this potentially vulnerable ecosystem

  8. Bagless transfer technology applications in Hanford's WRAP-1 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, under construction at in south-central Washington State. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Designed as a joint venture by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors and British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL), its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. While 3,800 drums will require only waste acceptance criteria certification using the WRAP-1 NDA/NDE functions, 3,000 drums also will need to be repackaged. The WRAP-1 Facility will use two separate glovebox lines to annually repackage more than 1,500 drums each of transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW) to meet current disposal guidelines. When complete, WRAP-1 will be the first facility of its kind to perform these tasks on a production scale. Completing this challenging task is made possible by using large-container (drum) bagless transfer technology and state-of-the-art glovebox design

  9. Bagless transfer technology applications in Hanford`s WRAP-1 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, under construction at in south-central Washington State. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Designed as a joint venture by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors and British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL), its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. While 3,800 drums will require only waste acceptance criteria certification using the WRAP-1 NDA/NDE functions, 3,000 drums also will need to be repackaged. The WRAP-1 Facility will use two separate glovebox lines to annually repackage more than 1,500 drums each of transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW) to meet current disposal guidelines. When complete, WRAP-1 will be the first facility of its kind to perform these tasks on a production scale. Completing this challenging task is made possible by using large-container (drum) bagless transfer technology and state-of-the-art glovebox design.

  10. Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on the ir graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment

  11. Graphite materials testing in the ATR for lifetime management of Magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on their graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment. (author)

  12. The UK Compensation Scheme for radiation-linked diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases has operated since 1982. Originally started by BNFL and its trades' unions, the Scheme has now expanded to include the great majority of the UK's nuclear operators and their unions. The Scheme offers an alternative dispute resolution system to court action and, as such, offers the benefits of speed of resolution and generosities in the assessment of cases and payment of compensation at relatively low levels of causation probability. The Scheme uses an excess relative risk model, based on the BEIR V Report, to calculate causation probabilities for claimants. Cases with 'special factors' which might complicate or confound the Scheme's technical basis can be referred to an independent Expert Panel for determination. In cases that qualify for compensation payments, the value of compensation is agreed with the claimant using similar procedures to those which might be used for a successful legal case. The value of the final settlement is then adjusted according to a scale dependent on the causation probability value. The Scheme is directed by bodies constituted from the participating employers and trades' unions and is managed on a day-to-day basis by an independent Executive Secretary. To date the Compensation Scheme has considered over 970 cases, 90 of which have qualified for compensation payments. (author)

  13. Evaluation of SuperLig 639 Ion Exchange Resin for the Removal of Rhenium from Hanford Envelope A Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford Radioactive Waste materials have been categorized into four envelopes labeled A through D as specified in the Tank Waste Remediation Contract between BNFL and DOE. 1 Envelopes A, B and C contain only solubilized species and are specified as Low-Activity Waste (LAW). Each envelope is defined based on compositional maximums of chemical and radioactive constituents. Envelopes A and B contain low concentrations of organic species and the primary form of technetium is pertechnetate (TcO4-). Envelope C contains higher levels of organic species and technetium which is primarily in the nonpertechnetate form (presumably complexed TcO2). Envelope D is sludge which has been separated from the supernate and is referred to as High Activity Waste. The current plant design utilizes SuperLig ion exchange resins to remove cesium and technetium (the primary radioactive constituents) from the Hanford LAW. The process is designed to produce a decontaminated waste stream and a concentrated eluate waste stream for vitrification into low and high activity glasses, respectively

  14. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the HBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two MOX fuel rods, which ar being fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are going to be irradiated in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) from the beginning of 2000 in the framework of OECD Halden Reactor Programme (HRP) together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is a basic property in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTORHBWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods have been developed subroutine FACTORHBWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight underprediction in the central part and a little overprediction at the outer part of the pellet. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs., 24 figs

  15. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the HBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Lee, Byung Ho; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1999-07-01

    Two MOX fuel rods, which ar being fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are going to be irradiated in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) from the beginning of 2000 in the framework of OECD Halden Reactor Programme (HRP) together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is a basic property in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods have been developed subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight underprediction in the central part and a little overprediction at the outer part of the pellet. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs., 24 figs.

