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Sample records for bnfl

  1. BNFL - Action in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the National Curriculum in England and Wales gave the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) company the opportunity to develop a more structured involvement. Extensive research among teachers revealed how a high-tech company such as BNFL could make the best contribution, by funding the development of classroom materials which would encourage pupils to assess the advantages and disadvantages of technology. Five years later, BNFL's educational resources have gained substantial credibility

  2. BNFL and environmental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) acknowledge a duty of care for the environment and aims to reduce the effects of its activities on the environment to as low as reasonably practicable. Its environmental policy statement is presented and its approach, investment policies and activities to implement this policy are outlined. The activities include energy efficiency, recycling, surveillance and research, conservation and open information. (UK)

  3. Public relations activities in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is a major industrial company employing 15,000 people and supporting another 50,000 jobs in British industry through it`s isnvestment program. BNFL is frequently in the news, mainly because of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The company`s public relation policy is described in this report.

  4. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling

  5. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  6. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  7. How BNFL develops business in the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US environmental restoration and waste management business is an expanding market. BNFL has developed a strategy designed to build a US-based business while taking into account the many barriers to market entry and participation. The elements of this strategy (market understanding, communications, flexibility, niche market, selectivity, teaming and cost recovery) are briefly explained

  8. BNFL Sellafield: post audit progress, December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of the safety audit at the Sellafield site was published in December 1986. In this, the Health and Safety Executive required British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to make improvements to the site and safety cases have had to be produced. These have now to be assessed by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. BNFL has undertaken programmes of maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of equipment. Much of this work was done in the shut-down maintenance period in the spring and summer. However, more work is needed to bring plants up a condition suitable for operating for the next ten years. BNFL have also started to decontaminate and decommission disused, contaminated, plants. This will generate a large amount of radioactive waste. BNFL have to build plants to containerise and encapsulate the waste prior to disposal. Waste disposal sites to complete the clean-up process are needed. The improvements to the engineering plants, to written procedures and to training, are reported. Changed attitudes are also noted. (U.K.)

  9. The status of BNFL's MOX project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the late 1980s BNFL decided to enter the MOX fuel fabrication business to support our reprocessing business and return the plutonium product to our customers in the useable form of MOX fuel. The first phase of the strategy was to gain some irradiation experience for MOX produced by our own Short Binderless Route (SBR) process. To achieve this the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) was built at Sellafield and 28 MOX fuel assemblies were produced up to 1998 that were loaded into PWRs in Europe. In 1994, BNFL started the construction of their large scale MOX production plant, SMP. The design and construction of the plant and supporting facilities was completed some years ago and the commissioning of the plant with uranium commenced around June 1999. In October 2001, the UK Government provided BNFL with the approval to operate SMP with plutonium. On 20 December 2001, the UK Regulators gave BNFL their approval to start plutonium operations. This paper summarises the approach used to commission SMP and describes some of the lessons learnt during the commissioning phase of the project and the start up of the plant with plutonium. An explanation of our experience obtaining a licence to operate the plant is provided together with a description of the changes we have made to ensure that the quality of the product from SMP can be guaranteed. Finally, the paper summarises the experience BNFL has gained during irradiating MOX fuel produced by the SBR process and explains how the data compares with that available for UO2 and supports the in reactor use of MOX fuel made in SMP. (author)

  10. Flexibility of the BNFL dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To widen its range of spent fuel management services, BNFL entered the fuel storage market in 1995; entry was by acquisition rather than internal product development. The need for a transportable product was identified very early, but represents only the first phase of a philosophy of continuous improvement. Strong synergy exists between the new business area and existing fuel handling and transportation expertise, which has been of considerable assistance to the new business. (author)

  11. Commander manipulator scoops prestigious mulit-million pound BNFL contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one Commander robotic arms are on order from INBIS (formerly Ricardo Hitec) and BNFL Engineering Limited (''BEL'', the engineering arm of parent company BNFL). The multi-million pound contract was won amid fierce competition from other well-known names in robotic engineering. The specially designed Commander manipulators will be engaged in remotely handling Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) in a suite of four BNFL ILW plants, which are currently either under construction or planned at Sellafield. The first Commander will delivered to BNFL's Sellafield Silo Emptying Project in January 1998. (Author)

  12. Thermal fuel research and development facilities in BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is committed to providing high quality, cost effective nuclear fuel cycle services to customers on a National and International level. BNFL's services, products and expertise span the complete fuel cycle; from fuel manufacture through to fuel reprocessing, transport, waste management and decommissioning and the Company maintains its technical and commercial lead by investment in continued research and development (R and D). This paper discusses BNFL's involvement in R and D and gives an account of the current facilities available together with a description of the advanced R and D facilities constructed or planned at Springfields and Sellafield. It outlines the work being carried out to support the company fuel technology business, to (1) develop more cost effective routes to existing fuel products; (2) maximize the use of recycled uranium, plutonium and tails uranium and (3) support a successful MOX business

  13. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  14. Development of the BNFL Vitrified Residue Transport Flask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNFL Vitrified Residue Flask has been designed by Nuclear Transport Limited (NTL), an associated company of BNFL. The body comprises a cylindrical shell and base manufactured from forged carbon manganese steel, with a stainless steel lid bolted to it. Silicon rubber neutron shielding is encapsulated in compartments at the flask ends and between the cooling fins. Removable shock absorbers are bolted to both ends, and two pairs of bolted trunnions are fitted for lifting and tie-down. The flask carries 21 vitrified residue containers in a support structure made up of 30 cast aluminium segments secured by a bolting system to the internal flask cavity. This assembled support structure forms seven circular channels to receive the vitrified residue containers. (J.P.N.)

  15. Research and technology programmes supporting waste management in BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairhall, G.A.; Horner, A.M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Waste Management is a major activity of BNFL in the UK and at various locations internationally. To support these activities extensive programmes of Research and Technology have been undertaken for many years. This involves practical studies involving active and non-active work at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Extensive use is also made of theoretical and modelling techniques. Current work is aimed at underpinning and improving current operations supporting the design and safety cases of new plant and addressing waste management activities of the future including decommissioning. (authors)

  16. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance

  17. Internal dosimetry for uranium fuel manufacture at BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its Springfields Works, near Preston, UK BNFL manufactures uranium fuels and fuel intermediates, in a range of chemical and metallurgical processes. Uranium ore concentrate is converted to uranium metal for the Magnox reactors, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) to uranium dioxide (UO2) for AGR and other oxide reactors, and various intermediate products are produced to meet customer requirements. Thus, uranium compounds with biological retention periods ranging from days (UF6) to years (UO2) are handled on multi-hundred, or thousand, tonne per year scales. Control and minimisation of workforce exposure is exercised primarily by engineered methods (e.g. total enclosures and high integrity plant), backed up by use of respiratory and other protective equipment. A high profile is given to good standards of housekeeping. Assessment of intake is by methods approved by HSE (NII) in the Approved Laboratory Statement on internal dosimetry. The principal method is assessment by use of continuous air sampling combined with occupancy. This is back up by routine personal air sampling (PAS) in selected relevant areas in which ceramic UO2 is handled. Further assurance is provided by programmed PAS in other areas and by systematic, and routine, urinalysis and whole-body monitoring of all relevant members of the workforce. The results of the above are presented in detail. (Author)

  18. BNFL experience of public engagement: expectations for risk policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL operates a range of nuclear facilities covering fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing operations and decommissioning activities. The paper explores the company's experiences in public communication and stakeholder involvement relating to nuclear and radiation issues. These range from the early establishment of Local Liaison Committees linked to each of the sites, through the introduction of public visitor centres at sites, the extensive involvement in formal consultation exercises, to the more recent involvement of a wide range of stakeholders in a process of dialogue to aid the decision making of the company on environmental affairs. In these activities there are some common themes which the company and the wider nuclear industry believes should be consistently brought to the attention of stakeholders and decision makers in order to support a balanced consideration of these issues. How, and indeed whether (and to what extent) these aspects are then factored into the overall decision process is subject to a changing dynamic within the developing expectations of society for a more transparent involvement in technological issues. (author)

  19. Implementing knowledge management in BNFL - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2002, BNFL Environmental Services' executive signed off a two year programme of work to implement knowledge management within the business group. This was driven by the need for the business to be equipped to meet the challenges of the forthcoming commercialisation of the UK civil nuclear sector. From the outset the vision for knowledge management was to develop a framework that was scaleable, repeatable and aligned with the business strategy, ensuring that knowledge management activities would be robust to internal and external changes. It was also decided that knowledge management should be owned by the business, i.e. there would be no centralised knowledge management function. This ensures that the culture change is achieved and that best use is made of the knowledge within the business. The knowledge management framework is based around the good practice that BP developed, documented in 'Learning to Fly'. The knowledge management framework when seen from the 'business perspective' is presented. Whenever a task is undertaken there is an opportunity to learn before, during and after. This learning can be facilitated through the use of Peer Assists, After Action Reviews and Retrospects. The Knowledge Facilitators are responsible for ensuring that learning is applied to the right project at the right time and for the right reasons. Learning can be stored, retrieved and developed within the knowledge bank. One of the key features of the knowledge bank is that every area of it is owned by a Co-ordinator. The Coordinator is responsible for managing the knowledge through the life cycle. Both the Facilitators and Co-ordinators work to 'KM Action Plans' which ensure the knowledge management activities focus on key areas relevant to business strategy. The knowledge management framework was first implemented around the Nuclear Waste Management capability. It took nine months to implement the framework, the key lessons learnt were: - For business processes that

  20. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  1. Objectives and scope of the joint funded BNFL/DOE product evaluation development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the Department of the Environment (DoE) initiated a joint funded development programme covering the product evaluation of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW). The programme has been managed by the Research and Development Department (R and DD) of BNFL, Sellafield under the control of the Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF). The objectives of the PETF programme are: (i) to define the characteristics of individual ILW streams arising at Sellafield and assess their suitability for direct encapsulation; (ii) to evaluate different matrices for each ILW and select the preferred options for further study; (iii) to produce a database of information for each ILW encapsulated in its preferred matrix, that satisfies the requirements of the waste management stages from the initial waste processing to disposal. This paper describes the scope of the PETF programme. It defines the anticipated timescale for completing each of the development phases and identifies the reports to be produced. (author)

  2. Taking it all back home 2: returning vitrified residues to BNFL's customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first shipment to Japan of 28 canisters containing vitrified residues arising from Cogema's reprocessing of Japanese spent fuel used a TN 28 V flask described in the September 1994 issue of NEI. Differences in the handling requirements between BNFL's reprocessing plant at Sellafield and Cogema's at La Hague have necessitated a different, but similar, design of flask for future shipments from the UK. (author)

  3. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's THORP Plant, which started active operations early in 1994, has contracts to reprocess 7000t(U) of fuel belonging to 33 customers in 9 countries in the UK, Europe and Japan during its first 10 years of operation. Contracts are in place or being negotiated, and further business sought after, with the expectation of extending THORP's operations well beyond the initial 10 years. An integrated data management service, for the fuel storage areas of BNFL's THORP Division, is being implemented to replace several, independent, systems. This Fuel Information Service (FIS) will bring the Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Safeguards Records together with the Operating Records into one database from which all Safeguards Reports will be made. BNFL's contractual and commercial data and technical data on the stored fuel, required to support the reprocessing business, will also be brought into the common database. FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the Materials Management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed oxide fuel manufacture and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  4. The evolution of a LIMS (laboratory information management system). [Chemical analyses at BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    Changes in the world and United Kingdom markets for nuclear fuels during the 1990s have prompted British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to maximise cost effectiveness in its Chemical and Metallurgical Services department. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) was introduced in order to keep records of analytical techniques and equipment up to date by coordinating various computer systems. Wherever possible automated systems have replaced traditional, labour intensive techniques. So successful has the LIMS system been, that the team now hopes to expand into expert systems. (UK).

  5. Monitoring of beach contamination following an incident at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria in November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report jointly produced by RCI/DOE and MAFF presents for the period from November 1983 to July 1984: 1) the monitoring programmes and techniques used by BNFL, DOE and MAFF; 2) the results of the monitoring programmes; 3) actions taken as a consequence of the monitoring results; 4) an outline of the position at the end of July 1984 when the Secretary of State for Environment announced, after consultation with MAFF, the DHSS and NRPB, withdrawal of advice to avoid unnecessary use of the beaches. (UK)

  6. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliam, D.S. [BNFL International Transport (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance.

  7. BNFL Lysimeter programme to investigate the leaching of radionuclides from low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, K.; Clegg, R.; Holmes, R.G.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Newton, G.W.A. [Newton Systems, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has initiated an experimental programme to measure the leaching behavior of radionuclides from various low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials using Lysimeters. The programme commenced in 1986 and to date 10 lysimeters have been commissioned. These have concentrated on simulating shallow trench conditions but a further programme is now planned to study concrete vault environments. The aim of the study is to provide information on leaching processes as part of the ongoing Drigg Near Field Programme, and also to yield input data for radiological assessment purposes. Towards this end, data have been gained from the lysimeters on basic chemistry, gas generation and radionuclide Release Coefficients. This paper concentrates on one of the lysimeters which has recently been decommissioned and for which interim analytical data are available. Some general comments are given on BNFL`s experience using lysimeters and their applicability as a rapid and effective technique for studying near field degradation processes.

  8. The necessity for scale up in R and D: Approach for waste immobilization in cement by BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full scale processing of nuclear wastes immobilized in cement utilizes a wide range of chemical and physical parameters. The success of this work however, involves many factors and material properties which are affected by the actual scaling up processes. The paper outlines the approach and experience gained by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to recognize and evaluate the major factors involved in order to successfully produce large scale stable products acceptable to the appropriate regulatory bodies and suitable for long term disposal

  9. Developments in safety and operations culture in BNFL's thorp reprocessing plant, Sellafield, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the best descriptions of Culture is 'how we do things around here'. In a stable organisation it is extremely difficult to change any type of culture, whether it is an operations, customer service or safety culture. To change culture one of two elements are essential. There must be either a significant external pressure felt by all in the organisation or a change in senior management, with authority to set a new direction for the organisation. BNFL had a unique opportunity through the commissioning and operation of the Thorp Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield to shape a new Safety and Operations Culture. Both the key elements for change were present. Thorp was a high profile flagship plant that had attracted multinational investment. It incorporated new technology. The workforce had volunteered to operate the plant. A strong senior management team was specially selected. The plant was being commissioned in an environment where there was significant opposition by 'anti nuclear' groups. It was essential to both BNFL and the wider international nuclear community that Thorp was commissioned and operated safely. A strong operating culture was developed with safety as the corner stone. The culture comprises three key components. Rigorous plant safety case and risk assessments before work commences and modifications to the plant occur; A high level of involvement by all levels of the workforce in both operations and safety matters; Strong supportive leadership which does not allow safety standards to be compromised and encourages open debate on how to improve. During commissioning and early operation of Thorp the robustness of the Safety and Operations Culture was demonstrated. On several occasions, despite intense commercial pressure, operations were halted until the situation was resolved both technically and procedurally. This paper describes how the Safety and Operations Culture was developed. The key factors for success include recruitment, team selection

  10. KAERI/BNFL/COGEMA joint cooperation on environmentally friendly nuclear fuel cycle option study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of 'KAERI/BNFL/COGEMA joint cooperation on environmentally friendly nuclear fuel cycle option study in Korea', the followings were studied. 1. Evaluation of environmental friendliness and of economic feasibility on the thermal neutron reactor type nuclear fuel cycle. 2. Evaluation of environmental friendliness on the future type nuclear fuel cycle. 3. Perspective of middle and long term electric power supply and of nuclear power plant constructionstes, development of device for the pretreatment of solid wastes, treatment of DU waste, analysis of the contaminated soil waste, induction of optimum conditions of coring from the 200L flexible waste forms, and long-term leaching test of 200L drum's waste form for the development of waste treatment and volume reduction technology, the characterization of waste formsenerated at KAERI. Therefore, radwastes are disposed of in a disposal site as solidified waste forms for its complete isolation from the human environment. The physicochemical properties of waste forms and the radionuclide concentration in waste forms should be evaluated for the radiological and structural safety of a disposal site, radionuclide type and solidification matrix, and it is difficult to carry out tests(for example, compressive strength, leaching rate, etc)with a full-scale waste forms. The waste classification and acceptance criteria is the result of technology development for characterization of waste and solidified waste forms. This treatment is carry out to low-cost and low-absorbed dose

  11. Changes in UO2 powder properties during processing via BNFL's binderless route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short Binderless Route (SBR) has been developed for Mixed Oxide fuel production in BNFL's MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). It is a compact process which enables good homogenisation of the Pu/U mixture and production of free flowing press feed materials. The equipment used to achieve this consists of an attritor mill to provide homogenization and a spheroidiser to provide press feed granules. As for other powder processes, the physical properties of the UO2 powder can affect the different process stages and consequently a study of some of these effects has been carried out. The aim of the work were to gain a better understanding of the process, to consequently optimize press feed material quality and to also maintain powder hold-up levels in the equipment at a minimum. The paper considers the effects of milling processes on powder morphology and powder surface effects, on the granulation process and also on powder and granule bulk properties such as pour, tap and compaction densities. Results are discussed in terms of powder properties such as powder cohesivity, morphology and particle size. UO2 powder derived from both the Integrated Dry Route (IDR) and the Ammonium Di-Uranate (ADU) Route are considered. Small (1 kg) scale work has been carried out which has been confirmed by larger (25 kg) scale trials. The work shows that IDR powder with differing morphologies and ADU powder can be successfully processed via the SBR route. (author). 4 figs, 4 tabs

  12. BNFL's advertising phase II: 'We understand that you are a successful scientific company, but what do you actually do?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Last year, I presented a case study about the development of BNFL's advertising strategy and the challenges which we overcame since its launch in 1995. The case study this year will follow the progress of the strategy's second phase. It will begin by reiterating the role of advertising in the communications mix and the distinct part we believe it plays in building and retaining a strong corporate reputation amongst influential audiences within the UK. Our advertising to date has aimed to define BNFL's role in the nuclear sector and so detach the company from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. The case study will briefly summarise how effective we have been in achieving this objective through the first phase of television and press advertising. The presentation will concentrate, in particular, on the development of the second phase which has involved the production of a new television advertisement and a press and poster advertisement. Having introduced the key characteristics of the company to the UK population during the first phase through describing key scientific achievements, phase two concentrates on BNFL's core activity - recycling nuclear fuel. The presentation will outline the various development phases including concept research, our tough negotiations with the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITC) through to final production, testing and media scheduling. Generating positive attribution amongst the UK population is obviously the key success indicator. Equally, we believe that it is imperative to share such communications activity with another key stakeholder - our own employees. The case study will outline the phase of internal negotiations and substantiation through to the methods we adopted to ensure that employees saw the television advertisement before the UK population at large. The campaign was launched on

  13. The management of change in BNFL's UK group with particular reference to the restructuring of the health and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's UK group business involves reprocessing of uranium metal (Magnox) fuel, storage and dismantling of advanced gas rector (ceramic UO2) fuel, waste treatment and storage, decommissioning and electricity generation. These activities are carried out at three sites in the North West corner of England and Southern Scotland: Sellafield - all activities, Chapelcross -electricity generation, Drigg - waste storage. Achieving fundamental change in a well established nuclear business which is highly regulated is possible and can bring large benefits. The keys to success are leadership and commitment from all senior managers, involvement of all stakeholders and communication. It is essential to involve the regulator as a stakeholder. (author)

  14. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, D. [Spent Fuel Services, British Nuclear Fuels plc, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised).

  15. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  16. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  17. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  18. Demonstration and Optimization of BNFL's Pulsed Jet Mixing and RFD Sampling Systems Using NCAW Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JR Bontha; GR Golcar; N Hannigan

    2000-08-29

    The BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment and vitrification of the Hanford High Level Tank waste includes the use of several hundred Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs) for sampling and transferring the radioactive slurries and Pulsed Jet mixers to homogenize or suspend the tank contents. The Pulsed Jet mixing and the RFD sampling devices represent very simple and efficient methods to mix and sample slurries, respectively, using compressed air to achieve the desired operation. The equipment has no moving parts, which makes them very suitable for mixing and sampling highly radioactive wastes. However, the effectiveness of the mixing and sampling systems are yet to be demonstrated when dealing with Hanford slurries, which exhibit a wide range of physical and theological properties. This report describes the results of the testing of BNFL's Pulsed Jet mixing and RFD sampling systems in a 13-ft ID and 15-ft height dish-bottomed tank at Battelle's 336 building high-bay facility using AZ-101/102 simulants containing up to 36-wt% insoluble solids. The specific objectives of the work were to: Demonstrate the effectiveness of the Pulsed Jet mixing system to thoroughly homogenize Hanford-type slurries over a range of solids loading; Minimize/optimize air usage by changing sequencing of the Pulsed Jet mixers or by altering cycle times; and Demonstrate that the RFD sampler can obtain representative samples of the slurry up to the maximum RPP-WTP baseline concentration of 25-wt%.

  19. Potential advantages and drawbacks of the thorium fuel cycle in relation to current practice: A BNFL view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium could extend the availability of nuclear fuel beyond the necessarily finite reserves of uranium ore, particularly if used in a thermal breeder system with the uranium-233 formed by transmutation serving as fissile content. The cycle produces virtually no plutonium, nor the other transuranic elements that contribute substantially to anxieties about the disposal of nuclear waste. Thorium-based fuels have therefore been proposed as a substitute for uranium, both in existing power reactors and in advanced systems such as the 'energy amplified,' with a sub-critical assembly of fissile and fertile material driven by an independent neutron source. The benefits and drawbacks of thorium need careful evaluation. A self-sustaining, breeding cycle should be possible with good neutron economy, but whether existing modern reactor types meet that condition is questionable, particularly at high fuel ratings where parasitic absorption by 233Pa tends to pre-empt decay to 233U. Radiation from thallium-208, formed in the decay of by-product 232U and 228Th, complicates storage and refabrication. Public perception would favour the cycles producing no transuranic elements and its particular capacity for consuming those already stocked; however, although they contribute largely to the long-lived content of nuclear waste, fission products also do likewise, and since the amounts of these are not greatly changed, any resulting improvement to long-term safety would by no means be decisive. BNFL has recently assessed the outstanding development requirements of the Thorex process. Commercial realisation would require a huge investment with no certainty of success. So far, the potential advantages do not seem likely to justify the risk, but the position is being kept under review in case the balance should be seen to shift. (author)

  20. Proof of evidence [BNFL 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the fuel cycle requirements of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station could be supplied by British Nuclear Fuels Limited. It is demonstrated that any facilities which may be required in the future could be provided from established technology. Evidence is presented in support of the responses which the Company has made to requests from the CEGB for guidance on the charges it should assume for some fuel cycle services in a variety of circumstances. Reference is made throughout to the fuel cycle needs of other possible future nuclear power stations as postulated by CEGB in its Statement of Case. (U.K.)

