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Sample records for bnfl

  1. BNFL and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions made by BNFL to community relations are described in an illustrated booklet under the headings: introduction (general policy); donations and sponsorships; BNFL talks service; brochures and public information; visits; local liaison committees; industrial training; sponsored students; apprentices. (U.K.)

  2. Fuelling doubts over BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1989-01-01

    The House of Commons Select Committee on Energy has recently questioned the whole philosophy behind one of Britain's largest process plant operators, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The committee's criticisms and recommendations are of significance to more than just BNFL, whose 1988 turnover of Pound 839 million produced a Pound 100 million pretax profit for its owner, the government. For BNFL's fortunes are linked intimately with those of its customers, the nuclear power station operators. The members of Parliament are especially critical of BNFL's right to pass most of its cost increases on to its customers, which will make the nuclear power stations less attractive to investors when they are privatised. The committee also voices other serious concerns about BNFL's operations. These include worry about the future ownership of plutonium produced by BNFL from its customers' spent nuclear fuel; whether resultant nuclear waste is sent back to overseas customers; and the fate of the vast sums being put aside for future decommissioning of BNFL plant. (author)

  3. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  4. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  5. BNFL Sellafield further public consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main issues raised during the further public consultation on the draft Sellafield authorisations for the discharge of radioactive wastes from the British Nuclear Fuel (BNFL) Sellafield site are outlined. An analysis of the categories and numbers of the 42,500 responses is made. The public consultation was based on five documents; a letter to consultees from the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF); the report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution and the Inspectorate of MAFF on their earlier consultation exercise; a paper by BNFL on the economic and commercial justification of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP); a statement of the Government's policy on reprocessing and THORP and a document prepared by BNFL on the environmental implication of THORP. (UK)

  6. BNFL/Siemens to merge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Negotiations are being conducted on the creation of a joint venture between British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the German company Siemens. The venture would merge Siemens' nuclear fuel, engineering and construction services businesses with BNFL's Magnox and AGR fuel fabrication business which is based at Springfields in Lancashire. It would incorporate Siemens' share of Nuclear Power International, a joint venture with the French company Framatone which is developing the European Pressurised Water Reactor project, and its US subsidiary Siemens' Power Corp. BNFL's mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication business, its stake in the Dutch-German-UK uranium enrichment company Urenco and its nuclear waste reprocessing business would not be involved. There is already speculation that Siemens' greater input will lead to it taking a majority stake in what will be the world's second largest nuclear fuel manufacturer. Reaction to the news is reported. This has been muted in the United Kingdom, mixed in Germany and adverse in France because of the implications for the Siemens' Framatone collaboration. (UK)

  7. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  8. Industrial safety improvements at BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) plc of the United Kingdom, provides nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning, environmental remediation, and nuclear waste management services to the government and industry in the United States. The majority of current work is for the US Department of Energy at several sites. Reactor decommissioning services and spent-fuel storage casks are being provided for nuclear utilities. BNFL, inc., and teammates on the several projects employ approximately1750 people. This paper describes the significant changes made quickly to considerably improve an unacceptable safety situation. Industrial safety performance of several projects was uneven, with two sites having unacceptable performance. The significant improvements were initiated in late April 1999, and by the end of the year, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration total recordable injury and illness rate (TRIR) had improved by a factor of 2.2. Continued safety improvements are unexpected to improve performance by a factor of 6 within approximately5 yr. World-class safety performance is the ultimate objective

  9. Development of MOX manufacturing technology in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, P.G.; Powell, D.J.; Edwards, J.

    1998-01-01

    BNFL is successfully operating a small scale MOX fuel fabrication facility at its Sellafield Site and is currently constructing an advanced, commercial scale MOX facility to complement its existing LWR UO 2 fabrication capability. BNFL's MOX fuel capability is fully supported by a comprehensive technology development programme aimed at providing a high quality product which is successfully competing in the market. Building on the experience gained over the last 30 years, is from the production of both thermal and fast reactor MOX fuels, BNFL's development team set a standard for its MOX product which is targeted at exceeding the performance of UO 2 fuel in reactor. In order to meet the stringent design requirements the product development team has introduced the Short Binderless Route (SBR) process that is now used routinely in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and which forms the basis for BNFL's large scale Sellafield MOX Plant. This plant not only uses the SBR process for MOX production but also incorporates the most advanced technology available anywhere in the world for nuclear fuel production. A detailed account of the technology developed by BNFL to support its MOX fuels business will be provided, together with an explanation of the processes and plants used for MOX fuel production by BNFL. The paper also looks at the future needs of the MOX business and how improvements in pellet design can assist the MOX fabrication production process to meet the user demand requirements of utilities around the world. (author)

  10. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input

  11. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  12. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling

  13. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  14. The BNFL solution to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.H.C.; Carter, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel to separate uranium and plutonium has been undertaken in the United Kingdom for 40 years and has entered a new and significant phase with the completion of them British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in northwest England. In addition to useful uranium and plutonium, reprocessing produces a number of different forms of waste that need to be managed and treated in a safe and efficient manner. This paper discusses how BNFL has designed and constructed waste management plants to condition and store the waste streams from THORP

  15. BNFL Sellafield: post audit progress, December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The report of the safety audit at the Sellafield site was published in December 1986. In this, the Health and Safety Executive required British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to make improvements to the site and safety cases have had to be produced. These have now to be assessed by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. BNFL has undertaken programmes of maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of equipment. Much of this work was done in the shut-down maintenance period in the spring and summer. However, more work is needed to bring plants up a condition suitable for operating for the next ten years. BNFL have also started to decontaminate and decommission disused, contaminated, plants. This will generate a large amount of radioactive waste. BNFL have to build plants to containerise and encapsulate the waste prior to disposal. Waste disposal sites to complete the clean-up process are needed. The improvements to the engineering plants, to written procedures and to training, are reported. Changed attitudes are also noted. (U.K.)

  16. How BNFL develops business in the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US environmental restoration and waste management business is an expanding market. BNFL has developed a strategy designed to build a US-based business while taking into account the many barriers to market entry and participation. The elements of this strategy (market understanding, communications, flexibility, niche market, selectivity, teaming and cost recovery) are briefly explained

  17. BNFL Annual Report and Accounts 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited's (BNFL)'s 1996 Annual Report documents the high quality, cost-effective nuclear fuel cycle services which the company offers both to customers in the United Kingdom and abroad. Performance in the fields of fuel manufacture and enrichment, fuel reprocessing and recycling, transport and waste management over the last year is described. Investment in research programs in areas of the Company's technological expertise is also covered, as well as its involvement in an increasingly competitive world market. (UK)

  18. Nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritskij, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants is described, as well as basic technological processes of UO 2 powder production including IDR process for automatic fabrication of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. Physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder, fuel pellet sintering parameters, data on in-reactor operation of nuclear fuels fabricated from pellets of controlled porosity with CONPOR additives, are presented. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. BNFL annual report: review of the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    This includes a review by Sir John Hill, chairman of the activities of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) during the year 1977, as taken from its sixth annual report published in July 1977. Headings include: Financial results; Powers of the Nuclear Industry (Finance) Act 1977; Inflation accounting; Commissioning of the first full scale centrifuge enrichment plant at Capenhurst; Fuel manufacture and associated services; Fuel reprocessing; Electricity generation from Calder and Chapelcross; Public interest; and Staff. (U.K.)

  20. Flexibility of the BNFL dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    To widen its range of spent fuel management services, BNFL entered the fuel storage market in 1995; entry was by acquisition rather than internal product development. The need for a transportable product was identified very early, but represents only the first phase of a philosophy of continuous improvement. Strong synergy exists between the new business area and existing fuel handling and transportation expertise, which has been of considerable assistance to the new business. (author)

  1. Commander manipulator scoops prestigious mulit-million pound BNFL contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Andrew.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-one Commander robotic arms are on order from INBIS (formerly Ricardo Hitec) and BNFL Engineering Limited (''BEL'', the engineering arm of parent company BNFL). The multi-million pound contract was won amid fierce competition from other well-known names in robotic engineering. The specially designed Commander manipulators will be engaged in remotely handling Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) in a suite of four BNFL ILW plants, which are currently either under construction or planned at Sellafield. The first Commander will delivered to BNFL's Sellafield Silo Emptying Project in January 1998. (Author)

  2. The design of cranes for BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, R.A.; Boardman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The design of cranes for nuclear duties is based upon the operational requirements of the process and the need to withstand selected abnormal events. The functional requirements are first established and the design evolves in parallel with safety assessment to demonstrate that the criteria for the plant are satisfied. This paper reviews the design process from front end through to manufacture and installation demonstrating how the required integrity is achieved. Three BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Limited) cranes are referenced as examples of high integrity cranes. (author)

  3. Refurbishment of the BNFL Magnox reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, V.M.; Edgar, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Magnox Reprocessing Plant was commissioned in 1964. Since then it has reprocessed more than 35,000 t of irradiated uranium metal fuel. The plant is subject to routine shutdowns to allow maintenance and project work to be undertaken. During the 1997 shutdown the opportunity was taken to replace several life limiting parts of the plant to ensure Magnox reprocessing capability well beyond the year 2010. This shutdown was the largest and most complex undertaken by Magnox Reprocessing, with a total committed value of 130 million UK pounds, 17.5 million UK pounds committed in the shutdown itself and the balance on installation, design and procurement preparing for the shutdown. The work was completed within safety targets, to programme and within budget. The lessons learned and experience gained have been fed into the methodologies and procedures for planning future project and shutdown work within BNFL. This report is part of the output from this process of continually improving performance. (author)

  4. BNFL's new spent fuel transport flask - Excellox 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was formed in 1971 its transport service has safely moved spent light water reactor fuel from many locations abroad to its fuel handling plants at Sellafield in the UK. To support this business a number of types of flasks have been designed and used. One of the types used has been the Excellox family of water-filled flasks. To support future business opportunities a new flask, designed to meet the requirements of the new IAEA transport regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised), has been developed. The flask will be a type B(U)F. This new flask design will maximise fuel carrying capacity to minimise transport costs. The design capacity of the new Excellox 8 flask is to be 12 pressurised water reactor or 32 boiling water reactor fuel assemblies. The objective of this BNFL project is to provide another economic spent nuclear fuel transport system, in support of BNFL transport business. (author)

  5. The evolution of waste management processes and technologies in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, R. W.; Fairhall, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastes arising from BNFL's nuclear fuel cycle operations can be traced through a number of phases. The first was the development of vitrification and cementation for fresh arising and plants are now in operation. To handle the mixed, heterogeneous intermediate level wastes, retrieval, segregation and robust treatment processes are at an advanced stage of development, with all plants to be operational from 2002. BNFL is focusing attention on reducing waste management lifetime costs including reducing waste volumes of source. Technologies aimed at significant reductions are now being developed. The final phase, now in progress, recognizes the need for an integrated approach to advanced fuel cycle processes which incorporates BNFL holistic concept. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. The evolution of waste management processes and technologies in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, R.W.; Fairhall, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastes arising from BNFL''s nuclear fuel cycle operations can be traced through a number of phases. The first was the development of vitrification and cementation for fresh arisings. Plants utilising these technologies are now in operation. To handle the mixed, heterogeneous intermediate level wastes, retrieval, segregation and robust treatment processes are at an advanced stage of development, with all plants to be operational from 2002. BNFL is focusing attention on reducing waste management lifetime costs including reducing waste volumes of source. Technologies aimed at significant reductions are now being developed. The final phase, now in progress, recognizes the need for an integrated approach to advanced fuel cycle processes which incorporates BNFL''s holistic concept. (author)

  7. Thermal fuel research and development facilities in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, V.A.; Vickers, J.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL is committed to providing high quality, cost effective nuclear fuel cycle services to customers on a National and International level. BNFL's services, products and expertise span the complete fuel cycle; from fuel manufacture through to fuel reprocessing, transport, waste management and decommissioning and the Company maintains its technical and commercial lead by investment in continued research and development (R and D). This paper discusses BNFL's involvement in R and D and gives an account of the current facilities available together with a description of the advanced R and D facilities constructed or planned at Springfields and Sellafield. It outlines the work being carried out to support the company fuel technology business, to (1) develop more cost effective routes to existing fuel products; (2) maximize the use of recycled uranium, plutonium and tails uranium and (3) support a successful MOX business

  8. The BNFL approach to the vitrification of Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsden, A.

    1999-01-01

    On August 24, 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with a contract to provide services to treat and immobilize Hanford tank waste. The contract requires BNFL to design, build, and operate the facilities needed to treat the waste. The eventual commercial return from the contract is derived from payments made against fixed unit price for delivered, in-specification, immobilized waste. The baseload contract is expected to run from August 24, 1998, to 2018, with a contracted period of operation of 10 yr starting in 2007. Expected contract extensions could result in an ultimate contract life of >30 yr. Since the original authorization to proceed in September 1996, BNFL and its team of subcontractors have been developing the technical, operational, regulatory, and financial elements required to build their own facilities to provide waste treatment services for Hanford tank waste at fixed unit prices. This paper describes the approach proposed by BNFL to the construction and operation of the facilities needed to provide tank cleanup services

  9. Continuous improvement of the BNFL transport integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Management System of BNFL Transport and Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) is subject to continuous improvement by the application of established improvement techniques adopted by BNFL. The technique currently being used is the application of a Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy, involving the identification of key processes, benchmarking against existing measures, initiating various improvement projects and applying process changes within the Company. The measurement technique being used is based upon the European Foundation for Quality Management Model (EFQM). A major initiative was started in 1996 to include the requirements of the Environmental Management Systems standard ISO 14001 within the existing integrated management system. This resulted in additional activities added to the system, modification to some existing activities and additional training for personnel. The system was audited by a third party certification organisation, Lloyds Register Quality Assurance (LRQA), during 1997. This paper describes the arrangements to review and update the integrated management system of BNFL Transport and PNTL to include the requirements of the environmental standard ISO 14001 and it also discusses the continuous improvement process adopted by BNFL Transport. (authors)

  10. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  11. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  12. Implementing knowledge management in BNFL - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the work that has been done within BNFL Environmental Services over the past 18 months to develop and implement a Knowledge Management framework within the business. The paper provides an overview of the approach used, lessons learnt and achievements to date. The conclusion is that the approach has delivered a framework that is scaleable and repeatable in alignment with the business strategy and that the required change in behaviour has started. The BNFL Environmental Services KM Team is now focussing its efforts on revising the framework for application in the new British Nuclear Group Project Services business. The short term goals are to embed Knowledge Management in business processes and to facilitate the creation of dynamic communities that will support the formation of the new business. (author)

  13. Joint BNFL/DoE ILW development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.J.; James, R.A.; Higson, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed by BNFL that ILWs resulting from reprocessing operations at Sellafield will be incorporated in a matrix which will produce a waste product suitable for transport, storage and disposal. The broad objective of the programme is therefore to evaluate potential waste products arising from treatment of ILWs and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  14. Research and technology programmes supporting waste management in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhall, G.A.; Horner, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management is a major activity of BNFL in the UK and at various locations internationally. To support these activities extensive programmes of Research and Technology have been undertaken for many years. This involves practical studies involving active and non-active work at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Extensive use is also made of theoretical and modelling techniques. Current work is aimed at underpinning and improving current operations supporting the design and safety cases of new plant and addressing waste management activities of the future including decommissioning. (authors)

  15. The transport of radioactive materials - a BNFL viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief review of the international regulatory framework and its historical development, the principal priorities for the design and operation of a reliable transport system are defined and commented upon. The paper examines the reasons for the increased pressures upon international nuclear transport. It is argued that a key factor is the gap between 'actual' and 'publicly perceived' safety. BNFL's approach to achieving and demonstrating acceptable safety standards is described and proposals for broader international initiatives, with regard both to internal industry issues and external responses, are presented. (Author)

  16. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance

  17. Spent fuel surveillance at BNFL, Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.W.E.

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of irradiated nuclear fuels are stored in ponds in BNFL, Sellafield, UK, prior to reprocessing. Magnox fuel from the first UK power generating reactors has been stored and reprocessed since the mid 1950's, and stocks of irradiated AGR (Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and Water Reactor fuels are increasing prior to the start of reprocessing oxide fuel in the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) facility in the early 1990's. The methods of surveillance for each type of fuel are described. Underwater visual examination in ponds and more detailed examination in shielded caves are carried out. Limited surveillance is necessary for Magnox fuel as storage periods are short. For AGR fuels with longer storage periods the retrieval and element breakdown are described, followed by detailed metallurgical examination of pins and element components. The effect of water chemistry on corrosion performance of irradiated AGR fuel during pond storage is illustrated. The methods of confirming satisfactory water storage of water reactor fuel are outlined. The major results of surveillance of each type of fuel are summarised. The organisation of the work programmes is given. The paper concludes that, mainly through monitoring and surveillance, backed by experimental programmes optimum storage regimes have been developed for the various types of fuel, consistent with planned storage periods prior to reprocessing. (author). 1 ref., 14 figs

  18. Reactor decommissioning strategy: a new start for BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, P.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The key points of BNFL Magnox Electric's revised waste management and reactor decommissioning strategy for the reactor sites are enlisted. Reactors will be defuelled as soon as practicable after shutdown. Predominantly Caesium contaminated plant will be dismantled when it is no longer needed. Cobalt contaminated plant such as boilers will remain in position until the reactors are dismantled, but appropriate decontamination technology will be regularly reviewed. All buildings except the reactor buildings will be dismantled as soon as practicable after they are no longer needed. Operational ILW, except some activated components, will be retrieved and packaged during the Care and Maintenance preparation period. All wastes will be stored on site, and handled in the long term in accordance with Government policy. Reactor buildings and their residual contents will be placed in a passive safe storage Care and Maintenance condition in a manner appropriate for the site. Contaminated land will be managed to maintain public safety. The reactors will be finally dismantled in a sequenced programme with a start date and duration to be decided at the appropriate time in the light of circumstances prevalent at that time. Currently, the Company is considering a sequenced programme across all sites, notionally beginning around 100 years from station shutdown, leading to a range of deferral periods. For provisioning purposes, the Company has costed a strategy involving reactor dismantling deferrals ranging from 85 to about 105 years in order to demonstrate prudent provisioning to meet its liabilities. A risk provision to reflect the potential for shorter deferral periods is included in the cost estimates. The end point for reactor decommissioning is site clearance and delicensing, based on the assumption that a reasonably practicable interpretation of the 'no danger' clause in the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended) can be developed. In line with Government policy, and taking

  19. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, I.A.; Porter, I.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  20. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  1. Types of organic materials present in BNFL intermediate level waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation lists the constituents present in BNFL intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The inorganic and organic components are listed and there is a detailed analysis of the plutonium contaminated materials in terms of proportion of combustible and non-combustible content, up to the year 2000. A description of the Waste Treatment Complex at Sellafield is presented. The research programme for leach testing, sorption and solubility testing and decomposition of organic matter was outlined. (U.K.)

  2. BNFL's application of computer aided engineering to 'THORP' thermal oxide reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall-Wilton, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    BNFL are currently constructing facilities at Sellafield, Cumbria to reprocess thermal oxide fuel for U.K., European and Japanese utilities. Faced with a 3.5bn pound capital program to provide new facilities at Sellafield, BNFL took the opportunity to embrace the new computer aided engineering technologies then emerging in 1981. To give some idea of the commitment made by BNFL to the above many millions of pounds has been invested in hardware, and more on software and people. The 'THORP' (Head End and Chemical Separation Plant) project represents 1.5bn pounds. The introduction of computer aided engineering has provided a clash free design with full assurance that all materials and components used are compatible. Planning in the design offices in conjunction with an experienced construction management team enables the sequence of piping installation to be determined long before the construction teams enter the work area. This planning aspect has been significantly improved by using EVS (Enhanced Visualisation System). The use of supercomputing graphics facilities is stimulating demands from areas of engineering who have previously not sought to use magnetic data from a variety of sources. The result is mainly due to the data being easily accessible to users who have very little computing experience. (N.K.)

  3. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.N.; Ramsden, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's THORP Plant, which started active operations early in 1994, has contracts to reprocess 7000t(U) of fuel belonging to 33 customers in 9 countries in the UK, Europe and Japan during its first 10 years of operation. Contracts are in place or being negotiated, and further business sought after, with the expectation of extending THORP's operations well beyond the initial 10 years. An integrated data management service, for the fuel storage areas of BNFL's THORP Division, is being implemented to replace several, independent, systems. This Fuel Information Service (FIS) will bring the Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Safeguards Records together with the Operating Records into one database from which all Safeguards Reports will be made. BNFL's contractual and commercial data and technical data on the stored fuel, required to support the reprocessing business, will also be brought into the common database. FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the Materials Management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed oxide fuel manufacture and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  4. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.N.; Ramsden, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated data management service for the fuel storage areas of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL's) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) Division has been implemented to replace several independent systems. This fuel information service (FIS) has brought the nuclear materials accountancy and safeguards records together with the operating records into one database from which all safeguards reports are made. The BNFL's contractual and commercial and technical data on the stored fuel, required to plan reprocessing campaigns, has also been brought into the common database. A commercially available software package, widely used in warehousing applications and the food and drugs industries, has been used as the basis of FIS. System enhancements and customization have been developed in partnership between THORP Division, BNFL IT Services, and the software supplier. The FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the materials management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business, including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed-oxide fuel manufacture, and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  5. Internationalisation of the BNFL fuel and waste treatment plant designs the challenges and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.; Lomax, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1970's BNFL has considerably expanded its range of fuel cycle plants, involving an investment of over US$7.5bn (55bn Won). This has included significant development of its Sellafield site with a wide variety of plants and processes to deal with spent fuel and development of its fuel fabrication facilities at the Spring fields Site. In contrast to reactors, fuel plants are constructed infrequently and it is therefore crucial to 'get it right first time'. The achievement of high levels of safety has been an important factor in the development of these facilities. BNFL has applied safety criteria which are as stringent as any other international safety criteria in terms of the extent to which radiation doses to plant workers and people off-site are minimised from both routine operations and possible fault conditions. Because the plant designs are established and supported by robust safety cases they are capable of being licensed overseas. The benefits of this are lower financial risk and shorter project timescales, due to avoiding the high design and safety case development costs (typically of the order of 20% of project cost) which are incurred in the production of a 'first of a kind' design. This paper briefly discusses the role of safety cases in the UK licensing process and the principle safety standards which are applied to BNFL plants and shows how they achieve high levels of safety by comparing them with equivalent IAEA and US based standards. It illustrates how the plants meet or exceed these safety standards by using specific data from existing safety cases supported by operational data where applicable. It discusses some of the important features of the UK approach to safety and licensing and emphasises the need to examine safety provisions on a case by case basis rather than adopting a prescriptive approach to implementing design provisions if cost effectiveness is to be achieved

  6. The design, supply and installation of ILW handling systems for BNFL's new encapsulated product store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy for the long term disposal of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is to immobilise the waste by encapsulating it in concrete within 500l stainless steel drums. these will be stored underground when the respository has been built. In the shorter term, the drums will be stored in one of several modular stores, such as EPS2. This paper describes the design, supply and installation of cranes for use in EPS2. The remote handling equipment developed has led to many technological improvements of wider benefit in the field of remote handling equipment. (Author)

  7. The evolution of a LIMS (laboratory information management system). [Chemical analyses at BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    Changes in the world and United Kingdom markets for nuclear fuels during the 1990s have prompted British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to maximise cost effectiveness in its Chemical and Metallurgical Services department. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) was introduced in order to keep records of analytical techniques and equipment up to date by coordinating various computer systems. Wherever possible automated systems have replaced traditional, labour intensive techniques. So successful has the LIMS system been, that the team now hopes to expand into expert systems. (UK).

  8. Monitoring of beach contamination following an incident at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria in November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report jointly produced by RCI/DOE and MAFF presents for the period from November 1983 to July 1984: 1) the monitoring programmes and techniques used by BNFL, DOE and MAFF; 2) the results of the monitoring programmes; 3) actions taken as a consequence of the monitoring results; 4) an outline of the position at the end of July 1984 when the Secretary of State for Environment announced, after consultation with MAFF, the DHSS and NRPB, withdrawal of advice to avoid unnecessary use of the beaches. (UK)

  9. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliam, D.S. [BNFL International Transport (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance.

  10. Developments in safety and operations culture in BNFL's thorp reprocessing plant, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kett, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the best descriptions of Culture is 'how we do things around here'. In a stable organisation it is extremely difficult to change any type of culture, whether it is an operations, customer service or safety culture. To change culture one of two elements are essential. There must be either a significant external pressure felt by all in the organisation or a change in senior management, with authority to set a new direction for the organisation. BNFL had a unique opportunity through the commissioning and operation of the Thorp Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield to shape a new Safety and Operations Culture. Both the key elements for change were present. Thorp was a high profile flagship plant that had attracted multinational investment. It incorporated new technology. The workforce had volunteered to operate the plant. A strong senior management team was specially selected. The plant was being commissioned in an environment where there was significant opposition by 'anti nuclear' groups. It was essential to both BNFL and the wider international nuclear community that Thorp was commissioned and operated safely. A strong operating culture was developed with safety as the corner stone. The culture comprises three key components. Rigorous plant safety case and risk assessments before work commences and modifications to the plant occur; A high level of involvement by all levels of the workforce in both operations and safety matters; Strong supportive leadership which does not allow safety standards to be compromised and encourages open debate on how to improve. During commissioning and early operation of Thorp the robustness of the Safety and Operations Culture was demonstrated. On several occasions, despite intense commercial pressure, operations were halted until the situation was resolved both technically and procedurally. This paper describes how the Safety and Operations Culture was developed. The key factors for success include recruitment, team selection

  11. Doses to Terrestrial Biota in the Vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R

    2000-07-01

    Source terms and corresponding radionuclide activity concentrations in biota for {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am have been assessed for three semi-natural ecosystems in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Estimates of absorbed doses (mGy.d{sup -1}) have been calculated. Doses to key indicator species, Oniscus asellus (detritivorous invertebrate), Carabus violaceous (predatory invertebrate) and Apodemus sylvaticus (granivorous wood mouse) are discussed with reference to the 1 mGy.d{sup -1} level, below which it is postulated that no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem occur. Implications for the 'critical group' and 'reference model' approaches for a framework of radiological environmental protection are discussed. The need to assess the most highly exposed species is advanced. New research focused on the application of biomarker techniques as a mechanism for determining the interactions and effects of environmental contaminants on ecosystem structure and functioning is presented. (author)

  12. A new approach to the criticality safety assessment of PCM at BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sam; Kirkwood, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) arises as a solid waste on the Sellafield Site and is packaged into 200 litre drums which are placed into interim surface storage arrays. These wastes may also contain 235 U. The traditional approach to criticality safety has been based on ''worst-case'' reactivity modelling. This has recently led to a number of difficulties by implying that the 230 g (Pu + 235 U) drum limit is very important for criticality safety and the assay instruments used to demonstrate compliance with the limit need a high level of safety reliability. Also, the reliability and accuracy of the assay results of historical or legacy PCM became an issue. The new focus on substantiation of safety related equipment in BNFL has highlighted reliability shortfalls for the assay instruments. To overcome these shortfalls, additional operational practices on the PCM handling regimes were introduced to give increased confidence in the fissile assay results. These practices significantly delayed processing PCM waste stocks and resulted in significant additional operator dose uptake. Thus there were strong reasons to improve the existing approach. This paper describes a new approach to the criticality modelling of PCM. (author)

  13. Aerial and liquid effluent treatment in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of pound 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated in January 1994. Since then, the whole of the plant has been progressively commissioned and moved towards full operational status. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met, concentrating mainly on aerial discharges. It describes the sub-division of the plant's ventilation system into a number of separate systems, according to the volume and source of the arising and the complexity of the treatment process. The dissolver off-gas, central off-gas, cell and building ventilation systems are described, together with the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. In addition wind tunnel tests were employed to assist dispersion modelling of the gases as they are discharged from the THORP stack. All the resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. (J.P.N.)

  14. Metal recycling technology and related issues in the United States, a BNFL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, P.; Dam, S.; Starke, W.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials comprise a large part of the potential waste products which result from nuclear facility repair, refurbishment, and decommissioning. United States Government (Departments of Energy and Defense) facilities, U.S. nuclear power plants, and other commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities have large inventories of radioactive scrap metal which could be decontaminated and recycled into useful radioactive and non-radioactive products. Residual radioactivity and recycling criteria is needed to avoid the high cost of disposal and the waste of natural resources. In the United Kingdom, BNFL has decommissioned the gaseous diffusion plant at Capenhurst and has recycled a large fraction of the metallic scrap into the metals market. Other structural materials have also been released as uncontaminated scrap. U.K. release criteria for residual radionuclide contamination have been applied to these operations. A variety of techniques were utilized to size reduce large components, to remove radioactivity, and to survey and release these materials. These methods and the application of release criteria has a direct relationship to methods which would be applicable in the U.S. and in other countries. This paper will describe the specific U.K. technology and experience in the decontamination, recycle, and release of scrap metal. It will also describe the U.S. environment for metal recycle, including the volumes and levels of contamination, and the current and proposed release criteria. Comparisons will be presented between the U.S. and U.K., both in technology and methodology for recycle and in regulatory criteria for residual radioactivity and material release and for ultimate decommissioning. The paper will then provide suggested approaches and criteria for U.S. recycling and decommissioning. (author)

  15. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  16. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  17. The management of change in BNFL's UK group with particular reference to the restructuring of the health and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwood, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's UK group business involves reprocessing of uranium metal (Magnox) fuel, storage and dismantling of advanced gas rector (ceramic UO 2 ) fuel, waste treatment and storage, decommissioning and electricity generation. These activities are carried out at three sites in the North West corner of England and Southern Scotland: Sellafield - all activities, Chapelcross -electricity generation, Drigg - waste storage. Achieving fundamental change in a well established nuclear business which is highly regulated is possible and can bring large benefits. The keys to success are leadership and commitment from all senior managers, involvement of all stakeholders and communication. It is essential to involve the regulator as a stakeholder. (author)

  18. BNFL's advertising phase II: 'We understand that you are a successful scientific company, but what do you actually do?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskins, Louise

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Last year, I presented a case study about the development of BNFL's advertising strategy and the challenges which we overcame since its launch in 1995. The case study this year will follow the progress of the strategy's second phase. It will begin by reiterating the role of advertising in the communications mix and the distinct part we believe it plays in building and retaining a strong corporate reputation amongst influential audiences within the UK. Our advertising to date has aimed to define BNFL's role in the nuclear sector and so detach the company from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. The case study will briefly summarise how effective we have been in achieving this objective through the first phase of television and press advertising. The presentation will concentrate, in particular, on the development of the second phase which has involved the production of a new television advertisement and a press and poster advertisement. Having introduced the key characteristics of the company to the UK population during the first phase through describing key scientific achievements, phase two concentrates on BNFL's core activity - recycling nuclear fuel. The presentation will outline the various development phases including concept research, our tough negotiations with the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITC) through to final production, testing and media scheduling. Generating positive attribution amongst the UK population is obviously the key success indicator. Equally, we believe that it is imperative to share such communications activity with another key stakeholder - our own employees. The case study will outline the phase of internal negotiations and substantiation through to the methods we adopted to ensure that employees saw the television advertisement before the UK population at large. The campaign was launched on

  19. Demonstration and Optimization of BNFL's Pulsed Jet Mixing and RFD Sampling Systems Using NCAW Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JR Bontha; GR Golcar; N Hannigan

    2000-08-29

    The BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment and vitrification of the Hanford High Level Tank waste includes the use of several hundred Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs) for sampling and transferring the radioactive slurries and Pulsed Jet mixers to homogenize or suspend the tank contents. The Pulsed Jet mixing and the RFD sampling devices represent very simple and efficient methods to mix and sample slurries, respectively, using compressed air to achieve the desired operation. The equipment has no moving parts, which makes them very suitable for mixing and sampling highly radioactive wastes. However, the effectiveness of the mixing and sampling systems are yet to be demonstrated when dealing with Hanford slurries, which exhibit a wide range of physical and theological properties. This report describes the results of the testing of BNFL's Pulsed Jet mixing and RFD sampling systems in a 13-ft ID and 15-ft height dish-bottomed tank at Battelle's 336 building high-bay facility using AZ-101/102 simulants containing up to 36-wt% insoluble solids. The specific objectives of the work were to: Demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pulsed Jet mixing system to thoroughly homogenize Hanford-type slurries over a range of solids loading; Minimize/optimize air usage by changing sequencing of the Pulsed Jet mixers or by altering cycle times; and Demonstrate that the RFD sampler can obtain representative samples of the slurry up to the maximum RPP-WTP baseline concentration of 25-wt%.