  16. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  17. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations: first quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press statement by the Health and Safety Executive covers nuclear incidents in the United Kingdom in the period 1st January to 31st March 1993. Of the six incidents reported, four occurred at the Windscale and Calder Works of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL, Sellafield). Two of these were classified as level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. They were a leakage of plutonium-bearing solvent liquor onto the plant floor which did not involve contamination of personnel nor release of airbourne radioactivity, and a contamination wound received by a Quality Assurance Inspector inspecting a weld on a plutonium nitrate transfer line. The other two Sellafield incidents involved short term increases in radioactive discharges from stacks; in both cases no on-site personnel were affected and the maximum potential dose to the general public was assessed at less than 0.02% of the annual permitted dose. During the transfer of stocks of protactinium 231 between two laboratories in the same building at AEA Technology Harwell, alpha contamination of the floor of one of the laboratories was detected and staff received minor skin doses well below defined dose limits; there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. At Dungeness B power station, an irradiated fuel stringer which had become immobilised in a fuelling machine was recovered without release of radioactive contamination. The investigation of each incident and the procedures adopted to avoid repetition are outlined. (UK)

  18. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  19. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers

  20. The design of in-cell crane handling systems for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing and waste management facilities at (BNFL's) British Nuclear Fuels Limited's Sellafield site make extensive use of crane handling systems. These range from conventional mechanical handling operations as used generally in industry to high integrity applications through to remote robotic handling operations in radiation environments. This paper describes the design methodologies developed for the design of crane systems for remote handling operations - in-cell crane systems. In most applications the in-cell crane systems are an integral part of the plant process equipment and reliable and safe operations are a key design parameter. Outlined are the techniques developed to achieve high levels of crane system availability for operations in hazardous radiation environments. These techniques are now well established and proven through many years of successful plant operation. A recent application of in-cell crane handling systems design for process duty application is described. The benefits of a systematic design approach and a functionally-based engineering organization are also highlighted. (author)

  1. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, L.; Lean, C

    2005-09-15

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  2. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  3. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, C. [Direct Rail Services, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg.

  4. Quality intercomparison testing of waste package assay systems on UK nuclear sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daish, S.R. [NNC Ltd., WQCL, Dorchester (United Kingdom); Leech, N.A. [The Environment Agency, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The independent monitoring of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposals in the united kingdom is undertaken by NNC limited on behalf of the environment agency and SEPA at the Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) at Winfrith. A review of the potential for on-site checking of site operator's drum monitoring equipment was carried out at WQCL in 1998. As a result of this review, drums of simulated waste have been prepared and developed at WQCL. These standard waste packages form the basis of an on-going programme of on-site intercomparison tests on site operator's gamma assay instrumentation, which commenced in December 1999. The purpose of the programme is to provide the Agency with a check on site operator's waste drum measurements as part of the its ongoing monitoring programme. The use of reference drums containing defined radionuclides of known radioactivity allows the Agency to assess the adequacy of operator's arrangements for assaying drummed LLW destined for disposal in the BNFL Drigg repository in Cumbria. The waste assay systems tested to date are described and the results of the first eleven tests performed are used to compare and contrast two types of gamma assay system in common use on nuclear sites in the United Kingdom. (orig.)

  5. Experience in low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in near-surface facilities for over 30 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and clean-up of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals are being phased out in preference to emplacement of containerized conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site and this review of experience is from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly, however, the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Drigg site and also some of the supporting technical work. 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Waste management at power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other industrial processes, nuclear power stations produce waste in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from the stations after suitable treatment, the residual radioactivity being diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorised under the Radioactive Substances Act and the environmental impact is minimal. In recent years low level wastes (LLW) have been sent to BNFL's disposal site at Drigg. Recent charges at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low level wastes. This disposal route will be used until an alternative facility is brought into operation. Consideration is being given to volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate level waste (ILW) such as spent ion exchange resins are now stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Such as a mobile waste treatment plant. In the case of Magnox debris a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed at Dungeness and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored whilst retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. At Trawsfynydd a few debris store will hold the fuel element debris in 500 litre drums. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management plan during the TRIGA Mark II and III decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-I and Mark-II (KRR 1 and 2) was started in January 1997 and will be completed by December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In the second year, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) with British Nuclear Fuels pie (BNFL) as technical assisting partner was designated as the contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. After pre-design, a hazard and operability (HAZOP) study checked each step of the work. At the end of 1998, the decommissioning plan documentation including environmental impact assessment report was finished and submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for licensing. It is expected to be issued by the end of September 1999. Practical work will then be started around the end of 1999. The safe treatment and management of the radioactive waste arising from the D and D activities is of utmost importance for successful completion of the practical dismantling work. This paper summarizes general aspects of radioactive waste treatment and management plan for the TRIGA Mark-I and II decommissioning work. (author)