  1. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  2. Assessment of prospective foodchain doses from radioactive discharges from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the method used by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) to assess the potential impact of proposed radioactive discharges from the Sellafield nuclear site on food and determine their acceptability. It explains aspects of a cautious method that has been adopted to reflect the UK government policy and uncertainties related to people's habits with regard to food production and consumption. Two types of ingestion doses are considered in this method: 'possible' and 'probable' doses. The method is specifically applied to Sellafield discharge limits and calculated possible and probable ingestion doses are presented and discussed. Estimated critical group ingestion doses are below the dose limit and constraint set for members of the public. The method may be subject to future amendments to take account of changes in government policy and the outcome of a recent Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments carried out by FSA. Uncertainties inherent in dose assessments are discussed and quantified wherever possible

  3. Merlins vs BNFL : a claim for damage to property by radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.R.; Coote, J.A. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Shuttleworth, A.J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    A case heard in the High Court, London in 1989 tested the provision for strict liability imposed by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, in respect of damage caused by radioactivity emanating from a nuclear licensed site. Plaintiffs were Mr and Mrs Merlin of Mountain Ash, Ravenglass, Cumbria; defendants were British Nuclear Fuels plc, nuclear site licensees for the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Both sides agreed that house dust in the property contained about 350 Bq kg{sup -1} actinides, attributable to discharges from the Sellafield plant; assessments of consequent dose and risk to the occupants diverged considerably. The judge concluded that, since physical damage to the property had not occurred, the claim, made pursuant to the provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, must fail. Moreover, he indicated a strong preference for the defendants assessment of resulting dose and risk, at no more than about 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} (effective dose equivalent) or a risk of about 10{sup -6} per year. (author)

  4. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Contractor accommodation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of accommodation for contractors working on the proposed EDRP at Dounreay is discussed. It is predicted that the contractors could be accommodated without the need for special arrangement and with no adverse effect on the tourist industry. (U.K.)

  5. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eureopean Demonstration Reprocessing Plant will be equipped with a comprehensive ventilation system to collect, and where appropriate treat, the various gaseous arisings from the plant as well as to provide a safe and comfortable working environment for the operators. The purpose of the treatment systems is to reduce the levels of those substances, both radioactive and non-radioactive, which would otherwise have an adverse effect on the environment if discharged without treatment. The ventilation system proposed for the main process areas and the associated treatment system is described. (author)

  6. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Safety aspects of EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the proposed EDRP is discussed, paying particular attention to the environmental impact in both normal operation, and in abnormal or accident conditions. The radiological exposure resulting from EDRP discharges during normal operation is estimated. Design measures for ensuring worker and public safety during both routine and non-routine operation are outlined. The strategy for considering unlikely but potentially more serious accidents in EDRP design is outlined. (U.K.)

  7. Implementation document in support of transfer of LLW from Winfrith to BNFL at Drigg: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the arrangements, procedures and responsibilities in the collection, treatment, packaging, monitoring, labelling, preparation for transport and the transportation of Low Level Waste for disposal at Drigg. (author)

  8. Index to UKAEA, BNFL, MOD(PE) AWRE and recommended external standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal part of the document consists of an alphabetical index and numerical index to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment standards, engineering and general stores. Also included are: an index to Engineering Equipment Users Association handbooks and documents, members' specifications, codes of practice and handbooks; British Standard Codes of practice (for building, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering); UKAEA Standardisation Committee memoranda and metric guides; and miscellaneous documents. (U.K.)

  9. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Buechele, Andrew C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kim, C. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Lai, Shan-Tao T. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Del Rosario, G. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Q. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  10. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: General environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of the existing environment of the proposed EDRP site and its environs are presented. An assessment is made of the expected impact of the construction and operation of EDRP at the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment. Relevant extracts from the Environmental Impact Assessment, published by the Applicants, are included. (UK)

  11. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Risk targets and EDRP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full description is presented of the extent to which risk is controlled by the targets to be implemented in the proposed EDRP design, including a discussion of a particular accident sequence. Risk expressions and the usefulness of risk criteria are reviewed. Details are given of the accident consequence modelling as used by the UKAEA. Terrorist attack and sabotage are briefly discussed. (UK)

  12. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: EDRP waste management (excluding gaseous emissions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of radioactive wastes, produced as by-products of the operation of the proposed EDRP, is considered. The arisings of the various types of waste are discussed and an outline is presented of the research and development work being carried out in support of the management of the radioactive wastes. (U.K.)

  13. Developments in support of low level waste disposal at BNFL's Drigg Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued upgrading of low-level waste pretreatment and disposal practices related to the United Kingdom Drigg disposal site is described, noting the need to take into account operational safety, long term post-closure safety, regulatory and public acceptance factors

  14. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Concern about childhood leukaemia in the West of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date relating to the West of Scotland Cancer Registry Region, comprising 26 local government districts and containing 4 nuclear installations, are presented. The data relate to children aged 0-14 years. (UK)

  15. Implementation document in support of transfer of LLW from Winfrith to BNFL at Drigg: Pts. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of low level radioactive waste from Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC) to British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg is authorised under various sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. This authorisation is granted subject to a number of limitations and conditions which are specified in the Certificate of Authorisation. This implementation document shows how WTC intends to implement each of the conditions specified. Part 1 gives a general description of waste management practice at Winfrith. Part 2 describes how each relevant condition in the Certificate of Authorisation is met. (UK)

  16. Development of an integrated strategy for the disposal of solid low level waste at BNFL`s Drigg site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, S.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1989-11-01

    During the past 12 months, the first phase of a major upgrading of disposal operations at Drigg has been completed. This has involved the introduction of waste containerization and orderly emplacement in open concrete vaults. A further phase over the next few years will involve the introduction of compaction of all suitable waste. While the current upgrade has clearly resulted in a major improvement in the visual impact and management control of the site, the desire to implement such an improvement on a timescale consistent with the short term need for new facilities at Drigg has not allowed sufficient time for a detailed assessment of the full implications of the proposed system. This paper describes the development of the strategy for upgrading the Drigg site, highlights improvements that have been implemented as the project has progressed and outlines major outstanding concerns, particularly in relation to long term site management, that may eventually lead to a requirement for further optimization of the overall strategy. Progress under the Drigg Technical Development Programme is reviewed with specific emphasis on the preliminary results of engineering studies aimed at defining an integrated strategy that will meet the requirements of both acceptable visual impact and long term site stability and safety.

  17. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Aspects of Dounreay safety and local liaison relevant to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects of safety at Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, including legislation, design safety, industrial safety and radiation monitoring procedures, are discussed. The arrangements for action in an emergency are outlined. Liaison between DNE and the local community, formal and informal, is summarised. (U.K.)

  18. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: PFR fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of PFR fuel reprocessing at Dounreay is given, including brief details of fuel assembly transport, dismantling, chemical separation processes and reprocessing experience. The origin of radioactive wastes from PFR reprocessing, and the types of radioactive waste are outlined. The management of radioactive waste, including storage, treatment and disposal is described. (U.K.)

  19. Progress report for 1983/84 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in paragraphs: introduction (arisings of intermediate-level radioactive waste); organisation and role of the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party; main objectives (to provide data on intermediate-level waste treatment systems and allow assessment of alternative processes); ILW process and flowsheeting studies; ILW product evaluation. (U.K.)

  20. Progress report for 1987/88 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DoE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the programme where to evaluate potential waste products arising from the conditioning of intermediate-level radioactive wastes/high-level radioactive wastes, and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  1. Development of a solution method for the differential equations arising in the biosphere module of the BNFL's suite of codes MONDRIAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Thorne, M.C.; Thomson, J.G.; Paulley, A. E-mail: alan.paulley@bnfl.com

    2002-06-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc owns and operates the near-surface Drigg disposal facility for low level radioactive waste. The long-term performance of the site is modelled by a suite of computer codes called MONDRIAN. One of the modules of MONDRIAN deals with the transport of radionuclides through the environment, and this paper reports on the current status of this module (BIOS). We derive the basic set of working equations from first principles and show clearly how the approximate nature of the final equations is arrived at. This is done by an averaging process leading to compartments, in and out of which radionuclides, solids and water can flow. The equations allow radioactive decay chains and an arbitrary number of compartments. There is also the facility to deal with changes in the rate coefficients, thereby simulating different environmental states. It is also possible to include the creation of new compartments arising as a consequence of climatic variations. In addition to developing a new differential equation solver which is now incorporated in the BIOS module of MONDRIAN, we have demonstrated the relative efficiency of this in comparison with a previously employed differential equation solver and have compared the benefits with an alternative approach that restricted the solution to the case which required all the retardation factors to be equal. The comparison is based upon a 31 compartment biosphere model with an eight member radionuclide decay chain. Verification against the probabilistic assessment code MASCOT is also reported to further increase confidence.

  2. Progress report for 1984/85 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering joint BNFL/DOE funded work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report from the waste treatment and disposal working party is concerned with the management of intermediate-level radioactive waste arising from dismantled fuel assemblies, cladding removed from fuel cans, sludges from fuel cladding corrosion, flocs from liquid waste, ion exchange resins and solid wastes generated during reprocessing. It is proposed that these wastes be incorporated in a matrix for safe transport, storage and disposal and the objectives of the study are to evaluate waste products arising from the treatment of ILWS and to develop techniques to check the quality of the finished waste product. (UK)

  3. Annual report and accounts 1984/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) work are covered in this report. The company offers a complete fuel cycle service from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. Each of the operations undertaken by BNFL (on five sites in northern England and southern Scotland) is explained and illustrated with photographs and drawings. The accounts show that in 1985 BNFL employed over 15,000 people and had a turnover of Pound545 million. (UK)

  4. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  5. Sellafield - the achievements and lessons of 40 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL's operations, which support a global nuclear fuel cycle business and serve many companies in Pacific Basin countries, have been the subject of refinement from 40 years of experience. Many of the Company's operating philosophies are consistent with the principles of sustainable development. The paper acknowledges the important role that the nuclear industry can play in satisfying energy demands within economies of diminishing natural resources and societies which are becoming increasingly concerned about their impact on the environment. It explains how reprocessing can meet many of the criteria of sustainable development through recycling and the optimization of resources. It describes how BNFL have reduced the impact of its operations on the environment through the treatment of discharges and the minimization and stabilization of wastes requiring disposal. The establishment of BNFL Engineering Ltd as an outlet to the world markets for BNFL's engineering expertise and technology is covered. The paper looks at the responsible approach that BNFL is taking to liabilities management ensuring that no surprises are left for future generations. BNFL's commitment to the present and future of nuclear electricity generation is illustrated in the extent to which it is committed to making it operations safer and more cost effective through investment in research and development. The paper describes BNFL's commitment to the development of its employees and to the development of the communities in which it operates. The paper considers how BNFL has met its many challenges and draws out examples of sustainable development in practice. (author)

  6. Health and safety annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on health and safety provides a review of the impact of the Comapny's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. New sections include safety auditing, emergency planning and health and safety research. BNFL operates five sites in north west England and southern Scotland. The head office and Engineering Design Centre is at Risley, near Warrington. Fuel is manufactured at Springfields near Preston, uranium is enriched for modern nuclear power stations at Capenhurst near Chester and spent fuel is reprocessed at Sellafield. BNFL also operate Calder Hall (Sellafield) and Chapelcross (Scotland) power stations and a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes at Drigg near Sellafield. Radiation sources and BNFL's radioactive discharge are first explained generally and then specifically for each BNFL site. Industrial and radiological safety within BNFL are described. (UK)

  7. Annual report and accounts 1988/89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuel's (plc) (BNFL) operations over the year 1988/9 are reviewed. The financial position is presented and the accounts explained. These show that the year was one of growth. BNFL manufactures nuclear fuel and fuel products at Springfields near Preston, enriches uranium by a centrifuge process at Capenhurst near Chester, reprocesses and manages waste at Sellafield in West Cumbria and has a headquarters and engineering design facility at Risley near Warrington. BNFL also owns and operates two nuclear power stations at Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and at Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Each aspect of the company's activities is reviewed briefly and an overview given in reports of the Chairman and Chief Executive. Over 90% of BNFL's turnover is associated with the production of electricity by nuclear power. The government's decision to withdraw the nuclear power stations from the privatisation of the electricity supply industry has created uncertainty over the long-term position of BNFL. (UK)

  8. Health and safety annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL operates 6 sites in the United Kingdom concerned with the nuclear fuel cycle. The annual report on occupational health and safety gives information on all aspects of health and safety within BNFL with special reference to radiation doses received by the workforce and radiation protection measures taken by the company. BNFL's safety policy is set out. Radiation doses to all workers have remained low. Other industrial accidents are also listed and its safety measures for transport, radioactive effluents and in the event of an incident, are mentioned briefly. (UK)

  9. Health, safety and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central theme of this 1990 Annual Report from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is that the health and safety of the public and protection of the environment are of primary concern. The report describes the fuel cycle for the production of radioactive materials used by the United Kingdom nuclear industry. Radiation protection measures undertaken by BNFL are explained as is their environmental research programme. Detailed attention is paid to the monitoring of effluent discharges into the environment and arrangements for radioactive waste disposal. The work of each BNFL site is described. The report finishes with a description of its occupational safety measures. (UK)

  10. Annual report and accounts 1990/91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Annual Report for 1990/91, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) considers the year's results financially and in terms of scientific innovation. BNFL produces nuclear fuel for all United Kingdom (UK) power stations and is thus, indirectly responsible for the 20% of electricity generated by nuclear power. Since the privatization of the electricity generating industry in the United Kingdom, nuclear power has had an unresolved financial and commercial status. BNFL has still not considered negotiations with their two UK customers, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear so accounts presented include assumptions about fixed price contracts. Public relations has become a major issue for BNFL and the work of the Sellafield Visitors Centre is described in detail. (UK)

  11. Health and safety annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activities and organisation of BNFL are reviewed in relation to the impact these activities have on the workforce, members of the general public and the environment, together with services for occupational safety within the company. (author)

  12. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  13. Internet - Workshop contribution proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL first launched itself on the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1995 to give free access to information on the company and our activities to interested parties and to try and counteract some of the misleading claims being put onto the web by various anti-nuclear organisations. Whilst fit for purpose 2 years ago the current site has not been developed further and as a result does not reflect the image of BNFL as a world class international company. The current site has however enabled us to ascertain how popular and useful a BNFL web site is for all our audiences. We are now using this knowledge to redevelop BNFL's web site and are aiming to re-launch in September 1997 with a whole new look and style which will set a precedent for further developments in the near future

  14. Annual report and accounts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item consists of the Annual Report and Accounts of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) for 1995 and a public relations document explaining the company's work in the United Kingdom nuclear power industry. BNFL has many years' experience in nuclear fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, waste management, decommissioning and transport of nuclear materials, and provides services to other organizations worldwide based on this expertise, making it an important export earner for the United Kingdom. (UK)

  15. Drigg: land burial of low activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Drigg site in West Cumbria is described. British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) uses this site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste from Sellafield and other sources. The physical nature of low level waste is highly heterogeneous, but it must all be treated so as to be insoluble in water and not readily flammable. The report concludes with a description of how BNFL recovers the capital outlay of the Drigg disposal site from its customers. (UK)

  16. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  17. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume

  18. It tells you where we want to go and not where we've been

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summary, up to now, BNFL's current visual identity was, amongst other things, dated, fragmented, inconsistent and poorly maintained. Quite simply, the existing identity did NOT say where we were going - only where we had been. The research also revealed three interesting conclusions regarding BNFL as a company name. It was clearly a very strong brand but there was distinct confusion over the acronym BNFL and the full registered company name of British Nuclear Fuels plc. In addition, 'British' was felt to be too restrictive for a company focused upon a broad international marketplace and the word fuel implied we concentrate purely on the fuel cycle, dismissing our unrivalled achievements in areas, such as engineering, fluorochemicals and environmental clean-up. The solution was to promote the company as BNFL and de-emphasise the use of the full company name during all promotional activity. So, where did we go from here? We developed three options for testing. Firstly the existing BNFL logo, secondly a refined and more modem version of the existing BNFL logo and finally a complete change of logo. We were also keen to establish the strength of the three options in relation to other well known and respected identities

  19. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  20. THORP - still time to stop it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) applied for a revised site discharge authorisation in April 1992. It will apply to all discharges from existing Magnox reprocessing, and from new plants such as EARP (The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant) and THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant). BNFL's application will be considered by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). As part of the reauthorisation process BNFL has to demonstrate that it has complied with the Government's policy on radioactive waste management. The cornerstone of this policy is that any practice producing radioactive waste must be justified. This means that ''the need for the practice must be established in terms of its overall benefit''. However reprocessing is not justified. Consequently, any level of additional radiation exposure from future discharges cannot be considered acceptable. HMIP should refuse to grant a new authorisation for the site. (author)

  1. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item covers a meeting held between members of the United Kingdom government's energy committee and representatives of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to discuss their Annual Report and Accounts for the year 1988-89. The committee explored the reasons for escalating predictions of the costs of nuclear power and why decommissioning costs are so difficult to estimate accurately so as to include them in cost per kilowatt hour of generated electricity. The relationship between BNFL and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) was explored, as was the MoD's relationship with the United States Department of Defense. BNFL's financial position should improve when the thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield becomes operational, and the Chapelcross and Calder Hall reactors may contribute income from electricity generation. (UK)

  2. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  3. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-03

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed.

  4. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Hawkins, G.; Milverton, P. [UKAEA, Solid Waste Services Section, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  5. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  6. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  7. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  8. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1980-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published from 1980 to 1982 inclusive. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA), BNFL Information Series 15 (CA) and BNFL Information Series 23 (CA), which covered the periods 1895 to 1970, 1970 to 1974, and 1975 to 1979 respectively. After bibliographies and books and pamphlets, the main list is arranged chronologically under the headings, Reports, Journal articles, and Conference papers. Items omitted from the earlier bibliographies or received too late for inclusion in this, have been listed separately. There are author, report number and subject indexes. (U.K.)

  9. Expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in expert system technology have led to the question whether such systems could be used for the enhancement of nuclear safety, particularly as advisory system during abnormal plant conditions. This document was produced during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) to Demonstrate and Review Expert System Prototypes, which was organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) and held at the BNFL site in Springfields, United Kingdom, from 30 September to 4 October 1991. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  11. Relations with local communities: 'a lot of happy faces and a lot of hard work'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public relations programme of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is described. It includes: involvement in the economic regeneration of the regions in which its sites are located; providing resource materials to schools; funding of university posts, contract research and studentships; community involvement through such things as support of organisations/charities concerned with community and welfare, health issues, renewal and cultural activities, sponsorship. Branding and attribution in its community and sponsorship programmes is aimed at achieving recognition for BNFL as a quality, caring and responsible company. (UK)

  12. Implications for providers of nuclear power plants, materials and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL does not agree with the IEA business prediction showing a decline in the share of electricity generated by nuclear power over the next 20 years. On the contrary BNFL believes that lifetime extension and continued new build will help maintain or even increase the share of electricity generated by nuclear power. One reason why new nuclear build programmes have been reduced is because existing reactors are operating for longer and at higher performance than ever before. As reactor lifetimes are extended new business opportunities will emerge concerning the upgrading of different systems from nuclear control systems to steam turbines. (A.C.)

  13. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1980 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1980. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL)-sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  14. Recent UK Experience of Involving the Public in Decisions on Radioactive Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Weedon, C.J. [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); McGoff, A.; Bower, M. [Environment Agency, Bedford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    In January 1998 BNFL applied to the Agency for authorisations to dispose of gaseous, liquid, combustible and solid radioactive wastes in respect of each of Magnox Electric's power stations. The Agency is currently considering BNFL's applications. This is the first time that authorisations for radioactive waste disposal have been considered for all these stations together as a package. It has been a major task for BNFL to assemble all the relevant information and for the Agency to drive the process forward through public consultation to the decision-making stage. As part of its role of protecting and improving the environment, the Agency is committed to progressive reductions in radioactive discharges where practicable, seeking to achieve this through the limits and conditions of any authorisation it issues. It aims to review nuclear site authorisations on a four-yearly cycle and has used BNFL's applications as the basis for its review of the Magnox power station sites. The Agency carefully scrutinised the applications and obtained additional detailed information and clarification from BNFL in response to six rounds of questions. The applications and responses from the company to Agency questions were made publicly available. They include information on: the benefits and detriments of continued operation/decommissioning (as appropriate); the sources and amounts of radioactive waste associated with continued operation/decommissioning; the current levels of discharge of radioactive waste to the environment; and the application of best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges. The Agency is considering all the application information and must decide, separately for each power station, whether an authorisation should be issued to BNFL. It has consulted publicly to assist its decision making, the objective being to enable people and organisations to draw to the Agency's attention any matters they would wish it to consider when reaching its

  15. The development of B.N.F.L.'S MOX fuel supply business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 BNFL developed a strategy to become one of the world leading MOX fuel suppliers. This strategy involved the design, construction and operation of a small scale demonstration plant known as the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF) and a large scale facility known as the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). To support the development of these facilities, BNFL developed a new MOX fuel fabrication process known as the Short Binderless Route (SBR). Since the 1990 decision was made, the company has successfully built, commissioned and operated the MDF, and has designed, built and is in the process of commissioning the 120 t(HM)/year SMP. The scale of the business has thus developed significantly and the direction and prospects for the future of the business are clear and well understood, with the focus being on the use of BNFL technology to produce quality MOX fuel to meet customers' requirements. This paper reviews the development of BNFL's MOX business and describes the technology being used in the state of the art SMP. The paper also explains the approach taken to commission the plant and how key safety features have been incorporated into the design. Up to date information on the performance of Short Binderless Route fuel is provided, and the future development of the business is discussed. (author)

  16. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  17. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of magnox-clad fuel at BNFL Sellafield. After irradiation and pond storage, the fuel is decanned producing magnox swarf and associated debris. Headings are: introduction - origin and arisings; characterisation; alternative encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  18. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  19. Annual report on occupational safety 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents detailed information on occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for 1989 and data compared with the previous year. Routine monitoring, non-radiological safety and 'incidents' are discussed and 'statutory' whole-body exposures, nuclear incidents, lost-time accidents, and types of injury are tabulated. (author)

  20. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented

  1. Analysis of transport logistics and routing requirements for radioactive waste management systems with respect to a minimum power scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the transport logistics associated with disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL, in accordance with a 'Minimum Power Scenario'. Transport by road and rail is analysed, as in previous reports; use of coastal shipping however has not been included but has been replaced with a combined road/rail option. (author)

  2. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg

  3. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yearsley, Roger; Duerden, Susan [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom). National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal; Streatfield, Ian [Environment Agency, Penrith (United Kingdom); Bennett, David [Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002.