  20. A new model validation database for evaluating AERMOD, NRPB R91 and ADMS using krypton-85 data from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Taylor, J.; Lowles, I.; Emmerson, K.; Parker, T.

    2004-01-01

    The emission of krypton-85 ( 85 Kr) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations provide a classical passive tracer for the study of atmospheric dispersion. This is because of the persistence of this radioisotope in the atmosphere, due to its long radioactive halflife and inert chemistry; and the low background levels that result due to the limited number of anthropogenic sources globally. The BNFL Sellafield site in Cumbria (UK) is one of the most significant point sources of 85 Kr in the northern hemisphere, with 85 Kr being discharged from two stacks on the site, MAGNOX and THORP. Field experiments have been conducted since October 1996 using a cryogenic distillation technique (Janssens et al., 1986) to quantify the ground level concentration of 85 Kr. This paper reports on the construction of a model validation database to allow evaluation of regulatory atmospheric dispersion models using the measured 85 Kr concentrations as a tracer. The results of the database for local and regional scale dispersion are presented. (orig.)

  1. UK regulatory perspective on the application of burn-up credit to the BNFL thorp head end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D.N.; Clemson, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    In the UK the Health and Safety Executive, which incorporates the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), is responsible for regulation of safety on nuclear sites. This paper reports progress made in the application and development of a UK regulatory position for assessing licensee's plant safety caes which invoke the use of Burn-up Credit for criticality applications. The NII's principles and strategy for the assessment of this technical area have been developed over a period of time following expressions of interest from UK industry and subsequent involvement in the international collaborations and debate in this area. This experience has now been applied to the first main plant safety case application claiming Burn-up Credit. This case covers the BNFL Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) dissolver at Sellafield, where dissolved gadolinium neutron poison is used as a criticality control. The case argues for a reduction in gadolinium content by taking credit for the burn-up of input fuel. The UK regulatory process, assessment principles and criteria are briefly outlined, showing the regulatory framework used to review the case. These issues include the fundamental requirement in UK Health and Safety law to demonstrate that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), the impact on safety margins, compliance and operability procedures, and the need for continuing review. Novel features of methodology, using a ''Residual Enrichment'' and ''Domain Boundary'' approach, were considered and accepted. The underlying validation, both of criticality methodology and isotopic determination, was also reviewed. Compliance was seen to rely heavily on local in-situ measurements of spent fuel used to determine ''Residual Enrichment'' and other parameters, requiring review of the development and basis of the correlations used to underpin the measurement process. Overall, it was concluded that the case as presented was adequate. Gadolinium reduction

  2. Proof of evidence [BNFL 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the fuel cycle requirements of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station could be supplied by British Nuclear Fuels Limited. It is demonstrated that any facilities which may be required in the future could be provided from established technology. Evidence is presented in support of the responses which the Company has made to requests from the CEGB for guidance on the charges it should assume for some fuel cycle services in a variety of circumstances. Reference is made throughout to the fuel cycle needs of other possible future nuclear power stations as postulated by CEGB in its Statement of Case. (U.K.)

  3. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udbinac, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  4. BNFL and education open-quotes Living with Technologyclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Following upon a report to a House of Commons Select Committee, the Chairman and Chief Executive gave an undertaking to better inform young people about the Nuclear Industry. This lead to British Nuclear Fuels plc formulating a Corporate education policy and the adoption of a concept open-quotes Living with Technologyclose quotes which slots into the new National Curriculum for schools in England and Wales. One year into implementation, the initiative is proving a great success and at the present time the launch of open-quotes Living with Technologyclose quotes to the education world and public is underway

  5. Novel finishing concepts within BNFL'S advanced reprocessing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, J.W.; Booth, R.; Lawson, S.; Parkes, P.

    2000-01-01

    New methods of converting actinide nitrate solutions to oxide and fabricating the products from the reprocessing of high burn up and MOX fuels are necessary for the next generation of fuel cycle facilities in order to meet dose criteria and cost reduction targets. Options to support this include never fully separating the plutonium from the uranium and reducing decontamination factors. The product stream from such a reprocessing plant will require a finishing route capable of significant levels of automation and dose minimization. Casting of molten uranyl nitrate into pellets followed by de-nitration under vacuum has been investigated as a novel way of manufacturing oxide fuel pellets. Pellets were successfully cast over a range of temperatures and de-nitrated. Incorporation of uranium oxide into the melt was investigated to increase the density of the cast pellet. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce extrudates from powder and molten magnesium nitrate mixtures. Results of a preliminary study of the flow behaviour during extrusion of magnesium nitrate simulant loaded with alumina powder are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Decommissioning of the gaseous diffusion plant at BNFL Capenhurst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, S.G.; Bradbury, P.

    1992-01-01

    The history of the on-going dismantling and disposal program for the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant is described. Reference is made to the scale of the project and to the special techniques developed, particularly in the areas of size reduction, decontamination and protection of personnel and the environment. When the project is successfully concluded by the end of 1993 over 99% of the materials of construction of the plant will have been recycled to the environment as clean material. (author)

  7. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Hesketh, K.W.; Palmer, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO 2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO 2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  8. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The comprehensive monitoring of radioactivity, which has been carried out to determine the exposure of the public to radiation resulting from operations at Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, is described. Details are given of the information arising from this monitoring. A brief introduction to the subject of ionizing radiations is included. (U.K.)

  9. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Risk targets and EDRP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1986-06-01

    A full description is presented of the extent to which risk is controlled by the targets to be implemented in the proposed EDRP design, including a discussion of a particular accident sequence. Risk expressions and the usefulness of risk criteria are reviewed. Details are given of the accident consequence modelling as used by the UKAEA. Terrorist attack and sabotage are briefly discussed. (UK)

  10. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Tucker, S.; Webbe-Wood, D.; Mondon, K.; Hunt, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  11. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP waste management (excluding gaseous emissions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes, produced as by-products of the operation of the proposed EDRP, is considered. The arisings of the various types of waste are discussed and an outline is presented of the research and development work being carried out in support of the management of the radioactive wastes. (U.K.)

  12. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Eureopean Demonstration Reprocessing Plant will be equipped with a comprehensive ventilation system to collect, and where appropriate treat, the various gaseous arisings from the plant as well as to provide a safe and comfortable working environment for the operators. The purpose of the treatment systems is to reduce the levels of those substances, both radioactive and non-radioactive, which would otherwise have an adverse effect on the environment if discharged without treatment. The ventilation system proposed for the main process areas and the associated treatment system is described. (author)

  13. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: the transport of irradiated fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, Leslie

    1986-02-01

    The experience in handling of irradiated fuel flasks by the British Railways Board is outlined. The steps taken to ensure the effective and safe transport of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste by rail are identified. It is concluded that the proposed rail transport link to the EDRP at Dounreay should prove practicable. (UK)

  14. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Safety aspects of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    The transport of spent fuels and radioactive wastes by rail, sea and air is considered in the light of the proposed EDRP at Dounreay. The frequency and severity of accidents and the risks and consequences are discussed for each mode of transport. (UK)

  15. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Del Rosario, G. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Q. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  16. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Contractor accommodation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.

    1986-01-01

    The availability of accommodation for contractors working on the proposed EDRP at Dounreay is discussed. It is predicted that the contractors could be accommodated without the need for special arrangement and with no adverse effect on the tourist industry. (U.K.)

  17. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The eventual water requirement for the proposed EDRP at Dounreay is estimated to be about 400m 3 /day. It is concluded that the additional requirement to the existing needs of the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment will have no significant effect on the total extraction rate from Loch Shurrery or on the operation of the present water treatment plant at Shebster. (UK)

  18. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: General environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Details of the existing environment of the proposed EDRP site and its environs are presented. An assessment is made of the expected impact of the construction and operation of EDRP at the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment. Relevant extracts from the Environmental Impact Assessment, published by the Applicants, are included. (UK)

  19. Index to UKAEA, BNFL, MOD(PE) AWRE and recommended external standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The principal part of the document consists of an alphabetical index and numerical index to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment standards, engineering and general stores. Also included are: an index to Engineering Equipment Users Association handbooks and documents, members' specifications, codes of practice and handbooks; British Standard Codes of practice (for building, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering); UKAEA Standardisation Committee memoranda and metric guides; and miscellaneous documents. (U.K.)

  20. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Safety aspects of EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The safety of the proposed EDRP is discussed, paying particular attention to the environmental impact in both normal operation, and in abnormal or accident conditions. The radiological exposure resulting from EDRP discharges during normal operation is estimated. Design measures for ensuring worker and public safety during both routine and non-routine operation are outlined. The strategy for considering unlikely but potentially more serious accidents in EDRP design is outlined. (U.K.)

  1. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP process and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of the process to be operated in the proposed EDRP, and of the plant and equipment in which the process will be carried out. The design and construction of new facilities to be provided on the EDRP site at Dounreay are detailed. (U.K.)

  2. Developments in support of low level waste disposal at BNFL's Drigg Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The continued upgrading of low-level waste pretreatment and disposal practices related to the United Kingdom Drigg disposal site is described, noting the need to take into account operational safety, long term post-closure safety, regulatory and public acceptance factors

  3. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: The transport of the plutonium and uranium products from the EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.W.

    1986-02-01

    Details are given of the design of a container for plutonium transport. The handling of the containers, and their transport, from the proposed EDRP at Dounreay, including security and emergency arrangements, are described. The arrangements for the transport of depleted uranium are briefly outlined. (UK)

  4. Implementation document in support of transfer of LLW from Winfrith to BNFL at Drigg: Pts. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of low level radioactive waste from Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC) to British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg is authorised under various sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. This authorisation is granted subject to a number of limitations and conditions which are specified in the Certificate of Authorisation. This implementation document shows how WTC intends to implement each of the conditions specified. Part 1 gives a general description of waste management practice at Winfrith. Part 2 describes how each relevant condition in the Certificate of Authorisation is met. (UK)

  5. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: PFR fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, O.

    1986-01-01

    A description of PFR fuel reprocessing at Dounreay is given, including brief details of fuel assembly transport, dismantling, chemical separation processes and reprocessing experience. The origin of radioactive wastes from PFR reprocessing, and the types of radioactive waste are outlined. The management of radioactive waste, including storage, treatment and disposal is described. (U.K.)

  6. Feasibility Study for the Development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy-based Sensor for the BNFL-Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.B.

    2000-07-27

    The Department of Energy must treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at five DOE sites. Technology development has been focused on the separation and removal of various radionuclides from the supernatant contained in the Hanford waste tanks.

  7. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Aspects of Dounreay safety and local liaison relevant to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumfield, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of safety at Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, including legislation, design safety, industrial safety and radiation monitoring procedures, are discussed. The arrangements for action in an emergency are outlined. Liaison between DNE and the local community, formal and informal, is summarised. (U.K.)

  8. Feasibility Study for the Development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopy-based Sensor for the BNFL-Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy must treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at five DOE sites. Technology development has been focused on the separation and removal of various radionuclides from the supernatant contained in the Hanford waste tanks

  9. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Port rail and road options for the transport of irradiated fuel and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.

    1986-02-01

    The technical feasibility and impact of the proposed transport links required for the EDRP site at Dounreay is assessed. The transport requirements for the proposed EDRP are outlined and the modifications/extensions to the existing systems which would be necessary are discussed. (UK)

  10. Progress report for 1983/84 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in paragraphs: introduction (arisings of intermediate-level radioactive waste); organisation and role of the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party; main objectives (to provide data on intermediate-level waste treatment systems and allow assessment of alternative processes); ILW process and flowsheeting studies; ILW product evaluation. (U.K.)

  11. Progress report for 1987/88 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DoE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, D.G.S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The objectives of the programme where to evaluate potential waste products arising from the conditioning of intermediate-level radioactive wastes/high-level radioactive wastes, and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  12. Progress report for 1984/85 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, D.G.S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The progress report from the waste treatment and disposal working party is concerned with the management of intermediate-level radioactive waste arising from dismantled fuel assemblies, cladding removed from fuel cans, sludges from fuel cladding corrosion, flocs from liquid waste, ion exchange resins and solid wastes generated during reprocessing. It is proposed that these wastes be incorporated in a matrix for safe transport, storage and disposal and the objectives of the study are to evaluate waste products arising from the treatment of ILWS and to develop techniques to check the quality of the finished waste product. (UK)

  13. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Review of the Scottish Health Service ISD report on 'Geographical distribution of leukaemia in young persons in Scotland 1968-1983'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, David

    1986-09-01

    The Scottish Health Service ISD Report is reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the statistical treatment of the data and its interpretation in relation to the location and frequency of occurrence of clusters of leukaemia identified in it. The sensitivity of cluster occurrence to the choice of sector boundaries and to the sub-division of the total time period of the study is considered, in general terms and by numerical experiment. (UK)

  14. Annual report and accounts 1984/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    All aspects of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) work are covered in this report. The company offers a complete fuel cycle service from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. Each of the operations undertaken by BNFL (on five sites in northern England and southern Scotland) is explained and illustrated with photographs and drawings. The accounts show that in 1985 BNFL employed over 15,000 people and had a turnover of Pound545 million. (UK)

  15. The safe handling of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A seminar was held by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers to discuss all aspects of the safe handling of spent nuclear fuels at Sellafield. Topics discussed were the design of vessels for BNFL's reprocessing plants, the automatic sampling of radioactive liquors, safety engineering and pipework installations. The commissioning of BNFL's fuel handling plant was also discussed. (UK)

  16. Sellafield - the achievements and lessons of 40 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.; Hexter, B.C.; Livesley, G.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's operations, which support a global nuclear fuel cycle business and serve many companies in Pacific Basin countries, have been the subject of refinement from 40 years of experience. Many of the Company's operating philosophies are consistent with the principles of sustainable development. The paper acknowledges the important role that the nuclear industry can play in satisfying energy demands within economies of diminishing natural resources and societies which are becoming increasingly concerned about their impact on the environment. It explains how reprocessing can meet many of the criteria of sustainable development through recycling and the optimization of resources. It describes how BNFL have reduced the impact of its operations on the environment through the treatment of discharges and the minimization and stabilization of wastes requiring disposal. The establishment of BNFL Engineering Ltd as an outlet to the world markets for BNFL's engineering expertise and technology is covered. The paper looks at the responsible approach that BNFL is taking to liabilities management ensuring that no surprises are left for future generations. BNFL's commitment to the present and future of nuclear electricity generation is illustrated in the extent to which it is committed to making it operations safer and more cost effective through investment in research and development. The paper describes BNFL's commitment to the development of its employees and to the development of the communities in which it operates. The paper considers how BNFL has met its many challenges and draws out examples of sustainable development in practice. (author)

  17. Annual report and accounts 1988/89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuel's (plc) (BNFL) operations over the year 1988/9 are reviewed. The financial position is presented and the accounts explained. These show that the year was one of growth. BNFL manufactures nuclear fuel and fuel products at Springfields near Preston, enriches uranium by a centrifuge process at Capenhurst near Chester, reprocesses and manages waste at Sellafield in West Cumbria and has a headquarters and engineering design facility at Risley near Warrington. BNFL also owns and operates two nuclear power stations at Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and at Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Each aspect of the company's activities is reviewed briefly and an overview given in reports of the Chairman and Chief Executive. Over 90% of BNFL's turnover is associated with the production of electricity by nuclear power. The government's decision to withdraw the nuclear power stations from the privatisation of the electricity supply industry has created uncertainty over the long-term position of BNFL. (UK)

  18. Profits before safety: radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Springfields Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Springfields Works have extensively contaminated the banks of the River Ribble in Lancashire. This contamination has been found by the Friends of the Earth Radiation Monitoring Unit in areas not monitored by BNFL or the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). BNFL have predicted that the amount of radioactivity discharged will increase over the next four years. This will potentially result in higher contamination and unacceptable radiation exposure of members of the public, particularly children. BNFL does not employ any of the available technologies to reduce the radioactive content of Springfields' discharges, despite its legal obligation to reduce discharges using the Best Practicable Means. BNFL argue that reducing discharges would ''price it out of the market'' but refuse to publish evidence to support this view. (author)

  19. Health and safety annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report on health and safety provides a review of the impact of the Comapny's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. New sections include safety auditing, emergency planning and health and safety research. BNFL operates five sites in north west England and southern Scotland. The head office and Engineering Design Centre is at Risley, near Warrington. Fuel is manufactured at Springfields near Preston, uranium is enriched for modern nuclear power stations at Capenhurst near Chester and spent fuel is reprocessed at Sellafield. BNFL also operate Calder Hall (Sellafield) and Chapelcross (Scotland) power stations and a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes at Drigg near Sellafield. Radiation sources and BNFL's radioactive discharge are first explained generally and then specifically for each BNFL site. Industrial and radiological safety within BNFL are described. (UK)

  20. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  1. Privatization and culture change: British Nuclear Fuels case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes and explains the process of organizational change experienced by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) during the late 1980s. BNFL went through a major transformation in management values and practices to survive in the new business environment characterized by government deregulation and fiercer global market competition. The paper describes both the historical and the prevailing management behaviour as well as the strategy utilized by BNFL's top management in their change process. The key factor in the process of change seems to lie in top management commitment and a fully integrated set of actions involving different sub-systems of the organization. (author)

  2. Health, safety and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The central theme of this 1990 Annual Report from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is that the health and safety of the public and protection of the environment are of primary concern. The report describes the fuel cycle for the production of radioactive materials used by the United Kingdom nuclear industry. Radiation protection measures undertaken by BNFL are explained as is their environmental research programme. Detailed attention is paid to the monitoring of effluent discharges into the environment and arrangements for radioactive waste disposal. The work of each BNFL site is described. The report finishes with a description of its occupational safety measures. (UK)

  3. Health and safety annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    BNFL operates 6 sites in the United Kingdom concerned with the nuclear fuel cycle. The annual report on occupational health and safety gives information on all aspects of health and safety within BNFL with special reference to radiation doses received by the workforce and radiation protection measures taken by the company. BNFL's safety policy is set out. Radiation doses to all workers have remained low. Other industrial accidents are also listed and its safety measures for transport, radioactive effluents and in the event of an incident, are mentioned briefly. (UK)

  4. AN-107 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AN-107 sample using sodium hydroxide and de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AN-107 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions.

  5. R. v. H.M. Inspectorate of Pollution and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.

    1994-01-01

    The British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant, THORP, has been constructed to reprocess spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield. BNFL have existing authorisations for the emissions of liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes relating to its existing operations. In April 1993, BNFL applied to vary the authorisations to start testing operation of THORP. As the emissions were expected to be covered by existing authorisations BNFL wanted to start tests before formal authorisations were granted. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) stressed the need for formal application and for public consultation. Greenpeace challenged the granting by HMIP of variations so THORP could be operated on several grounds. Greenpeace's application for a judicial review was dismissed. (UK)

  6. Internet - Workshop contribution proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, Janine

    1998-01-01

    BNFL first launched itself on the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1995 to give free access to information on the company and our activities to interested parties and to try and counteract some of the misleading claims being put onto the web by various anti-nuclear organisations. Whilst fit for purpose 2 years ago the current site has not been developed further and as a result does not reflect the image of BNFL as a world class international company. The current site has however enabled us to ascertain how popular and useful a BNFL web site is for all our audiences. We are now using this knowledge to redevelop BNFL's web site and are aiming to re-launch in September 1997 with a whole new look and style which will set a precedent for further developments in the near future

  7. Health and safety annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The principal activities and organisation of BNFL are reviewed in relation to the impact these activities have on the workforce, members of the general public and the environment, together with services for occupational safety within the company. (author)

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  9. Annual report and accounts 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In this Annual Report for 1990/91, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) considers the year's results financially and in terms of scientific innovation. BNFL produces nuclear fuel for all United Kingdom (UK) power stations and is thus, indirectly responsible for the 20% of electricity generated by nuclear power. Since the privatization of the electricity generating industry in the United Kingdom, nuclear power has had an unresolved financial and commercial status. BNFL has still not considered negotiations with their two UK customers, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear so accounts presented include assumptions about fixed price contracts. Public relations has become a major issue for BNFL and the work of the Sellafield Visitors Centre is described in detail. (UK)

  10. Providing solutions to engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connop, R.P.P.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL has acquired unique experience over a period of 40 years in specifying, designing and constructing spent fuel reprocessing and associated waste management plant. This experience is currently used to support a pound 5.5 billion capital investment programme. This paper reviews a number of engineering problems and their solutions to highlight BNFL experience in providing comprehensive specification, design and engineering and project management services. (author)

  11. Annual report and accounts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This item consists of the Annual Report and Accounts of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) for 1995 and a public relations document explaining the company's work in the United Kingdom nuclear power industry. BNFL has many years' experience in nuclear fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, waste management, decommissioning and transport of nuclear materials, and provides services to other organizations worldwide based on this expertise, making it an important export earner for the United Kingdom. (UK)

  12. It tells you where we want to go and not where we've been

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Louise M

    1995-01-01

    In summary, up to now, BNFL's current visual identity was, amongst other things, dated, fragmented, inconsistent and poorly maintained. Quite simply, the existing identity did NOT say where we were going - only where we had been. The research also revealed three interesting conclusions regarding BNFL as a company name. It was clearly a very strong brand but there was distinct confusion over the acronym BNFL and the full registered company name of British Nuclear Fuels plc. In addition, 'British' was felt to be too restrictive for a company focused upon a broad international marketplace and the word fuel implied we concentrate purely on the fuel cycle, dismissing our unrivalled achievements in areas, such as engineering, fluorochemicals and environmental clean-up. The solution was to promote the company as BNFL and de-emphasise the use of the full company name during all promotional activity. So, where did we go from here? We developed three options for testing. Firstly the existing BNFL logo, secondly a refined and more modem version of the existing BNFL logo and finally a complete change of logo. We were also keen to establish the strength of the three options in relation to other well known and respected identities

  13. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  14. Department of Energy: monitoring and control of British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was set up in 1971 to take over the nuclear fuel production and reprocessing activities of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority with the Department of Energy (as majority shareholder) being responsible for the monitoring and control of BNFL's activities. BNFL's activities include the production of nuclear fuel, uranium enrichment, and the transportation and reprocessing of spent fuel. Its major capital investment includes the construction of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) due for completion in 1992. This study examined the effectiveness of the Department's arrangements for monitoring and control and for safeguarding the Government's investment in the company, the arrangements for examining BNFL's capital investment programme and the extent to which the Department's main aims have been achieved. The examination was restricted to the financial performance. The National Audit Office found evidence to suggest that BNFL's financial performance has not kept pace with the general performance level of British Industry. Future success and performance will depend on the success of the THORP plant. (U.K.)

  15. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel from Japan to Europe in Japanese territorial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, T.; Inada, T.; Narahara, S.; Cheshire, R.D.; Lee, G.

    1993-01-01

    About 90 % of nuclear fuel irradiated in Japanese nuclear power stations is transported to UK and France for reprocessing. Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd (PNTL), a subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), owns and operates its own fleet of 5 purpose built ships specially designed for the transport of flasks containing irradiated fuel from Japan to Europe. These vessels sail to Japan on 8 to 10 voyages per year from the BNFL's Marine Terminal at Barrow in UK via Cherbourg Port in France. On arrival in Japan empty flasks are delivered to Japanese nuclear power stations, and full flasks are collected for the return journey to Europe. Whilst the probability of a serious flask incident involving the release of radioactivity is very small, it is nevertheless important to plan for such an emergency. In the case of an incident BNFL will provide an emergency response. If an incident occurs in Japanese territorial waters, the initial response will be provided by Nuclear Services Company (NSC), who are based in Japan (the head office in Tokyo, Tokai Office in Ibaraki Prefecture and Tsuruga Office in Fukui Prefecture) and contracted to BNFL to provide a similar response to that available from UK. This paper describes the communication links which have been established between UK and Japan and the internal communication within Japan. It also describes the emergency equipent held in Japan, the training of teams and the results of exercises jointly carried out with BNFL. (J.P.N.)

  16. Aspects of the relationship between British Nuclear Fuels plc and the U.K. regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, S.J. Throne, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is involved in all aspects of the nuclear criticality safety of the fuel cycle, including transport, storage, and reprocessing of spent fuel and manufacture of fresh fuel. Many diverse waste streams have been assessed that contain fissile isotopes and are destined for interim or long-term storage. BNFL has several teams of experienced nuclear criticality safety assessors employed in the robust demonstration of the safety of its plant design and operations. There is a safety-first culture within BNFL where adequate safety margins are fully justified. Within this framework, processes are optimized and designed to be convenient and to maximize economic benefits. Throughout all stages of the regulatory process, BNFL has an open and constructive working relationship with regulators, who are effectively seen as one of their customers in the companys efforts to produce fit-for-purpose safety cases. BNFL's proven track record of designing and operating plants safely enables regulators, in the company's view, to trust them to do their best to produce optimum design and operating strategies while allowing the regulators to concentrate on key aspects of a project. Any discussions resulting from their considerations are held in a constructive and open manner to achieve a reasonable consensus

  17. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  18. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed

  19. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  20. The Nuclear Industry (Finance) Citation Act 1977. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Act makes further financial provision for and in respect of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the Radiochemical Centre Limited (TRCL) and the National Nuclear Corporation Limited (NNCL). The Secretary of State for Energy may, with the Treasury's consent guarantee repayments of any loan made to BNFL or TRCL and the guarantee may extend to the payment of loan interest and any other payments falling. Immediately after giving the guarantee the Secretary of State must lay before Parliament a statement showing the extent character and circumstances of such guarantee. If an amount is paid in fulfillment of the guarantee the company concerned shall be indebted to that amount with interest at the rate the Treasury specifies. The financial limits applicable to BNFL range from Pound 300 million to Pound 500 million and Pound 5 million to Pound 15 million to TRCL. The Secretary of State may, after authorisation from the Treasury, acquire shares in or securities of the NNCL. (NEA) [fr

  1. Setting sights on the colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.K.; Reina, P.

    1993-01-01

    BNFL Inc. is the US subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels PLC, the UK's government-owned nuclear fuels manufacturer and waste disposal firm. To offset the shrinking British nuclear power market, the UK parent hopes its American offspring can win a big chunk of the domestic market as utilities and the US Dept. of Energy seek new ways to dispose of nuclear waste. BNFL believes it has a better mouse-trap, gained from the parent firm's 40 years in nuclear fuels reprocessing, and showcased in a $2.7-billion, state-of-the-art waste plant in Sellafield, England now waiting final permits. Because is owns, operates, and decommissions its own facilities and must show a profit, BNFL designs for minimum life cycle costs

  2. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1980-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.E.; Morrison, M.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published from 1980 to 1982 inclusive. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA), BNFL Information Series 15 (CA) and BNFL Information Series 23 (CA), which covered the periods 1895 to 1970, 1970 to 1974, and 1975 to 1979 respectively. After bibliographies and books and pamphlets, the main list is arranged chronologically under the headings, Reports, Journal articles, and Conference papers. Items omitted from the earlier bibliographies or received too late for inclusion in this, have been listed separately. There are author, report number and subject indexes. (U.K.)

  3. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from UK to continental Europe by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.; Hormann, E.; Rowekamp, M.; Elston, B.; Slawson, G.; Cheshire, R.; Schneider, T.; Raffestin, D.

    1998-10-01

    This document, prepared in the framework of a study for the European Commission in collaboration with the GRS (Germany and BNFL (United Kingdom), relates to the evaluation of the safety associated to the maritime transport of vitrified wastes from the United Kingdom towards Europe. With this intention, a travel of 1000 nautical miles (1852 km) was considered and a detailed analysis of the boat used by BNFL has been realized in order to elaborate a fault tree, for scenarios able to generate mechanical and thermal stresses significant on the transport packages (type B-packages). (A.L.B.)

  4. Expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Selling Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Kirsty.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes a trip to the Sellafield reprocessing plant arranged by BNFL for journalists. The train journey from London and the actual tour round the Sellafield site and visitor centre are described briefly. Several protest groups were encountered on the way but the point made is that in encouraging visitors to the site and explaining what is going on there BNFL is trying to be more open in its dealings with the public in an effort to inform, reassure and lessen mistrust. (UK)

  6. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1981 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1981. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  7. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design

  8. Fuel reprocessing and waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.; Griffin, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The currently preferred route for the management of irradiated fuel in the UK is reprocessing. This paper, therefore, concentrates on outlining the policies, practices and achievement of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) associated with the management of its irradiated fuel facilities at Sellafield. The paper covers reprocessing and how the safe management of each of the major waste categories is achieved. BNFL's overall waste management policy is to develop, in close consultation with the regulatory authorities, a strategy to minimize effluent discharges and provide a safe, cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal all wastes arising on the site

  9. Utilising the emergency planning cycle for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.

    2004-01-01

    As a world leader in the transport of radioactive material (RAM) British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and its subsidiary Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) recognise the importance of adopting the emergency planning cycle. The emergency response arrangements prepared and maintained in support of the International Transport business have been developed through this cycle to ensure that their emergency response section may achieve its aim and that the business unit is able to respond to any International Transport related incident in a swift, combined and co-ordinated manner. This paper outlines the eight key stages of the planning cycle and the experience that BNFL has gained in respect of its emergency response activities

  10. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  11. Operational experience with ultrasonic bolt seals for safeguards containment of multielement bottles in THORP spent-fuel storage ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, C.D.; Reynolds, A.F.; Jeffrey, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the operational experience gained by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) at the THORP spent-fuel storage facility in the application and verification of ultra-sonic bolt seals to light water reactor fuel containers and multielement bottles while in the storage ponds. Additionally, it discusses BNFL's cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Euratom, and Joint Research Council-Ispra to facilitate the development and design modifications of the remote-handling tools used. Finally, it summarizes the benefits, from an operator's point of view, of using the bolt seals as a safeguards/containment device

  12. Britain's nervous nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the nuclear energy business in the United Kingdom, with emphasis on the management of the industry. A brief history is given of the development of the nuclear power programme and the creation of UKAEA and BNFL. BNFL is responsible for reprocessing at Sellafield, fuel element manufacture at Springfields, fuel reprocessing at Thorp, and uranium enrichment at Caperhurst. The development and management of these projects are discussed with respect to export markets, competition in international markets, commercial skills, and public opinion. (U.K.)

  13. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Weedon, C.J.; McGoff, A.; Bower, M.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its decisions on the

  14. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its

  15. Main conclusions of a seminar on managing technical resources in a changing nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    The author recapitulates the different points from I Mech E Conference (Managing Technical resources in a changing Nuclear Industry -London, 29 September 1999), as following: UK position, BNFL Magnox and AEAT, UK view from BEGL, view from WANO, UK view from UKAEA, USA view from PECO Energy, and view from OECD NEA

  16. The design and operation of the THORP central control room: a human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Julie.

    1996-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield Site is now operational. This paper describes the Central Control Room (CCR), focusing on the control system components. Throughout the design, commissioning and operation of THORP, human factors played an important part. (author)

  17. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  19. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Fairhall, G.A.; Robbins, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  20. Progress report for 1986 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1987-11-01

    The paper covers progress during 1986 under the joint BNFL/MOD/DoE funded PCM Working Party studying the management, treatment and immobilization of plutonium contaminated materials. Development is reported under each of seven main programme headings including reduction of arisings, Pu measurement, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, liquid effluent treatment, sorting and packaging, PCM immobilisation and engineering objectives. (author)

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  2. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  3. The development of B.N.F.L.'S MOX fuel supply business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Brown, C.; Marshall, S.J.; Connell, M.; Thompson, H.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990 BNFL developed a strategy to become one of the world leading MOX fuel suppliers. This strategy involved the design, construction and operation of a small scale demonstration plant known as the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and a large scale facility known as the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). To support the development of these facilities, BNFL developed a new MOX fuel fabrication process known as the Short Binderless Route (SBR). Since the 1990 decision was made, the company has successfully built, commissioned and operated the MDF, and has designed, built and is in the process of commissioning the 120 t(HM)/year SMP. The scale of the business has thus developed significantly and the direction and prospects for the future of the business are clear and well understood, with the focus being on the use of BNFL technology to produce quality MOX fuel to meet customers' requirements. This paper reviews the development of BNFL's MOX business and describes the technology being used in the state of the art SMP. The paper also explains the approach taken to commission the plant and how key safety features have been incorporated into the design. Up to date information on the performance of Short Binderless Route fuel is provided, and the future development of the business is discussed. (author)

  4. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulston, D.J.; Baylis, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  5. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1991-07-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg.

  6. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fearnley, I. G.