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark II and III in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. The first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is the technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Since and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license in mid 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project. (author)

  9. A sediment history of Sellafield discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of artificial radionuclides, discharged from the BNFL Sellafield works into the Irish Sea, has been measured in sediment cores taken from a nearby disused and undisturbed dock basin (Senhouse Dock, Maryport). This has provided a comprehensive record of Sellafield discharges from the early 1960s, including radionuclides for which discharge data are incomplete. A chronology was established by comparing a variety of radionuclide concentrations and isotope ratios in the core with the available information on decay-corrected discharges. This allowed an estimate to be made of the quantity of 238Pu discharged in the period 1959-1977 (94 ± 8 TBq) for which no discharge data exist. The transit time from discharge to incorporation in the surface sediment was in the order of 1-1.5 y. Attempts to verify the sediment chronology with conventional 210Pbexcess dating met with difficulties because of uncertainties in the flux of 210Pb, linked to a local, anthropogenic source of 210Pb/226Ra. (author)

  10. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  11. Research for the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, different stages have been reached in the development of methods for the production and for the disposal of nuclear fuel elements: From a safety engineering point of view, further research and development of production methods is no longer necessary. With regard to the disposal end of the fuel cycle (''Entsorgung''), the feasibility of interim storage and reprocessing has been a prerequisite for the operation approval of nuclear plant. The licensing approval is currently based on dry storage of irradiated fuel in transport casks (Gorleben, Ahaus); reprocessing contracts with foreign facilities (COGEMA, BNFL); reprocessing in a national facility (WA-350); final storage in deep geological formations (Gorleben, Konrad). Numerous research and development activities on nuclear fuel disposal have been started in recent years; most of these programmes now have been sucessfully completed. The few continuing programmes are concerned with safety engineering and comprise the minimization of the amount of waste, the recycling of plutonium, waste product quality, reduction of radiation exposure, and long-term final storage with and without reprocessing. From the available results, it can be deduced that as regards safety engineering there can be no objection to closing the light water reactor fuel cycle. (orig.)

  12. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  13. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.)

  14. The UK shielding Forum. Best Practice through consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK national shielding Forum has been established to represent all key industry groups in the UK (including the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), the national regulatory authority). The Forum's aim is to increase awareness and confidence in the range of professional practice within the UK shielding community, with a view to having a coherent and dynamic role within the international shielding community. In the past, no comprehensive representative body covering the whole UK nuclear industry has existed, and the different industry shielding groups have developed local ways of working to address their particular requirements. Inevitably, there are common issues arising from these requirements which benefit from a wider consensus. As a result of the formation of the Forum (initiated by the NII and subsequently chaired by BNFL as an industry key player), expertise, experience and best working practice are now being actively shared between shielding professionals, and there has been a strong and successful drive to achieving consensus on key issues, which is also reflected in the increasing quality of industry-regulator relationships. (author)

  15. Annual report and accounts 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is to supply a safe and efficient nuclear fuel cycle service. Springfields near Preston is the site of our fuel manufacturing operations, while Capenhurst near Chester is responsible for uranium enrichment. We reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield in West Cumbria, the site also of our multi-million pound investment programme which includes the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of facilities for the treatment and storage of waste produced during reprocessing operations. We also operate two nuclear power stations -Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Risley in Cheshire is the focus for our engineering design activities and the Company's Central Services Unit. The Head Office is also based at Risley. Fuel cycle services associated with the production of nuclear-generated electricity accounts for around 90% of our work. The report includes the chairman's review of the year, the Chief Executive's Report and summaries of the activities of the UK Group, International Group, Engineering Group and the Central Services Unit. The accounts are presented. (author)

  16. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  17. Biodecontamination of concrete surfaces: Occupational and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managers and engineers around the globe are presently challenged by high estimated costs for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities which are no longer needed or are abandoned. It has been estimated that more than 73 Km2 of contaminated concrete currently exists in the USDOE complex and is increased many fold when similar facilities are accounted for in other countries. Needs for the decontamination of concrete have been identified as: more cost effective decontamination methods, reduction of secondary wastes, minimized worker radiation exposures and, contaminant containment. Recently environmental microbes have been harnessed to remove the surface of concrete as a technique for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This biodecontamination technology has been tested by INEL and BNFL scientists and engineers in both US and United Kingdom nuclear facilities. Biodecontamination field tests at a shutdown nuclear reactor facility (EBR-I) have shown radioactively contaminated surface removed at rates of 4--8 mm/yr, thus validating the feasibility of this technology. Engineering economic analyses indicate two attractive benefits embedded in this approach to concrete D and D: (1) due to the passive nature of the technique, a cost savings of more than an order of magnitude is projected compared to the current labor intensive physical decontamination techniques; and (2) the exposure to humans and the natural environment is greatly reduced due to the unattended, highly contained biodecontamination process