  4. New era of LLW disposal at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With low level solid waste now being packed in drums and containers and placed in the Pound 8.6M ''new era'' concrete vault at Drigg, development and improvement work continues across the 30 year old BNFL site four miles southeast of Sellafield. (Author)

  5. Use of Formal Procedures in Developing Dialogue Between Operator and Regulator on Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency (the Agency) is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorisation of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its Drigg site near Sellafield in Cumbria. Drigg is the primary site for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste generated by the UK nuclear industry. A small facility operated by United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland is used solely for wastes arising on the UKAEA site. Drigg also offers a disposal route for smaller users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals and universities. Significant benefits have been derived from implementing a formal Issue Resolution Procedure as part of a soundly based process for dialogue between the Agency and BNFL. Benefits include improved understanding of the Agency's expectations, which has in turn led to improvements in BNFL's documentation and technical approach. The Agency considers the use of a formal Issue Resolution Procedure has placed the dialogue with BNFL on firm foundations for the planned assessment of the PostClosure Safety Case for Drigg when it is submitted in September 2002

  6. Health and safety annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1989 annual report on Health and Safety in BNFL is intended to give the public a general review of the impact of the Company's activities on its workforce, the public and the environment. The activities at Sellafield, Springfields, Chapelcross, Drigg and Capenhurst are outlined, together with sections on medical services and transport, and radiation monitoring of workforce and the environment. (author)

  7. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  8. LLW disposal wasteform preparation in the UK: the role of high force compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1991-07-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the principal UK solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. The site is located at Drigg in West Cumbria some 6 km to the south east of BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing complex. Sellafield is the major UK generator of LLW, accounting for about 85% of estimated future arisings of raw (untreated, unpackaged) waste. Non-Sellafield consignors to the Drigg site include other BNFL production establishments, nuclear power stations, sites of UKAEA, Ministry of Defence facilities, hospitals, universities, radioisotope production sites and various other industrial organisations. In September 1987, BNFL announced a major upgrade of operations at the Drigg site aimed at improving management practices, the efficiency of space utilisation and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. During 1989 a review of plans for compaction and containerisation of Sellafield waste identified that residual voidage in ISO freight containers could be significant even after the introduction of compaction. Subsequent studies which examined a range of compaction and packaging options concluded that the preferred scheme centred on the use of high force compaction (HFC) of compactable waste, and grouting to take up readily accessible voidage in the wasteform. The paper describes the emergence of high force compaction as the preferred scheme for wasteform preparation and subsequent benefits against the background of the overall development of Low Level Waste disposal operations at Drigg.

  9. Gearing up to gain more fuel business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the over-capacity in the fuel market, BNFL has invested in new manufacturing plant. Behind the design of their New Oxide Fuel Complex is high technology and a new philosophy. This article considers the wisdom of this investment. (Author)

  10. Small Column Testing of Superlig 639 for Removing 99Tc from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL Inc. flow sheet for pretreating Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superligregsign639 (SL-639) in a dual column system for removing technetium-99 (99Tc) from the aqueous fraction of the waste. This sorbent material has been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report documents the results of testing the SL-639 sorbent with diluted waste [Na+] ∼ 5 M from Tank 241-AN-107 (an Envelope C waste, abbreviated AN-107) at Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The equilibrium behavior was assessed with batch contacts between the sorbent and the waste. Two AN-107 samples were used: (1) an archived sample from previous testing and (2) a more recent sample collected specifically for BNFL. A portion of the archive sample and all of the BNFL sample were treated to remove Sr-90 and transuranic elements (TRU). All samples had also been Cs decontaminated by ion exchange (IX), and were spiked with a technetium-95m (95mTc) pertechnetate tracer, 95mTcO4-.The TcO4- and total Tc Kd values, assumed equal to the 95mTc and 99Tc Kd's, respectively, are shown in Table S1. Values are averages of duplicates, which showed significant scatter. The total Tc Kd for the BNFL sample is much lower than the TcO4-, indicating that a large fraction of the 99Tc is not pertechnetate

  11. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  12. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  13. Progress report for 1986 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper covers progress during 1986 under the joint BNFL/MOD/DoE funded PCM Working Party studying the management, treatment and immobilization of plutonium contaminated materials. Development is reported under each of seven main programme headings including reduction of arisings, Pu measurement, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, liquid effluent treatment, sorting and packaging, PCM immobilisation and engineering objectives. (author)

  14. Estimates of post-closure risk in regulatory decision making: environment agency issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency of England and Wales (the Agency) is responsible for the authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low-level radioactive waste at a disposal facility near the village of Drigg on the Cumbrian coast, in north-west England. In accordance with Government Policy, the Agency periodically reviews authorizations for the disposal of radioactive waste. The Agency intends to commence its next review of the Drigg authorization in 2003/4. To inform its decision making, the Agency required BNFL to submit new safety cases for the Drigg disposal facility in September 2002. These have been received from BNFL and made publicly available (via national public registers): - The Operational Environmental Safety Case considers the impacts of the facility on the environment and the public in the period whilst the site remains operational and under institutional control, which BNFL estimates might be 2150. - The Post-Closure Safety Case considers the long-term environmental impacts of the facility after 2150 and includes a Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment, which is a risk assessment. This paper deals with estimates of post-closure risk, it specifically excludes the operational phase and regulatory controls thereon. The paper summarises work undertaken by the Agency to consider potential regulatory actions against different levels of risk in relation to the risk target set out in the published regulatory guidance. The work was undertaken principally in preparation for review of BNFL's Drigg post-closure safety case and authorization. (authors)

  15. Advertising is magic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the

  16. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  17. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  18. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy

  19. Statement of nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight incidents were reported. Three mothers (two at BNFL's Sellafield Reprocessing Plant and one at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories) had been contaminated and received more than the annual dose limit. At the Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment, Cs124 and Cs137 had been washed off the outside of a flask onto the ground. At the BNFL Springfields works a discharge of a solution of natural uranium had occurred to the site foul drain. At the Drigg storage and disposal site a leak from a storage tank was reported. In the other three cases no radioactive release occurred. There was a loose coupling on a tiebar of a fuel stringer at Heysham-I reactor, water beneath a pipeline discharging from Harwell Laboratory was found not to be contaminated and at Dungeness-B a fuel assembly was dropped to the bottom of the reactor during refuelling. (UK)

  20. Introduction to Papers 3-5. The UK industry's strategy for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management policies and strategies of the main radioactive waste producers in the UK, namely the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA are summarised. Three papers will be published in the Proceedings of this Conference, giving details, for the CEGB, BNFL and the UKAEA of individual policies and strategies outlining how they have developed and are being implemented. An overview of the strategy for each type of waste with some examples of the approach being followed, is given. The key elements of radioactive waste management policy and strategy are set down by the Government, in various White Papers, and the detailed Industry strategy is consistent with these, indeed it is determined largely by them. (author)

  1. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management at British Nuclear Fuel's (BNFL) Sellafield and Drigg sites has been assessed using an audit of solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste, undertaken by a joint inspection team from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Inspectorate of Pollution. The conditions of waste storage and record keeping observed by the team are reported for each solid waste facility. Radioactive waste management was found to be variable, with a number of storage facilities less than satisfactory. BNFL were shown to be making strenuous efforts to rectify this. Record keeping was found to be satisfactory for all current and recent waste storage. Historic waste accumulations, however, have yet to be quantified and characterised. (UK)

  2. Annual report and accounts 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a complete nuclear fuel cycle service at its five sites in N.W. England and southern Scotland. This covers fuel manufacture (at Springfields), uranium enrichment (at Capenhurst), reprocessing (at Sellafield), reprocessing engineering (at Risley) and the operation of two nuclear power stations (at Chapelcross and Calder Hall). BNFL employs over 16,000 people and had a turnover of over Pound600 million in 1986. The report covers all aspects of the Company's work and is illustrated with photographs and diagrams. It highlights the work of some individuals who work in a variety of areas for the company. Safety and environmental protection are emphasised. The accounts are set out in detail with notes of explanation on the balance sheet. (UK)

  3. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by Kd measurements with SuperLigregsign 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  4. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.K. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy.

  5. Modelling of the thermal behaviour of 48 inch cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, D.G.; Hayes, T.J.; Livesey, E.; Lomas, J.; Price, M. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley Warrington Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the current state of the analytical models being developed by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to improve the understanding of the response of Uranium Hexafluoride containers engulfed in a fire. Details are given of the modeling methods used and physical processes simulated, together with some predictions from the models. Explanations for the differences between the predictions are presented as well as an outline for future development of the models.

  6. Annual report and accounts 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report and Accounts starts with the years' highlights followed by the Chairman's Review and Chief Executive and Company Reviews. After a general introduction to BNFL's: operations several aspects are looked at in rather more detail; fuel and engineering, reprocessing, technical and planning and corporate affairs including public relations and personnel. The Directors' and Auditors' reports come next, then the accounts with relevant balance sheets and financial statistics. (UK)

  7. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; ie Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross works; Springfields works and Ulnes Walton disposal site; Capenhurst works. Included is assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. (author)

  8. Access to the Scotland-England interconnector. Consultation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL and National Power have separately asked that I determine their requests that capacity on the Scotland-England Interconnector be made available to them by ScottishPower. ScottishPower has asked that I approve all of the capacity available to its transmission business as being reserved to its own Generation Wholesale Division. This consultation paper invites views on these applications and the wider issues raised

  9. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The graphite waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance to other phase II studies. (UK)

  10. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of magnox-clad fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The magnox swarf, with its associated debris, retrieved from previous operations has corroded to a sludge. Headings are: introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  11. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. HEPA filters are used on all THORP ventilation streams to prevent egress of active and potentially active particulate matter from the plant. Headings are: general information (origin and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation (U.K.)

  12. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises during the storage, in multi-element bottles (MEB), and removed of LWR fuel elements in Sellafield feed ponds, in the form of crud and filter-aid. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  13. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters

  14. Annual report on occupational safety 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on occupational safety relating to the Company's employees for the year 1985, and compares data with figures for the previous year. The following headings are listed: principle activities of BNFL, general policy and organisation, radiological safety, including whole body, skin and extremity, and internal organ doses, non-radiological safety, incidents reportable to the health and safety executive. (U.K.)

  15. Health and Safety annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1993 Health and Safety Report for BNFL, data showing improvements in radiological and conventional safety are given. Other aspects discussed are emergency planning, the level of incidents, occupational health services, litigation and the compensation scheme, the transport of radioactive materials, research covering transgenerational epidemiology, mortality and cancer studies, genetics and radiobiology, and dosimetry, and finally a summary of radioactive discharges and environmental data. (UK)

  16. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  17. Memento. Maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan; Memento. Le transport maritime des combustibles MOX d'Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The maritime transport of MOX fuels from Europe to Japan represents the last of the 3 steps of transport of the nuclear fuel reprocessing-recycling program settled between ORC (Japan), BNFL (UK) and Cogema (France). This document summarizes the different aspects of this program: the companies concerned, the physical protection measures, the US-Japan agreements (accompanying warship), the in-depth safety, the handling of MOX fuels (containers and ships), and the Japan MOX fuel needs. (J.S.)

  18. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  19. Automatic orbital TIG-welding of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, manual welding techniques have been employed for shop and site fabrication of small bore austenitic stainless steel tubes in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). This Paper describes an evaluation programme carried out to develop welding procedures for both 18Cr-13Ni-1Nb and 18Cr-10Ni low carbon stainless steel small bore tubing, the type of equipment used, and the modifications required for application to shop and site environments. (author)

  20. An investigation into the role of colloids at a low-level waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, P.; Allinson, S.J.; Beckett, K.; Baines, K. [Loughborough Univ., Leicestershire (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Chemistry; Eilbeck, A. [Environmental Risk Assessments, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services, BNFL, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Trivedi, D. [Environmental Risk Assessments, Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services, BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    To assess the possible effect of colloids on radionuclide transport in and around the BNFL owned low-level radioactive waste site at Drigg near Sellafield in Cumbria, UK, samples of groundwaters were extracted from the near-field, i.e. from the trenches and from the far-field, i.e. outside the trenches to determine the properties of the groundwaters with respect to the physical characterisation of the waters, colloid population, colloid characterisation and radionuclide loading of colloids. (orig.)

  1. Near-field/far-field interface of a near-surface low level radioactive waste site

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ian R.; S. Boult; Graham, J.; Hand, V. L.; Humphreys, Paul; Trivedi, D. P.; Warwick, P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and Modelling studies have been used to investigate the biogeochemical processes occurring at the interface zone between the near-field and far-field of the Drigg Low- Level radioactive Waste (LLW) trenches. These have led to a conceptual model of interface biogeochemistry, which has subsequently been modelled by the BNFL code known as the Generalised Repository Model (GRM). GRM simulations suggest that as organic rich leachate migrates into the far-field, iron III minerals such ...

  2. Integrating microbiology into the Drigg Post-closure radiological safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ian R.; Humphreys, Paul; Pettit, C.; Small, J.

    2001-01-01

    BNFL owns and operates the UK.s principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial act...

  3. Commercial MOX fuel production - the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines the design of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). This plant is being designed and constructed by BNFL as a highly automated MOX fabrication facility with capability to manufacture PWR and BWR fuel assemblies. Additionally, it will be possible to make pellets for other reactor types (e.g. Fast Reactor and AGR). The design philosophies incorporated to achieve the stringent safety standards for modern nuclear plant design are identified. (author)

  4. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching

  5. Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) Report for 1994. Radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the ninth in a series of annual reports, presents a description of MAFF's monitoring programmes for radioactivity in food and agricultural products in England and Wales. Results are presented for specific Nuclear Electric sites, BNFL sites, UKAEA sites, Amersham International, Aldermaston, the Isle of Man, non-nuclear industrial sites, landfill sites and some other minor sites. A summary of the results by radionuclide is also given. (UK)

  6. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  7. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the aquatic environmental monitoring programme performed during 1988 by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's (MAFF's) Directorate of Fisheries Research (DFR). Radioactivity measurements are made in aquatic organisms and environmental materials in the vicinity of nuclear establishments including BNFL, UKAEA, nuclear power stations operated by the electricity boards, defence establishments and Amersham International. A summary of estimated public radiation exposures in 1988, relating to liquid radioactive waste discharges from nuclear establishments is presented. (UK)

  8. A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are given about the cases of cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale Works, BNFL during the period 1950 to 1974. The number of cancers of these types expected to occur in the working population at Windscale has been estimated for the same period. For none of these types is the observed number of cancers significantly different at the 95% confidence level from that expected. (author)

  9. Chief Constable's annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the UKAEA constabulary, its personnel, administration and training, are all covered in this report. The crimes recorded at the UKAEA and BNFL sites are analysed. Traffic problems, transport and communications are covered. Miscellaneous police functions (eg lost property), the constabulary social activities and visitors to nuclear establishments are mentioned. The report ends with a policy statement on the aims and objectives of the constabulary. The report covers 1986. (U.K.)

  10. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  11. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract

  12. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  13. Development and Presentation of the Drigg Post-Closure Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drigg is an operational facility for the near-surface disposal of solid low level radioactive waste (LLW). The disposal facility is located in Cumbria, north-west England, near the Sellafield nuclear site, and is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorisation granted by the UK Environment Agency. Periodically the Drigg authorisation is subject to formal regulatory review. The current regulatory guidance, 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' (the GRA) was published in 1997 and contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which the Environment Agency will consider applications for disposal authorisation. BNFL has undertaken to produce an updated Drigg postclosure safety case (PCSC) in September 2002 to support the next authorisation review. In preparation for this, BNFL published a 'Status Report on the Development of the 2002 Drigg PCSC' in March 2000. This paper discusses the main components of the Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case will be a systematic, post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However the main focus of this paper is on the other main components of the PCSC which are presented in conjunction with the PCRSA to make a complete and integrated safety case. In addition other confidence building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed, in particular communications with the stakeholders

  14. Development and Presentation of the Drigg Post-Closure Safety Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Eugene; Watts, Len; Grimwood, Paul [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Drigg is an operational facility for the near-surface disposal of solid low level radioactive waste (LLW). The disposal facility is located in Cumbria, north-west England, near the Sellafield nuclear site, and is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorisation granted by the UK Environment Agency. Periodically the Drigg authorisation is subject to formal regulatory review. The current regulatory guidance, 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' (the GRA) was published in 1997 and contains guidance on the principles and requirements against which the Environment Agency will consider applications for disposal authorisation. BNFL has undertaken to produce an updated Drigg postclosure safety case (PCSC) in September 2002 to support the next authorisation review. In preparation for this, BNFL published a 'Status Report on the Development of the 2002 Drigg PCSC' in March 2000. This paper discusses the main components of the Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case will be a systematic, post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However the main focus of this paper is on the other main components of the PCSC which are presented in conjunction with the PCRSA to make a complete and integrated safety case. In addition other confidence building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed, in particular communications with the stakeholders.

  15. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL's own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures

  16. Discharge reductions-value for money?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Nuclear Liabilities Management Authority White Paper, the UK Government and the Regulators have signalled a commitment to further improving the operation of the regulatory regime and to its operating within the principles of proportionality, transparency, consistency and accountability which underpin the Government's approach to regulation in general. Particular emphasis is placed upon ensuring that there is greater consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection; and an open and transparently applied regulatory system. The paper uses the historical record of radioactive discharges from BNFL's Sellafield reprocessing site in the UK and seeks to identify what have been the key drivers for change, particularly over the past 20 years of significant discharge reductions. The paper examines the current context for ongoing and future discharges from the site, and the incorporation of the use of the concepts of best practicable environmental option and best practicable means. Intergovernmental commitments such as the OSPAR Sintra and Bremen statements and the developing UK policy framework are also considered, together with BNFL's work with a wide range of 'green' stakeholders. The paper outlines the principal components of BNFL's decision-making processes for discharge control and abatement; and how these interact with the relevant external pressures. It then analyses whether the overall drivers and outcomes align with the declared desire of the UK Government to ensure that the taxpayer receives value for money in the new national arrangements for managing historic nuclear liabilities

  17. A lot of happy faces and a lot of hard work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business is selling in ever more competitive markets, under continuous pressure to innovate, improve quality, reduce costs. The nuclear industry is of course no exception to this change. During 1994, BNFL continued to demonstrate this support and commitment to the community through a range of corporate, divisional and site initiatives, amounting to a spend of some 5 million pounds. This funding was spread across education and university links, employee secondment, community involvement and sponsorship and urban regeneration. The commercial activities of BNFL support jobs and generate income which benefits both local and national communities. However, the Company acknowledges that in order to play its full part as a good corporate citizen, it should put something back into the communities from which it draws its workforce and licence to operate. Thriving local, regional and national communities are good for BNFL, in terms of long-term survival, short-term income generation, general well-being and for staff recruitment retention and motivation. Community involvement activities should, therefore, be viewed as 'enlightened self interest'. Against this background, the first action from our strategy review is that the prime area for community involvement will be the North West of England as a whole, with the areas in which we operate as a major employer targeted for specific action

  18. Two new research melters at the Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) complex leader in the development of vitrification technology. To maintain and expand this SRTC core technology, two new melter systems are currently under construction in SRTC. This paper discusses the development of these two new systems, which will be used to support current as well as future vitrification programs in the DOE complex. The first of these is the new minimelter, which is a joule-heated glass melter intended for experimental melting studies with nonradioactive glass waste forms. Testing will include surrogates of Defense Waste processing Facility (DWPF) high-level wastes. To support the DWPF testing, the new minimelter was scaled to the DWPF melter based on melt surface area. This new minimelter will replace an existing system and provide a platform for the research and development necessary to support the SRTC vitrification core technology mission. The second new melter is the British Nuclear Fuels, Inc., research melter system (BNFL melter), which is a scaled version of the BNFL low-activity-waste (LAW) melter proposed for vitrification of LAW at Hanford. It is designed to process a relatively large amount of actual radiative Hanford tank waste and to gather data on the composition of off-gases that will be generated by the LAW melter. Both the minimelter and BNFL melter systems consist of five primary subsystems: melter vessel, off-gas treatment, feed, power supply, and instrumentation and controls. The configuration and design of these subsystems are tailored to match the current system requirements and provide the flexibility to support future DOE vitrification programs. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the unique design challenges represented by these two new melter systems

  19. The management of solid radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg: individual reports in order of building number. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An audit was carried out of the solid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Sellafield and Drigg sites of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to establish the state of waste management. The audit was undertaken by a joint team of inspectors from the HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and HM Inspectorate of Pollution in line with their respective responsibilities for regulation of the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The report records each solid waste facility and the conditions of storage observed by the team. The report reflects the views of the audit team. It should not be read as the definitive HMIP or NII judgement of the site's performance on waste matters. This continues to be based upon day to day interaction between allocated site inspectors and site managers. However, the recommendations of the team have been endorsed by HMIP and NII and accepted by BNFL. The report is published in two volumes. Volume 1 describes the aims and extent of the audit, the method of working and the findings and recommendations made. The reports on individual buildings are presented in Volume 2. These describe the waste management arrangements observed by members of the audit team. Where shortcomings are identified these have been brought to the attention of BNFL, and to the nominated site inspectors of HMIP and NII, in order that appropriate action may be considered to rectify the position. Where observations have lead to specific recommendations, these are indicated in Volume 2 at the point of arising. The recommendations are presented in full in Volume 1. Volume 1 also includes the overall conclusions of the audit and the recommendations which have been made as a result of the observations described in Volume 2. (UK)

  20. Nineteenth annual report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report includes a review of the RWMAC's work in 1998-1999 and its work programme and further it presents operational and administrative issues; future work programme; the Select Committee enquiry and the development of future policy. The document discusses issues on achieving a consensus and research on long-term management of radioactive waste; radioactive waste management at the UKAEA Dounreay Nuclear Site; radioactive particles at UKAEA Dounreay; radioactive contamination of pigeons from BNFL Sellafield; authorisations for the disposal and discharge of radioactive wastes; implementation of the basic safety standards directive; small users of radioactive materials.

  1. Annual report and accounts 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman's review summarizes the company achievements over the year 1986/7, especially having met all customer requirements by reaching every production target. This also gave improved financial results. Increased public support for nuclear power was also set as one of BNFL's targets. Each main area of operation is looked at: fuel supply, including fuel manufacture at Springfields, enrichment at Capenhurst and spent fuel management at Sellafield. The accounts show an operating profit of Pound 196 million on a turnover of Pound 792 million. (UK)

  2. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  3. National report for United Kingdom. 32nd annual meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors, Vienna, 18-19 May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the UK nuclear industry has now completed the transition from state to private ownership. The UK continues to support international development of fast reactor technology, mainly through participation in the European Fast Reactor collaboration, with all funding provided by BNFL. Inactive commissioning is about to begin on the PFR Sodium Disposal Plant, which includes a caesium removal plant. The defuelling machine is being refurbished to permit the control and shutdown rods to be removed. No further reprocessing of fuel has taken place. (author)

  4. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  5. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  6. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  7. 英国核燃料公司关闭两座后处理工厂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍浩松

    2001-01-01

    @@ [美国2001年10月4日报道]英国核燃料公司(BNFL)于2001年10月初关闭了两座塞拉菲尔德后处理厂--热中子堆氧化物燃料后处理厂(THORP)和镁诺克斯(Magnox)后处理厂,因为该公司不能将其液体高放废物(HLW)的产量降低至监管部门的要求.

  8. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas BWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  9. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The site ion exchange effluent plant will remove Cs and Sr from active liquid effluents using Mud Hills clinoptilolite. Approximately 40 to 50 m3 of spent ion exchanger will be generated each year together with 7.5 m3 of filter sand. Headings are: introduction; characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  10. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies, which consist of fuel pins held inside a graphite sleeve by means of stainless steel support grids and braces. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  11. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste occurs as the product of the process to remove carbon-14 from the THORP dissolver off-gas using a caustic scrubber. The carbon dioxide released during fuel dissolution is ultimately fixed as barium carbonate. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste, current stocks and future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation. (U.K.)