    1991-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg

  7. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  8. Regulations and classification advice: transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.; Owen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The packaging of radioactive material for transport must conform with the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These regulations are extensive and complex and require specialist interpretation. Packaging must be designed to contain the material, to limit radiation to safe levels, and to maintain the material in a safe state under both normal and accident conditions. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) developed the TRANAID expert system to provide automated expert advice on the subject. It is used at BNFL and by other users internationally. The system was produced to meet an internal BNFL emphasis on accurate consistent and reliable interpretation of the complex IAEA regulations; and to provide a commercial product which would meet an external need. TRANAID provides reliable and consistent advice on safe transport procedures which reduce the workload on scarce skilled personnel, and allows them to concentrate on their primary task of packaging design. TRANAID also avoids overclassifying radioactive shipments, which would lead to the use of more expensive packaging than strictly is required. The IAEA regulations are applied internationally, and so there is a large potential worldwide market. The indications from the initial response are that future sales and use are expected to more than cover the investment. Other non-quantifiable benefits include the provision of consistent advice within a uniform approach, the safe-guarding of knowledge of the IAEA regulations, training and improvement in the expertise of users, improved management control, and enhancement of the professional image of BNFL. (author)

  9. Niobia-doped UO2 fuel manufacturing experience at British nuclear fuels Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.; Wood, G.A.; Perkins, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    BNFL Fuel Division has made niobia doped fuel for over twenty years in its Springfields Research and Development facilities. This paper reviews this experience together with feedback from successful in-reactor and laboratory tests. Recent experience in qualifying and manufacturing niobia doped fuel pellets for a European PWR will be described. (author)

  10. Annual report on occupational safety 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for 1989 and data compared with the previous year. Routine monitoring, non-radiological safety and 'incidents' are discussed and 'statutory' whole-body exposures, nuclear incidents, lost-time accidents, and types of injury are tabulated. (author)

  11. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearsley, Roger; Duerden, Susan; Bennett, David

    2001-01-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002

  12. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhall, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characterisation of sludges; initial evaluation of potential matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation. (U.K.)

  13. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Tokai Mura end caps arise when the fuel from the Japanese Tokai Mura reactor is decanned prior to fuel processing. Headings are: introduction (origin and arisings); waste characterisation; alternative matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal. (U.K.)

  14. Health and safety annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This 1989 annual report on Health and Safety in BNFL is intended to give the public a general review of the impact of the Company's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. The activities at Sellafield, Springfields, Chapelcross, Drigg and Capenhurst are outlined, together with sections on medical services and transport, and radiation monitoring of workforce and the environment. (author)

  15. Burnup credit in operations in the British nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.R.; Rice, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is involved in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the transport, storage, and reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuel. Irradiated fuel is transported from reactor sites to BNFL Sellafield in Cumbria, where it is stored in ponds. In the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), the design of the plant and the associated processes must ensure safe operation, and often pessimistic assumptions are made about the materials involved. Currently, BNFL assumes that fuel is unirradiated for the purposes of criticality assessment and takes no account of the reduction in reactivity known to occur with fuel irradiation. It is recognized that the unirradiated fuel assumption can impose substantial economic liability because the introduction of burnup arguments have the potential to lead to increased fuel transport payloads, increased capacity in fuel stores, increased plant throughputs, and a reduction in costly neutron poisoning. It is of prime importance that a methodology be established covering fuel identification, burnup quantification, inventory prediction, and reactivity calculation to enable BNFL to convince the regulatory bodies that there is an adequate margin to criticality safety in assessments. It is our goal to establish a route that will show that having taken all error margins into account, the operations are adequately safe, allowing for the irradiation of the fuel

  16. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The report of the (United Kingdom) Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee for 1982-1983 falls under the headings: introduction and summary; review of the year; current sea disposal - the scientific evidence; liquid discharges from BNFL Sellafield; intermediate-level wastes; high-level wastes - the state of research on the options; transport of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; future work. (U.K.)

  17. Analysis of transport logistics and routing requirements for radioactive waste management systems with respect to a minimum power scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1984-10-01

    This report assesses the transport logistics associated with disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL, in accordance with a 'Minimum Power Scenario'. Transport by road and rail is analysed, as in previous reports; use of coastal shipping however has not been included but has been replaced with a combined road/rail option. (author)

  18. Changing a basket case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howorth, D.

    2004-01-01

    System for corrosion monitoring of basket materials for dissolving of spent nuclear fuel in nitric acid by the THORP technology (BNFL, Sellafield), as well as remote chemical analysis of precipitations at surfaces of baskets by means of laser spectroscopy (LIBS) are described. Procedure for the change of corroded baskets by new ones from 310L steels is considered [ru

  19. Advertising is magic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskins, Louise

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the

  20. Criticality safety assessor training at British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunston, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with company policy agreed to in April 1986, graduate new entrants to British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield join a management trainee/appraisal scheme. The purpose of this scheme is that while doing a real job, the trainee should undergo structured training and be given the opportunity to develop both personally and professionally. As part of this scheme, each trainee has a structured training program that is devised to fulfill the requirements of the individual, the department, the site and the professional body to which the trainee aspires. This paper outlines the management trainee training/appraisal system and the structured training program that is used to train criticality safety assessors at BNFL Sellafield

  1. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; JP Bramson; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; MA Mann; MJ Steele; RT Steele; RG Swoboda; MW Urie

    2000-05-17

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K{sub d} measurements with SuperLig{reg_sign} 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  2. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  3. Atomic Energy Bill (Lords)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, M.; Barron, K.; Lloyd, I.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the Bill is to raise the financial limit imposed on BNFL from Pound 1,500 million to Pound 2000 million. Other clauses deal with the costs of nuclear safety research, technical amendments to the rules on insurance cover for third party compensation claims in the event of a nuclear incident. Clause 5 makes the necessary changes to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the international convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear incident (mutual assistance convention). The debate, which lasted over 2 hours and is reported verbatim, was mainly about BNFL funding and the increased cost of building the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield. However the general problems of radioactive waste disposal, reprocessing, the privatisation of the electricity supply industry and the disposal of nuclear submarines were also discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Introduction to Papers 3-5. The UK industry's strategy for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The waste management policies and strategies of the main radioactive waste producers in the UK, namely the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA are summarised. Three papers will be published in the Proceedings of this Conference, giving details, for the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA of individual policies and strategies outlining how they have developed and are being implemented. An overview of the strategy for each type of waste with some examples of the approach being followed, is given. The key elements of radioactive waste management policy and strategy are set down by the Government, in various White Papers, and the detailed Industry strategy is consistent with these, indeed it is determined largely by them. (author)

  5. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  6. Lifetime management of Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitton, C.

    1998-01-01

    Magnox Electric, which is, a subsidiary of BNFL, operates six nuclear power plants that have an average age of about 33 years. The procedures developed to maintain the plants and ensure nuclear safety in longer-term operation are reviewed. The technical limit on station lifetimes is expected to be determined by the effect of ageing on major reactor structures where replacement is impractical. Examination of the effect of ageing confirms that the stations are capable of operating to a life of at least 40 years. The economic factors affecting operation are reviewed, recognising the need to sell electricity in a competitive market. Recently Magnox Electric and BNFL have merged and all plant supporting Magnox operations are now within a single integrated company that will provide further opportunities for improved efficiency. (author)

  7. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy

  10. Annual report and accounts 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a complete nuclear fuel cycle service at its five sites in N.W. England and southern Scotland. This covers fuel manufacture (at Springfields), uranium enrichment (at Capenhurst), reprocessing (at Sellafield), reprocessing engineering (at Risley) and the operation of two nuclear power stations (at Chapelcross and Calder Hall). BNFL employs over 16,000 people and had a turnover of over Pound600 million in 1986. The report covers all aspects of the Company's work and is illustrated with photographs and diagrams. It highlights the work of some individuals who work in a variety of areas for the company. Safety and environmental protection are emphasised. The accounts are set out in detail with notes of explanation on the balance sheet. (UK)

  11. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  12. Development of a virtual training simulator for a challenging refurbishment task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mort, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The development by British Nuclear Fuels plc BNFL of a training simulator for a plant modification task, the Raffinate Project, is described. The Project involves the remote removal of a section of a vertical process pipeline, welding a new pipe to the upper part and installing a new cap on the lower part. The equipment required to carry out this task comprises a number of work heads, a carriage mounted manipulator system and ancillary equipment including 22 closed-circuit television cameras. The technology put together to create the training simulator for this operation incorporates virtual reality and graphic simulation techniques researched by BNFL's Remote Handling and Robotics Programme over the past five years. (UK)

  13. Annual report on occupational safety 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This report presents information on occupational safety relating to the Company's employees for the year 1985, and compares data with figures for the previous year. The following headings are listed: principle activities of BNFL, general policy and organisation, radiological safety, including whole body, skin and extremity, and internal organ doses, non-radiological safety, incidents reportable to the health and safety executive. (U.K.)

  14. The waste management of nuclear power plants - a genuine bottleneck?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    With the existing commerical operating reprocessing plants in France, Great Britain and Japan approximately 50% of the irradiated elements emerging world-wide can be disposed of by reprocessing with subsequent 'recycling' of the materials, uranium and plutonium. For the Federal Republic of Germany, all quantities of irradiated fuel produced up to the year 2005 will be reprocessed under contracts with either Cogema or BNFL with options for the period from 2005 to 2015. (orig.) [de

  15. Nuclear Industry Family Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a copy of the U.K.A.E.A. Question and Answer brief concerning an epidemiological study entitled the Nuclear Industry Family Study, to investigate the health of children of AEA, AWE, and BNFL Workers. The study is being carried out by an independent team of medical research workers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. (UK)

  16. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  17. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley Warrington Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  18. Conclusions of a study for the large scale melting of radioactive steel scrap arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This Summary Paper gives an overview of the feasibility assessment carried out by AEA Technology for the evaluation of melting as a waste conditioning method for metallic Low-Level Wastes (LLW). The assessment wa carried out on behalf of BNFL, Nuclear Electric (NE) and the Department of Energy (DEn) in a work programme started in 1987 and completed during 1990. The salient technical findings and economic arguments for the method are presented in this brief appraisal of the study

  19. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment, 1996. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL)'s 1996 report on radioactive discharges from its various sites and monitoring of the surrounding environments are described. For each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites, details are given on normal operations, radioactive discharges in gaseous, liquid or solid forms, environmental monitoring routines and collective dose and critical group estimates. The second, linked, volume of this report covers certificates of authorisation issued to the company. (UK)

  20. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  1. A harpoon for Greenpeace?: judicial review of the regulation of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, M.

    1994-01-01

    The judgement is reported on an application by Greenpeace Ltd for a judicial review of the decision by HMI of Pollution and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food to grant BNFL permission to test the new thermal oxide reprocessing plant. An analysis follows examining the issues relating to the process of judicial review in the UK and discussion of some of the substantive points raised by the litigation. (UK)

  2. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    2000-04-19

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters.

  3. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. HEPA filters are used on all THORP ventilation streams to prevent egress of active and potentially active particulate matter from the plant. Headings are: general information (origin and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation (U.K.)

  4. A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    Data are given about the cases of cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale Works, BNFL during the period 1950 to 1974. The number of cancers of these types expected to occur in the working population at Windscale has been estimated for the same period. For none of these types is the observed number of cancers significantly different at the 95% confidence level from that expected. (author)

  5. A review of the UK fast reactor programme 1997/98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the UK, the position on power generation from NPPs remains very much the same as during the previous year. The Sizewell B PWR and the 20 Magnox units continue to perform well. The 14 AGRs continue to operate with greatly improved load factors and reliabilities. In 1996, the last year for which full statistics are available, the 35 nuclear power plants supplied 83 TW(e)h, ie. about 26% of the total electricity production. The UK electricity market is now de-regulated and highly competitive. Generation by gas has risen to over 20% of the total (largely at the expense of coal) and seems likely to increase further. Restructuring of the UK Nuclear Industry, has recently taken a significant step closer with the agreement (at Government level) of the financial package which will underpin the process by which Magnox Electric will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of BNFL. The anticipation is that the combining of the financial and operational responsibility for the discharge of UK Magnox liabilities will provide clear incentives to maximise income from generation and to minimise liabilities costs. Full integration is expected to be complete in about 12 months. Meanwhile BNFL are to apply to take over the responsibility for the Magnox site licences and discharge authorisations. This will necessitate their relicensing by the NII and the granting of new discharge authorisations by the Environmental Agency. The UK continues to support the international development of fast reactor technology, mainly through participation in the European Fast Reactor collaboration. Work has been carried out by the appropriate organisations: BNFL, AEA Technology and NNC, with funding provided by BNFL. As in previous years, the main activities have been centred on the continued development of the EFR design and on the CAPRA programme, led by the CEA. The summary the main UK contributions are given

  6. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the UK results of the 1992 environmental monitoring programme carried out by the U.K. Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food's Directorate of Fisheries Research. The report is presented under the following headings: (1) tabular presentation of liquid and solid waste discharges, (2) BNFL plants, (3) UKAEA, (4) nuclear power stations, (5) Defence establishments, (6) Amersham International plc, (7) Channel Islands monitoring, (8) Chernobyl considerations, (9) natural radionuclides. (UK)

  7. Health and Safety annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Health and Safety Report for BNFL, data showing improvements in radiological and conventional safety are given. Other aspects discussed are emergency planning, the level of incidents, occupational health services, litigation and the compensation scheme, the transport of radioactive materials, research covering transgenerational epidemiology, mortality and cancer studies, genetics and radiobiology, and dosimetry, and finally a summary of radioactive discharges and environmental data. (UK)

  8. Analysis of irradiated Magnox fuel for fission product and actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, E.; Fudge, A.J.; Glover, K.M.; Wiltshire, R.A.P.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes the methods used for, and the results obtained from, chemical and isotopic analysis of four Magnox fuel samples of known irradiation history. The analysis of this material was carried out in conjunction with CEGB, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories and BNFL. The data obtained was used to evaluate the accuracy of fuel composition as predicted by computer codes such as RICE (Reactor Inventory Code). (author)

  9. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of the aquatic environmental monitoring programme performed during 1988 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's (MAFF's) Directorate of Fisheries Research (DFR). Radioactivity measurements are made in aquatic organisms and environmental materials in the vicinity of nuclear establishments including BNFL, UKAEA, nuclear power stations operated by the electricity boards, defence establishments and Amersham International. A summary of estimated public radiation exposures in 1988, relating to liquid radioactive waste discharges from nuclear establishments is presented. (UK)

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; ie Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross works; Springfields works and Ulnes Walton disposal site; Capenhurst works. Included is assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. (author)

  11. Bring in the experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the outsourcing of water treatment by the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.'s (BNFL) Bradwell-on-Sea nuclear power plant to Ecolochem to avoid the large initial investment cost and reduce maintenance costs. Details are given of the design of a cascade system to produce demineralized water for nuclear cooling by Ecolochem who own, operate and maintain the water treatment plant. (UK)

  12. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities

  13. BTC the UK focus for nuclear fission R and D in the post NDA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, T.G.; Carpenter, J.C.; Williamson, R.

    2005-01-01

    The BNFL Technology Centre at Sellafield, UK, will provide the focal point for nuclear fission R and D in the UK for the 21th Century. The facility provides a range of non-active, trace active, plutonium active and high active facilities enabling NSTS to support the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's remit to manage the UK's nuclear legacy and other requirements The facilities also provide an environment for academic research and foster the development of University Research Alliances. (Author)

  14. Annual report and accounts 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Annual Report and Accounts starts with the years' highlights followed by the Chairman's Review and Chief Executive and Company Reviews. After a general introduction to BNFL's: operations several aspects are looked at in rather more detail; fuel and engineering, reprocessing, technical and planning and corporate affairs including public relations and personnel. The Directors' and Auditors' reports come next, then the accounts with relevant balance sheets and financial statistics. (UK)

  15. Product evaluation phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Cumming, I.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: introduction (origin of wastes -the THORP dissolver liquor is clarified by centrifugation before passing to the solvent extraction plant; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; (colloids in the form of cake); initial evaluation of encapsulation options -evaluation of potential matrices for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  16. Chief Constable's annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the UKAEA constabulary, its personnel, administration and training, are all covered in this report. The crimes recorded at the UKAEA and BNFL sites are analysed. Traffic problems, transport and communications are covered. Miscellaneous police functions (eg lost property), the constabulary social activities and visitors to nuclear establishments are mentioned. The report ends with a policy statement on the aims and objectives of the constabulary. The report covers 1986. (U.K.)

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment for back-end facilities: Improving the treatment of fire and explosion scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunman, C.R.J.; Campbell, R.J.; Wakem, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear reprocessing facilities at Sellafield are a key component of the International business of BNFL. The operations carried out at the site extend from the receipt and storage of irradiated fuel, chemical reprocessing, plutonium and uranium finishing, through mixed oxide fuel production. Additionally there are a wide range of supporting processes including solid waste encapsulation, vitrification, liquid waste evaporation and treatment. Decommissioning of the site's older facilities is also proceeding. The comprehensive range of these activities requires that the safety assessment team keeps up to date with developments in the field, as well as conducting and sponsoring appropriate research into methodologies and modelling in order to deliver a cost effective, timely service. This paper will review the role of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) in safety cases for operations at Sellafield and go on to describe some areas of PRA methodology development in the UK and in which BNFL is a contributor. Finally the paper will summarise some specific areas of methodology development associated with improving the modelling of fire and explosion hazards which are specific to BNFL. (author)

  18. A lot of happy faces and a lot of hard work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Business is selling in ever more competitive markets, under continuous pressure to innovate, improve quality, reduce costs. The nuclear industry is of course no exception to this change. During 1994, BNFL continued to demonstrate this support and commitment to the community through a range of corporate, divisional and site initiatives, amounting to a spend of some 5 million pounds. This funding was spread across education and university links, employee secondment, community involvement and sponsorship and urban regeneration. The commercial activities of BNFL support jobs and generate income which benefits both local and national communities. However, the Company acknowledges that in order to play its full part as a good corporate citizen, it should put something back into the communities from which it draws its workforce and licence to operate. Thriving local, regional and national communities are good for BNFL, in terms of long-term survival, short-term income generation, general well-being and for staff recruitment retention and motivation. Community involvement activities should, therefore, be viewed as 'enlightened self interest'. Against this background, the first action from our strategy review is that the prime area for community involvement will be the North West of England as a whole, with the areas in which we operate as a major employer targeted for specific action

  19. Development and Presentation of the Drigg Post-Closure Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Eugene; Watts, Len; Grimwood, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Drigg is an operational facility for the near-surface disposal of solid low level radioactive waste (LLW). The disposal facility is located in Cumbria, north-west England, near the Sellafield nuclear site, and is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorisation granted by the UK Environment Agency. Periodically the Drigg authorisation is subject to formal regulatory review. The current regulatory guidance, 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' (the GRA) was published in 1997 and contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which the Environment Agency will consider applications for disposal authorisation. BNFL has undertaken to produce an updated Drigg postclosure safety case (PCSC) in September 2002 to support the next authorisation review. In preparation for this, BNFL published a 'Status Report on the Development of the 2002 Drigg PCSC' in March 2000. This paper discusses the main components of the Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case will be a systematic, post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However the main focus of this paper is on the other main components of the PCSC which are presented in conjunction with the PCRSA to make a complete and integrated safety case. In addition other confidence building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed, in particular communications with the stakeholders

  20. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  1. Formulation of engineering design principles for the treatment of irradiated fuel and associated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.; Taylor, R.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial scale treatment of irradiated fuel in the UK has resulted in BNFL developing extensive experience of the process design, build, commissioning, and operation necessary for successful nuclear processing plant. Much of the design experience now resides in Nexia Solutions (formally BNFL Research and Development Division) who have always defined and undertaken the extensive development programmes necessary to underpin the design at all stages of the project life-cycle. Since the 1990's, Nexia Solutions has built up a large portfolio of plant designs for a range of spent fuel applications, from fuel conditioning to partitioning and transmutation. In addition, by investigation of a large and diverse portfolio of technologies Nexia Solutions has developed innovative concepts for plant design that could present significant economic savings on conventional approaches. Using this experience and the lessons learned, we have developed and refined our own engineering design principles necessary for the successful design of commercial spent fuel and waste treatment plant. Our approach is to advocate an integral concept, with both science and engineering designs working in parallel during development. 4 foundation principles for success have been identified: -) understand the strategic objective, -) adopt a risk driven programme, -) engage in engineering activities early, and -) timely application of appropriate engineering methodologies. 2 Case studies presented in this paper: first, the BNFL segregated effluent treatment plant and secondly, the selection of a pyrochemical process for recycle of fast reactor, demonstrate how this approach has been adopted and the benefits that have been gained

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel manufacture and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power accounts for approximately 17% of the world's total electrical energy production. Over 30 countries operate in excess of 430 nuclear power plants with a combined generating capacity of more than 340 000 MWe. BNFL is a leading force in the international nuclear industry, supplying products and services across the complete fuel cycle business spectrum. These services and products include fuel and intermediate products manufacture, reprocessing, transport, waste management and decommissioning. This paper describes the processes involved in taking uranium ore as a raw material through to the production of advanced fuels and focuses on the manufacture and technology for both uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. As a light water reactor (LWR) fuel fabricator, BNFL is able to manufacture MOX or UO 2 fuel utilizing recycled uranium. This paper discusses the technology involved in the use of plutonium or uranium oxide recovered from reprocessing and other advanced fuel technical issues. Improved production methods and the application of advanced engineering permits the next generation of fuel fabrication plants to capitalize on advances in technology. The long-term research and development (R and D) commitments by BNFL are outlined in this paper, indicating the levels of investment needed in R and D to accommodate a high technology company in an international market. (author)

  4. The implications of plant design on the life-time costs for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphee, D.S.; Hexter, B.C.; Young, M.P.; Wilson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilising the experience gained during many years of design and project management of nuclear plant, BNFL is now approaching the final stages of the construction and commissioning of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in the UK. The paper uses the SMP project to highlight the benefits of these experiences, in particular addressing the implications of the approach to plant design on life time costs. In addition to providing BNFL with a state of the art, commercial scale MOX fuel fabrication facility, the construction of this 120 tHM/yr facility, which is currently in the advanced stages of commissioning, represents a significant demonstration of the design and project management skills of BNFL Engineering Ltd. As well as meeting the main process requirements, the plant design incorporates the highest standards of safety, together with input from the future plant operators and potential customers. As befits a commercial scale plutonium handling facility, SMP also incorporates material accountancy and security provisions that will meet all international requirements. Design, construction and commissioning of this complex and highly automated plant, has benefited from a totally integrated approach to design and documentation that considers not only project implementation but also overall lifetime costs. In addition, project management techniques, developed over many years of major project construction at Sellafield, have been utilised in order to ensure successful project implementation against a background of significant technical challenge and 'fast track' timescales. (author)

  5. Decommissioning program-sharing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheil, A.E.; Hall, M.

    1996-01-01

    When the current reprocessing programs are complete, British Nuclear Fuels plc's (BNFL's) Sellafield site will have ∼120 radioactive plants, all of which will require decommissioning. A formal program was initiated in the early 1980s and has expanded to reach the current level of 18 plants undergoing decommissioning and a plan of work stretching over several decades. In addition to these chemical plants, BNFL's decommissioning program extends to other sites in the United Kingdom, including fuel and enrichment facilities. The BNFL has been managing a huge program, including the technical solutions adopted to meet safety and cost targets, the interaction with regulatory bodies, and the management of the site work. Particular attention has been paid to the methods used to minimize dose exposure to operators and the minimization and management of waste. Novel approaches have been used for the integration of plant and remote equipment control systems to reduce demands on operators and improve productivity. Other aspects of the extensive development program have been carried out in support of decommissioning

  6. Low level waste management within British Nuclear Fuels PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the UK Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) classification of low level waste (LLW) as that material containing radioactive substances, other than those very low level wastes which are acceptable for dustbin disposal (less than 400 kBq in any 0.1m 3 (10 micro Ci in any 3.5 cu ft), but not exceeding 4 GBq/t (120 mCi/ton) alpha or 12 GBq/t (360 mCi/ton) beta gamma. The major UK source of solid low level waste is BNFL's nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. Additional sources include: other BNFL production establishments; nuclear power stations; United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority sites; Ministry of Defense facilities; hospitals; universities; radio-chemical sites; and various industrial organizations. A range of initiatives is being pursued at BNFL establishments to reduce as-generated LLW arising. These include: measures to minimize the amount of non-active packing materials entering contamination control zones (Sellafield); decontamination to reclassify waste as very low level waste (Capenhurst); recovery of radioactive materials for reuse (Springfields). The composition of solid low level waste is mixed and includes paper, wood plastics, metals, soils and rubber. Typically, about 70% by volume of waste as it arises is soft, low dense material

  7. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract

  8. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg: individual reports in order of building number. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An audit was carried out of the solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Sellafield and Drigg sites of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to establish the state of waste management. The audit was undertaken by a joint team of inspectors from the HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and HM Inspectorate of Pollution in line with their respective responsibilities for regulation of the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The report records each solid waste facility and the conditions of storage observed by the team. The report reflects the views of the audit team. It should not be read as the definitive HMIP or NII judgement of the site's performance on waste matters. This continues to be based upon day to day interaction between allocated site inspectors and site managers. However, the recommendations of the team have been endorsed by HMIP and NII and accepted by BNFL. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the aims and extent of the audit, the method of working and the findings and recommendations made. The reports on individual buildings are presented in Volume 2. These describe the waste management arrangements observed by members of the audit team. Where shortcomings are identified these have been brought to the attention of BNFL, and to the nominated site inspectors of HMIP and NII, in order that appropriate action may be considered to rectify the position. Where observations have lead to specific recommendations, these are indicated in Volume 2 at the point of arising. The recommendations are presented in full in Volume 1. Volume 1 also includes the overall conclusions of the audit and the recommendations which have been made as a result of the observations described in Volume 2. (UK)

  9. Two new research melters at the Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.R.; Coughlin, J.T.; Minichan, R.L.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) complex leader in the development of vitrification technology. To maintain and expand this SRTC core technology, two new melter systems are currently under construction in SRTC. This paper discusses the development of these two new systems, which will be used to support current as well as future vitrification programs in the DOE complex. The first of these is the new minimelter, which is a joule-heated glass melter intended for experimental melting studies with nonradioactive glass waste forms. Testing will include surrogates of Defense Waste processing Facility (DWPF) high-level wastes. To support the DWPF testing, the new minimelter was scaled to the DWPF melter based on melt surface area. This new minimelter will replace an existing system and provide a platform for the research and development necessary to support the SRTC vitrification core technology mission. The second new melter is the British Nuclear Fuels, Inc., research melter system (BNFL melter), which is a scaled version of the BNFL low-activity-waste (LAW) melter proposed for vitrification of LAW at Hanford. It is designed to process a relatively large amount of actual radiative Hanford tank waste and to gather data on the composition of off-gases that will be generated by the LAW melter. Both the minimelter and BNFL melter systems consist of five primary subsystems: melter vessel, off-gas treatment, feed, power supply, and instrumentation and controls. The configuration and design of these subsystems are tailored to match the current system requirements and provide the flexibility to support future DOE vitrification programs. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the unique design challenges represented by these two new melter systems

  10. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  11. The development of a commercial MOX fuel manufacturing capability in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphee, D.S.; Young, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL is implementing a strategy to establish a commercial MOX manufacturing capability within the UK. The design and provision of the fabrication plants is incorporating the considerable experience within the Company of MOX technology, fuel fabrication and nuclear plant design. The first phase of the strategy is complete with the successful operation of the Demonstration Facility. The development programmes supporting the increased scale of operation for a commercial scale facility are substantially complete. Design and construction of a 120t HM/year plant is well advanced supported by a substantial in-house design and project management team. (author)

  12. Fuelling a US reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, V.

    1989-01-01

    Within half a dozen years, US operators of nuclear power stations are likely to begin turning their backs on their own government's ideas about how they should get their nuclear fuel. Instead, they will sign up with private companies which want to supply them with uranium enrichment, the key service needed to turn natural uranium into the more potent types used in modern nuclear reactors. This change will be good news in particular for Urenco, the European nuclear fuel enrichment company one third owned by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The prospects for Urenco are assessed. (author)

  13. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, M.J.; Pitman, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    A report is given on the liquid, airborne and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Works and sites for 1982, i.e. Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. At no time during 1982 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the above Works exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. (U.K.)

  15. Decommissioning in British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning projects at the BNFL Sellafield site have been selected taking the following into account; the need to gain experience in preparation for the decommissioning of the Magnox reactors and for the post Magnox stage; the need to develop larger scale projects; the need to be cost effective and to foster long term safety. The balance between prompt or delayed decommissioning has to consider operator dose uptake and radioactive waste management. The ten year plan for decommissioning at Sellafield is described briefly. Currently decommissioning is of the fuel pond and decanning plant, the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the coprecipitation plant and the uranium recovery plant. (author)

  16. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  17. Nuclear energy. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1980-11-01

    The development of nuclear power in the United Kingdom is reviewed. The technical problems met in the Magnox and, later, in the AGR stations are outlined. The present programme of construction of AGR and PWR stations, and the relative merits of the two types, are discussed. A public information programme by the Electricity Supply Industry, the UKAEA and BNFL is discussed and the need to inform and reassure the anti-nuclear lobby on various aspects of civil nuclear power. The fear of nuclear weapons proliferation is also referred to. The ultimate adoption of the fast breeder reactor in the nuclear power programme is foreseen. (U.K.)

  18. Remote handling developments for inspection and repair of highly active reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Having the capability to carry out regular and comprehensive inspection of active plant can have benefits beyond the need to satisfy the possible requirements of National Regulatory Authorities. Intermediate inspection can provide qualitative data on the state of the plant, whilst regular inspection can provide quantitative data on which to base predictive judgments. Information of this sort can allow confidence in predicting the actual life of the plant as opposed to the theoretical. The following paper addresses the areas of plant inspection and repair by reference to specific projects either already completed or at an advanced stage of development at BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing plant. (author)

  19. Development and introduction of revised dose uptake criteria and associated assessment methodologies for new plant at British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to the start of 1995, the criteria defining acceptable routine exposure of persons to radiation on new or modified facilities on BNFL sites had been used, with very successful results, since the late 1970s. Following consideration of the performance of plant built to these standards, and recent developments in radiological and regulatory advice, a review of those standards was undertaken to determine whether any changes were appropriate. As a result, new design standards and novel approaches to design dose assessment were introduced in January 1995. This paper summarises the reasons for the change, the new criteria and the methodology that is being utilised. (author)

  20. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, C.J. [BNFL Magnox Generation, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  1. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented for an environmental monitoring programme performed during 1980 by the Fisheries Radiobiological Loaboratory. The programme was set up to verify the satisfactory control of liquid radioactive waste discharges from UK nuclear establishments to the aquatic environment. The results showed that all exposures were well within the ICRP-recommended limit for members of the public. Discharges from BNFL's Sellafield Site gave rise to the highest exposures. The collective effective dose equivalent to the UK population from liquid radioactive discharges in 1980 was 100 man-Sv, a reduction from 130 man-Sv reported for 1979. (U.K.)

  2. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  3. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  4. Irish Sea: British radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Aongus

    1985-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have recently taken the decision to invest several hundred million pounds in reducing the discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant into the Irish Sea. This report outlines the history of the plant and its operation up to the present day and its plans for the future. The attitude of the Irish regulatory authorities and of the public to the radioactive discharges is presented and the incidence of Downs Syndrome and certain specific cancer types on both sides of the Irish Sea is discussed

  5. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  7. NTL 11 spent fuel flask - meeting the challenge of regulatory and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, the NTL11 flask type will have been responsible for transporting a total of 1500 tonnes of heavy metal in the form of spent fuel. Excluding domestic transports in France and the UK, this represents 25% of the total European spent fuel transported for reprocessing since the flasks came into service in 1977. Approximately 40% of the total for the flask type will have been transported to BNFL's Sellafield facility, the remainder to Cogema at La Hague. The NTL11 flask can justifiably be described as being the workhorse of BNFL's European spent fuel transport business. The NTL11 flask started life under the ownership of Nuclear Transport Limited, an associate company of BNFL, and in recent years the original fleet of five flasks has been absorbed into the BNFL inventory. A recent build programme has seen a further four flasks added to the fleet, an expedient measure to cope with the additional transport requirements imposed by the need to meet the June 2005 deadline for the removal of contracted fuels from Germany. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting the package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet regulatory changes, or the challenges posed by the regulators. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible those margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. The NTL11 flask was designed around the reactor and fuel characteristics prevailing in the 1970's. Over the lifetime of the flask the responsible engineering teams have faced and met the successive challenges to develop the capability of the Package to face the changing requirements of the industry and the Transport Regulations. Both

  8. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1992-01-01

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  9. Leaching studies of low-level waste as input to radiological assessment at the Drigg disposal site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, J.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the period of operation of the low-level waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, several radiological assessments have been carried out. This paper discusses data requirements for such an assessment and in particular describes a project to measure the leaching behaviour of wastes. This project, jointly set up by the staff of BNFL and Environmental Safety Centre at Harwell, began in 1985. The objectives were to determine the processes operating within the waste disposal trenches at Drigg and conditions affecting them. The paper describes the installation and operation of the first of a series of lysimeters designed to simulate conditions in current trenches. (author)

  10. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  11. New position detecting equipment for use in radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.; Mapledoram, L.; Pater, L.