  18. Discharge patterns of radionuclides and the influence of early diagenesis in a salt-marsh of the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine discharges of low level liquid radioactive waste from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfield have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. The variations in radionuclide concentrations (137Cs, 230Th, 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am) with depth were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends. The influence of early diagenesis in terms of radionuclide mobility was established by considering geochemical associations of radionuclides through the depth profile. A core from Longton Marsh was analysed by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Major/trace metal and total organic carbon determinations were also made. Sequential extractions were employed in order to specify radionuclide phase associations. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 800 Bq kg-1 for 241Am. Thorium-230 and 238U exhibited complex activity profiles with depth. 137Cs was found associated predominantly with the residual phase at all depths. Thorium-230 and 239,240Pu were mainly associated with the organic and sesquioxide phases with some evidence to suggest that plutonium had undergone a phase redistribution below the sediment surface. Caesium-137, 230Th and 239,240Pu were deemed useful in terms of establishing core chronologies. (author)

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark II and III in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S.T.; Park, S.K.; Chung, K.W.; Chung, U.S.; Jung, K.J. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. The first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is the technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Since and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license in mid 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project. (author)

  20. Quality assurance in the transport and packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Assurance (QA) is a requirement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6 ''Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials.'' It is also, increasingly, a customer requirement. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Transport Division has established an integrated management system (including quality and safety) which is being extended to cover environmental aspects. The management system covers the design, procurement, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance, inspection and decommissioning of all packages used for the transport of radioactive materials and for interim storage. It also covers planning, programming and transport operations. These arrangements cover all modes of transport by road, rail, sea and air. The QA arrangements developed enable Transport Division to demonstrate to Competent Authorities, customers and the general public that the systems in place meet all regulatory requirements. This paper discusses what quality assurance is, why QA arrangements should be introduced and how they were established within Transport Division. Finally, the further developments in the Division's quality arrangements using the tools and techniques of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the European Foundation for Quality Management Model for Self Assessment are described

  1. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, H.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  2. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  3. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  4. The international WWER fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : 1) lower cost; 2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; 3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  6. Ultrasonic sealing techniques: A possible solution for safeguarding the containment or storage of spent fuel in an underwater or dry environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Agraives, B.C. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, JRC-Ispra has devoted efforts to develop and implement special sealing techniques, aimed at the safeguarding of transport/storage spent fuel containers, in particular in view of their probable long-term storage in storage ponds. The technique has been intensively tested on containers called multielement bottles between 1990 and 1992 at the British BNFL Sellafield plant in the presence of EURATOM and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors, on occasion of 11 exercises on site and three in Ispra. The solution makes use of a special sealing-bolt (SB) which is used to replace one of the standard bolts closing the lid of the container. The special SBs are provided with a unique random signature and an internal breaking device. The first feature allows the verification of the SB's identity and the latter checks its integrity status, both verifications being done at once in a few minutes by means of an ultrasonic reading tool and associated computerized ultrasonic/electronic reading equipment. By using laboratory-PC-based and/or portable equipment, any SB can be read or verified in either dry or underwater conditions. There are several applications under study at JRC-Ispra, each requiring the development of a specific mechanical seal/item interface, such as MAGNOX reactor calibrated dead weights for underwater spent fuel weighbridge, pressurized water reactor mixed oxide fresh fuel assemblies or PUO2 transport casks.

  7. Ultrasonic sealing techniques: A possible solution for safeguarding the containment or storage of spent fuel in an underwater or dry environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, JRC-Ispra has devoted efforts to develop and implement special sealing techniques, aimed at the safeguarding of transport/storage spent fuel containers, in particular in view of their probable long-term storage in storage ponds. The technique has been intensively tested on containers called multielement bottles between 1990 and 1992 at the British BNFL Sellafield plant in the presence of EURATOM and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors, on occasion of 11 exercises on site and three in Ispra. The solution makes use of a special sealing-bolt (SB) which is used to replace one of the standard bolts closing the lid of the container. The special SBs are provided with a unique random signature and an internal breaking device. The first feature allows the verification of the SB's identity and the latter checks its integrity status, both verifications being done at once in a few minutes by means of an ultrasonic reading tool and associated computerized ultrasonic/electronic reading equipment. By using laboratory-PC-based and/or portable equipment, any SB can be read or verified in either dry or underwater conditions. There are several applications under study at JRC-Ispra, each requiring the development of a specific mechanical seal/item interface, such as MAGNOX reactor calibrated dead weights for underwater spent fuel weighbridge, pressurized water reactor mixed oxide fresh fuel assemblies or PUO2 transport casks