  12. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The waste arises from the reprocessing of uranium from overseas PWR type reactors and is the solid dissolver waste remaining after the fuel has been extracted. Headings are: general introduction (origin, current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance of other phase II studies. (U.K.)

  13. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  14. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  15. CONFIRM: Collaboration on Nitride Fuel Irradiation and Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium free nitride fuels are investigated as a potential fuel applied to waste transmutation in accelerator driven systems. In the European 5. FP CONFIRM project, four (Pu,Zr)N helium bonded fuel pins will be fabricated at PSI and then irradiated to high burnup at Studsvik in 2003/2004. (Am,Zr)N pellets will be manufactured and characterised at ITU. In addition, nitride safety analysis and fuel modelling is performed at KTH, AEA-T, CEA and BNFL. In the present contribution, the work program of CONFIRM is reviewed. Some initial results from activities on safety analysis and fuel modelling are also presented. (author)

  16. Modifications to River Protection Project (RPP) Level -0 Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic

  17. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the liquid, airborne and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Works and sites for 1982, i.e. Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. At no time during 1982 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the above Works exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. (U.K.)

  18. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on discharges and disposal of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Company Works and Sites during 1981. At no time during 1981 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes at any of the Works or Sites exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Similarly, environmental monitoring studies have shown that the radiation doses to the most highly exposed group of the general population were significantly lower than the dose limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  19. MEAD (part II)--Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for 137Cs and Pu(α) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further afield in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea

  20. MEAD (part II)-Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C N; Goshawk, J A; Charles, K; McDonald, P; Leonard, K S; McCubbin, D

    2003-01-01

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for (137)Cs and Pu(alpha) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further a field in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea. PMID:12782473

  1. MEAD (part II)--Predictions of radioactivity concentrations in the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.N.; Goshawk, J.A.; Charles, K.; McDonald, P. E-mail: paul.mcdonald@westlakes.ac.uk; Leonard, K.S.; McCubbin, D

    2003-07-01

    The predictions from MEAD, a model that simulates the transport of radionuclides in the marine environment, are presented for the Irish Sea. MEAD predictions for {sup 137}Cs and Pu({alpha}) are presented following discharges from BNFL Sellafield and the predictions compared to measured data from near the discharge location and further afield in the Irish Sea. The model performs well in most circumstances given the uncertainties involved in both modelling and data collection although some inconsistencies in the predictions are found. MEAD is also compared to other models of radionuclide transport in the Irish Sea.

  2. The JASON reactor: from core removal to fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeley, P.; Williams, A.; Lockwood, R. [Defence College of Electromechanical Engineering, Nuclear Dept., HMS SULTAN (United Kingdom); Raymond, B.; Spyrou, N. [Surrey Univ., Dept. of Physical and Electronic Sciences (United Kingdom); Auziere, P. [AREVA NC, Treatment Business Unit, 78 - Velizy (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 10 kW JASON Argonaut reactor was operated at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, London, between 1962 and 1996. After initial cooling in the core, the MTR type fuel (80% enriched U{sup 235}) was dry stored on site before transport in 1998 to BNFL, Sellafield for interim wet storage. Arrangements for reprocessing of the fuel at AREVA NC, La Hague are now in progress and this paper will describe various aspects of the storage, transfer, monitoring, and the treatment at La Hague plant. The radioactive waste resulting from the processing of these used fuels will be conditioned into a suitable package for return to UK.

  3. Practical decommissioning experience with nuclear installations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), this seminar was jointly organized by the AEA, BNFL and the CEC at Windermere and the sites of Windscale/Sellafield, where the former Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and the Windscale piles are currently being dismantled. The meeting aimed at gathering a limited number of European experts for the presentation and discussion of operations, results and conclusions on techniques and procedures currently applied in the dismantling of large scale nuclear installations in the European Community

  4. Packaging for transport and disposal of low level waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid low level waste (LLW) disposal operations at the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Drigg site are currently being upgraded. A major feature of this upgrade is the introduction of waste compaction, containerisation and orderly emplacement of packages in concrete lined trenches (vaults). This paper summarises the current status of the upgrade with particular emphasis on progress towards specification of a product container design that is consistent with the overall aim of achieving long term post-closure site stability and will also meet the requirements for transport to Drigg through the public domain under the conditions of the 1985 IAEA Transport Regulations. (author)

  5. Leaching studies of low-level waste as input to radiological assessment at the Drigg disposal site, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the period of operation of the low-level waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, several radiological assessments have been carried out. This paper discusses data requirements for such an assessment and in particular describes a project to measure the leaching behaviour of wastes. This project, jointly set up by the staff of BNFL and Environmental Safety Centre at Harwell, began in 1985. The objectives were to determine the processes operating within the waste disposal trenches at Drigg and conditions affecting them. The paper describes the installation and operation of the first of a series of lysimeters designed to simulate conditions in current trenches. (author)

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  7. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  9. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  10. Summary of Testing of SuperLig 639 at the TFL Ion Exchange Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2000-12-19

    A pilot scale facility was designed and built in the Thermal Fluids Laboratory at the Savannah River Technology Center to test ion exchange resins for removing technetium and cesium from simulated Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW). The facility supports the design of the Hanford River Protection Project for BNFL, Inc. The pilot scale system mimics the full-length of the columns and the operational scenario of the planned ion exchange system. Purposes of the testing include confirmation of the design, evaluation of methods for process optimization and developing methods for waste volume minimization. This report documents the performance of the technetium removal resin.

  11. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  12. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for an environmental monitoring programme performed during 1980 by the Fisheries Radiobiological Loaboratory. The programme was set up to verify the satisfactory control of liquid radioactive waste discharges from UK nuclear establishments to the aquatic environment. The results showed that all exposures were well within the ICRP-recommended limit for members of the public. Discharges from BNFL's Sellafield Site gave rise to the highest exposures. The collective effective dose equivalent to the UK population from liquid radioactive discharges in 1980 was 100 man-Sv, a reduction from 130 man-Sv reported for 1979. (U.K.)

  13. Measurement and analysis of MOX physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of physical properties measurements has been carried out on MOX fuel manufactured using the Short Binderless Route (SBR) by BNFL and on MOX fuel manufactured using the MIMAS process by Belgonucleaire. The programme includes the following work: Determination of the meeting point of MOX fuel; the measurement of the thermal expansion of MOX fuel; determination of the thermal diffusivity of MOX fuel. This paper will describe the programme of measurements and summarize the results obtained as well as analyzing the results in comparison with previous published work, where applicable. (author). 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  14. Automated {sup 99}Tc analysis in AW-101 and AN-107 ``diluted feed'' matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OB Egorov; DE Kurath

    2000-03-29

    A process monitor is needed by British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. (BNFL Inc.) to measure total {sup 99}Tc levels in column effluents during technetium removal from the aqueous fraction of the Hanford high-level tank wastes. The monitor must achieve detection limits of 1 x 10{sup {minus}8}Ci/mL (0.6 {micro}g/mL). Measurements must be done in near real time, with an analysis frequency of {approximately}15 min. The monitoring technology must be sufficiently simple and robust for unattended continuous operation in the plant settings.

  15. Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 as received materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 30406/29274 Task 5.0. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the as received materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent process testing and to provide data to support permit application activities. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities, and whenever possible, analyses were performed to SW-846 equivalent methods and protocols

  16. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  17. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  18. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  19. Sellafield stories life in Britain's first nuclear plant

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Sellafield Stories is the largest Oral History Project conducted in the UK. It was started by Jenni Lister, of Cumbria Record Office & Local Studies Library, and was funded by the BNFL. Through the personal life stories of 30 people who lived, worked and built the complex SELLAFIELDS STORIES tells the true story of the Sellafields Nuclear Plant that has been at the heart of the Nation's story for the last 60 years. First set up in the aftermath of World War II to develop Britain's nuclear weapons, it was not until 1957 that it was given over to nuclear power, kick starting a revolution

  20. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has recently applied to Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the regulatory authorities in the United Kingdom for a revision of its authority to discharge liquid wastes from its Sellafield fuel reprocessing site. BNFL requires this new authorisation to enable it to start operation of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). This report analyses the radiation exposure received by members of the public from radioactive waste discharges from Sellafield. HMIP and MAFF have claimed that the proposed discharges will mean lower doses for the local critical group of fish and shellfish consumers, Friends of the Earth (FoE) present data to show the doses will increase. The evidence from monitoring data and a realistic estimate of consumption of local seafood shows an annual average dose which could exceed the ICRP's 1mSv annual dose limit. FoE's view is that the risk to the public and the environment is unacceptably high and further discharges from Sellafield should not be authorised. (UK)

  1. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  2. Efficient heterogeneous execution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations on a Beowulf cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, David; Hulse, Paul; Cooper, Andrew; Smith, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has been done in using a high-performance 'Beowulf' cluster computer system for the efficient distribution of Monte Carlo shielding calculations. This has enabled the rapid solution of complex shielding problems at low cost and with greater modularity and scalability than traditional platforms. The work has shown that a simple approach to distributing the workload is as efficient as using more traditional techniques such as PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). In addition, when used in an operational setting this technique is fairer with the use of resources than traditional methods, in that it does not tie up a single computing resource but instead shares the capacity with other tasks. These developments in computing technology have enabled shielding problems to be solved that would have taken an unacceptably long time to run on traditional platforms. This paper discusses the BNFL Beowulf cluster and a number of tests that have recently been run to demonstrate the efficiency of the asynchronous technique in running the MCBEND program. The BNFL Beowulf currently consists of 84 standard PCs running RedHat Linux. Current performance of the machine has been estimated to be between 40 and 100 Gflop s(-1). When the whole system is employed on one problem up to four million particles can be tracked per second. There are plans to review its size in line with future business needs.

  3. Remote sensing of intertidal sediment bound radionuclide storage, remobilization and deposition: Case study in the Ribble Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intertidal environments of the Irish Sea are spatially complex and dynamic systems. The ability to understand and monitor these environments is fundamental to a variety of industrial, regulatory and government bodies. Intertidal estuarine environments often represent sinks and sources for industrial discharges. The ability to map the fate of these discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring and is critical in understanding their redistribution. This study focuses on the Ribble estuary, Lancashire, UK, which is accumulating elevated radionuclide concentrations discharged under license from BNFL Sellafield and Springfields. This paper presents the results from a series of investigations which demonstrate: i) that conventional airborne remote sensing using the Airborne Thematic Mapper (flown by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council) combined with sophisticated image analysis and ground truthing could be used to quantitatively map intertidal specific activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from BNFL Sellafield (r2>0.8); and ii) that time series imagery flown over tidal sequences can be used to identify sources of radionuclide bearing sediments, characterise the hydrodynamic features of the estuary and quantify fluxes of sediment and radionuclides over tidal cycles. (author)

  4. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  5. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  6. The development and enhancement of safety culture within an evolving organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of the knowledge gained from reviewing safety culture and conducting attitude surveys. The review of past safety performance and measures taken to improve is also discussed. The findings from the safety attitude survey conducted on the Sellafield Site in 1991 , provided BNFL management with information to confirm that the changes to the way safety was being managed were broadly correct, and that the commitment of BNFL to total quality management was the correct strategy for improvement of safety. It also provided the opportunity for management to think about safety as part of the management process, rather than as a separate specialist subject or part of nuclear design engineering. Local Safety Culture Review were conducted, paying attention to the area's sub-culture, how it interacts within the site, identifies its cultural strengths and weaknesses, whilst at the same time involving the management and workforce, aiding them to recognize their own organisation. Recommendations were then be written which the plant/department managers agreed with, owned and were fully committed to implementing. The difficulty of changing attitudes and culture should not be underestimated. The paper concludes that the direct involvement of the workforce and management, with full control over the development and performance of actions required to improve safety culture is vital to the success of the change process. It is important to fit the solutions to the culture under development to gain improvement, and only by demonstrating benefit to the workforce an the changes/enhancements be maintained. (author)

  7. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  8. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  9. A sorption study of 85Sr, 137Cs and 227Th onto glacial sand as part of an interlaboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of radionuclide batch sorption tests have been carried out on core material from boreholes on the BNFL Drigg site, Cumbria, as part of an intercomparison exercise with BNFL, Sellafield. This report describes the nature of the materials used, the method and the results of the BGS side of the interlaboratory exercise. Another report will describe the intercomparison. These experiments formed part of a wider programme of laboratory tests by BGS to ascertain the sorption properties of the Drigg sands and silts as an information base for designing artificial in-situ radionuclide migration experiments on site at Drigg. Three radionuclides were used, 85Sr, 137Cs, and 227Th. Interestingly, although sorption of strontium was about 15 times less than for thorium, the pattern of sorption as a function of borehole depth i.e. mineralogical composition, was very similar. Sorption of 137Cs was found to be non-linear, depending strongly on caesium concentration in the groundwater. Isotherm fits were used to determine the energy of sorption in the ion exchange process, the mechanism responsible for uptake. There is a need for a standard batch sorption method to be in common use. (author)

  10. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  11. Constructing 3D CAD models of complex structured environments using a scanning laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the plant operated by British Nuclear Fuels Plc. (BNFL) dictates that most of the maintenance and decommissioning has to be performed robotically. In order to perform tasks robotically in an efficient and safe manner an accurate three dimensional volumetric model of the operating environment is required. There are several measurement systems available, employing different techniques, discussed later, that could be employed to map an environment. Following a review of these options, BNFL Engineers concluded that these would be unsuitable for the envisaged operations. Consequently, British Nuclear Fuels initiated a joint project with UK Robotics, formerly Advanced Robotic Research Ltd (ARRL), to investigate the technology and techniques that would be required to construct 3D CAD models of plant environments. The project delivered a prototype modelling system known as AEMS, Advanced Engineering Modelling System. This is being further refined by UK Robotics into a product called Architect to be launched in 1996. This paper describes the techniques and technologies developed during the project and experience gained using the system on plant at Sellafield. (UK)

  12. Constructing 3D CAD models of complex structured environments using a scanning laser camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the plant operated by British Nuclear Fuel Plc. (BNFL) dictates that most of the maintenance and decommissioning has to be performed robotically. In order to perform tasks robotically in an efficient and safe manner an accurate three dimensional volumetric model of the operating environment is required. There are several measurement systems available, employing different techniques, discussed later, that could be employed to map an environment. Following a review of these options, BNFL Engineers concluded that these would be unsuitable for the envisaged operations. Consequently, British Nuclear Fuels initiated a joint project with UK Robotics, formerly Advanced Robotic Research Ltd (ARRL), to investigate the technology and techniques that would be required to construct 3D CAD models of plant environments. The project delivered a prototype modelling system known as AEMS, Advanced Engineering Modelling System. This is being further refined by UK Robotics into a product called Architect to be launched in 1996. This paper describes the techniques and technologies developed during the project and experience gained using the system on plant at Sellafield. (UK)

  13. Control and tracking arrangements for solid low-level waste disposals to the UK Drigg disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg disposal site has been the principal disposal site for solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in the United Kingdom since 1959. It is situated on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometers to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives LLW from a wide range of sources including nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle activities, defense activities, isotope manufacture, universities, hospitals, general industry and clean-up of contaminated sites. This LLW has been disposed of in a series of trenches cut into the underlying clay layer of the site, and, since 1988, also into concrete lined vault. The total volume of LLW disposed of at Drigg is at present in the order of 800,000m3, with disposals currently approximately 25,000m3 per year. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site. To meet operational and regulatory requirements, BNFL needs to ensure the acceptability of the disposed waste and be able to track it from its arising point to its specific disposal location. This paper describes the system that has been developed to meet these requirements

  14. Remediating Sellafield - A New Focus for the Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, N. D.

    2003-02-24

    The structure of the ownership and management of nuclear liabilities on civil sites in the United Kingdom is undergoing fundamental change. The UK Government will take responsibility for the liabilities on the UKAEA, BNFL Sellafield and Capenhurst sites and the Magnox Generation sites. When fully implemented the accountability for long term strategy will rest with the new Government Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), and contracts will be placed on M&O contractors to manage the site and implement the liabilities discharge plans. At Sellafield whilst the commercial reprocessing and MOX contracts continue, it is clear that the overall focus of the site has changed to remediation. Until the NDA is established the task of undertaking the planning is the responsibility of BNFL. To address this task the Site Remediation Team has been established. The production of the Sellafield Lifecycle Baseline Plan requires the existing long term decommissioning and waste management plans (primarily produced for provisioning purposes) together with several other specific strategies to be combined and developed into a coordinated and optimized plan for the remediation of the Sellafield Site, recognizing the ongoing reprocessing, MOX manufacture and long term fuel storage activities. An important principle within the plan is to achieve early hazard reduction whilst demonstrating value for money. The paper will address the scale of the remediation challenge and the process being followed to develop the necessary strategy. The paper will appeal to those involved in managing remediation of large, complex and interdependent nuclear sites.

  15. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1979 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1979. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. To facilitate an appreciation of the standard of safety achieved, the discharges are, where appropriate, shown as a percentage of those authorised. In the case of atmospheric discharges no quantitative limits are yet specified in the authorisations, but the results and estimates of discharges from stacks are compared with Derived Working Limits (DWL's) (i.e. a limit derived from the dose limits recommended by The International Commission on Radiological Protection in such a way that compliance with it implies virtual certainty of compliance with the relevant dose limits). Environmental monitoring results are also compared with appropriate DWL's. The principles underlying the control of the discharge of radioactive waste to the environment are summarised in an Appendix to the report. (author)

  17. Realising the organisational learning opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of proactive safety management is learning lessons from unforeseen events. As BNFL has expanded and extended its nuclear services to many more sites, the potential for organisational learning has grown, but sharing through informal networking has become progressively harder. This potential problem has been solved by implementing formalised company-wide arrangements to turn incidents and accidents into organisational learning opportunities through a system called 'Learning from Experience' (LFE). LFE enables event causes and corrective actions to be identified and shared across all BNFL's sites, initially in the UK but ultimately throughout the world. The result is prevention of events having similar causes, and development of a learning culture which breaks down the barriers to adopting best practice'. Key aspects of the system are: Applying root cause analysis to all significant events; Logging all events, their causes and corrective actions onto a Company-wide database; Screening the database regularly by locally appointed Feedback Co-ordinators trained in identifying learning opportunities and knowledgeable of their own business area, and; Placing and tracking actions to prevent similar events at local Event Review Meetings. The paper describes the implementation and initial experience in operation of the LFE system, which is seen as a significant step towards becoming an expanding and learning company with no accidents or incidents. (author)

  18. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 2: Solid waste retrieval facilities -- Phase 1, detail design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 2 provides the complete set of the Detail Design drawings along with a listing of the drawings. Once approved by WHC, these drawings will be issued and baselined for the Title 3 construction effort.

  19. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO2 and PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO2 rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % 235U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO2 and PuO2-UO2 rods containing 4.31 wt % 235U and 2 wt % PuO2 in natural UO2 respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in 235U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel

  20. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise

  1. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  2. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  3. Artificial radionuclides in an intertidal sediment from northwest England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, K. [Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Keith-Roach, M.J.; Butterworth, J.C.; Livens, L.K.; Day, J.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hursthouse, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Paisley, Paisley (United Kingdom); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Bardgett, R.D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    An intertidal sediment core has been analysed for the principal transuranium elements present in the BNFL Sellafield radioactive waste discharges (Np, Pu, Am) and the high yield fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs. Interstitial water samples were collected using porous cup samplers and early results from these analyses show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the pattern of dissolved Pu, which apparently relates to changes in dissolved Fe and Mn. More recent work has concentrated on the characterization of changes in the sediment microbial community and on the development of analytical methods for the analysis of dissolved Np, apparently the most readily mobilized of the transuranic elements, which is present at concentrations of the order of 10{sup 8} atoms/litre 22 refs.

  4. The training of criticality safety assessors at British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, graduate new entrants joining BNFL Sellafield join a Management Trainee Training/Appraisal Scheme. The purpose of this scheme is that within the context of a real job, the Trainee should undergo structured training and be given the opportunity to develop both personally and professionally. As part of this scheme each Trainee has a Structured Experience Programme which is devised to fulfil the requirements of the individual, the Department, the Site and the Professional Body to which the Trainee aspires. This paper outlines the Management Trainee Training/Appraisal system and also the Structured Experience Programme which is used to train Criticality Safety Assessors in the Nuclear Safety Assessment Section at Sellafield. To date, over 80 assessors have benefited from this programme including 24 assessors from other companies. (author)

  5. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, S.P. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Preston (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  6. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Pt. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project was to reconstruct a chronology of past 14C levels in atmospheric CO2 in the vicinity of the Sellafield reprocessing plant by measuring the 14C in individual tree rings from trees felled at a number of sites. The profile obtained from the results reflects the build up of the plant operations and related aerial emissions and a conversion of the tree ring records to past annual aerial discharges of 14C has been attempted. This is compared with values provided from recent estimates of aerial emissions. The effect of dispersion along a coastal transect to a distance of 30km from BNFL Sellafield has also been studied. Comparable, but attenuated profiles to the inland sites are observed although the major peaks are not precisely mirrored along the transect. This is attributed to greater year to year variation due to sea breezes. (author)

  7. Successful public relations for a better public acceptance - a case study on Sellafield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Prestwood, J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The Sellafield story is not unique but it can be used as one example of what can be achieved in a community close to a nuclear site. Over the past 12 years BNFL staff at Sellafield have worked diligently to win public acceptance in the local community around Sellafield. It has been an excellent example of teamwork, involving the workforce and the local community. It has taken a great deal of effort and finance and painstaking attention to even the most trivial issues to gain the publics` trust. Today, Sellafield and its activities underpin the economy of West Cumbria. The site employs just under 7000 people directly with a further 1500 in contracting roles.