    2000-01-01

    Inductive proximity detectors are used extensively in nuclear facilities to provide status information on moving machinery. Most standard proximity detectors are sensitive to the damaging effects of ionising radiation, often failing at. relatively low and variable total doses. AEA Technology has developed a range of detectors qualified for operation in the radiation environments found in nuclear fuel-handling plants and around nuclear reactors. The development steps and resulting range of detectors are described, together with examples of applications using the detectors at BNFL's Sellafield site. These products give plant operators greater confidence in the data received and improve the margins of safety associated with their operations. (authors)

  12. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    A report is given on discharges and disposal of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Company Works and Sites during 1981. At no time during 1981 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes at any of the Works or Sites exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Similarly, environmental monitoring studies have shown that the radiation doses to the most highly exposed group of the general population were significantly lower than the dose limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  13. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasvirta, R.

    2008-01-01

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  15. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  16. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  17. Sellafield - a nuclear licensed site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, Phillipa.

    1987-01-01

    The report is based on the experience gained when visiting the Exhibition Centre at the BNFL Sellafield site and joining the hour-long coach trip round the site. The sights are recorded and a description given of the processes undertaken at Sellafield to reprocess the Magnox fuel and store the spent fuel from AGR reactors. The purpose of the main plant building, and the passage of the spent fuel through the various processes is described. Criticism is made of the safety record at Sellafield and a full and open debate on nuclear power is called for. (UK)

  18. Annual report and accounts 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The chairman's review summarizes the company achievements over the year 1986/7, especially having met all customer requirements by reaching every production target. This also gave improved financial results. Increased public support for nuclear power was also set as one of BNFL's targets. Each main area of operation is looked at: fuel supply, including fuel manufacture at Springfields, enrichment at Capenhurst and spent fuel management at Sellafield. The accounts show an operating profit of Pound 196 million on a turnover of Pound 792 million. (UK)

  19. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhall, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The site ion exchange effluent plant will remove Cs and Sr from active liquid effluents using Mud Hills clinoptilolite. Approximately 40 to 50 m 3 of spent ion exchanger will be generated each year together with 7.5 m 3 of filter sand. Headings are: introduction; characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  20. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Cumming, I.W.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste occurs as the product of the process to remove carbon-14 from the THORP dissolver off-gas using a caustic scrubber. The carbon dioxide released during fuel dissolution is ultimately fixed as barium carbonate. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  1. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Page, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies, which consist of fuel pins held inside a graphite sleeve by means of stainless steel support grids and braces. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  2. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas BWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  3. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsden, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has a policy for radioactive waste management which is to minimize effluent discharges to the environment, to safely dispose of solid low level waste as it arises and to provide safe and cost effective methods for storing, treating and preparing for disposal all other wastes. BNF:'s overall waste management policy is to develop a strategy to minimize effluent discharges, to dispose of Solid Low Level Waste as it arises and to provide a safe and cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal of all other waste arising on site

  4. Criticality issues in decommissioning activities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, S.J.; Harris, N.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1983 British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield has been actively involved in the decommissioning of its old plant, with 7 projects being fully completed, 6 projects in the practical phase, and 12 currently in the planning design and strategy studies phase. These projects vary from the dismantling of a single large alpha-contaminated glove box to the decommissioning of an entire 11-story building housing redundant reprocessing facilities. This paper provides an overview of the facilities involved and highlights the criticality issues that have been addressed for safety to support the decommissioning activities

  5. The evolution of a LIMS [laboratory information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the world and United Kingdom markets for nuclear fuels during the 1990s have prompted British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to maximise cost effectiveness in its Chemical and Metallurgical Services department. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) was introduced in order to keep records of analytical techniques and equipment up to date by coordinating various computer systems. Wherever possible automated systems have replaced traditional, labour intensive techniques. So successful has the LIMS system been, that the team now hopes to expand into expert systems. (UK)

  6. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  7. The risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The author concentrates on an epidemiological investigation on the increased incidence of leukaemia in young people of age 0∼24 years old in the years of 1963∼1992 in Seascale, a Village near the BNFL reprocessing plant at Sellafield on the north-west coast of England. A comparison of this incidence is made with that revealed in regions of other similar nuclear establishments. It has been concluded that the increased incidence of leukaemia in young people in Seascale can not be imputed to any single factor, but interaction between different factor cannot be ruled out

  8. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  9. Novel uses of magnetic separation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, B.T.

    1999-08-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) has been investigated in the nuclear industry, for the application of advanced technology in present and future nuclear environments within BNFL. Previous applications of HGMS have been reviewed and future novel applications investigated. The two most promising applications were then chosen as the focus of the PhD. In the first project, HGMS has been used to selectively recover biologically precipitated iron sulphide (Fe 1-x S) particles containing heavy metal ions, from a BNFL soil remediation effluent stream. The uptake of the ions is believed to be a consequence of the bacterial metabolism and the adsorptive properties of the iron sulphide. Biologically precipitated iron sulphide is known to differ in structure to its chemically precipitated equivalent and as such has certain advantages, for example, increased adsorbent properties and magnetic properties. The HGMS system was optimised and its performance investigated as a function of the magnetic field, the flow rate and the concentration of the biological particles in solution, with time. Results have shown that an efficiency of over 95% can be obtained, proving that HGMS is a valuable method for the concentration of metal ions from contaminated soils, especially when the adsorbed heavy metals are toxic or even radioactive and difficult to handle by other means. In the second project, the removal out of solution of radioactive technetium, in the form of the pertechnate ion [TcO 4 - ] was investigated. This was achieved using ion exchange techniques, Liquid Scintillation Counting LSC and HGMS. (author)

  10. Efficient heterogeneous execution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations on a Beowulf cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, David; Hulse, Paul; Cooper, Andrew; Smith, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has been done in using a high-performance 'Beowulf' cluster computer system for the efficient distribution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations. This has enabled the rapid solution of complex shielding problems at low cost and with greater modularity and scalability than traditional platforms. The work has shown that a simple approach to distributing the workload is as efficient as using more traditional techniques such as PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). In addition, when used in an operational setting this technique is fairer with the use of resources than traditional methods, in that it does not tie up a single computing resource but instead shares the capacity with other tasks. These developments in computing technology have enabled shielding problems to be solved that would have taken an unacceptably long time to run on traditional platforms. This paper discusses the BNFL Beowulf cluster and a number of tests that have recently been run to demonstrate the efficiency of the asynchronous technique in running the MCBEND program. The BNFL Beowulf currently consists of 84 standard PCs running RedHat Linux. Current performance of the machine has been estimated to be between 40 and 100 Gflop s(-1). When the whole system is employed on one problem up to four million particles can be tracked per second. There are plans to review its size in line with future business needs.

  11. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  12. A large decommissioning project with added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is a centerpiece for the Department of Energy's Reindustrialization program, which seeks to convert formerly used facilities for broad, industrial purposes. BNFL and its partners have been charged with the decommissioning and decontamination of three large gaseous diffusion buildings. BNFL's prior experience with a similar site, Capenhurst, in the United Kingdom was successful in reducing the quantities and costs of low level wastes for disposal. In that program, over 99% of 160,000 tonnes of surface-contaminated materials were safely and cost-effectively treated. Resulting materials could thus be recycled for complete unrestricted re-use within the UK. Decommissioning and decontamination at the ETTP site will be informed by the prior experience and lessons learned. Specialized technologies and approaches developed at Capenhurst will find expression at ETTP. The result will be safe, cost-effective techniques that permit maximum recycle and further use of presently contaminated buildings for industrial purposes. (author)

  13. Status of spent fuel management in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction following the completion of the Sizewell B PWR. The Government's reviews of nuclear energy policy and radioactive waste management policy have been published following a public consultation procedure, largely with an endorsement of current policies. Nuclear Electric plc (NE) and Scottish Nuclear Limited's (SNL) AGR and PWR stations are to be privatised as two subsidiaries of a holding company, and it is planned that the Magnox stations and their liabilities will be kept in the public sector, initially in a stand alone company but ultimately integrated with BNFL. Prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue. NE and SNL have signed contracts for extensive reprocessing of AGR fuel. In addition, SNL has agreed contractual arrangements with BNFL for long term storage of its remaining overlife arisings of AGR fuel and has therefore on commercial ground opted not to dry store their fuel at the reactor site. NE have not yet made a decision on the fate of their AGR fuel not covered by existing reprocessing contracts. No option selection has taken place for PWR fuel. Following the closure of the Dounreay PFR and the withdrawal from the EFR project, the option of recycle of plutonium in fast reactors has been suspended. (author)

  14. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E's perspective on how these systems will operate

  15. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  16. Efficient heterogeneous execution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations on a Beowulf cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, D.; Hulse, P.; Cooper, A.; Smith, N.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has been done in using a high-performance 'Beowulf' cluster computer system for the efficient distribution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations. This has enabled the rapid solution of complex shielding problems at low cost and with greater modularity and scalability than traditional platforms. The work has shown that a simple approach to distributing the workload is as efficient as using more traditional techniques such as PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). In addition, when used in an operational setting this technique is fairer with the use of resources than traditional methods, in that it does not tie up a single computing resource but instead shares the capacity with other tasks. These developments in computing technology have enabled shielding problems to be solved that would have taken an unacceptably long time to run on traditional platforms. This paper discusses the BNFL Beowulf cluster and a number of tests that have recently been run to demonstrate the efficiency of the asynchronous technique in running the MCBEND program. The BNFL Beowulf currently consists of 84 standard PCs running RedHat Linux. Current performance of the machine has been estimated to be between 40 and 100 Gflop s -1 . When the whole system is employed on one problem up to four million particles can be tracked per second. There are plans to review its size in line with future business needs. (authors)

  17. Development and optimisation of generic decommissioning strategies for civil Magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, G.; Hebditch, D.; Meek, N.; Patel, A.; Reeve, P.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL Environmental Services has formulated updated proposals for the use of decision analysis in the development of decommissioning strategy. The proposals are based on the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions manual for practitioners on multi-criteria analysis, specifically multi-criteria decision analysis, as suited to complex problems with a mixture of monetary and non-monetary objectives. They take account of up-to-date academic methodology, the newly issued BNFL decision analysis framework for environmental decisions and a wide variety of other engineering, optioneering and optimisation processes. The paper also summarises legislative and company policy areas of importance to decommissioning strategy development. Higher-level generic reactor and site remediation strategies already exist. At the lower level, various generic decommissioning reference processes and project options need development. For the past year, Environmental Services has held responsibility to respond to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorates' quinquennial review, develop and maintain up-to-date strategies, institute the review of a selected number of key strategies, and respond to changing circumstances including stakeholder views. Environmental Services is performing a range of generic studies for selection of strategies and end-points as used for a variety of waste management and site care and maintenance preparations. (author)

  18. Transuranium removal from Hanford high level waste simulants using sodium permanganate and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Rosencrance, S.W.; Nash, C.A.; Fonduer, F.F.; Di Pirete, D.P.; Di Prete, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium and americium are present in the Hanford high level liquid waste complexant concentrate (CC) due to the presence of complexing agents including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), tributylphosphate (TBP), hydroxyethylene diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, glycolic acid, and sodium gluconate. The transuranic concentrations approach 600 nCi/g and require processing prior to encapsulation into low activity glass. BNFL's (British Nuclear Fuels Limited's) original process was a ferric co-precipitation method based on earlier investigations by Herting and Orth, et al. Furthermore, flocculation and precipitation are widely used for clarification in municipal water treatment. Co-precipitation of Np, Am, and Pu with ferric hydroxide is also used within an analytical method for the sum of those analytes. Tests to evaluate BNFL's original precipitation process indicated the measured decontamination factors (DFs) and filter fluxes were too low. Therefore, an evaluation of alternative precipitation agents to replace ferric ion was undertaken. Agents tested included various transition metals, lanthanide elements, uranium species, calcium, strontium, and permanganate

  19. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  20. Outline of R and D on the receiving storage facility for returned vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakoshi, Shiunichi

    1983-01-01

    The construction of the second reprocessing plant is planned by the Nuclear Fuel Service Co., and the start of operation is scheduled in 1990. Till then, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel generated in Japanese nuclear power plants is carried out in COGEMA of France and BNFL of Great Britain. Recently, the specification of returned solidified bodies was shown by COGEMA. Accordingly, it is considered that COGEMA and BNFL request Japan to accept these radioactive wastes, and the establishment of the accepting system is urgently needed. The vitrified package of high level radioactive liquid waste is dangerous for long years because of large amount of heat generation and high radioactivity. Therefore, the establishment of its safe and strict management system for long term is the indispensable requirement for Japan. The returned solidified bodies reprocessed in foreign countries, the method of development and investigation, the basic concept of the acceptance and storage facility for the returned solidified bodies, and the facility for the development and investigation of the system are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Policy and some problems on the return waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generated at the time of reprocessing the spent fuel from the nuclear power stations in Japan in the reprocessing companies in Great Britain and France are expected to be returned to Japan in 1990 and later. The specification of returned wastes will be presented by the reprocessing companies in 1981, but in order to approve it, it is necessary to obtain the perspective whether the transport, acceptance and handling, and storage of the wastes can be carried out safely or not. First, the plan for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the nuclear power stations in Japan is shown. Next, the features in the new contracts on reprocessing with BNFL and COGEMA are explained. Electric power companies are jointly examining the concept about the quantity to be generated, properties, transport, storage and disposal of the returned wastes, based on the informations from COGEMA. The facilities in the reprocessing plants of BNFL and COGEMA, and the kinds and quantities of the wastes to be returned are outlined. The long term scenario of returned waste management, the transport and storage of returned wastes, and the examination on the rate of waste content and the soundness of high level glass solidified bodies, the stability of glass solidified bodies, the material of canisters and low and medium level wastes, and the final disposal of returned wastes are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc

  3. The development of an ergonomics standard for the design of operator interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, B.; Reed, J.; Litherland, M.

    1990-01-01

    BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)

  4. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 2: Solid waste retrieval facilities -- Phase 1, detail design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 2 provides the complete set of the Detail Design drawings along with a listing of the drawings. Once approved by WHC, these drawings will be issued and baselined for the Title 3 construction effort.

  5. Nested Fixed-Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks

  6. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossney, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  7. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters

  8. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  9. Safety Case for Safe-store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Magnox Electric plc (Magnox), a wholly owned subsidiary of BNFL, owns 26 gas-cooled, graphite-moderated units on 11 sites in the UK. Eight units have been permanently shutdown and the remainder will shut this decade in a currently declared closure programme. The first of these reactors went to power in 1952 and the fleet has generated typically 9% of the UK's electricity during the last five decades. In accordance with UK Government policy, BNFL aims for a systematic and progressive reduction in hazards on its decommissioning sites. The end-point of the decommissioning process is that the reactors will be dismantled and their sites de-licensed. This will be done through minimising both the risks to the public, workers and the environment and also the lifetime cost, consistent with world class safety. There will be passive safe storage during deferment periods and it is BNFL's clear intent that the reactors will not be Safe-stored indefinitely. The main hazard associated with any decommissioned nuclear site is the spent fuel. Hence the reactors will be de-fuelled as soon as practicable after shutdown. After this work is complete, Cs-137 contaminated plant (e.g. fuel pools, effluent plant, and drains) will be dismantled when it is no longer needed. All other plant and buildings will also be dismantled when they are no longer needed, except for the reactor buildings which will be put into passive safe storage. Co-60 contaminated plant, such as steam generators, will be dismantled with the reactors. The reactors will be dismantled in a sequenced programme, with a notional start time around 100 years from shutdown. Magnox Electric is ensuring that the reactors and primary circuits on all its sites are well characterised. We have carried out a detailed, peer reviewed hazard identification on the lead site from which we have generated a rolling 25-year basic safety case. We have then searched for cliff edge effects and possible long-term changes to generate the 100-year

  10. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % 235 U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 rods containing 4.31 wt % 235 U and 2 wt % PuO 2 in natural UO 2 respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in 235 U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel

  11. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  12. Recycled uranium: An advanced fuel for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.J.; Marsh, G.; Wash, M.R.; Inch, W.W.

    1999-01-01

    The use of recycled uranium (RU) fuel offers significant benefits to CANDU reactor operators particularly if used in conjunction with advanced fuel bundle designs that have enhanced performance characteristics. Furthermore, these benefits can be realised using existing fuel production technologies and practices and with almost negligible change to fuel receipt and handling procedures at the reactor. The paper will demonstrate that the supply of RU as a ceramic-grade UO 2 powder will increasingly become available as a secure option to virgin natural uranium and slightly enriched uranium(SEU). In the context of RU use in Canadian CANDU reactors, existing national and international transport regulations and arrangements adequately allow all material movements between the reprocessor, RU powder supplier, Canadian CANDU fuel manufacturer and Canadian CANDU reactor operator. Studies have been undertaken of the impact on personnel dose during fuel manufacturing operations from the increased specific activity of the RU compared to natural uranium. These studies have shown that this impact can be readily minimised without significant cost penalty to the acceptable levels recognised in modem standards for fuel manufacturing operations. The successful and extensive use of RU, arising from spent Magnox fuel, in British Energy's Advanced Gas-Cooled reactors is cited as relevant practical commercial scale experience. The CANFLEX fuel bundle design has been developed by AECL (Canada) and KAERI (Korea) to facilitate the achievement of higher bum-ups and greater fuel performance margins necessary if the full economic potential of advanced CANDU fuel cycles are to be achieved. The manufacture of a CANFLEX fuel bundle containing RU pellets derived from irradiated PWR fuel reprocessed in the THORP plant of BNFL is described. This provided a very practical verification of dose modelling calculations and also demonstrated that the increase of external activity is unlikely to require any

  13. Changing patterns of radionuclide distribution in Irish Sea subtidal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David G.; Kershaw, Peter J.; McMahon, Ciara A.; Milodowski, Antoni E.; Murray, Michael; Hunt, G. John

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the distribution of long-lived radionuclides in Irish Sea subtidal sediments, contaminated as a result of the BNFL Sellafield discharges. The results from different sampling campaigns in 1999 have been combined to assess the extent of radionuclide mobility relative to earlier surveys, in both the eastern and western Irish Sea areas, and to investigate changes in radionuclide distribution over time. The results appear to confirm the trend of continuing re-distribution and transfer of contamination away from the English coast. West of the Isle of Man, radionuclide concentrations and inventories have remained more or less constant. The inventory of radionuclides in sandy sediments in the eastern Irish Sea is still under-represented by current sampling, but could be improved by deeper and more extensive vibrocoring

  14. Optimization study and preliminary design for Latina NPP early core retrieval and reactor dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macci, E.; Zirpolo, S.; Imparato, A.; Cacace, A.; Parry, D.; Walkden, P.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, an agreement was established between Sogin and BNFL to enable the two companies to co-operate, using their specific experiences in the decommissioning field, for the benefit of projects in Italy, the United Kingdom and for third markets. A decommissioning strategy for the Latina NPP was initially developed in a Phase 1 Study which produced a conceptual design for the decommissioning of the reactor. This study was completed in June 2000. Since then, a second study has been completed, which has further developed the strategy and produced preliminary designs for the early dismantling of the core and reactor building at Latina. The engineering and safety data were produced in order to support Sogin in the preparation of a safety case for plant decommissioning. This safety case was submitted to the Italian Regulator, ANPA, in February 2002. (author)

  15. Developments in shielding and criticality assessment for cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watmough, M.H.; Cooper, A.J.; Croxford, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent highlights from the shielding and criticality methods development programme that are of relevance to cask design. Specifically, the following points emerge: 1) the preparation of a licence application based upon UK methods and data used in a standardized fissile depletion and plutonium production model has been completed; 2) the assumptions used in the modelling of granules of broken fuel within the transport package following a postulated impact accident have been revised thereby allowing less pessimistic assessments to be performed; 3) enhancements are being made to the software used for shielding and criticality analysis enabling a more cost effective design service to be provided. These ongoing developments clearly show the activity to extend the scope of assessments while increasing the physical realism of the models. Through these developments BNFL continues to offer a comprehensive and cost effective shielding and criticality analysis service as part of its worldwide fuel transport business. (J.P.N.)

  16. Statement of nuclear incidents at nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    Three incidents were reported in April-June 1993. The first was on the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) site at Sellafield and concerned leakage of 0.5 TBq of alpha activity from plutonium contaminated waste stored in a steel drum. This was subsequently double contained and moved so it could be inspected regularly. No contamination of personnel occurred. The second concerned the leakage of thorium liquor from a pipe at the UKAEA's Thorium reprocessing plant at Dounreay. Two temporary repairs were made and no personnel were contaminated. The third was at the Sellafield site where a small quantity (5 mls) of plutonium containing liquor had leaked from a package and released alpha activity. The bags were temporary containment of engineering debris which may have had sharp edges. The bags had been piled up and one of the bags had torn. Recommendations were made following inquiries into each of the incidents to improve procedures and prevent similar incidents occurring. (UK)

  17. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  18. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  19. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  20. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  1. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakem, M.J.; Brownridge, M.

    2000-01-01

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  2. Introducing autonomy to robotic manipulators in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, C.L.; Webster, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Advanced Robotics Research Centre was set up in 1988 to provide a forum for the development and transfer to industry of the technology of Advanced Robotics. In the area of robot manipulators, research has been carried out into increasing the low-level autonomy of such devices e.g. reactive collision avoidance, gross base disturbance rejection. This groundwork has proven the feasibility of using advanced control concepts in robotic manipulators, and, indeed, indicated new areas of robot kinematic design which can now be successfully exploited. Within the newly defined BNFL Integrated Robotics Programme a number of joint projects have been defined to demonstrate this technology in realistic environments, including the use of advanced interactive computer simulation and kinematically redundant manipulators. (author)

  3. Technocrats and nuclear politics. The influence of professional experts in policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The role of technical experts, especially scientists and engineers, in the development of Britain's civil nuclear energy policy is analysed. It is proposed that civil initiatives came from the integration of technical professions within the bureaucracy of government and quasi-governmental organisations involved in the formulation and implementation of policy. Organisational logic and professional motivation encouraged policies which would lead to occupational autonomy. The first three chapters develop the concept of technical professionalism, Chapters 4-7 then focus on the technocrat's role in providing a spur from their positions within the policy community's bureaucracies that drives top-level policy decisions. These functions are examined in more detail using two case studies, the first concerned with the evolution of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., the second with the Inquiry (in 1977) into the proposal by BNFL to extend its Windscale site (now known as Sellafield) to build the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant. (U.K.)

  4. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, S.P. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Preston (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  5. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A.; Green, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  6. Roll up, roll up and see a Sellafield exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Virginia.

    1986-01-01

    Since July 1986 a commercial advertising campaign has been encouraging people to visit the BNFL plant at Sellafield to find out for themselves what goes on there. As a result it is now a flourishing tourist attraction. Casual visitors can visit the Ehibition Centre and go on a bus tour of the site lasting an hour. Pre-booked visitors can go on a five hour tour which looks at the processes in detail. The object is to open up the site so that people can be better informed and can make up their minds about the merits or otherwise of Sellafield, and nuclear power in general, with a knowledge of the facts. (UK)

  7. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  8. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction: discharges of [liquid, solid] radioactive waste; methods of analysis and of presentation and interpretation of results; British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield, Cumbria (the fish and shellfish consumption pathway; external exposure; porphyra/ laverbread pathway; other surveys); Springfields, Lancashire; Capenhurst, Cheshire; Chapelcross, Dumfriesshire); United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset; Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establish-ment, Caithness); nuclear power stations operated by the electricity boards (Berkeley, Gloucestershire and Oldbury, Avon; Bradwell, Essex; Dungeness, Kent; Hartlepool, Cleveland; Heysham, Lancashire; Hinkley Point, Somerset; Hunterston, Ayrshire; Sizewell, Suffolk; Trawsfynydd, Gwynedd; Wylfa, Gwynedd; naval establishments; Amersham International plc; Channel Islands monitoring; summary and conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. The development of a deep repository-progress in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Mogg, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    United Kingdom Nirex Ltd, a company jointly owned by the major partners in the UK nuclear industry, is responsible for developing a deep disposal facility for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In July 1991 Nirex announced its intention to concentrate geological investigations at Sellafield, where BNFL's existing operations give rise to approximately 60% of the wastes destined for a repository. The main features of the Nirex design process, from early considerations through the main features of a preferred conceptual design and its advantages, are described. Subject to Nirex obtaining planning permission, following a Public Inquiry, the proposed program would allow the UK nuclear industry to fulfill its responsibilities with respect to declared Government policy by providing a safe deep geological disposal facility early in the next century. (author)

  10. Atomic Energy Bill (second reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Baroness; Williams, Lord; Ezra, Lord.

    1988-01-01

    The Bill contains a number of unrelated proposals. The first would increase the financial limit imposed on British Nuclear Fuels plc by Acts of Parliament to Pound 2,000 million in line with current investment plans. The second would enable the Health and Safety Executive to recover the costs of nuclear safety research which it sponsors, from nuclear site licensees and applicants for licences. The next two proposals make minor technical amendments to the rules on insurance cover for meeting third party compensation claims in the event of nuclear incidents. Finally, the Bill would enable the United Kingdom to ratify the International Convention on Assistance in the case of nuclear accident or radiological emergency (mutual assistance convention). The Bill was debated for half an hour and is reported verbatim. In particular the financing of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at BNFL's Sellafield site was discussed. Questions on vitrification of radioactive wastes were raised. (U.K.)

  11. Near real time materials accountancy development programme for Thorp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL is currently designing and installing a fully automated system of data capture, storage and processing for its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield. A prototype Near Real Time Materials Accountancy (NRTMA) system has been used to demonstrate the advantages of this method of materials control to the future plant operators and their feedback continues to be incorporated in the development of user interfaces. NRTMA has been included in the User Requirements Specification for Chemical Plant Information Computer, the top-tier computer which is being provided to archive, retrieve and analyse plant data. The paper describes a development programme of performance and quality related improvements to the prototype NRTMA system. Furthermore, advanced diagnostic systems are described which will help the operator in the resolution of anomalies

  12. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, S.; Colquhoun, A.

    1990-01-01

    Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

  13. The role of opinion research in communications programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Nirex is a company financed by the UK nuclear industry to dispose of intermediate and some long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The company has no responsibility for high-level radioactive waste. Most low-level waste is disposed of at a shallow site owned by BNFL, one of Nirex's shareholders. At Nirex, we use opinion research in a number of ways: as a map to guide communications programmes; to set baselines and targets to isolate issues of concern to our publics. The Company carries out market research covering three key audiences: the general public, politicians, and journalists. For Nirex, opinion research is a map. It guides our communication programmes in dealing with our key audiences. Without it, we would be driving blind. Opinion research allows us to isolate key issues for communication. It also allows us to measure performance and to see which initiatives are successful and which are not

  14. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  15. Knitmesh And Duplex-Nylon Type Coalescence Aids Use In Phase Disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Topuz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows how dispersions consisted of droplet sizes ranging from 100 microns and above of immiscible liquids in agitated vessels coalesced and settled back to their phases by employing commercially known as knit-mesh made from stainless steel and nylon. These components known as higher surface energy and lower surface energy contained coalesce aids respectively. In addition to compare coalesce aid made purely from commercially known as duplex-nylon also used. The experimental set up was 13 scale of a single stage mixer-settler unit of the already existing unit which was in use at BNFL Springfield Works. The liquid liquid system made from 20 tri-butyl-phosphate TBP technical grade of odorless kerosene forming the light organic phase or solvent phase and 5 M nitric acid forming the heavy aqueous phase. The solvent phase contained 70 gram of uranium per liter. Uranium contained phase was supplied by above mentioned company.

  16. The supercompaction of low level solid radioactive waste at Winfrith Technology Centre in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, L.R.K.

    1994-03-01

    A demonstration campaign of supercompaction using a mobile supercompaction plant was carried out at the Winfrith Technology Centre in 1989. This trial successfully demonstrated that mobile supercompaction is a valid technical option for the treatment of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW). It was decided that a similar campaign would be undertaken at Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC) in 1990. As part of this campaign, a service was offered to other LLW-generating sites which included supercompaction, packaging of the processed waste and transport to the national disposal site operated by BNFL at Drigg. The customers that took advantage of this service were AWE Aldermaston, Devonport Management Ltd and Culham/Harwell Radwaste Services. The same supercompactor as was used in 1989 was hired from Hansa Projekt Anlagentechnik GmbH of Hamburg. (Author)

  17. Team offers to privatize mobile waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partners, M.C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Executives from four companies with mobile nuclear waste measurement systems announced today that they intend to form Mobile Characterization Services, Inc. (MCS) to provide privatized services to the Department of Energy (DOE). BNFL's Pajarita Scientific Corporation (PSC), Canberra Industries, Inc., NFT, Inc. and V.J. Technologies told DOE officials that they would provide mobile certification services on a unit cost basis for transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Characterization is required to certify that the shipped wastes are acceptable for final disposal in WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. State-of-the-art, waste measurement capability would be provided to ensure an efficient schedule of waste shipments from DOE sites to WIPP

  18. UK-Russian collaboration high level waste immobilization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.; Burakov, B.; Galkin, B.; Starchenko, V.; Vasiliev, V.; Shulyak, N.; Homes, R.G.G.; Weaver, W.; Goddard, D.; Clegg, R.; Richardson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Recent social changes in Russia have opened up many opportunities for business collaboration. To build on this, in 1992 British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) concluded and signed an agreement with the Russian ministry MINATOM to collaborate on a wide range of topics relevant to the international nuclear industry. These covered the such subjects as developing national regulatory frameworks, sharing operational experiences and practices, and establishing collaborative R and D programmes. One outcome of the agreement with MINATOM has been the setting up of a number of collaborative R and D projects with the V.G. Kholpin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg. This paper presents the results from one of these joint programmes, and describes the mutual benefits that can be obtained from such collaborative work. (authors)

  19. The open and shut case for recycle: where does the truth lie?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the more controversial issues surrounding the case for the recycle of irradiated nuclear fuel. In particular it examines aspects of the economics of recycle, its comparison with the once-through option, environmental issues and nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards. BNFL's plans for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication are also discussed. It is concluded that it is desirable that there be a range of solutions for the management of irradiated fuel in order to meet the needs of customers which can very significantly. Positive reasons are cited as to why reprocessing the recycle should be one such solution. In the longer term, it is concluded that there are powerful reasons as to why reprocessing should have a role to play in the nuclear fuel cycle. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. The media treatment of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The way that newspapers, radio and television news work, is explained so that reporting of nuclear stories can be better understood. The media's attitude to what makes a story newsworthy is explained. This, coupled with a chronology of the rise of the anti-nuclear lobby, is used to explain why some stories have been given prominence. The secretive and evasive attitude of the nuclear industry coupled with poorly communicated information about leaks etc have contributed to a lack of trust and made the public more aware and concerned with nuclear matters. This has sometimes led to unbalanced reporting by the media. The coverage of the Chernobyl reactor accident is examined. Some general points about the openness of BNFL and the government's reporting of nuclear incidents are made. (UK)

  1. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  2. KWL annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The application for decommissioning comprises the shutdown of the plant, methods for safe shielding of the nuclear section, and a modification in the utilization of the conventional plant sections. The planning documents are worked out by the Nuklear-Ingenieur-Service GmbH, Hanau. The activities for the Euratom research programmes have been completed by KWL. The final report on the determination of the activation of the biological shield is available. The processing of the enriched uranium originating from unirradiated FE as well as the conversion to UF 6 has been terminated. All spent fuel elements have been transported to BNFL. The joint works management of KWL and the VEW-power plant Emsland has been rearranged. (DG) [de

  3. Applications of virtual reality in Magnox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of use of VR-based simulation tools to assist the design, development and implementation of a range of complex projects within BNFL Magnox Generation. VR systems are used throughout the life cycle of a project. As a conceptual design tool, parametric techniques have been used to optimize limb lengths of a manipulator used for detailed in-reactor inspection. Extensive path planning is carried out off-line, allowing the rehearsal phase to concentrate on difficult issues such as interactions with the work site. During the rehearsal and site implementation phases, the use of a real-time display of a manipulator working in a simulated reactor environment supplements the views from surveillance cameras. Finally, use of output from the VR system can support the quality assurance and documentation aspects of a task by providing further evidence that the correct components have been inspected/repaired. (author)

  4. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Pt. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otlet, R.; Longley, H.; Walker, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    The main objective of the project was to reconstruct a chronology of past 14 C levels in atmospheric CO 2 in the vicinity of the Sellafield reprocessing plant by measuring the 14 C in individual tree rings from trees felled at a number of sites. The profile obtained from the results reflects the build up of the plant operations and related aerial emissions and a conversion of the tree ring records to past annual aerial discharges of 14 C has been attempted. This is compared with values provided from recent estimates of aerial emissions. The effect of dispersion along a coastal transect to a distance of 30km from BNFL Sellafield has also been studied. Comparable, but attenuated profiles to the inland sites are observed although the major peaks are not precisely mirrored along the transect. This is attributed to greater year to year variation due to sea breezes. (author)

  5. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Bob

    1989-01-01

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  6. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David.