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  9. Radiological risks and civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)

  10. Aspects of the closure of Capper Pass and Son

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capper Pass and Son Ltd was the world's largest producer of tin from secondary materials, contributing 10% of the world tin output at its peak in the early 1980s. A collapse in the price of tin in 1985 and the subsequent maintainance of a low price led, however, to the announcement in February 1991 of a controlled closure of the company. The company's policy was to demolish the factory with minimum adverse environmental impact and due regard for health and safety. The site, on the Humber estuary in northeast England, would be left in a satisfactory state for future development. The work done to achieve these objectives is described. Reference is made to the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes occurring at the site. Waste slags containing uranium, thorium, radium and polonium at radioactivity levels comparable or less than those of the naturally occurring nuclides, that is at concentrations of less than 15 Bq/g, were sent to landfill with other residues. The one exception was Po 210 which was removed from lead and bismuth metals and concentrated into a dross. This was sealed into drums and securely stored till 1993 at which point material still containing in excess of 15 Bq/g was disposed of at the BNFL low-level radioactive waste facility at Drigg, while material which had decayed below that level was sent as special waste to a licensed landfill. (author)

  11. The decommissioning of the Trino nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a referendum in Italy in the late 1980's the four nuclear power stations were closed down and subsequently, in the 1990's, the process of privatisation of the electricity industry was started. Starting from those conditions, Sogin (current owner of the four NPPs) was beginning to develop programs and projects to reach 'green field' conditions for all NPP's in Italy. Within this frame, an agreement was built between Sogin and BNFL, based on the previous successful collaboration, to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor, to work together taking into account their specific experiences in the decommissioning field, both for Italy, the United Kingdom and for other countries. Over the past year, a revised prompt decommissioning programme, drawing upon the combined experience of the two companies, has been developed for Trino. The study incorporates the removal, segmentation and packaging of components such as the reactor vessel and internals for transportation to the national repository, as well as cost efficient engineered solutions for the removal, segmentation and decontamination of the remaining systems, plant equipment and containment structures to a point where the containment structure itself can be released for demolition. It was recognised that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The strategy has been based on the principles of minimising both doses and waste products that require long term storage, maximizing 'free release' materials and utilising existing and regulatory approved technologies. (author)

  12. Radioactivity and United Kingdom estuaries: an overview identifying research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)

  13. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities

  14. Advanced fuel technology - A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in the United Kingdom is perhaps more diverse than in any other country. The diversity in design of stations is matched by a diversity in operating responsibility. The SGHWR and PFR are operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), 2 of the Magnox stations are owned and run by BNFL, 2 of the AGR stations and 1 Magnox station are controlled by the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB), and the remaining reactors (including the Sizewell 'B' PWR) currently come under the responsibility of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) but will pass into the control of a new state-run company when the rest of the CEGB is privatized in 1990. Against this background of a variety of designs and operational responsibilities, there is clearly a great deal of scope for advances in fuel and fuel component technology. It should be noted, however, that the nuclear energy policy within the United Kingdom, particularly with regard to PWR plants, has been to adopt well proven designs wherever possible. Emphasis is therefore directed towards achieving the successful operation of conservative systems, with research and development work on advanced options for future implementation. The following sections give an overview of the areas where advanced designs are either in production or under development for each of the UK reactor systems in turn, together with an indication of possible future developments

  15. Application of FELTRAN to NEACRP TN12 shipping cask benchmark. [Shielding of spent nuclear fuel casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.M.; Winstanley, D.D.; Watmough, M.H. (British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)); Gerber, R. (Salford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics)