  8. Taking it all back home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing contracts stipulate that Cogema's and BNFL's foreign customers will take back their vitrified residues to ensure subsequent storage themselves. National policies have been defined by those customers for the interim storage on return. Belgium and Japan have chosen to store them in glass canisters in air-cooled pits - at Mol and at Rokkasho-mura, respectively (similar to their current stores at the reprocessing plants) -while Germany and Switzerland have opted to use storage flasks. Aware of the need for vitrified residue return, almost 10 years ago Transnucleaire began developing a new model of flask to suit the various needs of the utilities concerned. Named TN 28 V in view of its basic payload of 28 vitrified waste canisters, this flask is currently being manufactured in two versions: one for the routine transport of glass-containing canisters and another for their transport followed by a long period of interim storage. (author)

  9. Reactor decommissioning in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to summarise BNFL's experience with regard to recent developments in reactor decommissioning and demonstrate how commercial projects in crucial areas of strategy development, project implementation and site restoration are beginning to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with this important aspect of the nuclear power generation industry. Although the reactor decommissioning market cannot yet be regarded as mature, the key elements of strategy development, waste treatment, dismantling and delicensing have been separately demonstrated as achievable. Together with the implementation of the right organisation, and the developing technology, the risks are being reduced. As more decommissioning projects are delivered, the risks will be reduced further and the confidence of the regulator in the process will improve. This paper sets out to demonstrate this viewpoint. (author)

  10. Oxide fuel fabrication facility - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, British Nuclear Fuels, Fuel Division, made a significant strategic decision to replace old plant in the oxide fuels manufacturing area. The decision was made against the fundamental objective of a Fuel Division determined to remain in the nuclear fabrication business with a facility to ensure secure supply to its customers, and build on its 40+ years fuel fabrication experience to become a major player in the international arena of nuclear fuel fabrication. The New Oxide Fuel Complex is a facility that considers the 90s issues of technology, environment, general public acceptance worker protection and commercial viability and provides BNFL, and its workforce, with a show-piece plant to take them with confidence into the 21st century. (author)

  11. UK-Russian collaboration high level waste immobilization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent social changes in Russia have opened up many opportunities for business collaboration. To build on this, in 1992 British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) concluded and signed an agreement with the Russian ministry MINATOM to collaborate on a wide range of topics relevant to the international nuclear industry. These covered the such subjects as developing national regulatory frameworks, sharing operational experiences and practices, and establishing collaborative R and D programmes. One outcome of the agreement with MINATOM has been the setting up of a number of collaborative R and D projects with the V.G. Kholpin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg. This paper presents the results from one of these joint programmes, and describes the mutual benefits that can be obtained from such collaborative work. (authors)

  12. Team offers to privatize mobile waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executives from four companies with mobile nuclear waste measurement systems announced today that they intend to form Mobile Characterization Services, Inc. (MCS) to provide privatized services to the Department of Energy (DOE). BNFL's Pajarita Scientific Corporation (PSC), Canberra Industries, Inc., NFT, Inc. and V.J. Technologies told DOE officials that they would provide mobile certification services on a unit cost basis for transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Characterization is required to certify that the shipped wastes are acceptable for final disposal in WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. State-of-the-art, waste measurement capability would be provided to ensure an efficient schedule of waste shipments from DOE sites to WIPP

  13. The role of advertising in promoting Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two and half years, British Nuclear Fuels havevspent approaching 9 million pounds on advertising, expenditure designed to increase the public's acceptance of nuclear power and BNFL's operations in particular. That money has been spent against a difficult background, the campaign having started just seven weeks after the Chernobyl disaster, although the strategy, was developed before Chernobyl changed so many people's attitude towards nuclear power. Sellafield was seen by many in the nuclear industry, and not only in Britain, as a major problem, and the public, judging by opinion research conducted at the time, shared that view. Research showed: Most people Saw BNFL as an environmental polluter and a danger to health; Sellafield was aeon as a dangerous place at which to work or near which to live; BNFL was seen as secretive and dishonest. One of the major argument for using advertising as the focal point of any major campaign is that, unlike press relations, it can be controlled. This was particularly important, as the press coverage was already bad, and something dramatic had to be done to change the situation. At first, we considered two fairly obvious strategies. To try and explain the benefits of nuclear power and BNFL's role, and secondly to explain the risks and put them into the context of other everyday risks. The campaign started in June 1986, with colour advertisements in magazines and newspaper supplements. Attached to the advertisement were invitation cards, with nine million printed. This was followed by a 50 second TV advertisement, broadcast nationally. Our aim to make the campaign newsworthy certainly worked. With the help of a public relations exercise, the TV ad was shown on a wide range of news programmes, and many newspaper articles were written about this new approach to selling nuclear power to the public. People started to visit Sellafield in ever increasing numbers. The biggest surprise was at the end of 1987, when Sellafield

  14. The selling of Sellafield (the public image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advertising campaign planned to restore the public image of Sellafield is discussed. Two aspects of the Sellafield site are being promoted especially, the first is that the discharges of long life radioactivity are being reduced. The second is the 'site accessibility' of Sellafield -BNFL is trying to encourage visitors to see for themselves what goes on at Sellafield. There is evidence that this will allay the fears and suspicions of the public. It is suggested, however, that providing information about nuclear power may be counter-productive as the concept of nuclear disaster may receive greater attention. The Sellafield site is difficult to promote whilst it continues to suffer leaks and it is suggested that the only way to promote Sellafield successfully may be by appealing to nationalism as the French have done in their nuclear campaign. (U.K.)

  15. The nuclear power in the UK electricity market: from a limited future to eternal life and back again?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.

    2002-07-01

    In 1990, the privatisation of the British electricity supply industry revealed how uneconomic Britain's nuclear power plants were. The nuclear sector was withdrawn from privatisation and it seemed likely that by 2000, most of Britain's nuclear power plants would be closed. However, operating costs were dramatically reduced and in 1996, most of the nuclear plants were privatised in British Energy. Nuclear output made an important contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the future looked secure for the existing plants. However, the early success of British Energy was based on an inflated wholesale electricity price and by 2000, British Energy was struggling to cover its costs. The British government is now conducting a review of energy policy. The economic case for new nuclear power plants is poor but the need to meet greenhouse gas emission targets and the influence British Energy and BNFL may ensure the long-term future of the existing plants. (author)

  16. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth report is the result of the Committee's review of the dosimetric, epidemiological and other scientific data relating to the Sellafield Site and the village of Seascale, together with other relevant advances in scientific knowledge, that have become available since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984. The review was undertaken in response to a request by Government, made to the Committee in September 1989 and recorded as a commitment in answer to a Parliamentary Question regarding COMARE's work programme which included: ''an update and review of cancer incidence in young people in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, in the light of emerging epidemiological work commissioned by Government in 1984 and other relevant work''. [Hansard 10 January 1990, Col 662]. In this report, we review all of the data which has become available since the publication of the Black Advisory Group report and we report our findings and conclusions to Government. (author)

  17. Experimental studies on the dynamics of radionuclide transport in soils and plants: an investigation of the effects of soil type and chemical form. Appendix A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main report (ANS 364) describes a greenhouse study on the distribution of added radioisotopes within pots containing soils and plants. The soils were sampled from two UK nuclear energy sites: (a) close to the CEGB installation at Sizewell, Suffolk; and (b) inside the perimeter of the BNFL establishment at Sellafield, Cumbria. Information on these soils is given in Appendices A and B. The time dependent behaviour of the radioisotopes has been investigated using I-125 and I-131 and by means of four harvests after administration of the radioisotopes. Relevant data are contained in Appendix C. Data for the watering of the pots, and temperature and humidity of the greenhouses, are given in Appendix D. (U.K.)

  18. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakem, M.J.; Brownridge, M. [Thorp Technical Dept. and Research and Technology, BNFL plc, Sellafield, seascale, Cumbria, CA (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  19. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  20. A model for the bioaccumulation of (99)Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Y S; Vives i Batlle, J

    2003-01-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of (99)Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for (99)Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged (99)Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of (99)Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of (99)Tc in lobsters. PMID:12691720

  1. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  2. The media treatment of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that newspapers, radio and television news work, is explained so that reporting of nuclear stories can be better understood. The media's attitude to what makes a story newsworthy is explained. This, coupled with a chronology of the rise of the anti-nuclear lobby, is used to explain why some stories have been given prominence. The secretive and evasive attitude of the nuclear industry coupled with poorly communicated information about leaks etc have contributed to a lack of trust and made the public more aware and concerned with nuclear matters. This has sometimes led to unbalanced reporting by the media. The coverage of the Chernobyl reactor accident is examined. Some general points about the openness of BNFL and the government's reporting of nuclear incidents are made. (UK)

  3. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  4. Expanding nuclear horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels' new thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) at Sellafield, in the North West of England, is a testimony to the company's intelligent use of computers and to the power of shared information in the design and construction of plant. BNFL Engineering (BE) has succeeded in creating an impressive marriage between off-the-shelf materials control and CAD systems and its own in-house information systems. Now the company is embarking on a pioneering marketing push of its own know-how gained by a team that has a unique range of skills - from design and construction of plant, through operation to final de-commissioning. This article looks particularly at computer systems and software. (author)

  5. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A. [BNFL, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Green, D. [ICI Chemical Polymers Ltd, Billingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  6. Integrating microbiology into the Drigg post-closure radiological safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL owns and operates the UK's principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial activity plays a significant role in the development of the repository environment. Consequently, microbial processes are integrated into many aspects of the Drigg Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA). This begins with the identification and screening of relevant features, events and processes, through supporting research, engineering designs and finally integration into radiological safety assessment modelling. This paper outlines how and where microbiology is integrated into the Drigg PCRSA and indicates areas of active research. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  7. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  8. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  9. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday, 29 April 1985, taken at the Council Offices, Whitehaven, Cumbria Cumbrians opposed to a radioactive environment (CORE); The six parish councils committee; Copeland Borough Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains a memorandum submitted by Cumbrians Opposed to a Radioactive Environment (CORE), under the headings: introduction; the Windscale Site (reactors and reprocessing plant); Windscale - wastes arising from reprocessing; low-level waste and Drigg; on the matter of Drigg; marine discharges; intermediate-level waste; high-level waste; foreign waste (spent fuel); Calder Hall (decommissioning waste). An addendum deals with problems associated with continued alpha discharges. The Committee called in and examined a witness from CORE, on matters relating to their memorandum. Memoranda submitted by the Six Parish Councils Committee and by Copeland Borough Council are also reproduced, together with minutes of evidence taken during the examination of witnesses from these bodies, covering the general area of the management of radioactive wastes from the BNFL Sellafield plant. (U.K.)

  10. Burnup effects of MOX fuel pincells in PWR - OECD/NEA burnup credit benchmark analysis -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burnup effects were analyzed for various cases of MOX fuel pincells of fresh and irradiated fuels by using the HELIOS, MCNP-4/B, CRX and CDP computer codes. The investigated parameters were burnup, cooling time and combinations of nuclides in the fuel region. The fuel compositions for each case were provided by BNFL (British Nuclear Fuel Limited) as a part of the problem specification so that the results could be focused on the calculation of the neutron multiplication factor. The results of the analysis show that the largest saving effect of the neutron multiplication factor due to burnup credit is 30 %. This is mainly due to the consideration of actinides and fission products in the criticality analysis

  11. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  12. BET is active on Sellafield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several companies, all part of BET Plant Services are carrying out work at the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) site at Sellafield, Cumbria, on one of the largest construction projects in Europe. The main development scheme is the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) buildings. One of the BET companies has the contract to paint the inside of the fuel storage ponds. It will also coat the surfaces of the MASWEP (Medium Active Solid Waste Encapsulation Plant) complex. Other work includes insulation and fire prevention installation. Scaffolding at the EARP (Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant) site is being provided on a common user basis so all the contractors can use the scaffolding and share the cost. Temporary office and living accommodation blocks have been provide by another BET company. (author)

  13. Nuclear now for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the need for clean, safe, and reliable energy and highlights the current energy review being undertaken by the UK government. Concern is expressed at the increasing reliance being placed on imported gas and the risk to security of supply. BNFL believe that nuclear power provides safe, clean and secure electricity and should be a key component of future sustainable energy supply strategies. An overview of new designs, the AP1000 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor, are provided with an explanation of the potential benefits each can offer developed and developing countries. Reviews of progress made in the US and Finland on waste disposal are highlighted. Finally the paper discusses how the nuclear industry has developed from safe to sustainable over its fifty-year history. (author)

  14. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  15. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  16. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

  17. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis technique for the investigation of environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron activation technique is described which does not require specialized apparatus or immediate access to irradiation facilities, but is sufficiently sensitive to measure 129I at the levels encountered around the BNFL nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in west Cumbria, UK. The method allows analysis of a wide range of media and is therefore well suited to environmental investigations. One such application is described in which the deposition pattern of 129I in west Cumbria has been measured, and hence the importance of transfer from sea as a route of terrestrial contamination has been assessed. The current program of research is also described briefly. This involves measurement of 129I in a range of media important in the human food chain and aims to elucidate transfer mechanisms. 4 references, 2 figures

  19. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations (137Cs, 230Th, and 239240Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137Cs and 239240Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 600 Bq kg-1 for 239240Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg-1. The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides (137Cs and 239240Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Analysis of spent ion exchange media: Superlig 639 and Superlig 644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig(reg.) materials for the removal of 137Cs and 99Tc from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The cesium-selective Superlig(reg.) 644 (SL-644) and the technetium-selective Superlig(reg.) 639 (SL-639) have been evaluated in tests with actual waste samples. These materials have a finite processing lifetime in the plant and will need to be disposed of. The composition and level of residual radionuclide contamination is important for assessing various disposal pathways for the Superlig(reg.) materials. This report contains the results of analyses of subsamples of the SL-639 and SL 644 materials that have been used in small column testing of actual waste samples at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory. The wastes that have been tested include samples from Tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-107. The analyses of the spent resins include inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for metals, cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury, gamma energy analysis (GEA) for radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for selected metals and radionuclides. While these results provide an indication of the analyte concentrations that may be left on the spent resin, they do not fully represent the concentrations that may be found after extended plant processing with additional load/elute cycles and different waste compositions. BNFL estimates that the SL-644 may last for 100 load/elute cycles with Envelope A and C wastes and 20 cycles with Envelope B wastes. The number of useable load/elute cycles for the SL-639 is not well defined, but is likely on the order of hundreds

  1. Office of River Protection (ORP) Monthly Performance Report for July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGNILD, K.J.

    2000-10-23

    River Protection Project (RPP) performance for the month of July 2000 was very good. The most significant accomplishments that occurred during the month include the following: The Interim Stabilization Project pumped approximately 30,000 gallons from four tanks. Project-to-date (since June 1998) volume pumped is approximately 808,000 gallons. Five tanks have been interim stabilized this fiscal year, and tanks 241-S-106,241-U-103, and 241-U-105 are being evaluated to determine if the stabilization criteria have been met. Out of the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 124 tanks have been stabilized. Pumping this waste from the single-shell tanks to more secure double-shell tanks (DSTs) supports stabilization of the waste tanks and mitigates leakage to the environment. The Interim Stabilization Project is planned to complete by September 2004. Waste Characterization obtained one grab sample in the month of July 2000. A total of 14 core samples, 12 grab samples, and 6 vapor samples have been taken fiscal year-to-date (FYTD) in support of three key FY 2000 sampling milestones. The Waste Treatment Plant Design and Operation organizations have been developed and staffed, including transitioning BNFL Inc./Bechtel National Inc. employees to CHG. Since the termination of the BNFL contract, CHG has temporarily assumed the work scope for design and operation of the Waste Treatment Plant. A new waste treatment facility will be built at the Hanford Site in which highly radioactive waste from the tanks will be turned into glass and permanently stored. Approval of the Notice of Construction (NOC) for the AN Farm tank retrieval system was received from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency on July 21,2000. This is a significant step forward for Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems'' in preparing waste for delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant.

  2. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Environmental Risk Assessments, Risley (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. (Author)

  3. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom was conducted. In 1985, the low-level waste [LLW] site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL] was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep into which a miscellany of rubbish-some in drums, some raw-was tipped, with a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content was seen. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. The recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety. Drigg was re-visited in June 1989. In place of the open clay trenches, carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers were found. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellafield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions had been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. Discharges of alpha and beta radiation are now around one per cent of the peak discharges of the 1970s and monitoring of shellfish has confirmed that this has been carried forward into a reduced exposure for the public. (author)

  4. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. PMID:15607782

  5. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry was conducted into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. In April 1985, during that inquiry, the low-level waste (LLW) site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep contained a miscellany of rubbish - some in drums, some raw - with but a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. Recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety; measures would be taken to meet criticisms of what was seen. Drigg was revisited in June 1989. The solid waste encapsulation plant (EP1) which is currently nearing completion at Sellafield was also seen. Carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers replaced open clay trenches. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellefield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions have been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. (author)

  6. Radiological protection and related features of large nuclear environmental restoration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique features of three nuclear environmental restoration projects being undertaken by BNFL Inc. in the USA are summarized . These projects incorporate proven treatment technologies, designs, and operational practices to ensure that the workers, the public and the environment are protected from radioactive and hazardous materials. The successful operations of BNFL in the United Kingdom underpin these projects, where world-class safety performance is essential. The River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant at the Department of Energy (DOE) site in Washington state is being designed and constructing initiated by BNFL Inc. and its subcontractors. This project will volume reduce and immobilize radioactivity in the approximately 55.5 million gallons of radioactive waste that is stored in 177 underground tanks as a result of processing large quantities of spent fuel for 46 years. Thirty-two tanks are leaking. The site is located approximately 250 feet above an aquifer whose water migrates to the Columbia River, which provides a major source for crop irrigation and fresh water fishing for 3 miles downstream of the site. These are three main process buildings: (1) pretreatment; (2) low-activity waste treatment and (3) high-level waste treatment. Design incorporating proven technologies provide efficient waste volume reduction and vitrification in remotely operated facilities where waste-processing streams could produce significant unmitigated dose rates. Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant, at the DOC site in southern Idaho, is underway in a region where average winter temperature are + degF and snowfall occurs approximately 40 days/yr. This project will retrieve, volume reduce, and immobilize approximately 2.3 million cubic feet of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste that has been stored in various containers in above ground facilities for up to 29 years. Much of the waste is covered with soil. Waste containers are remotely retrieved

  7. Office of River Protection (ORP) Monthly Performance Report for September 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) had an outstanding year. The most significant accomplishments that occurred throughout fiscal year (FY) 2000 include the following: On April 24,2000, DOE ORP received BNFL Inc. B-1 deliverables and CHG completed Phase 1 Part B-2 Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP), to demonstrate the ability to provide waste feed to be treated/stored in a long-term disposal facility. The RTP consisted of key enabling assumptions, critical risks, waste handling actions, financial and schedule risk analysis, staffing plans, a project execution plan, and a resource loaded schedule. The Department determined that the BNFL Inc. proposal was unacceptable in many areas and essentially shifted the financial risk from BNFL Inc. back to the Federal government; thus a key benefit of privatization was lost. On May 8,2000, the Secretary announced that the privatization contract be terminated. In the interim, the Department directed the onsite Tank Farm Contractor, CHG, to continue the design work scope for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant until a new waste treatment contract is awarded. DOE ORP released its request for proposals (RFP) for a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization contractor on August 31,2000 and is on schedule to meet award of the contract by January 15,2000. CHG successfully reached 1,000,000 safe work hours without a lost workday injury or illness on Wednesday, September 23,2000. The record was initiated on May 23,2000 and took 114 days to achieve. All Tri-Party Agreement and Consent Decree milestones scheduled for the fiscal year were completed. Along with meeting all enforceable agreement milestones, nineteen out of twenty Performance Incentives (PIS) were successfully completed. The 20 PIS comprised of 114 specific deliverables, of which 107 were met. In addition to the 20 scheduled PIS, six accelerated activities were completed. Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen generation was successfully mitigated this fiscal year, including a series of

  8. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  9. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany`s obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom; Wiederaufarbeitung und Voelkerrecht. Die voelkerrechtlichen Verpflichtungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gegenueber der Franzoesischen Republik und dem Vereinigten Koenigreich auf dem Gebiet der Wiederaufarbeitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintschel v. Heinegg, W. [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    1999-01-01

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel resprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag enthaelt eine gekuerzte Zusammenfassung eines Gutachtens, das der Verfasser im Dezember 1998 erstellte. Anlass war die Ankuendigung der neuen deutschen Regierung, die Wiederaufarbeitung abgebrannter Kernbrennstoffe bald beenden zu wollen zugunsten der Zwischenlagerung und spaeteren Entsorgung. Die Wiederaufarbeitung deutscher Brennelemente im franzoesischen La Hague und im englischen Sellafield ist Gegenstand nicht allein der Vereinbarungen zwischen den deutschen Stromversorgern und der COGEMA sowie der BNFL, sondern auch von Notenwechseln zwischen dem franzoesischen Ministerium fuer Auswaertige Angelegenheiten und dem deutschen Botschafter in Paris, dem Auswaertigen Amt und dem franzoesischen Botschafter in Bonn, sowie dem Staatssekretaer im

  10. Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on the safety of nuclear fuel cycle intermediate storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CSNI Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety held an International Topical Meeting on safety aspects of Intermediate Storage Facilities in Newby Bridge, England, from 28 to 30 October 1997. The main purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the technical issues on the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities (intermediate storage). Titles of the papers are: An international view on the safety challenges to interim storage of spent fuel. Interim storage of intermediate and high-level waste in Belgium: a description and safety aspects. Encapsulated intermediate level waste product stores at Sellafield. Safety of interim storage facilities of spent fuel: the international dimension and the IAEA's activities. Reprocessing of irradiated fuel and radwaste conditioning at Belgoprocess site: an overview. Retrieval of wastes from interim storage silos at Sellafield. Outline of the fire and explosion of the bituminization facility and the activities of the investigation committee (STAIJAERI). The fire and explosion incident of the bituminization facility and the lessons learned from the incident. Study on the scenario of the fire incident and related analysis. Study on the scenario of the explosion incident and related analysis. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington. Dry interim storage of spent nuclear fuel elements in Germany. Safe and effective system for the bulk receipt and storage of light water reactor fuel prior to reprocessing. Receiving and storage of glass canisters at vitrified waste storage center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. Design and operational experience of dry cask storage systems. Sellafield MOX plant; Plant safety design (BNFL). The assessment of fault studies for intermediate term waste storage facilities within the UK nuclear regulatory regime. Non-active and active commissioning of the thermal oxide

  11. Depleted uranium: A study of its uses in the UK and disposal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Bob

    2002-03-01

    Full text: The Environment Agency recently published a contract R and D report, by John Jackson of Alan Martin Associates, on depleted uranium (DU). The report documents a scoping study on the uses of DU; the civil non-nuclear applications for DU were a particular focus of the scoping study. The study was commissioned following a series of DU related incidents, including the crash of the Korean Airlines' Boeing 747 at Stansted in late 1999. There had also been an assertion in the Guardian (21 August 2000) that as much as 50 tonnes of DU is lying in UK scrapyards. The report confirms that the quantities referred to in the Guardian are groundless. The report provides information and guidance to the Agency's staff who regulate radioactive substances in England and Wales. The report does not attempt to review the health effects of DU (separate health studies have been carried out by the Royal Society and others). A range of non-nuclear uses of DU are identified in the report: Transportable shielded containers for radioactive sources, Aircraft counterbalance weights, Piling equipment (civil engineering), Radiation shielding (hospitals, universities, etc), Armour piercing ammunition, Uranium catalysts, and Ceramic glazes. The report concludes that there is, in total, less than 50 tonnes of DU in use in the UK outside of military and nuclear applications. The report identifies the aircraft salvage and recycling industry as having a significant risk of DU being lost from regulatory control. (Awareness and vigilance need to be maintained; in February 2001 in Ohio, USA, 53 tonnes of aluminium ingots from an aircraft recycling operation were found to be contaminated with DU from counterweights that had not been segregated prior to smelting.) The report highlights the absence of a UK disposal route for substantial quantities of DU. The BNFL site at Drigg cannot accept DU because in its undiluted state it is categorised as intermediate level waste. Whilst redundant DU