    1986-01-01

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  7. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  8. Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository

  9. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.; Prestwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics' trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles

  10. Reaching for a bigger slice of the pie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    1994-01-01

    The recent restructuring of the uranium enrichment company Urenco is described. Urenco was set up in 1971 to market the enrichment services of a consortium of companies, BNFL, UCN and Uranit, based in the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Federal Republic of Germany. Competition in the market led to pressure to reduce costs which could only be achieved by restructuring. Urenco is now a holding company with three wholly-owned subsidiaries although still owned by the three shareholders; the subsidiaries may now be managed on a purely commercial basis. Although production will still be carried out on three sites, support services will be rationalized. R and D will be concentrated at Juelich in Germany, plant design and engineering at Capenhurst in the UK and centrifuge fabrication eventually confined to Almelo in Holland. The possibility of using laser enrichment in addition to the centrifuge technology used exclusively till now is being investigated. (UK)

  11. Winning Public Confidence in Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    BNF operates the nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management centre of Sellafield in North West England. It is the largest nuclear site in Britain and perhaps the most famous nuclear plant in Western Europe. It is famous largely because it has long been the target of anti-nuclear interests. Well organised, well funded and well informed anti-nuclear organisations, notably including Green peace and Friends of the Earth, have made propaganda capital based on a number of controversial claims: - that by importing spent nuclear fuel from overseas for reprocessing at Sellafield, BNFL was turning Britain into a nuclear dustbin for the world. That discharges of low level radioactivity from Sellafield cause unacceptable nuclear pollution and endanger health, that the radioactivity in store in various forms on site at Sellafield, for which no permanent disposal routes are yet available, are a danger to the public and constantly threaten a major nuclear accident

  12. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  13. Computer-based training at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartmell, A.; Evans, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL) operate the United Kingdom's spent-fuel receipt, storage, and reprocessing complex at Sellafield. Spent fuel from graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled Magnox reactors has been reprocessed at Sellafield for 22 yr. Spent fuel from light water and advanced gas reactors is stored pending reprocessing in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant currently being constructed. The range of knowledge and skills needed for plant operation, construction, and commissioning represents a formidable training requirement. In addition, employees need to be acquainted with company practices and procedures. Computer-based training (CBT) is expected to play a significant role in this process. In this paper, current applications of CBT to the filed of nuclear criticality safety are described and plans for the immediate future are outlined

  14. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  15. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates the Company's Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I consists of site papers, one for each of the Company's sites and includes annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical group doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each Site paper. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation regulating the Company's discharges and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (Author)

  16. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  17. Use of PCs and workstations for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watmough, M.H.; Evans, A.M.; Smith, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    Making effective use of the best available computer technology has long been a feature of U.K. criticality safety analyses. In recent years, the industry's drive for improvements in design safety assessment practice has been supplemented by increasing commercial awareness, bringing further emphasis to the consideration of cost-effectiveness in criticality computation. Consequently, there has been an evolution of computing facilities seen by U.K. criticality assessors from the mainframe terminals of the 1970s through minicomputers in the 1980s to graphical workstations and, most recently, personal computers (PCs) in the 1990s. These moves have been initiated by the availability of hardware capable of providing adequate performance and facilitated by cooperation and subsequently formal collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in the field of software development

  18. Product quality and process control in the Windscale Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Windscale Vitrification Plant (WVP) is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) at the Sellafield Site in England. The purpose of the facility is to condition the high level liquid waste, resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel into a suitable solid form for ultimate disposal. The form chosen is a borosilicate glass matrix which meets both the needs of long term durability and plant operability. A considerable amount of work has now been carried out in order to demonstrate that product quality can be guaranteed through process control. This work has ranged from very small scale lab. studies to full scale production plant trials. WVP entered active service in July 1990 and is currently dealing with the arisings from over 30 years of reprocessing

  19. The dawning of a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Sizewell-B reactor on the Suffolk coast in the United Kingdom is entering the final stages of commissioning ahead of schedule. This is the United Kingdom's first PWR and its construction has been a success story for British industry. Based on a standardized American PWR design, Sizewell-B has attracted international interest because of its emphasis on stringent safety requirements and its state-of-the-art control and instrumentation systems. It has four independent ''guarlines'' whereas other countries' licensing requirement is normally for three only. Non-computerized safety systems back the control, instrumentation and safety software thus providing a secondary system. The fuel is being manufactured by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). Sizewell-B is expected to be opened officially in 1995. (UK)

  20. Decommissioning of the gaseous diffusion plant at BNF plc Capenhurst in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, D.W.; Cross, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1982, a gaseous diffusion plant located at the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) site at Capenhurst in the United Kingdom, has been undergoing decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. By March 1994, the decontamination and decommissioning activities will be complete with 99% of the materials used to construct the plant recycled to the environment as clean material. This paper describes the history of the decontamination, decommissioning, dismantling, and disposal program. Reference is made to the scale of the project and to the special techniques developed, particularly in the areas of size reduction, decontamination, and protection of personnel and the environment. The quantities of material involved that require decontamination and release levels for recycling materials in the U.K. metals market are discussed

  1. Corrupt to the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.

    1988-01-01

    Many countries do not have the facilities necessary to process their nuclear waste. They have to export it to another country with suitable facilities. Some countries in Europe both export their own waste and import other peoples. This situation is described with details of facilities available and current practices of who sends what where. The problem of nuclear waste processing and disposal has led to corruption and widespread malpractice, in particular in West Germany and Belgium. Although not involved with these scandals Britain will receive large amounts of spent nuclear fuel once the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) is ready at BNFL's site at Sellafield. Britain will then have to deal with companies and countries whose record on the transportation of nuclear waste is bad. (U.K.)

  2. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  3. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  4. Dodewaard fuel supply agreement - a model for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, L.F.; Hubers, C.

    1980-01-01

    An Agreement between the Utility GKN and the Fuel Supplier BNFL has eliminated any Utility imposed penalty clauses for fuel failure due to operational conditions and, consequently, there are no restrictions imposed by the Fuel Supplier on the reactor operational manoeuvres. The result is that the Utility can now decide if the risk of fuel clad failure during a reactor power ramp outweighs the financial loss due to slower ramp rates. It is the Utility and not the Fuel Supplier who is in the best position to make this judgment provided adequate operational experience and computer codes are available to quantify the risk. The paper discusses the reactor operational experience, including the fuel failure rate and the confirmation of PCI failure by post irradiation examination. It establishes the practicality of the Agreement for the Dodewaard reactor and suggests such arrangements could be beneficial to other Utilities. (author)

  5. Application of MONK and MCBEND to transport flask design assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, G.A.; Gulliford, N.T

    2000-07-01

    Safe operation of nuclear fuel transport flasks is of fundamental importance and is ensured by compliance with IAEA and national regulations. Criticality and shielding analyses of flask designs in both normal and accident conditions are required to demonstrate compliance. In recent years increased computing power has facilitated the use of the Monte Carlo method for such analyses as standard. The method is an improvement over earlier methods because approximations in geometry, scattering angle/energy and reaction cross sections can be significantly reduced and in some cases effectively eliminated. In this paper the application of the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND, developed by AEA Technology and BNFL, to such analyses is described, with emphasis on features which facilitate accuracy and ease of use. (author)

  6. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  7. Control of radiocaesium discharges to the Irish Sea: ICRP-26 in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handyside, I.; Hunt, G.J.; Partington, C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience of application of the ICRP dose limitation system is described in the context of control of radioactive waste discharges to the north-east Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works. The radiological significance of these discharges is mainly due to radiocaesium from the magnox fuel storage ponds. The discharges increased in 1974 owing to corrosion of magnox fuel; radiation exposure of the public mainly through the fish and shellfish consumption pathway also increased. BNFL, in consultation with Government Departments, decided to install an ion-exchange treatment plant to remove radioactivity from pond effluents. This plant is presently being built and will provide a long-term reduction in radiocaesium discharges. Optimization will play a major part in determining its operating regime. Meanwhile, measures to reduce discharges have been taken by circulating pond water through skips of zeolite installed in the ponds. Differential cost-benefit analysis has been used to indicate the optimum replacement rate of skips; experience of this is described. A range of skip costs was used to allow for some factors which were not uniquely definable. Detrimental costs were estimated from collective dose commitments and a range of values of the man-Sv from Pound 2000 to Pound 50,000. Other, non-quantifiable, factors were relevant. Following these considerations, the current skip replacement frequency is about 30 year -1 . Skips are presently reducing collective effective dose equivalent commitments to the UK and European populations by about half, or some 150 man-Sv.year -1 . Finally, to demonstrate conformity with the overall ICRP dose limitation system, compliance with dose limits is described. Effective dose equivalents to the relevant critical groups for the years 1977 to 1980 are presented. The use of zeolite skips has, here too, given significant reductions over this time, from 33% to (provisionally) 15% of the ICRP-recommended dose

  8. Corrosion Testing of Low-Activity Waste Glasses Fiscal Year 1998 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BP McGrail; CW Lindenmeier; HT Schaef; PF Martin

    1998-11-25

    Analytical results are presented on the chemical composition and other physical properties of a glass, given the identification BNFL-A-S98, made at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory' that is representative of the low-activity waste glass composition proposed by BNFL, Inc.* for immobilization of envelope A double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site. This glass was prepared for use in a testing program to be conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Argonne National Laboratory for the purpose of characterizing its long-term corrosion behavior. Detailed examination of the glass microstructure using transmission electron microscopy showed structural features indicative of amorphous phase separation. A remelt was performed on a smaller batch (100 g) to ensure rapid cooling. The glass microstructure was reexamined and showed no evidence of phase separation. Selected long-term (some to 860 d) product consistency tests were terminated, and the leachates were analyzed on tests with three other representative low-activity waste glass formulations (L8- 1, L8-3, and L8-7). The results showed no evidence of corrosion rate acceleration at three times the duration of tests where another well-studied glass, LD6-5412, had been completely altered under identical test conditions. These tests (and others not discussed in this report) provide clear evidence that low-activity waste glasses with at least 20 mass% Na20 can be made that have excellent long-term corrosion resistance. However, glass composition has a large impact on long-term behavior and so careful experiments with several different techniques are essential to ensuring that a particular glass will have good long-term corrosion resistance.

  9. Windscale Report: a nuclear apologia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Government representatives have pointed repeatedly with pride to Britain's longest nuclear planning inquiry, The Windscale Inquiry, as a model of open examination of a sensitive nuclear proposal. The official Report of the Windscale Inquiry, published in March 1978, bears little relationship to the proceedings of the Inquiry, according to the author. Instead, the Report is a heavy-handed nuclear apologia, he says, so clumsily one-sided as to provoke unease even among many Britons previously unmoved by the issue which gave rise to the inquiry. Windscale, built following WW II to produce plutonium for Britain's nuclear weapons, is now operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. In 1973, BNFL began to plan construction of a new full-scale oxide-fuel reprocessing plant. Protests delayed construction until the inquiry was planned and the inquiry team was formulated in March 1977. When the Inquiry ended, the inspector closeted himself to write the Report. The Report recommended that the oxide fuel reprocessing plant be built immediately. BNFL had asserted that the proposed thermal oxide reprocessing plant, THORP, was necessary for the management of spent fuel from British and other nuclear plants; that it was desirable for ''energy conservation,'' by recovering uranium and plutonium for re-use; that radioactive emissions within and outside the plant would pose no hazard; and that the servicing of foreign customers would not increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, but would rather help to persuade other countries not to reprocess their own fuel. The inspector agreed without qualification and with emphasis. In doing so he made no attempt even to describe the detailed evidence on either side, or to discuss the cases advanced by objectors. The author discusses the principal conclusions of the report and cites its futility

  10. Office of River Protection (ORP) Monthly Performance Report for July 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGNILD, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    River Protection Project (RPP) performance for the month of July 2000 was very good. The most significant accomplishments that occurred during the month include the following: The Interim Stabilization Project pumped approximately 30,000 gallons from four tanks. Project-to-date (since June 1998) volume pumped is approximately 808,000 gallons. Five tanks have been interim stabilized this fiscal year, and tanks 241-S-106,241-U-103, and 241-U-105 are being evaluated to determine if the stabilization criteria have been met. Out of the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 124 tanks have been stabilized. Pumping this waste from the single-shell tanks to more secure double-shell tanks (DSTs) supports stabilization of the waste tanks and mitigates leakage to the environment. The Interim Stabilization Project is planned to complete by September 2004. Waste Characterization obtained one grab sample in the month of July 2000. A total of 14 core samples, 12 grab samples, and 6 vapor samples have been taken fiscal year-to-date (FYTD) in support of three key FY 2000 sampling milestones. The Waste Treatment Plant Design and Operation organizations have been developed and staffed, including transitioning BNFL Inc./Bechtel National Inc. employees to CHG. Since the termination of the BNFL contract, CHG has temporarily assumed the work scope for design and operation of the Waste Treatment Plant. A new waste treatment facility will be built at the Hanford Site in which highly radioactive waste from the tanks will be turned into glass and permanently stored. Approval of the Notice of Construction (NOC) for the AN Farm tank retrieval system was received from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency on July 21,2000. This is a significant step forward for Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems'' in preparing waste for delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant

  11. Fuel integrity project: analysis of light water reactor fuel rods test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, M.; Werle, J.; McCreesh, G.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services and COGEMA LOGISTICS started in the year 2000 a joint project known as FIP (Fuel Integrity Project) with the aim of developing realistic methods by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions could be evaluated. To this end BNFL organised tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel pin samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS took responsibility for evaluating the test results. Interpretation of test results included simple mechanical analysis as well as simulation by Finite Element Analysis. The first tests that were available for analysis were an irradiated 3 point bending commissioning trial and a lateral irradiated hull compression test, both simulating the loading during a 9 m lateral regulatory drop. The bending test span corresponded roughly to a fuel pin intergrid distance. The outcome of the test was a failure starting at about 35 mm lateral deflection and a few percent of total deformation. Calculations were carried out using the ANSYS code employing a shell and brick model. The hull lateral compaction test corresponds to a conservative compression by neighbouring pins at the upper end of the fuel pin. In this pin region there are no pellets inside. The cladding broke initially into two and later into four parts, all of which were rather similar. Initial calculations were carried out with LS-DYNA3D models. The models used were optimised in meshing, boundary conditions and material properties. The calculation results compared rather well with the test data, in particular for the detailed ANSYS approach of the 3 point bending test, and allowed good estimations of stresses and deformations under mechanical loading as well as the derivation of material rupture criteria. All this contributed to the development of realistic numerical analysis methods for the evaluation of LWR fuel rod behaviour under both normal and accident transport conditions. This paper describes the results of the 3 point bending

  12. SRP Meeting: North west regional conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Annette

    2002-01-01

    The SRP North West Regional Conference was held in the Education Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust in Manchester on the subject of Ionising Regulations 1999 (IRR99) two years on. The Chairman for the morning session was David Abbott from BNFL and for the afternoon was Anne Walker from Christie Hospital. Dr Joanne Nettleton, a HM Principal Specialist Inspector (Radiation) in the Field Operations Directorate, explained the view of the HSE. She outlined that the IRR99 have been in force since January 2000 after a comprehensive consultation exercise. The results that have been seen to date are, not surprisingly, no increase in exposure levels, an increased profile of radiation protection and an improved standing of RPAs. The SRP run a Continuing Professional Development scheme as a personal aid to maintain an adequate level of professionalism, demonstrate competence and as a guide to employers for them to maintain a professional Radiation Protection Service. There are currently over 300 people using the SRPs CPD scheme. They have also detailed a new mentoring system. In conclusion RPA 2000 is successfully meeting the needs of RPAs in the UK and the portfolios of evidence are improving. Overall, the SRP CPD scheme is effective and cheap. David Owen, Radiological Protection Manager responsible for policy and strategy issues in this field, gave a summary of the operation of the BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme, of which he is Secretary to the Management Board. The BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme is recognised by the HSE and has a number of subtle differences from the RPA 2000 scheme. RPAs advise on the restriction of exposure, designation of area, local rules, selection of the RPS, the training of the RPS and other staff, hazard identification, risk assessment, facility design, contingency planning, waste management and transport and any other matters relating to ionising radiation. Becoming an RPA within the medical sector is not easy. Firstly there is two years basic training

  13. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  14. Practice of fuel management and outage strategy at Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, P.; Hamvas, I.; Szecsenyi, Zs.; Nemes, I.; Javor, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant generates almost 40% of Hungarian electricity production at lowest price. In spite of this fact the reduction of operational and maintenance costs is one of the most important goal of the plant management. The proper fuel management and outage strategy can give a considerable influence for this cost reduction. The aim of loading pattern planning is to get the required cycle length with available fuel cassettes and to keep all key parameters of safety analysis under safety limits. Another important point is production at profit, where both the fuel and spent fuel cost are determining. Earlier the conditions given by our only fuel supplier restricted our possibilities, so at the beginning the fuel arrangement changing was the only way to improve efficiency of fuel using. As first step we introduced the low leakage core design. The next step was the 4 years cycle using of some cassettes. By this way nearly half of 3 years cycle old cassettes remained in the core for fourth cycle. In the immediate future we want to use profiled cassettes developed by Russian supplier. Simultaneously we will load new type of WWER cassettes with burnable poison developed by BNFL Company. Hereby we can apply more BNFL cassettes for four years cycle even more. Both cost of fuel and number of spent fuel can be reduced besides keeping parameters under safety limits. The Hungarian in service inspection rules determine that every four year we have to make a complete inspection of reactor vessel. Therefore earlier we had two types of outages. Every 4 years we planned a long outage with 55-65 days duration and normal ones with about 30-35 days duration between the long ones. During the normal outages this way did not give us enough room to utilise the shortest possible critical path determined by works on reactor. Some years ago we changed our outage strategy. Now we plan every 4 years a long outage, and between them one normal and two short ones. As a result the

  15. Preservation and re-use of nuclear knowledge in the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, R.

    2004-01-01

    documents in knowledge repositories and tacit form within individuals. There is also a strong element of know-how, so difficult to capture within formal systems, but often providing the key to unlock a particular operational problem. British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL], as it moves towards the new dawn for the UK nuclear industry in April 2005, is re-shaping itself to meet the challenges presented by this major change. It has re-structured in order to be able to focus on the business needs of nuclear decommissioning and site remediation. However, BNFL recognises that there is still a need to ensure that the UK government keeps the new nuclear build option open. This has resulted in the establishment of a small Energy Unit, looking into different aspects of energy policy. (author)

  16. Britain's nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Colin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In the mid 1980s the Labour Party's position and clear intention was to phase out nuclear generated power in the UK. BNFL's reprocessing business was singled out for particular criticism. Many argued that this sounded the death knell for an industry with a legacy of negative public opinion and no commercial future. How against this background then was the Rt. Hon Tony Blair able, on 9 June 1999, to state that 'If we were to question the continued operation of Thorp, I think that would not be right. Thorp is an operation with orders now valued at some 12 billion pounds, it provides 6000 skilled jobs, it indirectly supports many more... I do not support the case of those who would like us to abandon Thorp?' Furthermore, in June 1999 the Royal Society stated that, 'it is vital to keep the nuclear option open' and in October of the same year the House of Commons Trade Industry Select Committee went further and advised, 'a formal presumption be made now for the purposes of long-term planning that new nuclear plant may be required in the course of the next two decades'. On 13 July 1999, the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Rt. Hon Stephen Byers, announced a possible sale of up to 49% of BNFL by a Public Private Partnership. Dare we view this as the genesis of a nuclear renaissance for the United Kingdom? This clear change in political attitude towards the nuclear option has come about as a result of a concerted public and government relations effort over the past ten years. That said, many barriers remain if we are to meet the challenge of delivering new nuclear build in the UK. Public opinion may allow new build but only if the industry demonstrates a track record of safety and environmental stewardship. There will always be the 'not in my back yard' argument so we must be a good neighbour and, most importantly of all, a long-term solution must be found for the disposal of nuclear waste. If the stage is set for the nuclear renaissance, the industry

  17. Thirty years of transport package development for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, BNFL flask types will have been responsible for transporting more than 2000 tonnes of heavy metal in Europe in the form of spent fuel. Several thousand more tonnes of spent fuel have been transported by sea from Japan over the last thirty years. The design of spent fuel packages has not stood still for that time. In order to anticipate the changing needs of the nuclear power generation industry, advances have been made both in package design and analysis. Thirty years ago spent fuel burnup and initial enrichment were considerably lower, which was reflected in the different demands placed on the shielding design of packages, and in the design of the internal basket to separate the fuel assemblies. Technical development of both 'wet' (water-filled cavity) and 'dry' packages has progressed in parallel, and the relative merits and peculiarities of each type is explored. BNFL has considerable experience in the operation of both types, and is well placed to comment on practical and functional issues associated with both types. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet changes in IAEA Regulations, or the challenges posed by the regulators themselves. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible these margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. A key factor over the last thirty years has been the increasing influence of the Regulating Authorities and the development of the IAEA Regulations. The various Competent Authorities now tend to have a higher proportion of technical experts, often recruited from the nuclear industry, and are thus more able to

  18. Depleted uranium: A study of its uses in the UK and disposal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Environment Agency recently published a contract R and D report, by John Jackson of Alan Martin Associates, on depleted uranium (DU). The report documents a scoping study on the uses of DU; the civil non-nuclear applications for DU were a particular focus of the scoping study. The study was commissioned following a series of DU related incidents, including the crash of the Korean Airlines' Boeing 747 at Stansted in late 1999. There had also been an assertion in the Guardian (21 August 2000) that as much as 50 tonnes of DU is lying in UK scrapyards. The report confirms that the quantities referred to in the Guardian are groundless. The report provides information and guidance to the Agency's staff who regulate radioactive substances in England and Wales. The report does not attempt to review the health effects of DU (separate health studies have been carried out by the Royal Society and others). A range of non-nuclear uses of DU are identified in the report: Transportable shielded containers for radioactive sources, Aircraft counterbalance weights, Piling equipment (civil engineering), Radiation shielding (hospitals, universities, etc), Armour piercing ammunition, Uranium catalysts, and Ceramic glazes. The report concludes that there is, in total, less than 50 tonnes of DU in use in the UK outside of military and nuclear applications. The report identifies the aircraft salvage and recycling industry as having a significant risk of DU being lost from regulatory control. (Awareness and vigilance need to be maintained; in February 2001 in Ohio, USA, 53 tonnes of aluminium ingots from an aircraft recycling operation were found to be contaminated with DU from counterweights that had not been segregated prior to smelting.) The report highlights the absence of a UK disposal route for substantial quantities of DU. The BNFL site at Drigg cannot accept DU because in its undiluted state it is categorised as intermediate level waste. Whilst redundant DU

  19. Managing the nuclear legacy in the UK - Progress towards the establishment of the nuclear decommissioning authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical change in the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. The UK Government's proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Actions published on 4 July 2002. This envisages the establishment of a new organisation, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing. The challenge is to decommission and demolish these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remediate the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. To prepare the way for the NDA, a special team has been established within the UK Department of Trade and Industry. This team, known as the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU), includes staff from both private and public sectors, and is supported by a partner contractor (Bechtel Management Company Ltd) who bring high quality, experienced project management skills to the team. LMU's principal tasks are: - Acquiring a detailed knowledge of BNFL and UKAEA liabilities; - Establishing common

  20. The WIMS familly of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, J.

    1981-01-01

    WIMS-D4 is the latest version of the original form of the Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme, developed in 1963-5 for lattice calculations on all types of thermal reactor, whether moderated by graphite, heavy or light water. The code, in earlier versions, has been available from the NEA code centre for a number of years in both IBM and CDC dialects of FORTRAN. An important feature of this code was its rapid, accurate deterministic system for treating resonance capture in heavy nuclides, and capable of dealing with both regular pin lattices and with cluster geometries typical of pressure tube and gas cooled reactors. WIMS-E is a compatible code scheme in which each calcultation step is bounded by standard interfaces on disc or tape. The interfaces contain files of information in a standard form, restricted to numbers representing physically meaningful quantities such as cross-sections and fluxes. Restriction of code intercommunication to this channel limits the possible propagation of errors. A module is capable of transforming WIMS-D output into the standard interface form and hence the two schemes can be linked if required. LWR-WIMS was developed in 1970 as a method of calculating LWR reloads for the fuel fabricators BNFL/GUNF. It uses the WIMS-E library and a number of the same module

  1. Radioactivity and United Kingdom estuaries: an overview identifying research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)

  2. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-26

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers.

  3. Changes in liquid radioactive waste discharges from Sellafield to the Irish sea: monitoring of the environmental consequences and radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Smith, B.D.; Swift, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    In January 1994, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) were granted revised authorizations for disposal of radioactive wastes from their Sellafield site in Cumbria, UK, including the discharge of liquid effluent to the Irish Sea. The revisions took account of a continuing Government commitment to review authorizations regularly, as well as of new Sellafield plants and changes to existing operations. The new plants of prime importance were the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) for the reprocessing of oxide fuels, and the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) for improved treatment mainly of waste streams from the older, Magnox, plant. Revision of the liquid authorization is described in reference 1. Many of the radionuclide discharge limits reduced significantly, notably for Cs-137, Ru-106 and the actinides, to reflect operation of EARP. Increases in limits, of relatively low radiological significance, were granted for tritium and I-129 which would be produced by operation of THORP. An increase for C-14 covered diversion to sea of Magnox gaseous scrubber liquors, so as to reduce the overall radiological impact of these waste streams. Increases for Sr-90 and especially Tc-99 were to allow discharge, after phased processing through EARP, of liquors which have been stored on site for an optimised period to allow radioactive decay. Tc-99 is not treated by EARP, and Sr-90 is treated less effectively than the actinides or radiocaesium. (author)

  4. Dounreay expansion: the case against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    In May 1985 the Government announced its support for an application by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and BNFL to construct a European Demonstration Reprocessing Plant for fast reactor fuel, as part of a five-nation European collaboration, at Dounreay in the north of Scotland. A public inquiry into the application was held in Thurso, Caithness from 7 April to 19 November 1986. This pamphlet examines the issues raised by the development and in the main is based on evidence presented by the objectors. The public inquiry was controversial. The larger environmental groups who had been represented at previous nuclear inquiries decided not to take part this time. A number of organisations and individuals did participate, however, presenting evidence and cross-examining witnesses to reveal details which may otherwise have remained hidden. Because of the restricted nature of the inquiry many aspects of the development could not be examined. The Scottish Office Reporter, Mr A G Bell, wrote before the inquiry that his terms of reference ''do not include an examination of the merits of government policy'' and the inquiry ''will not extend to the political or economic justification'' for the plant. As such several areas of major concern could not be questioned at the inquiry. This pamphlet aims to raise these concerns and has sections on transport, safety, nuclear waste, discharges and monitoring, health effects, economic effects and plutonium and nuclear weapons. (author)

  5. Partnership for success: solving the problems together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    First is detailed the situation of nuclear industry in United Kingdom and also the authority and its links with the research laboratories and universities. Then the question of knowledge is tackled. The situation in nuclear courses has remained at least constant but one deplores that the number of undergraduates has fallen. Once employed people need training. At BNFL, like the other UK nuclear companies, training is designed for both graduates and experienced staff with the aim of increasing the competence of the trainees in their specific functions within the Company as well as supporting continuous professional development. While training can provide good personnel for a daily operation of nuclear facilities, research and development needs graduates well educated both in depth and in breadth from nuclear programmes.By working in partnership, nation to nation, industry with academia, industry with the regulator, we have a chance of reversing what otherwise must be a very worrying trend in order to maintain a high level nuclear education. (N.C.)

  6. THORP steps up the concrete action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of the THORP reprocessing plant at the BNFL Sellafield site is complex and made more so by design modifications. Over 100 huge concrete cells, each enclosed by heavily reinforced 1.5m thick walls will eventually be clad in metal sheeting to make one vast long building 285m long and 50m tall. The quality assurance tolerances required are tight. Currently the building is behind schedule so the construction is now going throughout the night as well as the day. As well as the demands made by building complexities the requirements of nuclear engineering must be met. Also, this is the first building in the UK which will have to comply with the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate demands for seismic safety. An idea of the scale of the building in the UK which will have to comply with the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate demands for seismic safety. An idea of the scale of the building, the logistical problems, their solutions and the timescale of the construction are given. (UK)

  7. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert TM USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  8. Modelling 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the north-east Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawakowski, Claire; Nicholson, Michael D.; John Kershaw, Peter; Leonard, Kinson S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1994 there were substantial increases in the quantity of 99 Tc discharged into the north-east Irish Sea from BNFL Sellafield (UK), concomitant with improvements in waste treatment procedures. As a consequence, the concentration of 99 Tc observed in seawater and biota samples, taken from the Irish Sea coastline, increased significantly. Elevated concentrations were also reported in Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Arctic waters in subsequent years. In the present study a simple numerical model was developed and applied to time-series data of 99 Tc concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, collected from three UK sites in the vicinity of Sellafield (St. Bees, Heysham, Port William). The model considered site-specific scaling effects, lag times, previous discharge history and potential seasonal variation in uptake. In general, there was a good fit between predicted and observed concentrations, but the degree of uncertainty varied inversely with the frequency of sampling. We did not observe a significant seasonal variation. The modelled lag times to the three sites were consistent with transport times based on observations of the water column distribution of 99 Tc. The model was applied to a variety of discharge scenarios, reflecting current discussion on the future management of 99 Tc releases. Concentrations in Fucus reached asymptotic values in 3-10 years, depending on the scenario and sampling site under consideration

  9. Review of the current criticality data validation requirements within the British Nuclear Fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, P.E.; Thorne, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has commercial involvements throughout the whole of the nuclear fuel cycle, from fuel fabrication through to irradiated fuel transport and pond storage, chemical reprocessing, waste treatment, handling and storage, and the isolation and storage of purified UO 3 and PuO 2 products. The wide range of materials and compositions handled and the variety of environments encountered results in a requirement to address a large number of criticality safety problems. With some problems requiring novel approaches to their solution, there are inevitably some areas where further validation data would be desirable. The principal calculational tool used in Britain for criticality safety assessment work is the Monte Carlo computer code MONK6B. This has already been validated against a wide range of critical experiments, and work is under way to increase the validation data base even further. As previously indicated, however, there are areas where improvements could be made, and these are outlined in the following paragraphs. The power of the MONK6B geometry package is such that virtually any conceivable geometric configuration can be accurately modeled in detail. It remains, therefore, that in most instances, the limiting factor on the accuracy and reliability of the final answer rests with the quality of the nuclear data and this, of course, requires to be validated

  10. Development on application of ultrasonic sealing techniques to plutonium transportation cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi; Akiba, Mitsunori; D'Agraives, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooperation research between Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra establishment, application of ultrasonic sealing techniques to a plutonium container is developed in Ispra. The seal is derived from the sealing-bolt technology currently in use at the BNFL site of sellafield (UK) for the safeguarding of underwater spent fuel storage containers called MEBs. In this technique, one of the normal bolts closing the lid of the container is replaced by a special ultrasonically verifiable sealing-bolt. In the application to the plutonium container, it is proposed to attach a clamping seal which has the same internal configuration as a MEB sealing-bolt but is fastened with a 'one-way' mechanism to one of the protruding pins of the container. Similarly the seal is provided with an identity and integrity features. The uniqueness of the identity, as well as the integrity can be checked on the spot by an inspector carrying a reading equipment. Thus, in a few minutes, one identifies the seal and knows whether its integrity is intact, which tells that the container has not been opened or attempted to open illeagally. By application of the seal to the plutonium container, the containment/surveillance during the transportation will be upgraded. (author)

  11. Biodecontamination of concrete surfaces: Occupational and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Rogers, R.; Hamilton, M.; Nelson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Managers and engineers around the globe are presently challenged by high estimated costs for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities which are no longer needed or are abandoned. It has been estimated that more than 73 Km 2 of contaminated concrete currently exists in the USDOE complex and is increased many fold when similar facilities are accounted for in other countries. Needs for the decontamination of concrete have been identified as: more cost effective decontamination methods, reduction of secondary wastes, minimized worker radiation exposures and, contaminant containment. Recently environmental microbes have been harnessed to remove the surface of concrete as a technique for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This biodecontamination technology has been tested by INEL and BNFL scientists and engineers in both US and United Kingdom nuclear facilities. Biodecontamination field tests at a shutdown nuclear reactor facility (EBR-I) have shown radioactively contaminated surface removed at rates of 4--8 mm/yr, thus validating the feasibility of this technology. Engineering economic analyses indicate two attractive benefits embedded in this approach to concrete D and D: (1) due to the passive nature of the technique, a cost savings of more than an order of magnitude is projected compared to the current labor intensive physical decontamination techniques; and (2) the exposure to humans and the natural environment is greatly reduced due to the unattended, highly contained biodecontamination process

  12. Phase 2 of the Nea TDB project and some lessons learned from the use of phase 1 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahiu, K.