    1991-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc and Imperial College have collaborated in developing the finite element neutron shielding design code FELTRAN to near production code status. FELTRAN solves the even parity form of the Boltzmann equation using a functional approach. The solution is found in one or two spatial dimensions using various orders of finite elements to specify the problem geometry. The angular dependence of the even parity flux is expressed using spherical harmonics. FELTRAN has been interfaced to ANISN formatted nuclear data libraries such as CASK and BUGLE. Anisotropic scattering may be specified to any order. Methods have been incorporated within the code to analyse systems with voids. FELTRAN is currently undergoing further development. The purpose of this paper is to consider the application of FELTRAN to a practical shield design problem. The OECD have adopted a benchmark experiment to measure the neutron and gamma ray radiation dose rates around a spent fuel transport flask. As part of an international collaboration the physical details of the flask design and contents have been provided to the nuclear industry. The objective is to perform an international comparison of the methods used in the analysis of cask shielding. BNFL is one of the companies involved, using the well established codes RANKERN and MCBEND. The FELTRAN calculations are performed using the same source and geometry data and equivalent angular flux expansions as for these two codes. FELTRAN is then compared with experimental and calculated results. (author).

  16. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d-1) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10-3 mGy d-1, 2.2x10-3 mGy d-1 and 1.0x10-3 mGy d-1 respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d-1 level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  17. The status of the Deep Repository Programme in the UK. History and actual situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme for the deep disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom commenced in 1987, its focus being the country's Intermediate-Level Waste (estimated to have a volume of 200,000-270,000 m3 by 2050). A site selection exercise followed a public consulation period in the late 1980s and resulted in the investigation of two sites until 1991, Dounreay in the North of Scotland and a site adjacent to the BNFL works at Sellafield in north-west England. In 1991 investigations focused on Sellafield. A site characterisation programme and associated research and safety assessment was carried out at Sellafield, taking the programme to the point where a stage of underground investigation through a Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) had been identified as the next step. However, following a Public Inquiry in 1995, the Secretary of State for the Environment announced, in March 1997, his decision to turn down Nirex's request for the RCF. Current ongoing scientific and technical work is focused on remaining generic issues of repository performance and support to the waste treatment and packaging programme. An active public debate on institutional issues and UK policy has taken place following the Secretary of State's decision on the RCF. A key step has been a House of Lords Select Commitee Enquiry into radioactive waste management, which reported in March 1999. A full Government Review is expected to start in early 2000. (orig.)

  18. Hydroxamic acids - novel reagents for advanced Purex processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has undertaken a wide-ranging research programme to investigate the fundamental properties of hydroxamic acids and, in particular, their reactions with actinide ions. Most work has focussed on simple hydroxamic acids (R = H and CH3) although some comparative data with more complex molecules including di-hydroxamates have been obtained. Properties of hydroxamic acids studied include, hydrolysis in nitric acid, decomposition to gases, pKa's and redox potentials. The redox and co-ordination of actinides by hydroxamic acids has been investigated using a range of techniques and stability constants for both 4f and 5f hydroxamate complexes have been determined. In conjunction with these fundamental studies, more applied work has been carried out to assess the applications of simple hydroxamic acids under process conditions. A large database of solvent extraction distribution data has been accumulated and, from this, extraction algorithms describing how hydroxamic acids modify actinide extraction in to TBP have been derived. Also the effects of hydroxamic acids on U and Np mass transfer has been studied in single stage centrifugal contactors and this has been modelled theoretically. The third stage of our development work so far has looked at the actual testing of novel hydroxamic acid based flowsheets which selectively strip Np(IV) from a uranium loaded TBP stream. (authors)

  19. Progress towards understanding the interactions between hydroxamic acids and actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has undertaken a wide-ranging research programme to investigate the fundamental properties of hydroxamic acids and, in particular, their reactions with actinide ions. Most work has focussed on simple hydroxamic acids (R=H and CH3) although some comparative data with more complex molecules including di-hydroxamates have been obtained. Properties of hydroxamic acids studied to date include, hydrolysis in nitric acid, decomposition to gases, pKa's and redox potentials. The redox and co-ordination chemistry of actinides by hydroxamic acids has been investigated using a range of techniques and stability constants for both 4f and 5f hydroxamate complexes have been determined. In conjunction with these fundamental studies, more applied work has been carried out to assess the applications of simple hydroxamic acids under process conditions. A large database of solvent extraction distribution data has been accumulated and, from this, extraction logarithms describing how hydroxamic acid modify actinide extraction in to TBP have been derived. Also the effects of hydroxamic acids on U and Np mass transfer have been studied in single stage centrifugal contactors and this has been modeled theoretically. The third stage of our development work so far has looked at the actual design and testing of novel hydroxamic acid based flowsheets which selectively strip Np(IV) and Py(IV) from a uranium loaded TBP stream. (author)

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA mark-2±3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Taejeon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of the TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In 1998, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license at the end of September 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project