  12. Decisions in the balance. The need for a public inquiry over THORP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 64,000 individuals, 112 local authorities, and the Governments of ten countries are worried about the proposal to open THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant), a British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) plant in Cumbria which is destined to receive and treat nuclear waste from all over the world. Experts cannot agree about the benefits of the project, and even its business prospects are in doubt. There are plenty of reasons to believe that massive radioactive contamination of the environment, increased deaths from cancer, and a legacy of dangerous waste will result from THORP. What will come out of THORP, if it opens, will present far greater disposal problems than what will go into it. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel actually mixes the radioactivity into many different chemical and physical forms, spreading the contamination through everything involved in the process - solvents, acids, containers, filters etc. According to a report by the Consulting Engineer John Large, the effect is to increase the volume of nuclear waste by as much as 189 times compared with the original spent fuel. Some of this waste - that contaminated with plutonium - remains radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years, leaving Britain a legacy of life-threatening waste management problems for generations to come. Only a public inquiry can get to the bottom of the complex issues involved in THORP. And only an independent public inquiry can truly fulfil our Government's own policy demands with respect to this kind of decision. In the Government's Respond to the Environment Committee's report, 1986, it is their stated policy to prove 'justification' for radioactive waste production. This means the Government cannot authorise increases in radioactive discharges without being sure that the benefits of the process outweigh the risks. With THORP, BNFL want to increase its radioactive discharges into the environment by staggering amounts. Their own figures show there will be a 1100

  13. Investigating radionuclide bearing suspended sediment transport mechanisms in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Sellafield has been authorised to discharge radionuclides to the Irish Sea since 1952. In the aquatic environment the radionuclides are adsorbed by sediments and are thus redistributed by sediment transport mechanisms. This sediment is known to accumulate in the estuaries of the Irish Sea. BNFL Springfields is also licensed to discharge isotopically different radionuclides directly to the Ribble estuary. Thus there is a need to understand the sediment dynamics of the Ribble estuary in order to understand the fate of these radionuclides within the Ribble estuary. Estuaries are highly dynamic environments that are difficult to monitor using the conventional sampling techniques. However, remote sensing provides a potentially powerful tool for monitoring the hydrodynamics of the estuarine environment by providing data that are both spatially and temporally representative. This research develops a methodology for mapping suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Ribble estuary using airborne remote sensing. The first hypothesis, that there is a relationship between SSC and 137Cs concentration is proven in-situ (R2=0.94), thus remotely sensed SSC can act as a surrogate for 137Cs concentration. Initial in-situ characterisation of the suspended sediments was investigated to identify spatial and temporal variability in grain size distributions and reflectance characteristics for the Ribble estuary. Laboratory experiments were then performed to clearly define the SSC reflectance relationship, identify the optimum CASI wavelengths for quantifying SSC and to demonstrate the effects on reflectance of the environmental variables of salinity and clay content. Images were corrected for variation in solar elevation and angle to give a ground truth calibration for SSC, with an R2=0.76. The remaining scatter in this relationship was attributed to the differences in spatial and temporal representation between sampling techniques and remote sensing. The second hypothesis

  14. Managing the nuclear legacy n the UK: Progress towards the establishment of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical revision of the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. Its proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Action' published on 4 July 2002. This calls for the formation of a new organisation, originally referred to as the Liabilities Management Authority, but since renamed the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty-one UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing as well as those associated with the UK's fast reactor programme based at Dounreay. The challenge is to decommission and dismantle these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remedy the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. This paper is concerned with the work of the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) in preparing the way for the NDA and what it has achieved in its first eighteen months. The following issues are addressed: The Liabilities Management Unit and its remit (which presents the LMU Functional Groups and their responsibilities); Acquiring a detailed

  15. A swedish dose passport - contractors point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Atom is situated in Vasteras approximately 100 km west from Stockholm. The company is owned by BNFL. The two largest divisions are the Nuclear Fuel Operations and The Global Reactor Services division. The Nuclear fuel operations manufacture fuel for BWR and PWR reactors. The raw material used is Uranium hexafluoride, which is converted to Uranium dioxide powder through wet AUC-process. The concession is 600 tonnes of UO2, per year. Last year the production. was approximately 900 fuel elements. There is also a control rod production line within the fuel factory. Last year the production of control rods was approximately 160. The Global Reactor Services Division performs tests on different types of equipments used in nuclear power plants. In addition there is also a well-established service structure that provides a wide range of field services, for instance sipping of fuel elements. The total amount of people working in Vasteras is currently around 800. The majority of those, work at the fuel factory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the somewhat awkward situation for our employees when working as external personnel on German nuclear installations. Our Swedish personnel are currently using German dose passports. Since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 this is in contradiction to the EU-directives. Hence, Westinghouse Atom has applied for a license for the use of Swedish dose passports in Germany. The amount of people performing service jobs in Germany is approximately 80 persons. (authors)

  16. Development of a laboratory method to predict rapidly the availability of radiocaesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, D.L.; Livens, F.R.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Barnett, C.L. (Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands (United Kingdom). Merlewood Research Station); Mayes, R.W. (Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Roslin (United Kingdom)); Segal, M.G. (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-03-01

    A simple extraction procedure has been developed to assess rapidly the probable extent of the transfer of radiocaesium into ruminant food products soon after a nuclear accident. The in vitro extractions were validated against true absorption measurements of different forms of radiocaesium in the sheep gut. Extractions were performed on a range of different radiocaesium sources. Some of these sources were artificial (ionic radiocaesium adsorbed onto bentonite, silica spheres and filter-papers) and others were environmentally contaminated (silt from the Ravenglass Estuary contaminated by effluent from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield, and upland grass and heather contaminated by Chernobyl fallout). Laboratory experiments concentrated primarily on the use of simple inorganic extractants in competitive ion-exchange processes. Of the reagents used, 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} stable caesium chloride solution was the most effective extractant. The proportion of radiocaesium extracted by 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} caesium chloride correlated well with measurements of true absorption. Extracting radiocaesium using 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} caesium chloride proved to be an inexpensive and rapid method of predicting the availability of radiocaesium for absorption in the ruminant gut, giving results within 24 h. Further extractions were carried out using cellulase/pepsin simulated digestions and ovine rumen fluid. Results suggested that the availability of radiocaesium from some inorganic sources may be underestimated using such techniques. (author).

  17. Development of a laboratory method to predict rapidly the availability of radiocaesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, D L; Livens, F R; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; Mayes, R W; Segal, M G

    1992-03-01

    A simple extraction procedure has been developed to assess rapidly the probable extent of the transfer of radiocaesium into ruminant food products soon after a nuclear accident. The in vitro extractions were validated against true absorption measurements of different forms of radiocaesium in the sheep gut. Extractions were performed on a range of different radiocaesium sources. Some of these sources were artificial (ionic radiocaesium adsorbed onto bentonite, silica spheres and filter-papers) and others were environmentally contaminated [silt from the Ravenglass Estuary contaminated by effluent from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield, and upland grass and heather contaminated by Chernobyl fallout]. Laboratory experiments concentrated primarily on the use of simple inorganic extractants in competitive ion-exchange processes. Of the reagents used, 0.1 mol dm-3 stable caesium chloride solution was the most effective extractant. The proportion of radiocaesium extracted by 0.1 mol dm-3 caesium chloride correlated well with measurements of true absorption. Extracting radiocaesium using 0.1 mol dm-3 caesium chloride proved to be an inexpensive and rapid method of predicting the availability of radiocaesium for absorption in the ruminant gut, giving results within 24 h. Further extractions were carried out using cellulase/pepsin simulated digestions and ovine rumen fluid. Results suggested that the availability of radiocaesium from some inorganic sources may be underestimated using such techniques.

  18. Annual report and accounts 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is to supply a safe and efficient nuclear fuel cycle service. Springfields near Preston is the site of our fuel manufacturing operations, while Capenhurst near Chester is responsible for uranium enrichment. We reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield in West Cumbria, the site also of our multi-million pound investment programme which includes the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) and a range of facilities for the treatment and storage of waste produced during reprocessing operations. We also operate two nuclear power stations -Calder Hall on the Sellafield site and Chapelcross in Southern Scotland. Risley in Cheshire is the focus for our engineering design activities and the Company's Central Services Unit. The Head Office is also based at Risley. Fuel cycle services associated with the production of nuclear-generated electricity accounts for around 90% of our work. The report includes the chairman's review of the year, the Chief Executive's Report and summaries of the activities of the UK Group, International Group, Engineering Group and the Central Services Unit. The accounts are presented. (author)

  19. Discharge patterns of radionuclides and the influence of early diagenesis in a salt-marsh of the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine discharges of low level liquid radioactive waste from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfield have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. The variations in radionuclide concentrations (137Cs, 230Th, 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am) with depth were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends. The influence of early diagenesis in terms of radionuclide mobility was established by considering geochemical associations of radionuclides through the depth profile. A core from Longton Marsh was analysed by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Major/trace metal and total organic carbon determinations were also made. Sequential extractions were employed in order to specify radionuclide phase associations. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137Cs, 241Am and 239,240Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 800 Bq kg-1 for 241Am. Thorium-230 and 238U exhibited complex activity profiles with depth. 137Cs was found associated predominantly with the residual phase at all depths. Thorium-230 and 239,240Pu were mainly associated with the organic and sesquioxide phases with some evidence to suggest that plutonium had undergone a phase redistribution below the sediment surface. Caesium-137, 230Th and 239,240Pu were deemed useful in terms of establishing core chronologies. (author)

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark II and III in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S.T.; Park, S.K.; Chung, K.W.; Chung, U.S.; Jung, K.J. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. The first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is the technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Since and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license in mid 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project. (author)

  1. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  2. Defect modelling in an interactive 3-D CAD environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, D.; Potts, A.; McNab, A.; Toft, M.; Chapman, R. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes enhancement of the NDT Workbench, as presented at QNDE '98, to include theoretical models for the ultrasonic inspection of smooth planar defects, developed by British Energy and BNFL-Magnox Generation. The Workbench is a PC-based software package for the reconstruction, visualization and analysis of 3-D ultrasonic NDT data in an interactive CAD environment. This extension of the Workbeach now provides the user with a well established modelling approach, coupled with a graphical user interface for: a) configuring the model for flaw size, shape, orientation and location; b) flexible specification of probe parameters; c) selection of scanning surface and scan pattern on the CAD component model; d) presentation of the output as a simulated ultrasound image within the component, or as graphical or tabular displays. The defect modelling facilities of the Workbench can be used for inspection procedure assessment and confirmation of data interpretation, by comparison of overlay images generated from real and simulated data. The modelling technique currently implemented is based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, for simulation of strip-like, circular or elliptical crack responses in the time harmonic or time dependent cases. Eventually, the Workbench will also allow modelling using elastodynamic Kirchhoff theory.

  3. Segmentation and classification of images reconstructed from reduced A-scan data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, P.; Reilly, D.; McNab, A.

    2000-05-01

    This paper will describe the modification and evaluation of a number of segmentation algorithms to identify suspect regions within images reconstructed from Micropulse (MIPS) reduced data sets, used extensively in the UK Nuclear Industry. In addition, the paper will detail the alterations required to an existing flaw sentencing expert system for a selection of components and defect types. Experimental data will be used throughout. The expert system has been implemented using CLIPS (`C' Language Integrated Production System), with the NDT interpreters decision making process represented by a set of production rules of the form: IF A THEN B. Within the expert system, uncertainty is represented and propagated using fuzzy sets theory. A core set of rules constitutes the base expert system. A user can produce a tailored, local KSB (specific to a particular component and/or defect) through the addition of new rules and/or the modification of the existing rule set. The framework for addition of new rules is in the form of a Windows based GUI, that allows the user to add new rules to represent knowledge specific to a certain defect type or geometry without having prior knowledge of CLIPS expert system language.—The authors gratefully acknowledge the provision of experimental data from BNFL-Magnox Generation.

  4. The reliability of radiography of thick section welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, I. J.; Schneider, C. R. A.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes the experimental validation of a simple model of radiography, first published by Pollitt in 1962, which treats flaws as smooth, parallel-sided slots. Six thick-section specimens were manufactured to represent welds in Magnox pressure vessels (now operated by BNFL Magnox Generation). The welds contain 16 large, realistic, planar defects. They were radiographed under various exposure conditions and evaluated by two interpreters. The specimens were then sectioned to determine defect size, orientation, gape and roughness. The experimental data show variations in detectability that are strongly correlated with theoretical predictions. In almost all cases, Pollitt theory is either accurate or pessimistic. We have used the experimental data to derive statistical models for the reliability of radiography. Such models can be used to estimate the probability of detecting a defect (with associated confidence limits), from knowledge of its size, orientation and other relevant parameters. In addition, work has been carried out to assess the human aspects of radiographic inspection. Encouragingly, this work showed little variation in the ability of different interpreters to discern large planar flaws.

  5. Committed to the growth of the NP industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr. Stephen Tritch, President and Chief Executive Officer of Westinghouse Electric Company is responsible for al Westinghouse commercial nuclear operations, including the BNFL fuel business group in the United Kingdom. In this interview, he discusses economic aspects of bringing new power plants online, including waste disposal and investment issues. Also discussed are public relation activities to encourage public acceptance and what is needed from a practical and policy perspective to make new plant development happen in the U.S. Regarding the best available technology, he states that the AP1000 is the advanced nuclear power plant best-suited for new construction programs in the U.S. and elsewhere. It features passive and inherent safety systems, superior economics (3 to 3.5 cents per kilowatt hour) and modular design and construction that will help ensure highly predictable construction timetables. Lastly, Mr. Tritch discusses issues related to where the next generation of nuclear professionals will come from, including the knowledge transfer process, worldwide training standardization, utilizing retired professionals, and encouraging public schools to offer nuclear-based curriculum materials and intern programs

  6. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% 235U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% 235U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO2 powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report

  7. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  8. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  9. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

  10. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  11. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  12. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, H.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  13. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  14. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  15. Radioactivity and United Kingdom estuaries: an overview identifying research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)

  16. Bagless transfer technology applications in Hanford's WRAP-1 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, under construction at in south-central Washington State. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Designed as a joint venture by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors and British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL), its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. While 3,800 drums will require only waste acceptance criteria certification using the WRAP-1 NDA/NDE functions, 3,000 drums also will need to be repackaged. The WRAP-1 Facility will use two separate glovebox lines to annually repackage more than 1,500 drums each of transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW) to meet current disposal guidelines. When complete, WRAP-1 will be the first facility of its kind to perform these tasks on a production scale. Completing this challenging task is made possible by using large-container (drum) bagless transfer technology and state-of-the-art glovebox design

  17. Bagless transfer technology applications in Hanford`s WRAP-1 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, under construction at in south-central Washington State. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Designed as a joint venture by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors and British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL), its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. While 3,800 drums will require only waste acceptance criteria certification using the WRAP-1 NDA/NDE functions, 3,000 drums also will need to be repackaged. The WRAP-1 Facility will use two separate glovebox lines to annually repackage more than 1,500 drums each of transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW) to meet current disposal guidelines. When complete, WRAP-1 will be the first facility of its kind to perform these tasks on a production scale. Completing this challenging task is made possible by using large-container (drum) bagless transfer technology and state-of-the-art glovebox design.

  18. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  19. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Young, A K; Bonfield, R A

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f1 value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f1 were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95 m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f1 in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. PMID:11281526

  20. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: g.j.hunt@cefas.co.uk; Young, A.K.; Bonfield, R.A. [The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f{sub 1} value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f{sub 1} were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f{sub 1} in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic sealing techniques: A possible solution for safeguarding the containment or storage of spent fuel in an underwater or dry environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Agraives, B.C. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, JRC-Ispra has devoted efforts to develop and implement special sealing techniques, aimed at the safeguarding of transport/storage spent fuel containers, in particular in view of their probable long-term storage in storage ponds. The technique has been intensively tested on containers called multielement bottles between 1990 and 1992 at the British BNFL Sellafield plant in the presence of EURATOM and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors, on occasion of 11 exercises on site and three in Ispra. The solution makes use of a special sealing-bolt (SB) which is used to replace one of the standard bolts closing the lid of the container. The special SBs are provided with a unique random signature and an internal breaking device. The first feature allows the verification of the SB's identity and the latter checks its integrity status, both verifications being done at once in a few minutes by means of an ultrasonic reading tool and associated computerized ultrasonic/electronic reading equipment. By using laboratory-PC-based and/or portable equipment, any SB can be read or verified in either dry or underwater conditions. There are several applications under study at JRC-Ispra, each requiring the development of a specific mechanical seal/item interface, such as MAGNOX reactor calibrated dead weights for underwater spent fuel weighbridge, pressurized water reactor mixed oxide fresh fuel assemblies or PUO2 transport casks.

  2. Ultrasonic sealing techniques: A possible solution for safeguarding the containment or storage of spent fuel in an underwater or dry environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, JRC-Ispra has devoted efforts to develop and implement special sealing techniques, aimed at the safeguarding of transport/storage spent fuel containers, in particular in view of their probable long-term storage in storage ponds. The technique has been intensively tested on containers called multielement bottles between 1990 and 1992 at the British BNFL Sellafield plant in the presence of EURATOM and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors, on occasion of 11 exercises on site and three in Ispra. The solution makes use of a special sealing-bolt (SB) which is used to replace one of the standard bolts closing the lid of the container. The special SBs are provided with a unique random signature and an internal breaking device. The first feature allows the verification of the SB's identity and the latter checks its integrity status, both verifications being done at once in a few minutes by means of an ultrasonic reading tool and associated computerized ultrasonic/electronic reading equipment. By using laboratory-PC-based and/or portable equipment, any SB can be read or verified in either dry or underwater conditions. There are several applications under study at JRC-Ispra, each requiring the development of a specific mechanical seal/item interface, such as MAGNOX reactor calibrated dead weights for underwater spent fuel weighbridge, pressurized water reactor mixed oxide fresh fuel assemblies or PUO2 transport casks

  3. Free release waste characterisation during the decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frith, A.J. [NIRAS (United Kingdom); Dickson, E.D.; Hewetson, J.A.; McCormick, K. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The decommissioning of windscale Pile 2 Chimney resulted in the removal of one of most historically significant and prominent features of the Sellafield site. The project was the first large scale concrete ''free release'' operation to be undertaken on the Sellafield nuclear site, producing 4500 tons of concrete of which 3000 tons was demonstrated to be ''free release''. The paper describes the radiometric techniques employed in the characterisation and segregation of the concrete into low level waste (LLW), very low level waste (VLLW) and free release categories. It examines the robust solutions that were developed to meet the technical and regulatory challenges of the project, which included the definition of free release, the selection of averaging volumes, the testing and validation of the monitoring systems employed for ton quantities of concrete and the identification and removal of small numbers of fuel particles from the free release waste stream. As a result of interest shown by other BNFL and UKAEA decommissioning projects at Sellafield, the paper finishes by discussing ways in which the system may be developed to assay other waste streams. (orig.)

  4. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  5. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers

  6. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, L.; Lean, C

    2005-09-15

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  8. Quality intercomparison testing of waste package assay systems on UK nuclear sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daish, S.R. [NNC Ltd., WQCL, Dorchester (United Kingdom); Leech, N.A. [The Environment Agency, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The independent monitoring of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposals in the united kingdom is undertaken by NNC limited on behalf of the environment agency and SEPA at the Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) at Winfrith. A review of the potential for on-site checking of site operator's drum monitoring equipment was carried out at WQCL in 1998. As a result of this review, drums of simulated waste have been prepared and developed at WQCL. These standard waste packages form the basis of an on-going programme of on-site intercomparison tests on site operator's gamma assay instrumentation, which commenced in December 1999. The purpose of the programme is to provide the Agency with a check on site operator's waste drum measurements as part of the its ongoing monitoring programme. The use of reference drums containing defined radionuclides of known radioactivity allows the Agency to assess the adequacy of operator's arrangements for assaying drummed LLW destined for disposal in the BNFL Drigg repository in Cumbria. The waste assay systems tested to date are described and the results of the first eleven tests performed are used to compare and contrast two types of gamma assay system in common use on nuclear sites in the United Kingdom. (orig.)

  9. Experience in low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in near-surface facilities for over 30 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and clean-up of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals are being phased out in preference to emplacement of containerized conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site and this review of experience is from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly, however, the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Drigg site and also some of the supporting technical work. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Waste management at power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other industrial processes, nuclear power stations produce waste in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from the stations after suitable treatment, the residual radioactivity being diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorised under the Radioactive Substances Act and the environmental impact is minimal. In recent years low level wastes (LLW) have been sent to BNFL's disposal site at Drigg. Recent charges at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low level wastes. This disposal route will be used until an alternative facility is brought into operation. Consideration is being given to volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate level waste (ILW) such as spent ion exchange resins are now stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Such as a mobile waste treatment plant. In the case of Magnox debris a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed at Dungeness and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored whilst retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. At Trawsfynydd a few debris store will hold the fuel element debris in 500 litre drums. (author)

  11. A sediment history of Sellafield discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of artificial radionuclides, discharged from the BNFL Sellafield works into the Irish Sea, has been measured in sediment cores taken from a nearby disused and undisturbed dock basin (Senhouse Dock, Maryport). This has provided a comprehensive record of Sellafield discharges from the early 1960s, including radionuclides for which discharge data are incomplete. A chronology was established by comparing a variety of radionuclide concentrations and isotope ratios in the core with the available information on decay-corrected discharges. This allowed an estimate to be made of the quantity of 238Pu discharged in the period 1959-1977 (94 ± 8 TBq) for which no discharge data exist. The transit time from discharge to incorporation in the surface sediment was in the order of 1-1.5 y. Attempts to verify the sediment chronology with conventional 210Pbexcess dating met with difficulties because of uncertainties in the flux of 210Pb, linked to a local, anthropogenic source of 210Pb/226Ra. (author)

  12. Nuclear power, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rubric reports on 12 short notes about sociological and environmental aspects of nuclear power in France and other countries: the epidemiological inquiry widened to all French nuclear sites; the sanitary and radioecological effects of nuclear activities in Northern Cotentin (France); the WONUC (World National Council of Nuclear Workers) anger with the French government about the shutdown of Superphenix reactor; the new more informative promotional campaign of Electricite de France (EdF) for nuclear power; the scientific and research prices attributed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to its searchers; the creation of a committee of inquiry in the French senate for the careful examination of the economical, social and financial consequences of the shutdown of Superphenix; the 31.2% increase of CEA-Industrie benefits for 1997; the decrease of nuclear contestation in Germany; the French-German communication efficiency during the Fessenheim accident simulation in October 7, 1997; the 3.5% increase of CO2 emissions in the USA; the decommissioning of 3 Russian reactors for military plutonium production; Greenpeace condemnation for abusive purposes against British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) and its activities at Sellafield (UK). (J.S.)

  13. Testing of CoTreat Inorganic Ion Exchange Media for the Removal of 60Co from Thorp Pond Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harjula, R.; Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Tusa, E.; Strandring, P.