    2002-01-01

    As the five initial reviews of the TDB Project come to their conclusion, the negotiations for an independently funded continuation of the TDB Project through two meetings of an ad hoc group were completed in late 1997. The participating organisations are ANSTO (Australia), NIRAS/ONDRAF (Belgium), RAWRA (Czech Republic), POSIVA (Finland), ANDRA and IPSN (France), FZK (Germany), JNC/PNC (Japan), ENRESA (Spain), SKB and SKI (Sweden), HSK, NAGRA and PSI (Switzerland), BNFL and NIREX (UK) and the DOE (USA). This project is referred to as the TDB Phase II Project, or simply TDB II. The following new reviews will be performed within this project: - an update of the existing U/Am/Tc/Np/Pu reviews (one review team for all elements); - the inorganic chemistry of Ni; - the inorganic chemistry of Se; - the complexation of selected simple organic ligands (ISA, EDTA, citrate and oxalate) with U, Am, Tc, Np, Pu, Ni, Se, Zr and some selected competing cations; the inorganic chemistry of Zr. These review areas have been decided on taking into account the toxicity, mobility, radioactivity and half-lives of the commonly occurring nuclides in radioactive waste, as well as the particular areas of interest of the funding organisations. To avoid the delays that have plagued Phase I, the organisation of the TDB Project has been restructured, and the funding provided has been calculated to cover all necessary expenses for the project. (author)

  13. Retrieval of wastes from interim storage silos at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempsell, Ian; Lilley, Simon John

    1998-01-01

    BNFL have several large stores of intermediate level waste (ILW). Some of the waste is stored dry, and some of the waste is stored under water. Retrieval of ILW from these stores is in progress and when empty, the stores will be decommissioned. This paper outlines some of the issues and lessons learnt when providing a safety case for such facilities, both for the current operational stage and for future operations and decommissioning. Examples are given of where issues have arisen (structural performance, inventory characteristics, hydrogen release, temperature monitoring, fire) and of how they have been, or are being, resolved. To address the issues involved where significant modifications are being made to a plant (e.g. decommissioning operations) a 'live safety case' approach has been adopted. This consists of an overview that refers out to the other safety cases or documents, providing a live summary of what comprises the safety case, listing any operating rules or safety mechanisms and providing details of the risk presented by current operations. This paper concludes that following this approach it has been possible to maintain a Safety Case that addresses current live safety issues appropriately at all stages of the project

  14. The microstructure of unirradiated SBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, R.J.; Tod, S.

    2000-01-01

    At Sellafield, BNFL has been producing MOX fuel assemblies for use in thermal reactors since 1994 in its MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) using the Short Binderless Route (SBR). The SBR is a compact, simple and rapid dry powder process for blending IDR UO 2 and PuO 2 feed powders and for granulation prior to pressing. A scaled-up version of this process will be used in the larger capacity Sellafield MOX plant (SMP). One of the advantages of this manufacturing route is that only a single direct powder blending stage is employed and there is no requirement for precompaction or other granule pre-treatment prior to pressing other than spheroidisation. The finished fuel structure is uniformly free from internal cracking and the overall quality is excellent. The PuO 2 is distributed through the UO 2 matrix homogeneously by the high energy 'attritor' mill, the sintered pellet grain structure is uniform and the porosity, controlled by the Conpor additive is bimodal and stable to thermal densification. Typical production fuel pellet macro and micrographs, pore size distribution, grain structure and autoradiograph are presented. (author)

  15. Graphite Materials Testing in the ATR for Lifetime Management of Magnox Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.B.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    A major feature of the Magnox gas cooled reactor design is the graphite core, which acts as the moderator but also provides the physical structure for fuel, control rods, instrumentation and coolant gas channels. The lifetime of a graphite core is dependent upon two principal aging processes: irradiation damage and radiolytic oxidation. Irradiation damage from fast neutrons creates lattice defects leading to changes in physical and mechanical properties and the accumulation of stresses. Radiolytic oxidation is caused by the reaction of oxidizing species from the carbon dioxide coolant gas with the graphite, these species being produced by gamma radiation. Radiolytic oxidation reduces the density and hence the moderating capability of the graphite, but also reduces strength affecting the integrity of core components. In order to manage continued operation over the planned lifetimes of their power stations, BNFL needed to extend their database of the effects of these two phenomena on the ir graphite cores through an irradiation experiment. This paper will discuss the background, purpose, and the processes taken and planned (i.e. post irradiation examination) to ensure meaningful data on the graphite core material is obtained from the irradiation experiment

  16. THORP's markets begin to crumble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd's (BNFL) new thermal oxide reprocessing plant, THORP, is due to come on line in 1992. THORP has contracts to cover the first 10 years of its operation (1992-2002) with the plant reprocessing about 600-700 tonnes of spent fuel a year. The largest contract is from Japanese utilities (2,300t), United Kingdom business amounts to one third (1,850t) and German utilities have contracted for 760t. Much smaller contracts are also held with Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands. However, future contracts may be affected by a change in policy away from reprocessing to long term storage of spent fuel elements. Such a change is being considered by Scottish Nuclear Ltd. Japan may transfer its business to its own plant planned for operation by 1998. Other countries are discontinuing their nuclear power programmes and will not need reprocessing facilities in the future. Only Germany has signed contracts beyond 2002 and some of these have gone to Cogema's new plant. Thus it may be difficult for THORP to find enough business in the longer term future. (U.K.)

  17. Committed to the growth of the NP industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal K.

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Stephen Tritch, President and Chief Executive Officer of Westinghouse Electric Company is responsible for al Westinghouse commercial nuclear operations, including the BNFL fuel business group in the United Kingdom. In this interview, he discusses economic aspects of bringing new power plants online, including waste disposal and investment issues. Also discussed are public relation activities to encourage public acceptance and what is needed from a practical and policy perspective to make new plant development happen in the U.S. Regarding the best available technology, he states that the AP1000 is the advanced nuclear power plant best-suited for new construction programs in the U.S. and elsewhere. It features passive and inherent safety systems, superior economics (3 to 3.5 cents per kilowatt hour) and modular design and construction that will help ensure highly predictable construction timetables. Lastly, Mr. Tritch discusses issues related to where the next generation of nuclear professionals will come from, including the knowledge transfer process, worldwide training standardization, utilizing retired professionals, and encouraging public schools to offer nuclear-based curriculum materials and intern programs

  18. The Sellafield controversy: The state of local attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.; Phipps, S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have presented some of the key findings of a local survey, attempted to provide plausible interpretations of them, and illustrated some of their relevance in a contemporary policy context. The authors recognize that they have touched upon only the surface of the complex of factors which generate people's attitudes and opinions. BNFL may be assured of a bedrock of local support; its position is under no serious threat or overwhelming pressure from local communities. As the authors see it, the need now is to improve the basis on which a more thorough assessment of local attitudes might be made. A priority in a more thorough assessment would be to adopt a different structure to the questionnaire - one which would allow respondents greater freedom of expression and, in turn, provide data from which it would be possible to gain deeper insight into the more complex issues of attitudes and opinion formation. A more rigorous sampling method might also be adopted, as well as pursuing a longitudinal approach to research in order to achieve a fuller understanding - studying the Sellafield case as it develops and the effect of related events

  19. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.j.hunt@cefas.co.uk; Young, A.K.; Bonfield, R.A. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f{sub 1} value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f{sub 1} were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f{sub 1} in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. (author)

  20. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  1. Hematite nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and license retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. ('BNFL'). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. The disparity in regulatory requirements for radiological and nonradiological contaminants, the variety of historic and recent operations, and the number of previous owners working under various contractual arrangements for both governmental and private concerns has resulted in a complex project. This paper discusses Westinghouse's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) strategy for the facility and grounds. (author)

  2. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  3. The Liabilities Management Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Liabilities Management Group (LMG) was initiated by DTI. It is a cooperative forum which was set up in 1995. The current participants are DTI, UKAEA, NLM (for BNFL), MOD and Magnox Electric. The LMG was initiated to produce closer cooperation between public sector liability management organizations, achieve more cost-effective management of UK nuclear liabilities and enhance development of the UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management strategy. The objectives are to compare practices between liabilities management organizations discuss the scope for collaboration identify priority areas for possible collaboration agree action plans for exploring and undertaking such collaboration.Four task forces have been formed to look at specific areas (R and D, safety, contracts, and project management) and each reports separately to the LMG. The LMG has achieved its original aim of bringing together those with public sector liability management responsibilities. All participants feel that the LMG has been useful and that it should continue. Looking to the future, there is a continuing need for the LMG to facilitate removal of barriers to the achievement of best value for money. The LMG might also consider addressing the 'business process' elements that a liability management organization must be good at in order to define best practice in these. (author)

  4. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, C. [Direct Rail Services, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg.

  5. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d -1 ) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 , 2.2x10 -3 mGy d -1 and 1.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d -1 level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  6. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  7. Environmental effects of radionuclides--observations on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Toal, M E; Johnson, M S; Jackson, D; Jones, S R

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d(-1)) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1), 2.2 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d(-1) level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed.

  8. R. v. Secretary of State for the Environment and others ex parte Greenpeace Limited and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, J.

    1994-01-01

    When in April 1992, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) applied for authorization to discharge radioactive wastes into sea and air as a result of starting to operate its newly constructed thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield Cumbria, a legal challenge to the Secretary of State's authorization was made by Greenpeace Limited, the environmental campaign group, and Lancashire County Council. They sought to show that the Secretary of State for the Environment had acted illegally in granting authority, because it had not been shown that the nuclear waste emission would produce a net benefit to the public, because no public inquiry had been held into whether the economic benefits outweighed the perceived detrimental effects, and because no authorization can occur without an environmental impact assessment to comply with European Community rules. While these points were proved at the judicial review, administrative law principals meant that the decision went against the complainants, but no costs were awarded showing the courts distaste for the judgement it was obliged to make. (UK)

  9. The criticality implications of taking credit for fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemson, P.D.; Thorne, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The first problem usually facing a criticality engineer is data specification. The design engineer and operator need a design and operating envelope of data which allows practical operation, but the criticality engineer must ensure that key parameters remain within specific limits to maintain criticality safety. Given the high safety standards demanded in the nuclear industry, a naturally cautious view is taken and pessimistic assumptions of parameter values are therefore made. This explains why assessments of spent fuel transport and storage assume unirradiated fissile compositions (the fresh fuel assumption). Looking ahead, the pressure to achieve more economic designs and the need to extend design specifications is likely to increase. The large decrease in spent fuel reactivity resulting from fuel burn-up provides a potential way of meeting these requirements. The challenge is to develop ways of taking credit for fuel burn-up with no reduction in safety. This raises various issues which are discussed briefly in this paper, together with a scoping study to investigate the scale of reactivity change with burn-up for an existing BNFL cask design

  10. Mineralogy and petrography of samples of Permo-Triassic sedimentary strata from Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Bloodworth, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The mineralogy and petrography of Permo-Triassic sediments from Cumbria are described. The samples are duplicates of those selected for sorption experiments by Harwell Laboratory and are considered representative of Permo-Triassic strata underlying the BNFL Sellafield site. The regional geological context of the samples is briefly discussed. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the St Bees Sandstone and Eden Shales samples are predominantly composed of quartz with minor feldspar, gypsum and hematite. The clay assemblage is formed of dioctahedral mica and trioctahedral chloride with minor kaolinite. Diagnostic testing also reveals the presence of corrensite, a regularly interstratified chlorite-smectite, in one of the samples. Possible diagenetic processes responsible for corrensite formation, including the alteration of originally deposited smectite by magnesium-rich pore waters, are discussed. Modelling of the diffraction profile indicates that the chlorite and corrensite are iron-rich species. Back scattered electron microscopy shows the samples to be typical red bed sediments exhibiting framework grain dissolution, the breakdown and replacement of unstable ferromagnesian minerals being accompanied by the precipitation of hematite and anatase. Particle-size analysis shows similar distributions for the St Bees Sandstone samples but a greater proportion of clay material in the Eden Shales. (author)

  11. Modifications to LLNL Plutonium Packaging Systems (PuPS) to achieve ASME VIII UW-13.2(d) Requirements for the DOE Standard 3013-00 Outer Can Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D; Dodson, K

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS) prepares packages to meet the DOE Standard 3013 (Reference 1). The PuPS equipment was supplied by the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). The DOE Standard 3013 requires that the welding of the Outer Can meets ASME Section VIII Division 1 (Reference 2). ASME Section VIII references to ASME Section IX (Reference 3) for most of the welding requirements, but UW-13.2 (d) of Section VIII requires a certain depth and width of the weld. In this document the UW-13.2(d) requirement is described as the (a+b)/2t s ratio. This ratio has to be greater than or equal to one to meet the requirements of UW-13.2(d). The Outer Can welds had not been meeting this requirement. Three methods are being followed to resolve this issue: (1) Modify the welding parameters to achieve the requirement, (2) Submit a weld case to ASME that changes the UW-13.2(d) requirement for their review and approval, and (3) Change the requirements in the DOE-STD-3013. Each of these methods are being pursued. This report addresses how the first method was addressed for the LLNL PuPS. The experimental work involved adjusting the Outer Can rotational speed and the power applied to the can. These adjustments resulted in being able to achieve the ASME VIII, UW-13.2(d) requirement

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark II and III in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.T.; Park, S.K.; Chung, K.W.; Chung, U.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. The first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is the technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Since and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license in mid 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project. (author)

  13. Fuel production for LWRs - MOX fuel aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deramaix, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium recycling in Light Water Reactors is today an industrial reality. It is recycled in the form of (U, Pu)O 2 fuel pellets (MOX), fabricated to a large extent according to UO 2 technology and pellet design. The similarity of physical, chemical, and neutron properties of both fuels also allows MOX fuel to be burnt in nuclear plants originally designed to burn UO 2 . The industrial processes presently in use or planned are all based on a mechanical blending of UO 2 and PuO 2 powders. To obtain finely dispersed plutonium and to prevent high local concentration of plutonium, the feed materials are micronised. In the BNFL process, the whole (UO 2 , PuO 2 ) blend is micronised by attrition milling. According to the MIMAS process, developed by BELGONUCLEAIRE, a primary blend made of UO 2 containing about 30% PuO 2 is micronised in a ball mill, afterwards this primary blend is mechanically diluted in UO 2 to obtain the specified Pu content. After mixing, the (U, Pu)O 2 powder is pressed and the pellets are sintered. The sintering cover gas contains moisture and 5 v/o H 2 . Moisture increases the sintering process and the U-Pu interdiffusion. After sintering and grinding, the pellets are submitted to severe controls to verify conformity with customer specifications (fissile content, Pu distribution, surface condition, chemical purity, density, microstructure). (author)

  14. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom). E-mail: copplest at liv.ac.uk; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d{sup -1}) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d{sup -1} level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  15. Reprocessing in the United Kingdom. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.G.; Bonser, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) was one of the largest construction projects in Europe. Similarly its control system is one of the most complex and comprehensive ever installed. This paper briefly reviews construction and then focuses on the organisation for, and challenges met in, commissioning the plant. In particular the way in which the regulatory interface was managed is described. Meanwhile liaison with the regulators was also taking place at a quite different level- for a battle was raging at a public relations and political level to secure revised discharge authorizations for the Sellafield Site which would allow THORP to operate. The uncertainty as to when THORP would be able to operate gave rise to unfamiliar project planning issues. This paper, describes the challenges and successes of the commissioning activities against the background of the regulatory interfaces and Greenpeace's activities. It is concluded that, in addition to the importance of the regulatory interface, which was well managed, it is essential that, with major and potentially controversial projects, the government itself must be assisted to help the nuclear industry. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Watson, R.H.; Loch, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Commercial nuclear fuel fabrication is focused on providing quality products. Throughout manufacturing attention is placed on the precise control of processes, procedures and tooling to reduce product variability. This paper describes the processes used to manufacture fuel for the advanced gas cooled reactor, light water reactor, fast breeder reactor and Magnox reactor systems at the BNFL, Springfields, and Westinghouse Columbia, USA, facilities. It covers the chemical purification and conversion stages of fuel production before describing the fabrication of both oxide and metallic fuel and gives a general overview of the technology used. Although the principles of fuel fabrication in terms of providing a cladding designed to be the primary envelope to encase the fuel are similar for each system, there are detailed differences in manufacturing route and cladding type which arise from differing reactor requirements. These, together with developments made in response to customer needs, are reviewed and the need to maintain a high purity reliable product with low variability at all stages in manufacture is emphasized throughout. (author)

  17. Refuelling design and core calculations at NPP Paks: codes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, I.; Nemes, I.; Javor, E.; Korpas, L.; Szecsenyi, Z.; Patai-Szabo, S.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the computer codes used in the fuel management practice at NPP Paks. The code package consist of the HELIOS neutron and gamma transport code for preparation of few-group cross section library, the CERBER code to determine the optimal core loading patterns and the C-PORCA code for detailed reactor physical analysis of different reactor states. The last two programs have been developed at the NPP Paks. HELIOS gives sturdy basis for our neutron physical calculation, CERBER and C-PORCA programs have been enhanced in great extent for last years. Methods and models have become more detailed and accurate as regards the calculated parameters and space resolution. Introduction of a more advanced data handling algorithm arbitrary move of fuel assemblies can be followed either in the reactor core or storage pool. The new interactive WINDOWS applications allow easier and more reliable use of codes. All these computer code developments made possible to handle and calculate new kind of fuels as profiled Russian and BNFL fuel with burnable poison or to support the reliable reuse of fuel assemblies stored in the storage pool. To extend thermo-hydraulic capability, with KFKI contribution the COBRA code will also be coupled to the system (Authors)

  18. Annual report and accounts 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is to supply a safe and efficient nuclear fuel cycle service. Springfields near Preston is the site of our fuel manufacturing operations, while Capenhurst near Chester is responsible for uranium enrichment. We reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield in West Cumbria, the site also of our multi-million pound investment programme which includes the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of facilities for the treatment and storage of waste produced during reprocessing operations. We also operate two nuclear power stations -Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Risley in Cheshire is the focus for our engineering design activities and the Company's Central Services Unit. The Head Office is also based at Risley. Fuel cycle services associated with the production of nuclear-generated electricity accounts for around 90% of our work. The report includes the chairman's review of the year, the Chief Executive's Report and summaries of the activities of the UK Group, International Group, Engineering Group and the Central Services Unit. The accounts are presented. (author)

  19. The implementation of a burnup credit based criticality safety assessment in the THORP head end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, J.; Edge, J.A.; Gracey, J.; Harris, N.

    2003-01-01

    A new criticality safety assessment based on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit has been developed to cover operations in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Reduction of the gadolinium concentration leads to significant reduction in active waste volumes. Detailed description of the methodology was presented at ICNC 1999 and the basic components of the approved safety case have remained unchanged from those proposed then. This paper presents a brief summary of the new methodology, and describes further analyses carried out to quantify additional safety margins. These additional margins are not credited in the derivation of the operating limits, but provide further evidence of the fault tolerance inherent in the new regime. As part of the arrangements to monitor the overall performance of the plant and instrumentation under the new regime, various analyses of plant data are made, including 'on-line' cross checks of measured versus expected fuel parameters (i.e. in addition to the checks on Residual Enrichment). Statistical analyses of data are made and compared with similar data from earlier batches. A summary of analyses made on some of the early fuel batches is presented here. A summary of the likely further development in the Burnup Credit methodology is given in this paper. (author)

  20. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  1. The development of thermal models for a UF6 transport container in a fully engulfing fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, J.; Clayton, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development work on a lumped-parameter model known as BURST3 created by BNFL to examine the physics of the heating problem. The predictions of this model were compared with the results obtained by Mallett in 1965, in which small (3.5, 5 and 8 inch diameter) cylinders were exposed to a fire. In general, the comparison is good; however there are some differences - particularly on the speed of response of the wall temperature to the heating from the fire. The model was further modified to allow conditions of partial and full insulation to be investigated. The partially insulated condition simulates the Japanese proposal to insulate the ends of the container only, leaving the cylinder bare between the stiffening rings. The results obtained with our modified model support the predictions of Abe et al that the partially-insulated cylinder will survive the fire test. The analysis of a completely insulated container has indicated that a minimal thickness of insulation provides sufficient protection to allow survival in the fire test. A discussion of additional improvements to the lumped-parameter model are presented. (J.P.N.)

  2. The decommissioning of the Trino nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Lucchese, M.; De Santis, R.; Novella, M.; Nurden, P.L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-01-01

    Following a referendum in Italy in the late 1980's the four nuclear power stations were closed down and subsequently, in the 1990's, the process of privatisation of the electricity industry was started. Starting from those conditions, Sogin (current owner of the four NPPs) was beginning to develop programs and projects to reach 'green field' conditions for all NPP's in Italy. Within this frame, an agreement was built between Sogin and BNFL, based on the previous successful collaboration, to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor, to work together taking into account their specific experiences in the decommissioning field, both for Italy, the United Kingdom and for other countries. Over the past year, a revised prompt decommissioning programme, drawing upon the combined experience of the two companies, has been developed for Trino. The study incorporates the removal, segmentation and packaging of components such as the reactor vessel and internals for transportation to the national repository, as well as cost efficient engineered solutions for the removal, segmentation and decontamination of the remaining systems, plant equipment and containment structures to a point where the containment structure itself can be released for demolition. It was recognised that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The strategy has been based on the principles of minimising both doses and waste products that require long term storage, maximizing 'free release' materials and utilising existing and regulatory approved technologies. (author)

  3. The design of in-cell crane handling systems for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansford, S.M.; Scott, R.

    1992-01-01

    The reprocessing and waste management facilities at (BNFL's) British Nuclear Fuels Limited's Sellafield site make extensive use of crane handling systems. These range from conventional mechanical handling operations as used generally in industry to high integrity applications through to remote robotic handling operations in radiation environments. This paper describes the design methodologies developed for the design of crane systems for remote handling operations - in-cell crane systems. In most applications the in-cell crane systems are an integral part of the plant process equipment and reliable and safe operations are a key design parameter. Outlined are the techniques developed to achieve high levels of crane system availability for operations in hazardous radiation environments. These techniques are now well established and proven through many years of successful plant operation. A recent application of in-cell crane handling systems design for process duty application is described. The benefits of a systematic design approach and a functionally-based engineering organization are also highlighted. (author)

  4. The commercial application of near real time materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.P.; Jones, B.J.; Jones, R.F.; Westwood, L.N.; Wharrier, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Near Real Time Materials Accountancy (NRTMA) is the leading edge technical solution employed by BNFL for in-process verification and timely detection of anomalies. It facilitates Safeguards inspection without intrusion and safeguards interim assurance without a monthly plant shut down. BNFL has been committed to the development of NRTMA for commercial plutonium plants. This multimedia poster presentation describes the features of Thorp and SMP relevant to the application of NRTMA, and then the statistical engine of NRTMA, which has many features in common across the two systems. This final point renders BNFL's implementation of NRTMA eligible for application to other nuclear and non-nuclear installations. NRTMA is operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp). NRTMA supports fulfilment of the monthly timeliness component of the safeguards approach so that Thorp can remain operational between annual Physical Inventory Takings (PITs). The In-Process Inventory (IPI) is determined by for each vessel, or group of vessels, based on determination of weight and assay (or volume and concentration) or process models. Data trending enhances the quality of important sources of data. Plant status rules are used to determine times when it is appropriate to determine the IPI. The number of IPIs is currently some tens per annual campaign (PIT to PIT), although the NRTMA System can accommodate more. NRTMA is an intrinsic element in the safeguards and nuclear materials control and accountancy arrangements for the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). This fulfils the timeliness component of the safeguards approach and does not require monthly clean out or run down for verification. The SMP is a batch process. In a plant location, there is a 'Window of Opportunity' for determining that component of the inventory while it is stationary. The IPI can be determined when the 'Windows of Opportunity' for the entire Works Accountancy Area align. There are potentially many

  5. Calibrating the input accountancy tanks on THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.G.; Hillier, A.P.; Temple, A.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), at Sellafield in the UK, processes oxide fuels from customers around the world. The fuel moves through the plant from shearing and dissolution in the Head End and subsequently to solvent extraction in the Chemical Plant. Clarified dissolver liquor is accumulated in three large buffer storage tanks (each of approximately 75 m 3 capacity), in the Head End prior to feeding to the Chemical Plant. The amount of dissolver liquor being passed to these tanks is accurately measured in one of two Input Accountancy Tanks, which are each of 23 m 3 working capacity, and are equipped with high accuracy weight and level measurement systems. Several papers have been published which describe the principles applied to achieve the Safeguarding of THORP. This paper describes the setting to work of a key measurement point in the THORP process and details the complex trials that were begun during the early commissioning phases, to ensure that these accountancy systems would eventually be fully characterized

  6. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  7. Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection

  8. Environmental impact of THORP - the philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's strategy for the management of aerial and marine radioactive effluents arising from THORP was first formally stated at the Windscale Inquiry in 1977. In summary, the design intent was that: radiation exposure of members of the general public, arising from discharges from THORP and associated facilities, should be 'As Low as is Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP); no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group(s) should receive an annual committed effective dose equivalent in excess of 50μSv from either aerial or marine discharge routes; that by the time THORP was operational, the sum total of annual exposure (CEDE) arising from operations on the whole of the Sellafield site (including those arising from the continuing effect of historical discharges) should not exceed 500μSv p.a. This paper examines the discharges predicted and their projected impact against the originally broad design intent, and specifically explores whether any further effluent discharge (and therefore dose) reduction, was practicable and indeed justifiable. As background, a brief summary of the THORP process is given, together with detail of the aerial effluent treatment and ventilation systems. (author)

  9. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  10. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the HBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Lee, Byung Ho; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1999-07-01

    Two MOX fuel rods, which ar being fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are going to be irradiated in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) from the beginning of 2000 in the framework of OECD Halden Reactor Programme (HRP) together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is a basic property in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTOR H BWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods have been developed subroutine FACTOR H BWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight underprediction in the central part and a little overprediction at the outer part of the pellet. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs., 24 figs

  11. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintschel v Heinegg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB) [de

  12. Nuclear power, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 12 short notes about sociological and environmental aspects of nuclear power in France and other countries: the epidemiological inquiry widened to all French nuclear sites; the sanitary and radioecological effects of nuclear activities in Northern Cotentin (France); the WONUC (World National Council of Nuclear Workers) anger with the French government about the shutdown of Superphenix reactor; the new more informative promotional campaign of Electricite de France (EdF) for nuclear power; the scientific and research prices attributed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to its searchers; the creation of a committee of inquiry in the French senate for the careful examination of the economical, social and financial consequences of the shutdown of Superphenix; the 31.2% increase of CEA-Industrie benefits for 1997; the decrease of nuclear contestation in Germany; the French-German communication efficiency during the Fessenheim accident simulation in October 7, 1997; the 3.5% increase of CO 2 emissions in the USA; the decommissioning of 3 Russian reactors for military plutonium production; Greenpeace condemnation for abusive purposes against British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) and its activities at Sellafield (UK). (J.S.)

  13. Phase II test plan for the evaluation of the performance of container filling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The PHMC will provide tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from Hanford's waste tanks. Concerns about the ability for ''grab'' sampling to provide large volumes of representative waste samples has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. Preferred concepts for filling sample containers that meet RCRA organic sample criteria were identified by a PHMC Decision Board. These systems will replace the needle based sampling ''T'' that is currently on the sampling system. This test plan document identifies cold tests with simulants that will demonstrate the preferred bottle filling concepts abilities to provide representative waste samples and will meet RCRA criteria. Additional tests are identified that evaluate the potential for cross-contamination between samples and the ability for the system to decontaminate surfaces which have contacted tank wastes. These tests will be performed with kaolidwater and sand/water slurry simulants in the test rig that was used by AEAT to complete Phase 1 tests in FY 1999

  14. Remobilisation of artificial radionuclides from the sediment of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Kershaw, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant decreases in discharges of radioactivity in liquid wastes from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) plant at Sellafield. Concentrations of many Sellafield-derived radionuclides in the water of the Irish Sea have decreased as a result. This will result in the return of previously contaminated sediment to the sediment surface and enhanced seawater/pore-water mixing by bio-irrigation, and may be responsible for higher rates of particle exchange across the sediment-seawater interface. In these circumstances, the decrease in seawater concentrations might be expected to be accompanied by the remobilisation of sediment-bound radionuclides into the water column. We have tested this hypothesis in the Sellafield situation in two ways. First, the differences were examined between measured concentrations of radionuclides in sea water and the concentrations which are to be expected on the basis of extrapolation from the conditions of steadier discharge rates experienced in the past. Secondly, modelling studies have shown that migration of radionuclides into the water phase is likely under these conditions. (author)

  15. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, C.

    2004-01-01

    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg

  16. Free release waste characterisation during the decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frith, A.J.; Dickson, E.D.; Hewetson, J.A.; McCormick, K.

    2003-01-01

    The decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney resulted in the removal of one of most historically significant and prominent features of the Sellafield site. The project was the first large scale concrete ''free release'' operation to be undertaken on the Sellafield nuclear site, producing 4500 tons of concrete of which 3000 tons was demonstrated to be ''free release''. The paper describes the radiometric techniques employed in the characterisation and segregation of the concrete into low level waste (LLW), very low level waste (VLLW) and free release categories. It examines the robust solutions that were developed to meet the technical and regulatory challenges of the project, which included the definition of free release, the selection of averaging volumes, the testing and validation of the monitoring systems employed for ton quantities of concrete and the identification and removal of small numbers of fuel particles from the free release waste stream. As a result of interest shown by other BNFL and UKAEA decommissioning projects at Sellafield, the paper finishes by discussing ways in which the system may be developed to assay other waste streams. (orig.)

  17. Occupational cancer and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahams, D.

    1988-01-01

    There have been two High Court actions and seven inquests in the UK, with reference to the debate on occupational hazards of long term, low dose exposure. In July, 1987, two cases alleging that workers in the nuclear industry had contracted cancer due to their exposure to radiation at work had to be abandoned halfway through the trial after the judge had heard the medical evidence. A 57-year old man claimed that Hodgkin's disease had been caused by radiation while at work at Sellafield. However, medical opinion was that Hodgkin's disease had never been accepted as caused by radiation. In the second case a man who had died of stomach cancer at the age of 54 after working for UKAEA at Dounreay for 7 years, had received 190 mSv. The defendants' experts rated the likelihood of radiation as the cause at 3-6%; the plaintiffs' experts had suggested 30-50%. Seven inquest juries sitting in West Cumbria from 1983 to 1988 have brought in three verdicts of death caused by an industrial disease, three open verdicts, and one of natural causes. The men had all worked for BNFL at Sellafield for many years. (author)

  18. The international WWER fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingold, G.E.; Goldstein, L.; Strasser, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The state of the world nuclear fuel market and its economic complexities are described. Currently the nuclear fuel market is oversupplied and nuclear fuel fabrication in the West far exceeds the anticipated demands. Actually the current demand is not much more than half of the capacity available to supply it. The Eastern Europe (excluding the plants in the Russian Federation) with its 20 WWER-440 and 12 WWER-1000 reactors in operation and additional 4 WWER-440 and 8 WWER-1000 units under construction is considered as a potential long-term market for the Western fuel fabricators. The following significant benefits of competition in the WWER fuel market for the operators of these reactors are : 1) lower cost; 2) more favorable contract terms and improved vendor cooperation with the customer; 3) accelerated technological development. A brief description of the main WWER fuel suppliers TVEL, ABB Atom, BNFL, EVF and Westinghouse, as well as the status of some new companies as CEZ and SEP is given. The principal differences between Western and WWER fuels are outlined. The advanced features offered by the Western vendors and Russian fuel supply organisations are discussed. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  20. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  1. Challenges in the application of burn-up credit to the criticality safety of the THORP reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayson, R.T.H.; Gunston, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 BNFL has made a significant investment in the development of the burn-up credit method and the application to its operations. It has recently demonstrated that using this method for the THORP dissolvers, it is possible to justify operating safety with reduced neutron poison concentrations and this has now been submitted to the regulators. The continued challenges the criticality safety community is facing are to show that we are not reducing safety levels because we are using burn-up credit. The burn-up credit method that has been developed can be summarized as follows. It consists of performing reactivity calculations for irradiated fuel using compositions generated by and inventory prediction code, generally in order to determine the limiting burn-up required for that fuel in a particular environment. In addition, it has always been envisaged that a confirmatory measurement of burn-up would be required to be made prior to certain operations such as the sharing of fuel into a dissolver. The burn-up credit method therefore relies upon three key components of inventory prediction, reactivity calculation code and the quantification and verification of burn-up. (J.P.N.)

  2. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  3. The conditioned reprocessing waste returns. An overview of the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.

    1987-01-01

    Although the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is at present under careful reconsideration and analysis in several countries, the economics, the environmental and health protection aspects being taken into consideration by many experts, it is nevertheless currently carried out in Great Britain and in France as a commercial service offered to the domestic utilities an to foreign customers, according to the contracts and the agreements signed in the past. Such contracts have been signed with COGEMA and/or BNFL by seven countries: Germany, Sweden, Japan, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Holland. As a consequence of this, a big number of high level radioactive glass containers and of cemented and bituminized waste will be returned in order to be stored and disposed off in these European countries and in Japan. The disposal of the conditioned wastes will only be possible if their characteristics comply with the acceptance criteria established or to be established in each customer country. A brief review of the situation will be presented in this paper, particular attention being given to the problems possibly arising from the acceptance point of view of the different reprocessing waste categories

  4. Green and poisoned land?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, M.; Cutler, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) at Sellafield (formerly Windscale) have had to improve its image and have mounted a publicity campaign to improve its public relations and promote nuclear power. However, a study of the childhood leukemia excess acknowledged to exist near Sellafield has been made. Its finding show that in each case of leukaemia or lymphatic cancer in under-25s in West Cumbria between 1950 and 1985 the fathers had received higher radiation exposure at the Sellafield plant than had the fathers in a matched control group. Other studies support the theory that genetic damage to the fathers have given rise to a predisposition to develop leukemia in their children. Higher radiation levels in the local environment could then be another step in the cancer-causing process. The Sellafield reprocessing plant has been responsible for high levels of radioactivity in the Irish Sea, Cumbrian coast and beyond. If the main purpose of Sellafield is simply to make money the long term hazards to human genetic and food chains make this an unacceptable enterprise. (UK)

  5. Radiological risks and civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)

  6. Radiological risks and civil liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author).

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  8. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract

  9. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-03-11

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

  10. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the IFA-651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Cheon, Jin Sik; Oh, Je Yong; Sohn, Dong Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Two MOX fuel rods, which were fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, have been irradiated in the HBWR from June, 2000 in the framework of OECD-HRP together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is basic in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods has been developed based on neutron physics results and DEPRESS program. The developed subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight under-prediction at the outer part of the pellet above the burnup of 20 MWd/kgHM. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. 24 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  11. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  12. The role of near-shore industrial waste releases in the dispersion of radionuclides in the NE Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, through the use of autoradiographic methods combined with field observations and laboratory studies, I have concluded that the behaviour and distribution of the α-active actinide radionuclides in the estuarine and marine sediments of the NE Irish Sea are significantly influenced by the releases of other non-radioactive industrial wastes. Since the 1700s, the various industrial activities in the Cumbrian coastal region have included: haematite mining, diverse non-ferric metal extraction industries, coal mining and a large number of blast furnaces for the manufacture of iron. More recently (1954-92), the Albright and Wilson phosphoric acid factory at Whitehaven, Cumbria, has discharged large quantities of phosphogypsum slurries into the NE Irish Sea. Iron wastes and slag products, together with phosphogypsum and its associated by-products containing the rare earth elements, are extremely reactive towards the actinides. These wastes are now slowly being removed from the region by natural processes following the rapid decline of heavy industry in the area. These wastes have been present since BNFL first started to discharge radionuclides into the NE Irish Sea and have not, so far, been considered in any models for the dispersion of radionuclides in the region. It is shown that sediments of the NE Irish Sea and local estuaries contain a significant part of the actinide content as coatings on two iron minerals, magnetite and haematite; there is also a significant diffuse distribution associated with hydrated iron oxides attached to quartz grains. However, not all magnetite and haematite grains from a given site show α-activity. Relative to the intensity of the α-activity of the constituent minerals in sediments, the two iron minerals can be regarded as hot particles and are associated with a further set of far more intense hot particles that either may be totally derived from BNFL Sellafield or may also include a contribution from the Albright

  13. Experience and trends at the Belgonucleaire plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deramaix, P.; Eeckhout, F.; Pay, A.; Pelckmans, E.

    2000-01-01

    The BN Dessel plant started operation in 1973. During the initial period (up to 1984), the plant was equipped to fabricate FBR as well as LWR fuel (5 tHM/year) within the framework of LWR demonstration and FBR programmes. The first ten years of operation have laid down the basis for all modifications or improvements in the fields of fuel fabrication and control processes, waste management, safety and safeguards, which were implemented in the 1984-1985 refurbishment. On this occasion, the MIMAS fabrication process has been introduced to make MOX fuel reprocessable in the operating conditions of the modern reprocessing plants (COGEMA in La Hague and BNFL in Sellafield) and the capacity of the plant has been upgraded to the current nominal capacity of 35 tHM per year (with a maximum licensed of 40 tHM per year). The nominal fabrication capacity was achieved in 1989, maintained consistently since then at least at that level, approaching even the license limit. The process has proved its high flexibility, in particular in terms of the large variety of MOX manufactured for both PWRs (14 x 14, 15 x 15, 16 x 16, 17 x 17, types) and BWRs (8 x 8, 9 x 9, 10 x 10 types), of the size of the campaign (from less than 4 tHM to 28 tHM), of the origin of the PuO 2 (from COGEMA and BNFL reprocessing plants, Pu from second generation), of the Pu content (up to 8.6 w/o in HM). From 1986 up to the end of March 1999, more than 21 t Pu as PuO 2 have been processed into more than 388 tHM of MIMAS fuel, delivered or to be delivered for use in 796 PWR assemblies and 184 BWR assemblies for 21 large power reactors (17 PWRs and 4 BWRs) in 5 countries (France, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium). The MOX fuel produced has been demonstrated to reach at least the same performance as the UO 2 fuel used simultaneously in the same reactors. An increasing number of the MOX assemblies are discharged at a burnup of at least 45 GWd/tHM assembly average. One assembly reached 51 GWd/tHM assembly average

  14. Stakeholder involvement in the management of effluent discharges from nuclear installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Oudiz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of local stakeholders in the decision-making process regarding health, safety and environmental issues is developing in many countries. As far as the management of effluent discharges from nuclear installations in France is concerned, members of Local Commission of Information, including elected people and NGOs, are playing an increasing role in that respect. To deepen the understanding of these risk governance processes, a working group of experts from different institutions was set up in 2000 by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). The aim of this working group was to 1) analyse the stakeholder involvement processes already in place in France around nuclear and non-nuclear installations; 2) perform case studies of few national and international experiences around nuclear installations (notably concerning the revision of creation authorisation decree of COGEMA La Hague reprocessing plant, the environmental policy of BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant, the discharges surveillance of EDF Fessenheim nuclear power plant); 3) study the evolution of the regulatory context for the stakeholder involvement. Four main elements, contributing to the social trust emerge from this analysis: 1) the social dynamics of the consultation process, notably with the emergence of 'new' stakeholders such as elected people and NGOs; 2) the readability of the plant follow-up from the point of view of local stakeholders and their involvement in the decision process (the relay role of these 'new' stakeholders); 3) the contribution of the institutional and pluralist expertise to the social trust (broadening of the range of values taken into account); 4) the issue of the local justification of the plant in the prospect of the sustainable development (no risk being acceptable without counter-parts). This paper will address these different issues on the basis of the case studies in the perspective of examining the radiological risk governance process

  15. Glass Dissolution Parameters: Update for Entsorgungsnachweis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E

    2003-11-01

    This document provides updated long-term corrosion rates for borosilicate glasses used in Switzerland as a matrix for high-level radioactive waste. The new rates are based on long-term leaching experiments conducted at PSI and are corroborated by recent investigations. The asymptotic rates have been determined through weighted linear regressions of the normalised mass losses, directly calculated from B and Li concentrations in the leaching solutions. Special attention was given to the determination of the analytical uncertainty of the mass losses. The sensitivity of the corrosion rates to analytical uncertainties and to other criteria (e.g. the choice of data points for the regressions) was also studied. A major finding was that the uncertainty of the corrosion rate mainly depends on the uncertainty of the specific glass surface area. The reference rates proposed for safety assessment calculations are 1.5 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for BNFL glasses and 0.2 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for Cogema glasses. The relevance of the proposed corrosion rates for repository conditions is shown based on the analysis of processes and parameters currently known to affect the long-term kinetics of silicate glasses. Specifically, recent studies indicate that potentially detrimental effects, notably the removal of silica from solution through adsorption on clay minerals, are transitory and will not affect the long-term corrosion rate of the Swiss reference glasses. Iron corrosion products are also known to bind silica, but present data are not sufficient to quantify their influence on the long-term rate. (author)

  16. The interaction with suspended and settled sedimentary materials of long-lived radionuclides discharged into United Kingdom coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1987-11-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are routinely discharged under authorization into United Kingdom coastal waters from nuclear reactor sites, from nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and from other facilities connected with the nuclear industries. The effluents contain a wide range of radionuclides, with greatly varying half-lives and in different chemical forms. The receiving environments are also markedly different. All of these factors need to be taken into account in order that the authorizations for discharge are based on a sound knowledge of the underlying environmental science as well as meeting the objectives of radiological protection. The largest research effort has been expended on the longer-lived nuclides discharged from the BNFL plant at Sellafield into the Irish Sea. These studies have focused on such aspects as the nature of the effluent, the dispersion of the soluble nuclides out of the Irish Sea, the retention of other nuclides within it, and the incorporation of radionuclides into settled sediments. Some comparisons have also been made between other sites by observing the concentrations of radionuclides in similar materials, at similar distances, per unit rate of discharge. Although these studies are useful in developing an understanding of the dynamics of radionuclides in coastal environments, it is essential to have a wider and more general knowledge if the long-term consequences of discharging radionuclides—or any other chemical waste—into coastal waters are to be fully evaluated. These consequences are assessed by the use of models which have, necessarily, to simplify many of the processes involved. It is therefore all the more important that the underlying science relating to the nature and behaviour of the wastes, and of the receiving environment, is fully explored, and that the assumptions used in the models can be satisfactorily validated.

  17. The development and design of the off-gas treatment system for the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.I. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Buckley, C.P.; Miller, W.W. [British Nuclear Fuels, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    British Nuclear Fuels completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated on 17 January 1994. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant`s discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to As Low as Reasonably Practicable. Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met with respect to aerial discharges. It outlines the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. The resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. The principal species requiring treatment in the THORP off-gas system are iodine-129, carbon-14, nitrogen oxides (NOx), fuel dust particles and aerosols containing plutonium or mixed fission products. The paper describes the combination of abatement equipment used in different parts of the plant, including counter-current absorption columns, electrostatic precipitators, dehumidifiers and High Efficiency Particulate Air filters. Because a number of separate off-gas streams are combined before discharge, special depression control systems were developed which have already proved successful during plant commissioning. BNFL is confident that the detailed attention given to the development and design phases of the THORP off-gas system will ensure good performance when the plant moves into fully radioactive operation.

  18. Industrial complex for solid radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of decommissioning and cleanup work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant site in Ukraine, several facilities are being erected under the EU TACIS program for the treatment of radioactive waste. The subprojects covered in the article, referred to as LOT 1-3, are called Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM). They comprise facilities for the retrieval and treatment of solid radioactive waste and the construction of a store for shortlived waste. The three international companies participating, i.e. BNFL, NUKEM, and INITEC, began to work on the project in March 2000; turnkey delivery is scheduled for April 2004. LOT 1 encompasses the construction of a facility for retrieval and treatment of approx. 2 450 m 3 of low and medium level waste from the XTO interim storage facility of the Chernobyl site. This waste mainly includes protective clothing, metal parts, building components, and graphite. The facility to be built within LOT 2 will be used to treat all categories of low and medium level solid waste. It is to allow solid waste to be separated, treated further, compacted if necessary, and packaged in containers as a function of its activity and physical quality. LOT 3 comprises the construction of a shallow land burial repository for the emplacement of solid, conditioned low and medium level waste materials arising from the ICSRM project. It is based on the concept of a similar facility at El Cabril, Spain, and will be erected roughly 10 km from the Chernobyl power plant site. The repository will have a capacity of 63 200 m 3 and will ensure safe containment of waste packages for a storage period of 300 years. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  20. Safety culture aspects of managing for safety. Experience of a large nuclear reprocessing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycraft, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Industry is going through turbulent times both in terms of public acceptance and business issues. Safety is one area which impacts on whether the business is allowed to continue, and how an organisation organizes itself. The need to cut costs to make nuclear power a viable energy resource, has forced the nuclear utilities to review manning policies, and management style, and in particular how to maintain safety standards during a period of change, and ultimately support continuing improvement of standards. The shrinking workforce requires a new style of management, one that depends more on the people of the organisation taking responsibility for safety at all levels of the organisation. Not only personal safety but the safety of their colleagues, general public and the environment. The safety culture of an organisation is indivisible from the company culture, each aspect of a culture influences the whole and so the balance between business, safety and quality, has to be managed. BNFL provides a full fuel cycle service to nuclear power plants, and associated services to many national and international organisations. The following notes are taken from the work carried out in the company, and mostly at the Nuclear Reprocessing and Waste storage Site at Sellafield, based in the North West of England. Following the recent re-organisation, the site now employs 6200 people and has a further 1500 contractors working on construction activities on the site. Activities on the site range from remote handling to hands on tasks, involving highly active materials to low level waste. (author)

  1. Changes in impacts of liquid radioactive waste discharges from Sellafield to the Irish Sea during the 1990s as a result of new plant and authorisation revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.; Camplin, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) are authorised to discharge low level liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield into the Irish Sea. The current authorisation took effect in January 1994 and allowed operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) which reprocesses oxide fuels from the UK and abroad, and the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) which treats current and historic liquid wastes, particularly to remove transuranic radionuclides. The authorisation included reduced discharge limits for radionuclides of greatest radiological significance, such as 106 Ru, 137 Cs and the transuranics, and increased limits for some nuclides of low radiological significance, including 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc and 129 I. Changes in operations on site have been reflected in the amounts of liquid radioactive waste discharged, and this paper describes and explains the trends in discharges for 14 C, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 239 Pu+ 240 Pu and 241 Am over the period 1990-98. CEFAS undertakes a comprehensive programme of aquatic environmental monitoring around Sellafield on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and the paper describes the trends in monitoring results, relating them to changes in discharge patterns and environmental influences. Increased discharges of 99 Tc resulting from treatment of stored historic wastes in EARP have been of particular environmental interest; more detailed data are therefore included. The effects in terms of radiological significance to the potentially critical group of fish and shellfish consumers are also presented, showing the changes in contributions due to different radionuclides. Doses have ranged from 0.11 - 0.16 mSv y -1 and this is partly due to changed radionuclide concentrations in seafoods, but also changing patterns in the amounts of seafood eaten by the group. Predictions for future trends of environmental impact are described. (author)

  2. Learning from disasters. Understanding the Cultural and Organisational Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Professor Richard Taylor, from the University of Bristol, gave a presentation on the causes and potential ways of reducing the risk of Organisational Accidents. The presentation described a research study that was conducted to analyse and identify lessons from 12 major events in the nuclear and other sectors. The study was funded by ONR and BNFL. Although the events occurred in different sectors and circumstances, the analysis identified many common issues. The findings from the analysis were grouped into the following eight themes: leadership issues, operational attitudes and behaviours, business environment, competence, risk assessment and management, oversight and scrutiny, organisational learning and external regulation. Examples of issues identified under each of the themes are provided in Appendix 2. The presentation discussed learning for regulatory bodies from the events studied. This includes the need for regulators to move beyond technical/procedural issues to thinking about leadership commitment, business pressures and the underlying culture of the organisations they regulate. Regulators should take an 'overview' and actively explore organisational causes of problems rather than focusing on the symptoms. The analysis of events also revealed that regulators sometimes picked up emerging issues but did not act. This highlights the importance of good internal communication and discussion of issues within the regulatory body. The findings from the study have been used to develop expectations/objectives for good performance and develop a draft set of questions that regulators could use to assess vulnerability. Further work with industry and regulatory bodies is planned to encourage a better understanding of the organisational issues identified, improve cross industry sector learning, and develop new tools to reduce vulnerability to organisational accidents

  3. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  4. Glass Dissolution Parameters: Update for Entsorgungsnachweis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    2003-11-01

    This document provides updated long-term corrosion rates for borosilicate glasses used in Switzerland as a matrix for high-level radioactive waste. The new rates are based on long-term leaching experiments conducted at PSI and are corroborated by recent investigations. The asymptotic rates have been determined through weighted linear regressions of the normalised mass losses, directly calculated from B and Li concentrations in the leaching solutions. Special attention was given to the determination of the analytical uncertainty of the mass losses. The sensitivity of the corrosion rates to analytical uncertainties and to other criteria (e.g. the choice of data points for the regressions) was also studied. A major finding was that the uncertainty of the corrosion rate mainly depends on the uncertainty of the specific glass surface area. The reference rates proposed for safety assessment calculations are 1.5 mg m -2 d -1 for BNFL glasses and 0.2 mg m -2 d -1 for Cogema glasses. The relevance of the proposed corrosion rates for repository conditions is shown based on the analysis of processes and parameters currently known to affect the long-term kinetics of silicate glasses. Specifically, recent studies indicate that potentially detrimental effects, notably the removal of silica from solution through adsorption on clay minerals, are transitory and will not affect the long-term corrosion rate of the Swiss reference glasses. Iron corrosion products are also known to bind silica, but present data are not sufficient to quantify their influence on the long-term rate. (author)

  5. Considerations for a national program on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Perez, B.; Melches-Serrano, C.

    1980-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the two LWR's that are in operation (Zorita, 160 MW PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona, 460 MW BWR) is being reprocessed under contracts with BNFL; these contracts will expire in the next few years. The fuel discharged from Vandelos (50 MW GCR) is being reprocessed by Cogema under a long-term contract. No new reprocessing contracts for LWR's in operation, under construction, or planned have been signed or are being considered for the near future. The plutonium and the residual uranium contained in LWR spent fuel are considered important potential energy resources. They are especially valuable for countries such as Spain, which is short of energy resources, and they might be used in the future in fast breeder or thermal reactors. This is the reason that, until reprocessing is justified and appropriate solutions to make reprocessing available are developed, Spain has decided to build the appropriate capacity for the temporary storage of spent fuel. The capacity is being achieved, on short term, by the extension of AR storage capacity. It is being achieved, at medium or longer term, by the construction of centralized AFR facilities to serve all Spanish nuclear power plants. Spanish utilities are undertaking the expansion of reactor storage capacities, using densified racks, to increment capacity to at least 8 to 10 reloads, in addition to full core discharge capacity. Spain has the time and the financial and technical resources to implement a national solution for spent fuel storage. Financial strategy, technology choice, and licensing considerations are under examination in order to make a decision for medium- and long-term storage alternatives

  6. Measurement error in longitudinal film badge data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.L.

    2002-04-01

    The classical measurement error model is that of a simple linear regression with unobservable variables. Information about the covariates is available only through error-prone measurements, usually with an additive structure. Ignoring errors has been shown to result in biased regression coefficients, reduced power of hypothesis tests and increased variability of parameter estimates. Radiation is known to be a causal factor for certain types of leukaemia. This link is mainly substantiated by the Atomic Bomb Survivor study, the Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients study, and studies of various other patients irradiated for therapeutic purposes. The carcinogenic relationship is believed to be a linear or quadratic function of dose but the risk estimates differ widely for the different studies. Previous cohort studies of the Sellafield workforce have used the cumulative annual exposure data for their risk estimates. The current 1:4 matched case-control study also uses the individual worker's film badge data, the majority of which has been unavailable in computerised form. The results from the 1:4 matched (on dates of birth and employment, sex and industrial status) case-control study are compared and contrasted with those for a 1:4 nested (within the worker cohort and matched on the same factors) case-control study using annual doses. The data consist of 186 cases and 744 controls from the work forces of four BNFL sites: Springfields, Sellafield, Capenhurst and Chapelcross. Initial logistic regressions turned up some surprising contradictory results which led to a re-sampling of Sellafield mortality controls without the date of employment matching factor. It is suggested that over matching is the cause of the contradictory results. Comparisons of the two measurements of radiation exposure suggest a strongly linear relationship with non-Normal errors. A method has been developed using the technique of Regression Calibration to deal with these in a case-control study context

  7. The Economics of IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.; Paramonov, D.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals a single module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as and when the circumstances are right

  8. Development and formation of safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry, M.W.J.; Rycraft, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) is the largest project ever undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and its success is important for the future of the company. The company recognised at the planning stage that to be profitable, THORP had to operate both safely and with a smaller workforce. The establishment of an appropriate culture which saw safety and productivity as essential and complimentary at the beginning of the life of the plant was therefore vital for the future success of THORP The key factors in the THORP Culture formation were : The recruitment policy; the training policy; measures taken to ensure participation from the workforce; teamworking support; communication initiatives; clear statement of cultural principles; clear and demonstrable leadership. The current stage of evolution has seen some positive results namely: A clear commitment to involving all personnel in problem solving and task organisation, including safety; a confident workforce with an improved ability to communicate; the capability of the majority of the workforce to work as a team; safety awareness of the workforce is generally high along with an awareness of environmental, commercial and (political) external issues affecting the THORP business; a commitment to continuous improvement. The development of the safety culture within THORP has also had challenges, some as a result of the composite nature of the workforce, and others as side effects of the culture shaping measures. Management have recognised these, and using the results of attitude surveys, are working with the workforce to overcome their effects. Clear recognition has been achieved that the establishment of positive behaviours is a key. step in generating the culture required summarising, there is recognition that the design of safety management systems and improvement programmes, should be based on the principles of human psychology and behaviour. which includes wide participation by the workforce

  9. Factors determining the UK's back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Ainsworth, Z.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by British Energy Generation Ltd (BEGL) and British Energy Generation (UK) Ltd (BEG(UK)L), who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Ownership of the Magnox stations, which were excluded from this privatisation, has now been transferred to BNFL.Government policy on spent fuel management in the UK is that it is for the owners of the spent fuel to decide on the appropriate spent fuel management options, based on their own commercial judgement, subject to meeting the necessary regulatory requirements. The main factors which have predominantly determined UK utility decisions on spent fuel management, to date, have been based on the technical considerations of the spent fuel characteristics, economic attractiveness of the options and at reactor site spent fuel storage capacities. To date, reprocessing has been the dominant form of spent fuel treatment in the UK. Spent fuel storage facilities consist of a mixture of at-reactor stores and large, centralised ponds associated with the reprocessing activities which take place at the Sellafield site. BEGL and BEG(UK)L have contracts for the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allow for all AGR spent fuel to be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or long-term storage. The prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue, and spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site in the short to medium term. It is likely that a combination of factors, which are discussed later in this paper, will continue to affect back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. (author)

  10. Integrated wastewater management planning for DOE's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.; Barthel, J.; Wheeler, M.; Conroy, K.

    1996-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS), jointly formed by Morrison Knudsen Corporation and BNFL Inc., provides international experience in the nuclear, environmental, waste management, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) , and project management industry. The company is currently the environmental restoration, waste management, and D ampersand D subcontractor for Kaiser-Hill Company at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). RMRS offers unique solutions and state-of-the-art technology to assist in resolving the issues that face industries today. RMRS has been working on methods to improve cost savings recognized at RFETS, through application of unique technologies and process engineering. RMRS prepared and is implementing a strategy that focused on identifying an approach to improve cost savings in current wastewater treatment systems and to define a low-cost, safe and versatile wastewater treatment system for the future. Development of this strategy, was targeted by Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Rocky Flats Field Office and Kaiser-Hill as a ''Project Breakthrough'' where old concepts were thrown out the door and the project goals and objectives were developed from the groundup. The objectives of the strategy developed in a project break through session with DOE included lower lifecycle costs, shutdown of one of two buildings at RFETS, Building 374 or Building 774, reduced government capital investment, and support of site closure program goals, identified as the site's Accelerated Site Action Plan (ASAP). The recommended option allows for removal of water treatment functions from Building 374, the existing process wastewater treatment facility. This option affords the lowest capital cost, lowest unit operating cost, lowest technical management risk, greatest support of ASAP phasing and provides the greatest flexibility for design with unforeseen future needs

  11. Cross border transport of vitrified residues from France to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.; Jussofie, A.

    2016-01-01

    Until 1994 reprocessing was the only legal way to manage German spent fuel. Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2002 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. According to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK, and to the intergovernmental agreements concluded between Germany and France or UK the waste generated from reprocessing has to be returned to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was not only demanding from the view of safety ensured by the cask design but especially for security reasons since the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2010. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed improved security measures. Special working forces and projects have been set up in France and Germany to cope with this situation. A complex transport organization was necessary to involve all parties in line with the German and French security requirements during transport. All transports have been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. (author)

  12. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project recommended path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (the Project), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy-commissioned Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team, has developed engineered alternatives for expedited removal of spent nuclear fuel, including sludge, from the K Basins at Hanford. These alternatives, along with a foreign processing alternative offered by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), were extensively reviewed and evaluated. Based on these evaluations, a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Recommended Path Forward for K Basins spent nuclear fuel has been developed and is presented in Volume I of this document. The recommendation constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. The overall processing and storage scheme is based on the ITA team's proposed passivation and vault storage process. A dual purpose staging and vault storage facility provides an innovative feature which allows accelerated removal of fuel and sludge from the basins and minimizes programmatic risks beyond any of the originally proposed alternatives. The projects fit within a regulatory and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) overlay which mandates a two-phased approach to construction and operation of the needed facilities. The two-phase strategy packages and moves K Basins fuel and sludge to a newly constructed Staging and Storage Facility by the year 2000 where it is staged for processing. When an adjoining facility is constructed, the fuel is cycled through a stabilization process and returned to the Staging and Storage Facility for dry interim (40-year) storage. The estimated total expenditure for this Recommended Path Forward, including necessary new construction, operations, and deactivation of Project facilities through 2012, is approximately $1,150 million (unescalated)

  13. Experience with contamination protection of spent fuel transport packages in Germany since 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinninger, H.; Bach, R.; Seidel, J.; Jung, P.

    2004-01-01

    On April 30, 1998 just a few days before the PATRAM 1998 conference at Paris, the French Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (DSIN now DGSNR) published a press release, that during the year before some 35% of the spent fuel transports to the reprocessing plant of COGEMA at La Hague have non-fixed surface contamination in excess of the regulatory standard. A few day in advance DSIN informed in French Ministries and the competent foreign authorities of the customer countries of COGEMA. The consequences of this publication were multi-fold and perceived by the public as an act negligence of the nuclear industry. Because of concerns about additional radiation exposure to the railway workers by the unions the French Railway company SNCF suspended all transports by May 6, 1998 until implementation of corrective measures. This decision of SNF interupted also the spent fuel transports from continental Europe to the reprocessing plant of BNFL at Sellafield all performed across France to the port of Dunkirk. Furthermore on May 25, 1998 the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU) imposed a transport ban for shipment of spent fuel from commercial power plants and for high active waste returned from La Hague to the Gorleben site. The conditions for resumption of these transports were outlined by NMU in a 10-point programme. In response to these publications on contamination findings competent German State and Federal Authorities commissioned investigations by independent experts dealing with the identification of the causes, the proposal of counter measures, the investigation of shortcomings in the transport system in general and recommendations for retification of it

  14. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  15. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  16. The regulation of technetium-99 discharges at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayall, A.