    2003-02-25

    CoTreat, a new inorganic ion exchange media, has been studied in the laboratory to support its application as a pre- coat to existing Funda filters in THORP feed pond plant (Sellafield, UK). This is a novel way of application of CoTreat, which is usually utilized in fixed-bed ion exchange columns in a granular form. The results present the effect of operating conditions (CoTreat dose, pond water chemistry) on CoTreat performance for the removal of Co-57 tracer from simulated pond water. Major findings include the strong dependence of Co-57 decontamination factor (DF) on feed activity. At the 200 Bq/L feed level, the observed DF was 10-20 but rose to 1000 and above when the feed level was increased to 20000 Bq/L. Calcium present in the feed was found to decrease the DF at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The laboratory studies showed significantly higher DF's than what has been observed in large-scale THORP tests. This discrepancy is likely to be due to the technique used in applying the Co Treat layer to the Thorp HEFP Funda filter. Options for improving Co Treat performance (i.e. application technique) under Funda filter operating conditions are being investigated by BNFL based on this laboratory work.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB)

  15. The development of a package for the transport of new mixed oxide fuel assemblies within Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels in commercial reactors has increased significantly over the past 10 years as an effective way of using stocks of plutonium produced from reprocessing uranium fuels. Now, with advances in fuel design MOX can give performance approaching that of enriched uranium fuel. To meet demand from European and Japanese utilities, British Nuclear Fuels are currently building a large scale plant at Sellafield to assemble MOX fuels. This required a new transport package to be developed capable of carrying high specification fuels to customers in Europe whilst complying with the latest 1996 IAEA ST-1 Transport Regulations. This package is known as Euromox and currently under development to enter service in 2003. Relatively few packages exist for the transport of MOX fuels and Euromox is the first designed by BNFL for shipments to Europe. Euromox has provided several technical challenges in its development arguably exceeding those typically encountered during the development of new packages for irradiated fuel transports. (author)

  16. Radial power density distribution of MOX fuel rods in the IFA-651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Cheon, Jin Sik; Oh, Je Yong; Sohn, Dong Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Two MOX fuel rods, which were fabricated in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland in cooperation with Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, have been irradiated in the HBWR from June, 2000 in the framework of OECD-HRP together with a reference MOX fuel rod supplied by the BNFL. Since fuel temperature, which is influenced by radial power distribution, is basic in analyzing fuel behavior, it is required to consider radial power distribution in the HBWR. A subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR that calculates radial power density distribution for three MOX fuel rods has been developed based on neutron physics results and DEPRESS program. The developed subroutine FACTOR{sub H}BWR gives good agreement with the physics calculation except slight under-prediction at the outer part of the pellet above the burnup of 20 MWd/kgHM. The subroutine will be incorporated into a computer code COSMOS and used to analyze the in-reactor behavior of the three MOX fuel rods during the Halden irradiation test. 24 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  17. Ultrafiltration and Characterization of AW-101 Supernatant and Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) (1996) flow sheet uses cross-flow filtration as the solid/liquid separation technique. Unlike traditional dead-end filtration, which has a declining rate caused by the growth of a filter cake on the surface of the filter medium, in cross-flow filtration, the filter cake is swept away by the fluid flowing across it. This filtration method is especially beneficial when there are very fine particles and when system simplicity is required. The objective of this work was to test cross-flow filtration using actual Envelope A Hanford tank waste. Similar to the Phase 1A study, they evaluated the permeability of an Envelope A feed through a single element filter as a function of transmembrane pressure, axial velocity, solids concentration, and time. In addition, the efficiency of back pulse and chemical cleaning on the filter performance was evaluated. The chemical and radiochemical composition of the filtrate and solids was measured to determine efficiency of the filtration process. This report describes the test apparatus, the experimental approach, the results of the tests, and the chemical and radiochemical analysis for supernatants taken from Hanford Tank AW-101. This report also provides a means of transmitting to British Nuclear Fuels, Limited (BNFL) the completed test instruction and raw filtration and analytical data

  18. Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities

  19. Advanced fuel technology - A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in the United Kingdom is perhaps more diverse than in any other country. The diversity in design of stations is matched by a diversity in operating responsibility. The SGHWR and PFR are operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), 2 of the Magnox stations are owned and run by BNFL, 2 of the AGR stations and 1 Magnox station are controlled by the South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB), and the remaining reactors (including the Sizewell 'B' PWR) currently come under the responsibility of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) but will pass into the control of a new state-run company when the rest of the CEGB is privatized in 1990. Against this background of a variety of designs and operational responsibilities, there is clearly a great deal of scope for advances in fuel and fuel component technology. It should be noted, however, that the nuclear energy policy within the United Kingdom, particularly with regard to PWR plants, has been to adopt well proven designs wherever possible. Emphasis is therefore directed towards achieving the successful operation of conservative systems, with research and development work on advanced options for future implementation. The following sections give an overview of the areas where advanced designs are either in production or under development for each of the UK reactor systems in turn, together with an indication of possible future developments

  20. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, C. [Direct Rail Services, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg.

  1. Contaminated oil management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, R.E

    2005-03-15

    Gas circulator oils are the primary source of contaminated oil arising as Low Level Waste (LLW) from AGR and Magnox gas cooled reactors operated by British Energy and BNFL Magnox Generation, respectively. In addition, there are oil arisings from the PWR operated by British Energy at Sizewell B. The paper initially identifies the quantities and types of oil involved. The primary method of disposal is on-site or off-site combustion in authorised facilities and typical installations and their operational modes are described. The generation of waste circulator oils at stations is highly variable with some reporting no annual accumulations whilst others accumulate hundreds, or thousands of litres per year. At present some sites have significant stores of oil with no approved disposal route. In the Magnox reactor context the oil arisings are either as clean but contaminated circulator oil from circulator maintenance or dirty oil associated with and removed from sludge arisings. In the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) context the arisings are mainly due to circulator maintenance, with some oil being recycled. Sizewell B also has lubricating oil arisings. A range of alternative technologies for the treatment of LLW oil is reviewed and a number of physical/chemical destruction technologies identified and evaluated. The paper summarises the results of these studies and indicates where future technologies could be deployed with advantage. (author)

  2. The status of the Deep Repository Programme in the UK. History and actual situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme for the deep disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom commenced in 1987, its focus being the country's Intermediate-Level Waste (estimated to have a volume of 200,000-270,000 m3 by 2050). A site selection exercise followed a public consulation period in the late 1980s and resulted in the investigation of two sites until 1991, Dounreay in the North of Scotland and a site adjacent to the BNFL works at Sellafield in north-west England. In 1991 investigations focused on Sellafield. A site characterisation programme and associated research and safety assessment was carried out at Sellafield, taking the programme to the point where a stage of underground investigation through a Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) had been identified as the next step. However, following a Public Inquiry in 1995, the Secretary of State for the Environment announced, in March 1997, his decision to turn down Nirex's request for the RCF. Current ongoing scientific and technical work is focused on remaining generic issues of repository performance and support to the waste treatment and packaging programme. An active public debate on institutional issues and UK policy has taken place following the Secretary of State's decision on the RCF. A key step has been a House of Lords Select Commitee Enquiry into radioactive waste management, which reported in March 1999. A full Government Review is expected to start in early 2000. (orig.)

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA mark-2±3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Taejeon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of the TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In 1998, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license at the end of September 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark-II and III reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of the TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997, after their shutdown in 1995 due to their life and the operation of a new research reactor, HANARO, at the KAERI site in Taejon. Preparation of the decommissioning plan and environmental impact assessment, and setting up of licensing procedure and documentation for the project were performed in 1997. At the end of 1997, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) was selected as the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels Plc. (BNFL) was the technical assisting partner to Heck. Licensing documents were submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) at the end of 1998. And the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) is reviewing the documents. Practical work of the D and D will start at the end of 1999 upon the government issues the license. In the meantime, July 1998, all spent fuels from the TRIGA Mark-II and III were safely transported to the US. The foremost part of the D and D work will be the TRIGA Mark-III reactor hall that will be used as a temporary storage of radioactive waste produced during the D and D work, and followed by the TRIGA Mark-II and auxiliary facilities. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans for the D and D work. (author)

  5. Quality intercomparison testing of waste package assay systems on UK nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The independent monitoring of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposals in the united kingdom is undertaken by NNC limited on behalf of the environment agency and SEPA at the Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) at Winfrith. A review of the potential for on-site checking of site operator's drum monitoring equipment was carried out at WQCL in 1998. As a result of this review, drums of simulated waste have been prepared and developed at WQCL. These standard waste packages form the basis of an on-going programme of on-site intercomparison tests on site operator's gamma assay instrumentation, which commenced in December 1999. The purpose of the programme is to provide the Agency with a check on site operator's waste drum measurements as part of the its ongoing monitoring programme. The use of reference drums containing defined radionuclides of known radioactivity allows the Agency to assess the adequacy of operator's arrangements for assaying drummed LLW destined for disposal in the BNFL Drigg repository in Cumbria. The waste assay systems tested to date are described and the results of the first eleven tests performed are used to compare and contrast two types of gamma assay system in common use on nuclear sites in the United Kingdom. (orig.)

  6. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg

  7. A knowledge management journey at BNG Sellafield: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All organisations manage knowledge in some shape of form. Over the last decade BNFL and latterly BNG, has undertaken a number of business improvement initiatives, however it was not until the late 1990's that a formal integrative KM programme was sanctioned. Great progress was made with the chief aims of a broadly based KM programme with setting up of electronic 'team rooms', improved database searching and 'Learning from experience' processes and an embryonic 'yellow pages' system etc. By 2001, following major reorganisations of the business, Knowledge Management was classified as a 'Cross-business issue'. Consequently, the decision was made to withdraw the Group Office co-ordination and resourcing of Knowledge Management in BNFL. There were no further significant developments until 2006, when there was an explicit request from the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) for all nuclear site license holders (including BNG Sellafield) to manage knowledge and intellectual property effectively (NDA, 2005; 2006a; 2006b). This policy posed several challenges for BNG Sellafield: - Demonstrating that knowledge and good practise was being leveraged not only at each nuclear site but across the whole of the NDA's portfolio of 20 geographically and organisationally separated sites; - Demonstrating that the considerable body of Intellectual property and associated rights was being managed for the benefit of the nation and in such a way that promoted Innovation in an industry where increased competition was being encouraged; - The plethora of conceptual frameworks and definitions of knowledge management suggested a lack of uniformity as to what constitutes knowledge management; let alone how to implement such a programme. Our solution was to employ a knowledge transfer process from experienced consultants and trainers to an internal team charged with the implementation of knowledge management at Sellafield. Our brief was to design and deliver a two year programme

  8. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.; Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-03-01

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g/sup -1/ dry wt) and loss of /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of /sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 106/Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 144/Ce, and of 40 d for /sup 137/Cs. The clearance of /sup 106/Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water.

  9. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a)

  10. Measurement error in longitudinal film badge data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, J.L

    2002-04-01

    The classical measurement error model is that of a simple linear regression with unobservable variables. Information about the covariates is available only through error-prone measurements, usually with an additive structure. Ignoring errors has been shown to result in biased regression coefficients, reduced power of hypothesis tests and increased variability of parameter estimates. Radiation is known to be a causal factor for certain types of leukaemia. This link is mainly substantiated by the Atomic Bomb Survivor study, the Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients study, and studies of various other patients irradiated for therapeutic purposes. The carcinogenic relationship is believed to be a linear or quadratic function of dose but the risk estimates differ widely for the different studies. Previous cohort studies of the Sellafield workforce have used the cumulative annual exposure data for their risk estimates. The current 1:4 matched case-control study also uses the individual worker's film badge data, the majority of which has been unavailable in computerised form. The results from the 1:4 matched (on dates of birth and employment, sex and industrial status) case-control study are compared and contrasted with those for a 1:4 nested (within the worker cohort and matched on the same factors) case-control study using annual doses. The data consist of 186 cases and 744 controls from the work forces of four BNFL sites: Springfields, Sellafield, Capenhurst and Chapelcross. Initial logistic regressions turned up some surprising contradictory results which led to a re-sampling of Sellafield mortality controls without the date of employment matching factor. It is suggested that over matching is the cause of the contradictory results. Comparisons of the two measurements of radiation exposure suggest a strongly linear relationship with non-Normal errors. A method has been developed using the technique of Regression Calibration to deal with these in a case-control study

  11. Integrated wastewater management planning for DOE's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS), jointly formed by Morrison Knudsen Corporation and BNFL Inc., provides international experience in the nuclear, environmental, waste management, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) , and project management industry. The company is currently the environmental restoration, waste management, and D ampersand D subcontractor for Kaiser-Hill Company at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). RMRS offers unique solutions and state-of-the-art technology to assist in resolving the issues that face industries today. RMRS has been working on methods to improve cost savings recognized at RFETS, through application of unique technologies and process engineering. RMRS prepared and is implementing a strategy that focused on identifying an approach to improve cost savings in current wastewater treatment systems and to define a low-cost, safe and versatile wastewater treatment system for the future. Development of this strategy, was targeted by Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Rocky Flats Field Office and Kaiser-Hill as a ''Project Breakthrough'' where old concepts were thrown out the door and the project goals and objectives were developed from the groundup. The objectives of the strategy developed in a project break through session with DOE included lower lifecycle costs, shutdown of one of two buildings at RFETS, Building 374 or Building 774, reduced government capital investment, and support of site closure program goals, identified as the site's Accelerated Site Action Plan (ASAP). The recommended option allows for removal of water treatment functions from Building 374, the existing process wastewater treatment facility. This option affords the lowest capital cost, lowest unit operating cost, lowest technical management risk, greatest support of ASAP phasing and provides the greatest flexibility for design with unforeseen future needs

  12. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  13. Safety culture aspects of managing for safety. Experience of a large nuclear reprocessing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Industry is going through turbulent times both in terms of public acceptance and business issues. Safety is one area which impacts on whether the business is allowed to continue, and how an organisation organizes itself. The need to cut costs to make nuclear power a viable energy resource, has forced the nuclear utilities to review manning policies, and management style, and in particular how to maintain safety standards during a period of change, and ultimately support continuing improvement of standards. The shrinking workforce requires a new style of management, one that depends more on the people of the organisation taking responsibility for safety at all levels of the organisation. Not only personal safety but the safety of their colleagues, general public and the environment. The safety culture of an organisation is indivisible from the company culture, each aspect of a culture influences the whole and so the balance between business, safety and quality, has to be managed. BNFL provides a full fuel cycle service to nuclear power plants, and associated services to many national and international organisations. The following notes are taken from the work carried out in the company, and mostly at the Nuclear Reprocessing and Waste storage Site at Sellafield, based in the North West of England. Following the recent re-organisation, the site now employs 6200 people and has a further 1500 contractors working on construction activities on the site. Activities on the site range from remote handling to hands on tasks, involving highly active materials to low level waste. (author)

  14. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  15. Development and formation of safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) is the largest project ever undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and its success is important for the future of the company. The company recognised at the planning stage that to be profitable, THORP had to operate both safely and with a smaller workforce. The establishment of an appropriate culture which saw safety and productivity as essential and complimentary at the beginning of the life of the plant was therefore vital for the future success of THORP The key factors in the THORP Culture formation were : The recruitment policy; the training policy; measures taken to ensure participation from the workforce; teamworking support; communication initiatives; clear statement of cultural principles; clear and demonstrable leadership. The current stage of evolution has seen some positive results namely: A clear commitment to involving all personnel in problem solving and task organisation, including safety; a confident workforce with an improved ability to communicate; the capability of the majority of the workforce to work as a team; safety awareness of the workforce is generally high along with an awareness of environmental, commercial and (political) external issues affecting the THORP business; a commitment to continuous improvement. The development of the safety culture within THORP has also had challenges, some as a result of the composite nature of the workforce, and others as side effects of the culture shaping measures. Management have recognised these, and using the results of attitude surveys, are working with the workforce to overcome their effects. Clear recognition has been achieved that the establishment of positive behaviours is a key. step in generating the culture required summarising, there is recognition that the design of safety management systems and improvement programmes, should be based on the principles of human psychology and behaviour. which includes wide participation by the workforce

  16. The regulation of technetium-99 discharges at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent Magnox fuel at BNFL Sellafield produces a liquid waste concentrate containing technetium-99 and other, more radiotoxic, radionuclides such as plutonium and americium. The concentrate is known as medium active concentrate (MAC). Prior to 1981, MAC was discharged to sea untreated after several years' storage, during which short-lived radionuclides underwent radioactive decay. In the early 1980s, discharges of MAC were suspended and it was retained in storage tanks, pending the construction of a plant to remove the radionuclides of greatest radiological concern (these did not include technetium- 99). The Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant started operation in 1994 and began to clear the backlog of stored waste MAC, as well as current arisings from Magnox reprocessing. As a consequence technetium-99 was once more discharged to sea. Subsequently, concentrations of this radionuclide in the marine environment increased. In particular, there was a significant increase in the concentration of technetium-99 in lobster in the Irish Sea. An increase in technetium-99 has also been detected at locations far distant from Sellafield, e.g. in Scandinavian coastal waters, albeit at very low concentrations. This dispersal of technetium- 99 throughout the Irish Sea and further afield has therefore caused concern, although the radiological impact is low. This paper examines the nature and source of the technetium-99 in sea discharges at Sellafield and the levels of past and current discharges as well as their impact. It goes on to describe the Environment Agency's recent proposals on the future regulation of technetium-99 discharges and how these should lead to substantial reductions in not only technetium-99 discharges, but also of other radionuclides such as caesium-137 and strontium-90. (author)

  17. How not to reduce plutonium stocks. The danger of MOX-fuelled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a radioactive by-product of nuclear reactor operation and one of the most toxic substances known. The world would be a safer place if the governments of countries with stocks of it, including Britain, would adopt effective policies for reducing and managing them. Two recent authoritative reports recommend that the British government take urgent action to reduce its 'civil' plutonium stock - currently one quarter of the world's total and set to rise to about two-thirds by the year 2010. The March 1999 House of Lords report, Management of Nuclear Waste, concludes that British government policy on plutonium 'should be the maintenance of the minimum strategic stock, and the declaration of the remainder as waste'. A report from the Royal Society, Britain's main learned society, meanwhile states that: 'In addition to disposing of some of the plutonium already in the stockpile, steps should be taken to reduce the amount added to it each year, primarily by reducing the amount of reprocessing carried out'. The government's reply to the House of Lords is expected to be followed by a public consultation before changes in legislation are proposed. But, at the same time, the government is considering an application from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the government-owned company which separates plutonium from spent nuclear fuel rods, for a licence to operate a new plant at Sellafield in Cumbria to produce mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel from its plutonium stockpile. The nuclear industry justifies the Sellafield MOX plant as one way of reducing plutonium stocks. But critics point out that this is not a rational way to manage plutonium. This briefing aims to contribute to an informed debate during the current flurry of British government nuclear policy making by explaining why

  18. How not to reduce plutonium stocks. The danger of MOX-fuelled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is a radioactive by-product of nuclear reactor operation and one of the most toxic substances known. The world would be a safer place if the governments of countries with stocks of it, including Britain, would adopt effective policies for reducing and managing them. Two recent authoritative reports recommend that the British government take urgent action to reduce its 'civil' plutonium stock - currently one quarter of the world's total and set to rise to about two-thirds by the year 2010. The March 1999 House of Lords report, Management of Nuclear Waste, concludes that British government policy on plutonium 'should be the maintenance of the minimum strategic stock, and the declaration of the remainder as waste'. A report from the Royal Society, Britain's main learned society, meanwhile states that: 'In addition to disposing of some of the plutonium already in the stockpile, steps should be taken to reduce the amount added to it each year, primarily by reducing the amount of reprocessing carried out'. The government's reply to the House of Lords is expected to be followed by a public consultation before changes in legislation are proposed. But, at the same time, the government is considering an application from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the government-owned company which separates plutonium from spent nuclear fuel rods, for a licence to operate a new plant at Sellafield in Cumbria to produce mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel from its plutonium stockpile. The nuclear industry justifies the Sellafield MOX plant as one way of reducing plutonium stocks. But critics point out that this is not a rational way to manage plutonium. This briefing aims to contribute to an informed debate during the current flurry of British government nuclear policymaking by explaining why. (author)

  19. The 2002 Drigg post-closure safety case: implementation of a multiple factor safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site, which is the UK's principal facility for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW). Disposals are carried out under the terms of an authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency (the Agency). The Agency periodically reviews the authorization to take account of new information and any revisions to regulatory requirements. In September 2002 new Operational Environmental and Post-Closure Safety Cases (OESC and PCSC respectively) were submitted to the Agency to support the next authorization review. The OESC assesses radiological safety aspects up until closure of the site, including a post-operational management phase, whilst the PCSC considers the longer-term radiological safety. The Drigg disposal facility has been operational since 1959. For the first 3 decades of operations, disposals were solely by tumble tipping wastes into excavated trenches. This was phased out in favour of vault disposal and disposals to the trenches were completed in 1995. The first vault (Vault 8) commenced operations in 1988 and construction of future vaults is planned up to the estimated end of disposal operations in about 50 years time. This paper describes the main components of the 2002 Drigg PCSC and how they relate to each other. Central to the safety case is a systematic comprehensive post-closure radiological safety assessment (PCRSA). However, the importance of the more qualitative aspects of the safety case, including a demonstration of optimisation, is also highlighted. In addition, other confidence-building activities which are key to developing and presenting the safety case are discussed. (author)

  20. Impact of recovered uranium cycle on the natural uranium production cycle and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements by which future reactor and fuel cycle concepts must be judged are following: - properly utilize natural resources and national capabilities; - maximize the economic benefits; - effectively demonstrate the safety of fuel cycle facilities, and gain government and public approval for the enterprise; - satisfy national and international policies and goals; - contribute to sustainable energy supply. The ability to combine these five requirements ensures the success of the best options. Fuel utilization in thermal reactors can be improved in three ways: - lower the tails assay in the depleted stream of enrichment plants; - utilization of higher burnup fuel; - recycle plutonium. Recovered Uranium (RU) Cycle is a way to improve Slightly Enriched Uranium resulted from LWR spent fuel reprocessing which has 0.9-1.2% 235 U (dependent of the fuel history: reprocessing, burn up, reactor type) comparatively with 0.72% 235 U in natural Uranium. An international collaboration between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) to use RU was developed. Since 1991, KAERI and AECL have introduced the Canadian Flexible (CANFLEX) fuel concept. A very attractive alternative to use RU in CANDU Reactors appears. Theoretically the quantity of 25,000 t (Europe and Japan) of RU would provide sufficient fuel for 500 CANDU reactor years of operation, knowing that the annual refueling requirement for a RU fuel burnup 13 MWd/KgU is around 50 t/y in comparison with 85 t/y for Natural Uranium (NU). Hereby, it is not necessary to mine about 42,500 t grade NU. In conclusion Recovered Uranium fuel cycle can be a very good option for the future of nuclear power in Romania. Moreover, waste resulted from uranium mining, waste resulted from uranium grade obtaining will disappear and financial costs, zones with nuclear activities and population exposed to irradiation will decrease. Also, the costs for fresh

  1. Development of scenarios within a systematic assessment framework for the Drigg post-closure safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. Disposals at Drigg are carried out under the terms of an authorization granted under the Radioactive Substances Act. This authorization is subject to periodic re-examination by the Environment Agency, with the next formal review to be conducted in 2002. It is planned that an interim safety case, including a description of the approach and illustrative calculations, should be presented in March 2000. The UK authorizing agencies have published principles and requirements for disposal facilities in their Guidance on Requirements for Authorization (GRA). The GRA is explicit in its assertion that the numerical evaluation of risk alone cannot provide a sufficient basis to assure safety. Nevertheless, the central importance of potential long-term radiological impacts to the overall safety case for a disposal facility means that particular emphasis is inevitably attached to the derivation of quantitative measures of long-term safety performance, notably annual individual risk from exposure to radiation. Moreover, the expectation is that a comprehensive safety case should comprise an evaluation (although not necessarily a detailed computation) of all potential sources of radiological risk, rather than simply addressing in isolation particular areas of uncertainty or technical concern. The uncertainties inherent in quantitative analyses of long-term performance mean that results are to be considered as representative indicators of safety, rather than definitive predictions of future radiological impact. The Post-Closure Radiological Assessment (PCRA) being developed for Drigg needs to deliver a comprehensive, quantitative appraisal of long-term safety performance, while also recognizing the intrinsic limitations of the calcination on which it is based. The overall objective is to present a set of calculations that is sufficiently representative to provide

  2. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  3. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  5. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be

  6. Risk perception and risk communication: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry can master risks but it cannot master the representations people have of these risks. This is why distortions may occur, as the public perceives risks where they are not, or in a totally deformed way. To deal with this type of situation which is dangerous in the long run, both for society and industry, it is necessary to study in detail where and how the difference between real risks and perceived risks is introduced. It then becomes possible to determine what means of action are available to manage the representations and the perceptions of risks. We shall mention two rather different examples of type of direct contact with the industrial reality; in France, we have determined policy of visits of nuclear sites (more than 10 000 people visit Cogema- la Hague site yearly), mainly addressed to school children and people living in the vicinity of the site. During these visits there is of course no question of explaining the detailed operation of the facility or the risks it generates. The purpose is to make the representation of the nuclear industry just as familiar as the representation of another large-scale technology tool: trains, dams,. In a different manner, missions are organised by Cogema - B.N.F.L.- O.R.C. (Overseas reprocessing Committee) to de dramatize the transport of high level vitrified wastes from Europe to Japan. these missions travel through those countries the ship come close to. Here, again, although the target is more the relays of opinion, the effective presence of specialized transport ship is a crucial element in putting a halt to phantasmic representations, as they are born from the remoteness of the object. (N.C.)