    2002-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent Magnox fuel at BNFL Sellafield produces a liquid waste concentrate containing technetium-99 and other, more radiotoxic, radionuclides such as plutonium and americium. The concentrate is known as medium active concentrate (MAC). Prior to 1981, MAC was discharged to sea untreated after several years' storage, during which short-lived radionuclides underwent radioactive decay. In the early 1980s, discharges of MAC were suspended and it was retained in storage tanks, pending the construction of a plant to remove the radionuclides of greatest radiological concern (these did not include technetium- 99). The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant started operation in 1994 and began to clear the backlog of stored waste MAC, as well as current arisings from Magnox reprocessing. As a consequence technetium-99 was once more discharged to sea. Subsequently, concentrations of this radionuclide in the marine environment increased. In particular, there was a significant increase in the concentration of technetium-99 in lobster in the Irish Sea. An increase in technetium-99 has also been detected at locations far distant from Sellafield, e.g. in Scandinavian coastal waters, albeit at very low concentrations. This dispersal of technetium- 99 throughout the Irish Sea and further afield has therefore caused concern, although the radiological impact is low. This paper examines the nature and source of the technetium-99 in sea discharges at Sellafield and the levels of past and current discharges as well as their impact. It goes on to describe the Environment Agency's recent proposals on the future regulation of technetium-99 discharges and how these should lead to substantial reductions in not only technetium-99 discharges, but also of other radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90. (author)

  17. Biodecontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.; Rogers, R.D.; Benson, J.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technology for biologically decontaminating concrete is being jointly developed by scientists at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The technology exploits a naturally occurring phenomenon referred to as microbially influenced degradation (MID) in which bacteria produce acids that dissolve the cement matrix of concrete. Most radionuclide contamination of concrete is fixed in the outer few mm of the concrete surface. By capturing and controlling this natural process, a biological method of removing the surface of concrete to depths up to several mm is being developed. Three types of bacteria are known to be important in MID of concrete: nitrifying bacteria that produce nitric acid, sulfur oxidizing bacteria that produce sulfuric acid, and certain heterotrophic bacteria that produce organic acids. An investigation of natural environments demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy the presence of bacteria on concrete surfaces of a variety of structures, such as bridges and dams, where corrosion is evident. Enumeration of sulfur oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria revealed their presence and activity on structures to varying degrees in different environments. Under ideal conditions, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, a sulfur oxidizing bacteria, attached to and colonized the surface of concrete specimens. Over 1mm depth of material from a 10 cm x 10 cm square surface was removed in 68 days in the Thiobacillus treated specimen compared to a sterile control. Laboratory and field demonstrations are currently being conducted using experimental chambers designed to be mounted directly to concrete surfaces where radionuclide contamination exists. Data is being obtained in order to determine actual rates of surface removal and limitations to the system. This information will be used to develop a full scale decontamination technology

  18. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  19. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be

  20. Decommissioning of the Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group is continuing to build on BNFL's successful record of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. Challenging radiological conditions and complex technical problems have been overcome to reduce the hazard associated with the UK's nuclear legacy. The former Plutonium Purification and Residues Recovery Plant at Sellafield operated from 1954 through to 1987. This is the only plant to have experienced an uncontrolled criticality incident in the UK, in August 1970 during operations. The plant comprised of two mirror image cells approximately 6.5 m x 13.5 m x 16 m, constructed of bare brick. The cell structure provided secondary containment, the process vessels and pipes within the cell providing primary containment. The plant utilized a solvent extraction process to purify the plutonium stream. Surrounding the two process cells to the north, east and south is an annulus area that housed the operational control panels, feed and sample glove-boxes, and ancillary equipment. The building was ventilated by an unfiltered extract on the process cells and a filtered extract from the vessels and glove-boxes. During the long operational lifetime of the plant, the primary containment deteriorated to such an extent that the process cells eventually became the main containment, with levels of radioactive contamination in excess of 14,256 pCi alpha. This led to significant aerial effluent discharges towards the end of the plant's operational life and onerous working conditions during decommissioning. Implementation of a phased decommissioning strategy from 1991 has led to: - A reduction of approximately 60% in the Sellafield site's aerial alpha discharges following installation of a new ventilation system, - Removal of 12 plutonium contaminated glove-boxes and sample cabinets from the building, - Disposal of the approximately 500 m 2 of asbestos building cladding, - Removal of over 90% of the active pipes and vessels from the highly contaminated process cells

  1. Development of pyrochemical spent fuel management in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfield, Zara; Cogan, John; Farrant, Dave; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hopkins, Phil; Lewin, Bob [BNFL - Nexia Solutions Limited, Workington Facility, B291 Trenches, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Nexia Solutions is undertaking a programme to investigate the role of pyrochemical techniques for spent nuclear fuel and legacy fuel management. The principal UK client is the energy unit, and the other clients are the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), for legacy fuel conditioning, and BNFL's corporate investment in advanced reactor systems which is contributing to the Generation IV programme. The emphasis of the programme is pragmatic industrialization, which we have identified as key for the establishment of pyrochemical fuel management. From our experience operating fuel manufacture, power generation and reprocessing plant we know that the areas which require particular attention for successful implementation are: - Plant Interfaces, - Operability, - Process Definition, - Underpinning Science. Plant Interfaces encompass the definition of feeds, products, effluents and wastes and whether the process can meet the constraints they impose. Operability is concerned with the sustainability of the plant processes and is linked to the use of nil-maintenance continuous systems and elimination of batch / mechanical operations and maintenance. Process Definition focuses on the performance, control, recovery and safety of individual unit operations. Together these underpin industrial nuclear plant implementability. As an example, we have built a test rig to demonstrate molten salts transfers, since we consider this to be a capability without which pyrochemical processing will not be viable. Similarly, we have developed pilot scale electro-refiner designs for high continuous throughput and we are building development modules to underpin key features of the designs. Scientific work has been targeted at electro-refiner actinide partitioning and has been expanded to investigate other critical areas of the process which include efficient uranium / salt separation, salt clean up and the development of waste forms which perform at least as well as borosilicate glass

  2. The mortality and cancer morbidity experience of employees at the Chapelcross plant of British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1955-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeoghegan, D. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: david.mcgeoghegan@westlakes.ac.uk; Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The results presented here are from the follow-up of the cohort of workers ever employed at the Chapelcross site of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) between 1955 and 1995. The study cohort consists of 2628 workers, 2249 of whom were male, who were first employed at the plant before 1 January 1996, and who have 63 967 person-years of follow-up. The mean follow-up period is 24.3 years. The 2209 members of the cohort (84%) classified as radiation workers accumulated 185.1 person-sieverts of external radiation; their median cumulative dose was 39.1 mSv, and 95% of their cumulative doses were less than 339.3 mSv. The Chapelcross workers show the usual 'healthy worker' effect. To the end of 1995, there were 528 deaths among the total cohort (20%), including 449 (20%) amongst the radiation workers. When the dose was unlagged, a statistically significant association was noted between cancer registrations of the buccal cavity and pharynx and dose, based on five cases. When the dose was lagged by 10 years, a statistically significant excess relative risk was noted between all cancer morbidity and dose, 1.80 Sv{sup -1} (0.03 to 4.45), based on 162 cases. This result is driven by the non-significant, but high excess relative risk estimates from the 12 prostatic cancer registrations. A statistically significant association is noted between the eight deaths amongst radiation workers who had prostatic cancer as the underlying cause of mortality and cumulative external radiation dose when the dose was lagged by 0, 2 and 10 years. The association is unlikely to be causal. The finding has little biological plausibility as the strength of the association weakened as the dose lagging increased; it was strongest when the dose was unlagged and disappeared when the dose was lagged by 20 years. None of the workers who was registered for or died from prostatic cancer had ever been monitored for exposure to tritium or to {sup 51}Cr, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co or {sup 65}Zn. There is

  3. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, D.L.; Fiskum, S.K.; Rapko, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig(reg. sign) 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] approximately 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K d ∼ 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be

  4. The cancer mortality and incidence experience of workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1946–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Michael; Haylock, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate cancer mortality and incidence risk associated with external radiation exposure in the BNFL cohort of nuclear workers and to determine if these risks are modified by potential for internal exposure. The cohort comprised 64 956 individuals who were employed at the four study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005. External radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (generally ‘film badges’) were available for 42 431 individuals classified as ‘radiation workers’. Poisson regression models were used to investigate cancer mortality and incidence in relation to cumulative external radiation exposure using relative risk models. The cohort showed the expected ‘healthy worker’ effect. This analysis found an increased risk of all cancers associated with external occupational radiation exposure (ERR/Gy = 0.34 90% CI: 0.07; 0.64), with significant excess risks observed for all solid cancers (ERR/Gy = 0.29 90% CI: 0.02; 0.59) and leukaemia excluding CLL (ERR/Gy = 2.60 90% CI: 0.28; 7.01). The overall cancer risk estimates are consistent with values used by national and international bodies in setting radiation protection standards. The slopes of the dose response relationships for all cancer mortality and incidence were found to be significantly less steep for workers exposed to both external radiation and potentially to internal radiation (ERR/Gy = 0.09 90% CI: −0.17; 0.39) when compared to those workers only exposed to external radiation (ERR/Gy = 1.14 90% CI: 0.49; 1.89). Analyses of individual cancer types indicate that this overall result is mainly driven by that for digestive cancers and in particular cancers of the oesophagus. Categorical analyses also revealed that the difference in the dose response relationship between the two groups is only apparent for those exposed to cumulative external doses in excess of 200 mGy. Such differences have also been observed for non-cancer mortality

  5. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  6. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    characterization results met or surpassed the quality control requirements established by the governing quality assurance plan and met or surpassed the minimum reportable quantity requirements specified by BNFL

  7. The Final Demise Of East Tennessee Technology Park Building K-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Building K-33 was constructed in 1954 as the final section of the five-stage uranium enrichment cascade at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The two original building (K-25 and K-27) were used to produce weapons grade highly enriched uranium (HEU). Building K-29, K-31, and K-33 were added to produce low enriched uranium (LEU) for nuclear power plant fuel. During ORGDP operations K-33 produced a peak enrichment of 2.5%. Thousands of tons of reactor tails fed into gaseous diffusion plants in the 1950s and early 1960s introducing some fission products and transuranics. Building K-33 was a two-story, 25-meters (82-feet) tall structure with approximately 30 hectare (64 acres) of floor space. The Operations (first) Floor contained offices, change houses, feed vaporization rooms, and auxiliary equipment to support enrichment operations. The Cell (second) Floor contained the enrichment process equipment and was divided into eight process units (designated K-902-1 through K-902-8). Each unit contained ten cells, and each cell contained eight process stages (diffusers) for a total of 640 enrichment stages. 1985: LEU buildings were taken off-line after the anticipated demand for uranium enrichment failed to materialize. 1987: LEU buildings were placed in permanent shutdown. Process equipment were maintained in a shutdown state. 1997: DOE signed an Action Memorandum for equipment removal and decontamination of Buildings K-29, K-31, K-33; BNFL awarded contract to reindustrialize the buildings under the Three Buildings D and D and Recycle Project. 2002: Equipment removal complete and effort shifts to vacuuming, chemical cleaning, scabbling, etc. 2005: Decontamination efforts in K-33 cease. Building left with significant 99 Tc contamination on metal structures and PCB contamination in concrete. Uranium, transuranics, and fission products also present on building shell. 2009: DOE targets Building K-33 for demolition. 2010: ORAU contracted to characterize Building K-33

  8. Data assimilation and uncertainty analysis of environmental assessment problems--an application of Stochastic Transfer Function and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowicz, Renata; Young, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic Transfer Function (STF) and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) techniques are outlined and applied to an environmental problem concerned with marine dose assessment. The goal of both methods in this application is the estimation and prediction of the environmental variables, together with their associated probability distributions. In particular, they are used to estimate the amount of radionuclides transferred to marine biota from a given source: the British Nuclear Fuel Ltd (BNFL) repository plant in Sellafield, UK. The complexity of the processes involved, together with the large dispersion and scarcity of observations regarding radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, require efficient data assimilation techniques. In this regard, the basic STF methods search for identifiable, linear model structures that capture the maximum amount of information contained in the data with a minimal parameterisation. They can be extended for on-line use, based on recursively updated Bayesian estimation and, although applicable to only constant or time-variable parameter (non-stationary) linear systems in the form used in this paper, they have the potential for application to non-linear systems using recently developed State Dependent Parameter (SDP) non-linear STF models. The GLUE based-methods, on the other hand, formulate the problem of estimation using a more general Bayesian approach, usually without prior statistical identification of the model structure. As a result, they are applicable to almost any linear or non-linear stochastic model, although they are much less efficient both computationally and in their use of the information contained in the observations. As expected in this particular environmental application, it is shown that the STF methods give much narrower confidence limits for the estimates due to their more efficient use of the information contained in the data. Exploiting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) analysis

  9. Development of pyrochemical spent fuel management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfield, Zara; Cogan, John; Farrant, Dave; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hopkins, Phil; Lewin, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Nexia Solutions is undertaking a programme to investigate the role of pyrochemical techniques for spent nuclear fuel and legacy fuel management. The principal UK client is the energy unit, and the other clients are the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), for legacy fuel conditioning, and BNFL's corporate investment in advanced reactor systems which is contributing to the Generation IV programme. The emphasis of the programme is pragmatic industrialization, which we have identified as key for the establishment of pyrochemical fuel management. From our experience operating fuel manufacture, power generation and reprocessing plant we know that the areas which require particular attention for successful implementation are: - Plant Interfaces, - Operability, - Process Definition, - Underpinning Science. Plant Interfaces encompass the definition of feeds, products, effluents and wastes and whether the process can meet the constraints they impose. Operability is concerned with the sustainability of the plant processes and is linked to the use of nil-maintenance continuous systems and elimination of batch / mechanical operations and maintenance. Process Definition focuses on the performance, control, recovery and safety of individual unit operations. Together these underpin industrial nuclear plant implementability. As an example, we have built a test rig to demonstrate molten salts transfers, since we consider this to be a capability without which pyrochemical processing will not be viable. Similarly, we have developed pilot scale electro-refiner designs for high continuous throughput and we are building development modules to underpin key features of the designs. Scientific work has been targeted at electro-refiner actinide partitioning and has been expanded to investigate other critical areas of the process which include efficient uranium / salt separation, salt clean up and the development of waste forms which perform at least as well as borosilicate glass. Other

  10. CANFLEX-RU fuel development programs as one option of advanced fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Sim, Ki-Seob; Chung, Jang Hwan

    1999-01-01

    development is an international collaboration between KAERI, AECL and BNFL. It is expected that the work will be completed before 2005, and there should be no impediment to the use of RU fuel in the CANDU-6 reactors in Korea, if the RU in the world is available and competitive with NU and SEU on price. (author)

  11. IRIS-economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It

  12. IRIS economics. A sensitivity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith

    2003-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals an optimum power rating for a single module of 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years or less and a minimum plant life of 60 years. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as

  13. Review of the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Bilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-15

    In August 1999 the transportation of spent fuel assemblies from the Swiss nuclear power plants to the reprocessing facilities was resumed. Until October 2002, 37 transports were carried out without exceeding the legal limits on contamination and dose rate. 19 transports went to La Hague (4 from Beznau, 9 from Goesgen, 4 from Leibstadt and 2 from Muehleberg), 11 to BNFL in Sellafield (2 from Beznau and 9 from Muehleberg) and 7 to the Central Intermediate Storage for Radioactive Wastes (ZWILAG) in Wuerenlingen (4 from Goesgen and 3 from Leibstadt). Additionally, three deliveries with vitrified highly radioactive wastes from the reprocessing facilities were carried out to ZWILAG, also without exceeding any limits. These pleasing results show that the measures required to be taken, as required by the Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK), have contributed to the safe and contamination-free accomplishment of such transportation. Even if the care taken in the carrying out of such transports may not lessen, HSK sees no reason to reduce the present technical and organisational measures. As far as the registration of the individual doses of the participating railway staff is concerned, the results obtained up till now confirm that the radiological exposure is negligible. From the point of view of radiological protection it is not necessary to pursue the registration of the individual radiological exposition. This is why the HSK no longer requires this measure any more. In France, too, the situation concerning contamination during transportation of spent fuel assemblies has been strikingly and lastingly improved. Contamination is only seldom observed and only in connection with a few identified nuclear power plants. In transfers between France and Germany, Belgium as well as the Netherlands, no exceeding of the contamination limits has been noted since resumption of transportation. During the 33 deliveries of empty containers and containers with

  14. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the characterization results met or surpassed the quality control requirements established by the governing quality assurance plan and met or surpassed the minimum reportable quantity requirements specified by BNFL.

  15. Radioactivity in food and the environment: calculations of UK radiation doses using integrated methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allott, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Dear Sir: I read with interest the paper by W C Camplin, G P Brownless, G D Round, K Winpenny and G J Hunt from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) on 'Radioactivity in food and the environment: calculations of UK radiation doses using integrated methods' in the December 2002 issue of this journal (J. Radiol. Prot. 22 371-88). The Environment Agency has a keen interest in the development of a robust methodology for assessing total doses which have been received by members of the public from authorised discharges of radioactive substances to the environment. Total dose in this context means the dose received from all authorised discharges and all exposure pathways (e.g. inhalation, external irradiation from radionuclides in sediment/soil, direct radiation from operations on a nuclear site, consumption of food etc). I chair a 'total retrospective dose assessment' working group with representatives from the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Food Standards Agency (FSA), National Radiological Protection Board, CEFAS and BNFL which began discussing precisely this issue during 2002. This group is a sub-group of the National Dose Assessment Working Group which was set up in April 2002 (J. Radiol. Prot. 22 318-9). The Environment Agency, Food Standards Agency and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate previously undertook joint research into the most appropriate methodology to use for total dose assessment (J J Hancox, S J Stansby and M C Thorne 2002 The Development of a Methodology to Assess Population Doses from Multiple Source and Exposure Pathways of Radioactivity (Environment Agency R and D Technical Report P3-070/TR). This work came to broadly the same conclusion as the work by CEFAS, that an individual dose method is probably the most appropriate method to use. This research and that undertaken by CEFAS will help the total retrospective dose assessment working group refine a set of principles and a methodology for the

  16. National choices in a European perspective. Proceedings of the European Forum 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sido, Bruno; Lamoureux, Francois; ); Herzog, Philippe; ); Barre, Bertrand; Bataille, Christian; Colombani, Pascal; Gonzalez Gomez, Jose Luis; Lescoeur, DBruno; Perez, Serge; Weh, Rudolf; Westerlind, Magnus; Houssin, Didier; Nagashima, Hideo; Pavlopoulos, Panagiotis; Linkohr, Rolf; ); Allemeersch, Antoine; Beveridge, George; Bonnemains, Jacky; Fritschi, Markus; Piguet, Jack-Pierre; Rigny, Paul; Streydio, Jean-Marie; Tallec, Michele; Vasa, Ivo; Pancher, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    from: Antoine Allemeersch, Mayor, Cirfontaines en Ornois, George Beveridge, Director, BNFL Environmental services (UK), Jacky Bonnemains, President, Robin des Bois, Markus Fritschi, Director, NAGRA (Switzerland), Jack-Pierre Piguet, Director Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory (ANDRA), Paul Rigny, scientific adviser, Jean-Marie Streydio, Chairman, ONDRAF (Belgium), Michele Tallec, developpement/innovation (CEA), Ivo Vasa, Head, Nuclear Safety and Security Department, Czech nuclear research Institute, member of RAWRA, 8 - Conclusions and propositions for the European public talks 2004 by Bertrand Pancher, Chairman of the County Council of Meuse

  17. The potential impact of microbial Fe(III) reduction on subsurface U(VI) mobility at a low level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Livens, F.R.; Vaughan, D.J.; Lloyd, J.R.; Beadle, I.; Small, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides have the potential to be utilised as terminal electron acceptors by indigenous microbial communities in the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) low level radioactive waste storage site at Drigg (Cumbria, UK) and these organisms may have a critical control on the biogeochemical cycling of several environmentally important radionuclides. In terms of radiological impact at Drigg, uranium is the most significant contributor to radiological impact and it is strongly influenced by biogeochemical processes. In terms of mass (moles) it is also the most abundant radionuclide in the Drigg inventory. Thus, the potential biotic and abiotic effects of Fe(III) reduction on U(VI) mobility in the Drigg subsurface are of interest. Culture-dependent and molecular techniques showed that the sediments in and around the Drigg site contained a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. A series of microcosm experiments were utilised to create environmentally relevant experimental conditions. Microcosms set up using Drigg sediment and synthetic ground water were spiked with 100 μM U(VI) and acetate as an electron donor. U(VI) concentrations in groundwater were measured using a chemical assay while total U levels were determined using ICP-MS. Fe(II) levels were determined using the ferrozine method. Sediment surface areas were measured using BET analysis. The low surface area of the sediments resulted in only a small proportion of the 100 μM U(VI) spike sorbing onto mineral surfaces. The addition of ferri-hydrite to some microcosms resulted in an immediate lowering of soluble U(VI) concentrations, suggesting that the formation of soluble U(VI) complexes were not responsible for the minimal adsorption. The presence of biogenic Fe(II) in the microcosms did not affect the soluble U(VI) concentration. Similarly, soluble U(VI) levels remained unchanged when sediments were spiked with U(VI) post-microbial Fe(III) reduction. However, a lowering in

  18. A knowledge management journey at BNG Sellafield: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.; Kelleher, M.; Kruizinga, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All organisations manage knowledge in some shape of form. Over the last decade BNFL and latterly BNG, has undertaken a number of business improvement initiatives, however it was not until the late 1990's that a formal integrative KM programme was sanctioned. Great progress was made with the chief aims of a broadly based KM programme with setting up of electronic 'team rooms', improved database searching and 'Learning from experience' processes and an embryonic 'yellow pages' system etc. By 2001, following major reorganisations of the business, Knowledge Management was classified as a 'Cross-business issue'. Consequently, the decision was made to withdraw the Group Office co-ordination and resourcing of Knowledge Management in BNFL. There were no further significant developments until 2006, when there was an explicit request from the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) for all nuclear site license holders (including BNG Sellafield) to manage knowledge and intellectual property effectively (NDA, 2005; 2006a; 2006b). This policy posed several challenges for BNG Sellafield: - Demonstrating that knowledge and good practise was being leveraged not only at each nuclear site but across the whole of the NDA's portfolio of 20 geographically and organisationally separated sites; - Demonstrating that the considerable body of Intellectual property and associated rights was being managed for the benefit of the nation and in such a way that promoted Innovation in an industry where increased competition was being encouraged; - The plethora of conceptual frameworks and definitions of knowledge management suggested a lack of uniformity as to what constitutes knowledge management; let alone how to implement such a programme. Our solution was to employ a knowledge transfer process from experienced consultants and trainers to an internal team charged with the implementation of knowledge management at Sellafield. Our brief was to design and deliver a two year programme

  19. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for the Sellafield Plant

  20. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Cunningham, J.D.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  1. Approach of British Nuclear Fuels to managing ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The approach taken by BNFL to managing ageing is developed at the design stage and builds upon experience gained through designing, building, operating and decommissioning nuclear facilities since 1947. Much of the current philosophy was developed during the design and construction of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The process of managing ageing encompasses all the phases of the facility's life; that is, design, operation and decommissioning. Underlying all these phases is the input from the results of research and development and plant inspection activities. Plant ageing is managed by a policy of understanding the degradation mechanisms as far as possible and, from that knowledge, targeting for particular attention plants considered as vulnerable or for which we are uncertain of our understanding of the degradation processes; for example, THORP receipt and storage LWR storage racks have been fabricated from 304L stainless steel. In their storage environment, deionized water, the worst case measured corrosion rate for such steels is 0.03 mm/a. Given that the minimum material thickness used is 20 mm, corrosion over the design life is negligible and therefore there are no prescribed monitoring or maintenance requirements. Plant inspection policy was first developed for THORP, where targeted programmes of inspection are established. Inspection may be limited to visual inspection or may involve quantitative non-destructive testing such as ultrasonics, and in certain areas, such as dissolvers, on-line thickness monitors have been installed to facilitate the process. The programmes are updated as the actual plant operating conditions are better known and understood; therefore, for example, an SSC found to be operating at higher temperatures than originally planned or carrying a higher burden of corrodents may become targeted for inspection, whereas SSCs perceived to be benign may have inspection frequencies reduced. Similar policies are being developed for

  2. Intermediate review on the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Zwischenbilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-15

    container if contamination is probable according to the situation in France, and the accompaniment of the transportation by HSK in addition to the accompaniment by a radioactivity protection specialist from the Paul Scherrer Institute). Another measure will be reduced (quality of the transport documentation which is to be transmitted to HSK). On the basis of data measured in Switzerland, it was established that railway staff are subjected to no noticeable radiological exposition. From the point of view of protection against radioactivity, it should therefore be possible to reduce complementary radiation protection measures. These measures, however, also serve to assure confidence. For this purpose and in accordance with the Federal Railways, HSK has decided to maintain contamination checking at the Swiss border for foreign transportation as well as continuing accompaniment by a radioactivity protection specialist, including the measurement of the radiation doses incurred by staff, of the spent fuel transports on Swiss territory. The anthropogammametric measurements are no longer required, but the possibility to undergo such measurements is kept open for the railway staff participating to the transports. The new stringency with which the transport of spent fuel is carried out must not be relaxed. The good results gained up to now have still to be confirmed. Only one transport was carried out from the Leibstadt nuclear plant and none as yet from Muehleberg. No transportation was carried out to the BNFL reprocessing facility in England. In the future there will be also spent fuel transports to the central storage facility ZWILAG in Wuerenlingen. These examples show that much experience has still to be gained before decisions concerning the reduction of the other measures can be taken on a sound basis. HSK will carry out to a new analysis of the situation in due course

  3. Project WAGR: The UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - removing the core and looking to completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    delivered the required performance. In such cases, simple tooling and manual intervention have been adopted to maintain the project ahead of programme and below the dose budget. For campaigns where manual intervention was precluded by high dose rates, the contractor has undertaken a risk assessment of each task and elected to develop a number of different tools to cover the most likely risks. Although this strategy incurs costs for tools that may never be utilised, these costs are dwarfed by the project costs of potential delays. Excellent progress has been maintained throughout the remote dismantling with the reliability of the equipment and the experience of the workforce being major contributors to the success. Management arrangements have also contributed to the current excellent programme position. The close working relationship between UKAEA and their prime contractor, and management of the interfaces with the regulators, has enabled problems to be identified early and then dealt with quickly and effectively. The current phase of operations is now planned for completion in early 2005 over 18 months ahead of programme. Currently the WAGR project has operated for over 6 years without a lost time accident to either UKAEA staff or any of the contractor's operatives. In the last 12 months, the maximum radiation dose to an individual was <1.0 mSv. To date, 270 tonnes of graphite and 206 tonnes of steel have been encapsulated. 38 boxes of low level waste have been sent, or are awaiting transport, to BNFL's Drigg site for disposal, and a further 102 boxes of ILW are now stored on-site pending the availability of a national facility. Thus far the UKAEA WAGR project is well ahead of programme, achieving all its objectives and demonstrating to a world-wide audience that a power reactor can be decommissioned safely and efficiently shortly after shutdown

  4. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  5. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    Disconnecting the criticality alarm permanently in June 1996 signified that the hazards in the PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) plant had been so removed and reduced that criticality was no longer a credible event. Turning off the PUREX criticality alarm also marked a salient point in a historic deactivation project, 1 year before its anticipated conclusion. The PUREX/UO3 Deactivation Project began in October 1993 as a 5-year, $222.5- million project. As a result of innovations implemented during 1994 and 1995, the project schedule was shortened by over a year, with concomitant savings. In 1994, the innovations included arranging to send contaminated nitric acid from the PUREX Plant to British Nuclear Fuels, Limited (BNFL) for reuse and sending metal solutions containing plutonium and uranium from PUREX to the Hanford Site tank farms. These two steps saved the project $36.9- million. In 1995, reductions in overhead rate, work scope, and budget, along with curtailed capital equipment expenditures, reduced the cost another $25.6 million. These savings were achieved by using activity-based cost estimating and applying technical schedule enhancements. In 1996, a series of changes brought about under the general concept of ``reengineering`` reduced the cost approximately another $15 million, and moved the completion date to May 1997. With the total savings projected at about $75 million, or 33.7 percent of the originally projected cost, understanding how the changes came about, what decisions were made, and why they were made becomes important. At the same time sweeping changes in the cultural of the Hanford Site were taking place. These changes included shifting employee relations and work structures, introducing new philosophies and methods in maintaining safety and complying with regulations, using electronic technology to manage information, and, adopting new methods and bases for evaluating progress. Because these changes helped generate cost savings and were

  6. Dealing with opponents of industry: Let the allies work for you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The opponents of industry, and most Green campaigning groups, thrive on controversy. Opponents of industry, and of the nuclear industry in particular, can expect to find a more receptive public audience than do the companies they attack. Therefore, there is little to be gained by industry entering into direct conflict, or even high-profile debate, with opponents. Industry spokesmen do not rate as being trustworthy in the eyes of the public. And it does not pay to directly attack the credibility, however justified such criticisms are, of the likes of Greenpeace. In a polarised debate, if your company is seen to be partisan and the opponents to be neutral, the public will gravitate towards the opponents. The way forward is to influence the forces which ran help industry establish the middle ground to dissipate the tension. The problem for industry is not so much that it has opponents, but that it does not have enough third party advocates to mediate in disputes. Therefore, the first step is to identify the key issues facing a company or industry. The second, is to work with credible people and organisations to establish independent mechanisms which can prevent an unfavourable climate building up around those issues. The art of dealing with opponents, is the art of identifying such mechanisms (people, organisations and professions) to influence an increasingly cynical and distrusting public. These opinion-formers should be the main focus of a communications strategy designed to counter opponents. They are the conduit through which to influence public opinion in general. For instance, the debate surrounding the incidence of leukaemia around nuclear sites cannot be answered by the industry using the facts, scientific evidence, or by entering into a noisy dialogue with opponents. However, the medical profession, along with scientists working outside the nuclear industry, is in a position to shift public concern away from nuclear sites. BNFL has promoted

  7. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; McMahon, C.A.; Dowdall, A.

    2003-04-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000 and 2001. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the North West of England continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 2000 and again in 2001. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the artificial radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser radiological significance than caesium-137. The main pathway contributing to the

  8. Current status and future development of modular high temperature gas cooled reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report includes an examination of the international activities with regard to the development of the modular HTGR coupled to a gas turbine. The most significant of these gas turbine programmes include the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) being designed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL) of the United Kingdom, and the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) by a consortium of General Atomics of the United States of America, MINATOM of the Russian Federation, Framatome of France and Fuji Electric of Japan. Details of the design, economics and plans for these plants are provided in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Test reactors to evaluate the safety and general performance of the HTGR and to support research and development activities including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications are being commissioned in Japan and China. Construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) at its Oarai Research Establishment has been completed with the plant currently in the low power physics testing phase of commissioning. Construction of the high temperature reactor (HTR-10) by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) in Beijing, China, is nearly complete with initial criticality expected in 2000. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of purpose, status and testing programmes for these two plants. In addition to the activities related to the above mentioned plants, Member States of the IWGGCR continue to support research associated with HTGR safety and performance as well as development of alternative designs for commercial applications. These activities are being addressed by national energy institutes and, in some projects, private industry, within China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. Chapter 6 includes details

  9. Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - annex document. To accompany the explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to assist public consultation on the application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    solution. DML's policy for these metal ion radionuclides is to ''concentrate and contain'', so that as high a fraction as possible is contained within solid waste and as law a fraction as possible discharged in the liquid and aerial waste streams. Liquid waste is treated - repeatedly if necessary - until the concentration of the radionuclides is below a level at which further treatment will not yield any significant further. improvement. The solid wastes created are tent to the BNFL Drigg low level waste repository for final disposal - either directly, or after conditioning at AEA Technology's facilities at Winfrith in Dorset. Some solid wastes that initially have a higher concentration of radionuclides than would be permissible to dispose at Drigg are stored on site for a period to allow radioactive decay before final disposal. In order to facilitate the expansion of operations at DRD, new authorised limits for certain radionuclides to atmosphere (i.e. Carbon-14 and Argon-41) are being applied for. Also DML is seeking an increase to its annual limit for atmospheric discharge of tritium. The radiological impact from projected discharges of radionuclides to atmosphere from. DRD, however, will continue to be very low. (author)

  10. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    available for the answers to these questions to be fairly certain. It is the power and money of the nuclear profiteers and their establishment which supresses it. The real answer is to think for yourself. What is the most likely cause of nuclear-power-related clustering of cancers? Have you yourself noticed changes in cancer and leukemia rates or in congenital illness among the people you know and in particular among young people in the last twenty years? What could be causing them? Look at the bone-cancer increases in Wales (Fig. 1.3 of this report). What could be the cause? Why did they suddenly ban atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1960s? There is considerable evidence pointing to links between childhood cancer and other illness and nuclear isotopic pollution. The difficulty has always been that the nuclear establishment and its apologists, including governments, have sought to prevent such evidence from appearing in the literature or in the media. A further problem has been that there have been few occasions when studies could be made which unequivocally analysed population responses to radioactive pollutants. Recently, the High Court case in which the Sellafield leukemia victims sued BNFL was lost because the judge decided that the link could not formally be proved: almost on the basis of weighing evidence on a spring balance. For this reason, the developing evidence from the Wales Radiation Cancer Laboratory, and in particular the bone-cancer increase alluded to in the first edition of this book, has become a critical piece of evidence of causation: a smoking gun in the hands of the nuclear polluters. For there is no other confounding cause in this instance. Wales populations, which were exposed to high levels of Strontium-90 and Plutonium in the 1960s have developed a 400 per cent excess of bone cancer relative to the England control group, twenty years after the dose was delivered. Both isotopes are known to cause bone cancer in humans and in animals. These

  11. Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - annex document. To accompany the explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to assist public consultation on the application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    ions are absorbed onto resins and removed from solution. DML's policy for these metal ion radionuclides is to ''concentrate and contain'', so that as high a fraction as possible is contained within solid waste and as law a fraction as possible discharged in the liquid and aerial waste streams. Liquid waste is treated - repeatedly if necessary - until the concentration of the radionuclides is below a level at which further treatment will not yield any significant further. improvement. The solid wastes created are tent to the BNFL Drigg low level waste repository for final disposal - either directly, or after conditioning at AEA Technology's facilities at Winfrith in Dorset. Some solid wastes that initially have a higher concentration of radionuclides than would be permissible to dispose at Drigg are stored on site for a period to allow radioactive decay before final disposal. (author) (abstract truncated)

  12. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 twenty civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom became the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a new organization created by the British Government to manage the cleanup of these sites. As a key part of this transition, the NDA became the owner and manager of these sites, which formerly were owned by the site operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited plc (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). This was one of the most significant events in the history of the United Kingdom's nuclear industry and represented a true sea change, affecting many aspects of life and business on and around these sites as well as nationally. The NDA's budget for the cleanup of the twenty sites and the management of the overall cleanup program is approximately pounds 2 Billion per annum, almost $4 Billion. It is important to note that approximately half of this amount is spent with the supply chains which serve the management and operations contractors, including pounds 500 million at Sellafield alone. Additionally, the site management and operations contractors receive most of the pounds 2 Billion through contracts between the NDA and the various site management companies. This represents a lot of government money moving through contracts between entities, which invokes procurement and contracting rules and regulations, that while not new, have not previously been this broadly applied to nuclear site cleanup activities throughout the UK. The current estimate for the total life cycle cleanup costs for all twenty civil nuclear sites is pounds 56 Billion, a figure that is likely to increase further. The first rules to mention are the European Union Procurement Guidelines, which are designed to help ensure that procurements involving government funds are conducted in an open, fair, and transparent environment. While it is difficult to argue with the intent of these rules, at least for now they are having a slowing down effect on

  13. Trust us Trust Thorp Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, John

    1995-01-01

    The history of the nuclear industry in the UK has been dominated by Sellafield reprocessing site in west Cumbria. The site, formerly owned by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was transferred to the newly-formed British Nuclear Fuels plc in 1971. Although trade union representation existed at Sellafield before the emergence of BNFL, it is only after this date that collective trade union activity began to emerge. In 1977, after a long running dispute with management about the issue of radiation dose uptake, the workforce went on strike, forcing the management to question their previous 'need to know' attitude and to improve industrial relations. In 1984, it was recognised that the lobbying influence of trade unions within politics, and especially the Labour party could be used to greater effect to challenge potentially -damaging influence of anti-nuclear campaigners. The National Campaign for the Nuclear Industry (NCNI) was born, combining nine industrial and non-industrial trade unions within the nuclear industry. Its task during the last ten years has been to put forward the interests of its members collectively and to secure the, role of nuclear power. within a balanced energy policy in the political arena. In dome so, it has gained a credible voice within both the trade union movement and the Labour party. The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) received strong support from the NCNI during its construction and commissioning phases. When it became clear that the anti-nuclear lobby had gained the upper hand and were beginning to seriously delay the necessary legal instruments required to start the plant, the power of collective action was once again recognised, and the TRUST US campaign was born. The campaign was run and organised by a clerks committee and fronted by the Trade Unions at Sellafield., and turned out to be one of the most successful] trade union campaigns in recent history. The first task involved getting, the entire workforce on