  7. Factors determining the UK's back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by British Energy Generation Ltd (BEGL) and British Energy Generation (UK) Ltd (BEG(UK)L), who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Ownership of the Magnox stations, which were excluded from this privatisation, has now been transferred to BNFL.Government policy on spent fuel management in the UK is that it is for the owners of the spent fuel to decide on the appropriate spent fuel management options, based on their own commercial judgement, subject to meeting the necessary regulatory requirements. The main factors which have predominantly determined UK utility decisions on spent fuel management, to date, have been based on the technical considerations of the spent fuel characteristics, economic attractiveness of the options and at reactor site spent fuel storage capacities. To date, reprocessing has been the dominant form of spent fuel treatment in the UK. Spent fuel storage facilities consist of a mixture of at-reactor stores and large, centralised ponds associated with the reprocessing activities which take place at the Sellafield site. BEGL and BEG(UK)L have contracts for the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allow for all AGR spent fuel to be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or long-term storage. The prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue, and spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site in the short to medium term. It is likely that a combination of factors, which are discussed later in this paper, will continue to affect back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. (author)

  8. Investigation of photon spectra and contributions to air kerma rates in the environment near nuclear facilities using portable germanium gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Portable spectrometers based on NaI or Ge detectors are now important additions to the tools available for monitoring and assessment of radioactivity and radiation dose rates in the environment due to both natural and anthropogenic sources. The high resolution of the Ge detector is of particular use in rapidly identifying and assessing radionuclides of significance. Portable spectrometry is of importance in assessing deposited activity and contributions to air kerma rates, and the rapid availability of these results would be significant in the event of a nuclear emergency in addition to the more usual application of measuring concentrations of radionuclides in environmental samples. In the course of developing a portable germanium detector system, spectra were measured at a number of locations in the environment near nuclear establishments in the UK. These spectra are presented and analysed in this paper in terms of the radionuclide contributions and gamma air kerma rates. Particular features are highlighted. First, background contributions are characterised using an example spectrum measured at Lowestoft beach, where anthropogenic influences are low. By contrast, near the Magnox nuclear power station at Bradwell, Essex there are contributions to the spectra due to photons from {sup 16}N, {sup 41}Ar and {sup 60}Co. In the Ravenglass estuary near Sellafield, {sup 137}Cs features prominently, with smaller contributions due to other radionuclides discharged in liquid waste from Sellafield. In the Ribble estuary which is influenced by discharges from the Springfields fuel fabrication plant as well as from Sellafield, measurements were made on a houseboat at high and low tide; there was a significant difference in the contribution due to {sup 137}Cs from Sellafield. Upstream of the Springfields works, peaks in the spectrum were observed due to {sup 234}Th and {sup 234m}Pa due to discharges from the site, as well as {sup 137}Cs from BNFL Sellafield. The paper highlights

  9. The behaviour of radionuclides in the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project was to consider the geochemical behaviour of a suite of radionuclides (137Cs, 241Am, isotopes of Pu, Th and U and 234mPa) in the Ribble estuarine environment. Controls on the vertical distribution of radionuclides in sediment deposits were considered and the fluxes of sediment and radionuclides at sites close to the river channel were investigated. Vertical activity distributions were studied by taking cores from various intertidal sediment deposits. Sediment/activity fluxes were studied by installing sediment traps. All samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were analysed for total organic carbon, mineralogy (XRD), major and trace-metals (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser granulometry) and alpha-emitting radionuclides (alpha spectrometry). The geochemical phase associations of radionuclides were investigated using sequential extraction experiments. Sellafield-derived radionuclides exhibited distinct subsurface maxima (up to 4 785 ± 42 Bq kg-1137Cs, 618 ± 14 Bq kg-1239,240Pu and 868 ± Bq kg-1241Am) in mature saltmarsh sediment deposits. Thorium-230 exhibited more complex depth profiles (maximum = 2383 ± 36 Bq kg-1). Variations in grain-size were low and therefore not important in controlling the specific activity variation with depth at these sites. The effects of early diagenesis on the specific activity profiles of 137Cs, 241Am, 239,240Pu and 230Th were small. The vertical distribution of Sellafield-derived radionuclides reflected the cumulative discharge pattern from Sellafield implicating a sediment transport mechanism that has involved the integration of contamination from previous discharge events. The vertical distribution of 230Th reflected the annual discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields implicating a transport pathway that involves little mixing of sediment. Levels of Springfields-derived 234mPa and 234Th were highly variable in time and space (-1 recorded at Penwortham over the course of the

  10. An active facility management strategy for containment of intermediate level waste using risk-based service life modelling of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Environmental Services are planning the on-site storage of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from historic operations of the Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, West Kilbride, Ayrshire UK within a shielded store. This paper proposes a proactive strategy of durability management for reinforced concrete structures used in long-term storage (at least 100 years) of nuclear waste. A critique is presented on the common approach of durability design using Standards compared with an 'active' performance-based risk approach. The active approach is thought to give greater flexibility to the decision-making process for management of concrete structures depending on the balance chosen between acceptable risk and maintenance philosophy. The management proposed uses a reliability-based risk approach to concrete degradation whose behavioural models are updated, with increasing accuracy, as new monitoring results from the structures are generated with time. Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, is in the process of being decommissioned. Operational wastes from the decommissioning process are to be stored in an on-site Intermediate Level Waste Store (ILWS) built in reinforced concrete and clad externally with aluminium that will create an environment to keep the waste packages in such a condition that they will be acceptable for final disposal. The facility will have a design life of at least 100 years. Probabilistic models have been developed for the durability design of the reinforced concrete structure subject to chloride- or carbonation-induced corrosion of the reinforcement. These have been used to confirm that the design will be durable for longer than the design life even under the most adverse environmental conditions. They have also shown that the recommendations of British Standards could lead to corrosion initiation well within the design service life under extreme conditions and would not provide sufficient margin for such an important structure. An

  11. RU fuel development program for an advanced fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    reactors in Korea. The RU fuel development is an international collaboration between KAERI, AECL and BNFL. It is expected that the work will be completed before 2005, and there should be no impediment to the use of RU fuel in the CANDU 6 reactors on the Wolsong site in Korea, if RU is available and competitive in price with NU and SEU. (author)

  12. RadscanTM 700 : the role of remote gamma-ray imaging in optimising decommissioning and decontamination strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Instruments' RadScanTM 700 was developed as a tool to survey gamma radiation remotely in a wide variety of environments. The instrument plays a major role in the development and implementation of an integrated decommissioning and decontamination strategy for contaminated nuclear facilities. Its directional and spectroscopic information provides the user with ready indication of the nature quantity and location of radioactive material present in any given plant. Two applications are described in this paper both of which demonstrate an area of application for the RadScanTM 700. The first application considers the use of the instrument in a decommissioning programme that has been running for over ten years. RadScanTM was deployed within the Pile Chimney of one of the original plutonium production reactors which operated on the Windscale site in the early 1950s. Contour plots were produced that indicated the contamination levels therein. This information indicated the major sources of dose uptake within the chimney. Following corrective action working times within the chimney were able to be doubled and further decommissioning strategy established. The second application summaries events at a facility in the South of England where RadScanTM 700 was used to monitor contamination within a cell previously used for post-irradiation examination of spent nuclear fuel. The instrument was deployed in the cell remotely from where a full survey of contamination levels was made. This identified hot spots within the cell which enabled the decontamination team to develop their plans for further clean-up work. Recent developments to RadScanTM 700 are discussed which significantly enhance the instrument's performance, versatility and quality of generated data. These developments include an improved detection limit the overlaying of the radiometric image on to the video image and the real-time estimating of dose rate from the Field of View (FOV). RadScanTM 700 is now extensively

  13. National choices in a European perspective. Proceedings of the European Forum 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    from: Antoine Allemeersch, Mayor, Cirfontaines en Ornois, George Beveridge, Director, BNFL Environmental services (UK), Jacky Bonnemains, President, Robin des Bois, Markus Fritschi, Director, NAGRA (Switzerland), Jack-Pierre Piguet, Director Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory (ANDRA), Paul Rigny, scientific adviser, Jean-Marie Streydio, Chairman, ONDRAF (Belgium), Michele Tallec, developpement/innovation (CEA), Ivo Vasa, Head, Nuclear Safety and Security Department, Czech nuclear research Institute, member of RAWRA, 8 - Conclusions and propositions for the European public talks 2004 by Bertrand Pancher, Chairman of the County Council of Meuse

  14. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  15. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    quality control requirements established by the governing quality assurance plan and met or surpassed the minimum reportable quantity requirements specified by BNFL

  16. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  17. United Kingdom: Development of the Drigg LLW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site, which is the UK's principal facility for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. This section describes the development of the Drigg site to date, in particular the upgrading of the site in the late 1980s and early 1990s, which centred around the phasing out of disposal into trenches and the introduction of a revised waste form and disposal into engineered vaults. The Drigg site is located on the West Cumbrian coast about 0.5 km inland and some 6 km to the southeast of the Sellafield site. The site was originally developed in 1939 as a Royal ordnance factory and some of the surface features date from this period. Ownership of the site subsequently passed to the Atomic Energy Authority, which was granted planning consent in 1957 for the disposal of LLW in the northern 40 ha of the site, referred to as the 'consented area'. In 1987 a major upgrade of disposal operations at the Drigg site commenced with the principal aims of improving waste management practices and the efficiency of space utilization, and enhancing the visual impact of disposal operations. This article first describes the interim cap and cut-off wall associated with the trenches and the upgrade to the leachate management system. The basis for the revised disposal strategy and associated waste form of high force compacted, containerized and grouted waste is then discussed, followed by a description of vault 8. The upgrading to the new waste form of some of the wastes initially placed in vault 8 and the retrieval of the PCM wastes currently stored at the Drigg site are then briefly discussed. Development has taken place from tipping of wastes into trenches to the orderly emplacement of compacted, containerized and grouted wastes in engineered vaults. Future operational facilities will consist of a series of vaults within the consented area. In the longer term, engineering measures associated with the eventual closure of the

  18. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  19. The potential impact of microbial Fe(III) reduction on subsurface U(VI) mobility at a low level radioactive waste storage site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Livens, F.R.; Vaughan, D.J.; Lloyd, J.R. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science and School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Beadle, I.; Small, J.S. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AS (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides have the potential to be utilised as terminal electron acceptors by indigenous microbial communities in the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) low level radioactive waste storage site at Drigg (Cumbria, UK) and these organisms may have a critical control on the biogeochemical cycling of several environmentally important radionuclides. In terms of radiological impact at Drigg, uranium is the most significant contributor to radiological impact and it is strongly influenced by biogeochemical processes. In terms of mass (moles) it is also the most abundant radionuclide in the Drigg inventory. Thus, the potential biotic and abiotic effects of Fe(III) reduction on U(VI) mobility in the Drigg subsurface are of interest. Culture-dependent and molecular techniques showed that the sediments in and around the Drigg site contained a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. A series of microcosm experiments were utilised to create environmentally relevant experimental conditions. Microcosms set up using Drigg sediment and synthetic ground water were spiked with 100 {mu}M U(VI) and acetate as an electron donor. U(VI) concentrations in groundwater were measured using a chemical assay while total U levels were determined using ICP-MS. Fe(II) levels were determined using the ferrozine method. Sediment surface areas were measured using BET analysis. The low surface area of the sediments resulted in only a small proportion of the 100 {mu}M U(VI) spike sorbing onto mineral surfaces. The addition of ferri-hydrite to some microcosms resulted in an immediate lowering of soluble U(VI) concentrations, suggesting that the formation of soluble U(VI) complexes were not responsible for the minimal adsorption. The presence of biogenic Fe(II) in the microcosms did not affect the soluble U(VI) concentration. Similarly, soluble U(VI) levels remained unchanged when sediments were spiked with U(VI) post-microbial Fe(III) reduction. However, a

  20. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M [Atkins Environment, Woodcote Grove, Ashley Road, Epsom KT18 5BW (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m{sup 3}). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the

  1. The potential impact of microbial Fe(III) reduction on subsurface U(VI) mobility at a low level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides have the potential to be utilised as terminal electron acceptors by indigenous microbial communities in the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) low level radioactive waste storage site at Drigg (Cumbria, UK) and these organisms may have a critical control on the biogeochemical cycling of several environmentally important radionuclides. In terms of radiological impact at Drigg, uranium is the most significant contributor to radiological impact and it is strongly influenced by biogeochemical processes. In terms of mass (moles) it is also the most abundant radionuclide in the Drigg inventory. Thus, the potential biotic and abiotic effects of Fe(III) reduction on U(VI) mobility in the Drigg subsurface are of interest. Culture-dependent and molecular techniques showed that the sediments in and around the Drigg site contained a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. A series of microcosm experiments were utilised to create environmentally relevant experimental conditions. Microcosms set up using Drigg sediment and synthetic ground water were spiked with 100 μM U(VI) and acetate as an electron donor. U(VI) concentrations in groundwater were measured using a chemical assay while total U levels were determined using ICP-MS. Fe(II) levels were determined using the ferrozine method. Sediment surface areas were measured using BET analysis. The low surface area of the sediments resulted in only a small proportion of the 100 μM U(VI) spike sorbing onto mineral surfaces. The addition of ferri-hydrite to some microcosms resulted in an immediate lowering of soluble U(VI) concentrations, suggesting that the formation of soluble U(VI) complexes were not responsible for the minimal adsorption. The presence of biogenic Fe(II) in the microcosms did not affect the soluble U(VI) concentration. Similarly, soluble U(VI) levels remained unchanged when sediments were spiked with U(VI) post-microbial Fe(III) reduction. However, a lowering in

  2. Retrieval of plutonium-contaminated waste materials from interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium-contaminated solid waste materials (PCM) (contact-handled transuranic waste) originating from the early UK defence program were placed for interim storage in existing structures at Drigg, a site some 6km (4 miles) from Sellafield (formerly known as Windscale), the UK reprocessing and plutonium production site. The waste was contained within steel drums of up to 205 liters (55 US gallons) capacity or was contained in larger timber and plastic cuboid containment, known as 'crates'. The paper will describe the typical constituents of the drummed waste and of the crated waste, a proportion of which consists of redundant glove box facilities from the early production lines themselves. British Nuclear Fuels pie (BNFL) became responsible for the Drigg site and waste stored on it at Company formation in 1971. In the mid-1970s, a commitment was given that PCM would be removed from the Drigg site leaving it to fulfil its role as the principal site in the UK for the disposal of solid low level radioactive waste from Sellafield and from elsewhere. Following a program of design and procurement of necessary facilities, retrieval of drummed PCM began in 1976. A team of operators, not full-time on this task, removed all drummed PCM from the existing storage structures, known as magazines, by 1986. This work is briefly reviewed in the paper. Five of the magazines contain about 200 non-drummed packages which remain to be removed. Facilities to permit the retrieval of that waste have been designed and are now being procured and installed so that first retrieval can begin during this year. The project team has addressed all aspects of safety and has needed to obtain necessary consents and authorizations from Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, so far as the safety of the environment and of members of the public is concerned, from Her Majesty's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, so far as the safety of the workforce is concerned, and from the Department of Transport, so

  3. Learning from disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every few months, somewhere around the world a major 'man-made' industrial disaster or serious near hit takes place. They affect every major industry, including the nuclear, chemical and petrochemical industries, where the impacts can affect not only the workforce immediately involved, but also the wider community. It has become increasingly clear that these types of events have deep-seated, organizational and cultural root causes and it is these which this paper attempts to address. Because these root causes are not common to any one technology or organization, there is an enormous volume of available learning across a wide range of industry sectors. This paper is based on research in BNFL which has examined a number of events (actual events and near hits) in a variety of industrial sectors. For the purposes of this paper, we have chosen five examples for discussion and analysis. These have been selected from a larger number of events studied, by applying screening criteria to ensure their relevance and potential for learning. The events discussed here are: - The Columbia shuttle disaster (United States of America, 2003); - The Longford Gas Plant explosion (Australia, 1998); - The JCO criticality accident (Japan, 1999); - Railway disasters in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2003, particularly the Ladbroke Grove train crash and earlier events; - The Piper Alpha offshore petrochemical disaster (United Kingdom, 1988). It should be emphasized that in discussing these and other events, we have drawn on the findings of reviews and inquiries, including those referenced above. We have attempted to do this in a spirit of learning. In each case, the organizations involved were subject to pressures and difficulties (many of which we attempt to identify) and it is not the intention of this paper to establish blame or to criticize organizations or individuals. Against this background, the paper will first discuss some of the approaches which have proved valuable in

  4. The Final Demise Of East Tennessee Technology Park Building K-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building K-33 was constructed in 1954 as the final section of the five-stage uranium enrichment cascade at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). The two original building (K-25 and K-27) were used to produce weapons grade highly enriched uranium (HEU). Building K-29, K-31, and K-33 were added to produce low enriched uranium (LEU) for nuclear power plant fuel. During ORGDP operations K-33 produced a peak enrichment of 2.5%. Thousands of tons of reactor tails fed into gaseous diffusion plants in the 1950s and early 1960s introducing some fission products and transuranics. Building K-33 was a two-story, 25-meters (82-feet) tall structure with approximately 30 hectare (64 acres) of floor space. The Operations (first) Floor contained offices, change houses, feed vaporization rooms, and auxiliary equipment to support enrichment operations. The Cell (second) Floor contained the enrichment process equipment and was divided into eight process units (designated K-902-1 through K-902-8). Each unit contained ten cells, and each cell contained eight process stages (diffusers) for a total of 640 enrichment stages. 1985: LEU buildings were taken off-line after the anticipated demand for uranium enrichment failed to materialize. 1987: LEU buildings were placed in permanent shutdown. Process equipment were maintained in a shutdown state. 1997: DOE signed an Action Memorandum for equipment removal and decontamination of Buildings K-29, K-31, K-33; BNFL awarded contract to reindustrialize the buildings under the Three Buildings D and D and Recycle Project. 2002: Equipment removal complete and effort shifts to vacuuming, chemical cleaning, scabbling, etc. 2005: Decontamination efforts in K-33 cease. Building left with significant 99Tc contamination on metal structures and PCB contamination in concrete. Uranium, transuranics, and fission products also present on building shell. 2009: DOE targets Building K-33 for demolition. 2010: ORAU contracted to characterize Building K-33

  5. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] → [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] → [Identify work packages] → [Set up WBS to level 3] → [Assign work packages] → [Update WBS to level 4] →[Develop cost model] → [Develop logic network] → [Develop risk management procedure] ] → [Develop project strategy document]→ [Work package

  6. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the characterization results met or surpassed the quality control requirements established by the governing quality assurance plan and met or surpassed the minimum reportable quantity requirements specified by BNFL.

  7. IRIS-economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It

  8. SRP scientific meeting: recent legislation - achievements and future challenges, London, 9 October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .) talked about what has been done towards achieving compliance with IRR99 in the non-nuclear industry. Patrick summarised the approach taken to radiation protection by his multi-national oil services company and discussed the difficulties in developing consistently a radiation protection programme in many different countries when national legislation is prescriptive. He concluded his talk by stressing the need for more consistency in enforcement across sectors, especially when there is a lack of sector-specific guidance. Rick Hallard (BNFL Sellafield) talked about the implementation of IRR99 in the nuclear industry from an operator's point of view. Rick mentioned some of the changes in IRR99 that have had a significant effect on radiological protection at Sellafield, amongst those the appointment and role of RPAs, the importance of prior risk assessment, the development of detailed contingency plans, the increased focus on local rules and the current review of historic controlled areas. IRR99 is generally perceived as a natural evolution from IRR85 and previous regulations. James Taylor (HSE) gave an inspector's view of the implementation of IRR99 based on inspection and enforcement activity over the past 18 months. James identified the improvements in radiological protection practices and the increased profile of radiation protection before presenting some of the failures encountered in his work. Failure to follow the guidance on prior risk assessment, lack of adequate training, misuse of the term radiation protection supervisor, inadequate designation of areas and under- or over-classification of workers were the most common. Suggestions for improvements were addressed at the end of the talk. A discussion followed the talks and the delegates had the opportunity to ask questions and/or comment on issues related to the implementation of IRR99. Cathy Griffiths (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) chaired the first afternoon session on IRMER 2000. Cliff Double (Department

  9. Refocusing knowledge and intellectual property management within the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority [NDA] was formed in April 2005 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. At this time BNGSL was given the contract, by the NDA, to manage and operate its Sellafield and Drigg sites in Cumbria. Prior to April 2005, when these sites were owned and run by BNFL, the principal focus of Intellectual Property management was preventing competitors from copying BNFL's technical innovations and proprietary information. Today, in an environment where the NDA is focused on accelerating clean-up and reducing liabilities, through the application of appropriate and innovative technology, the role of Intellectual Property management has changed. Under guidance from the NDA, BNGSL now aims to distribute rights to, and ownership of, Intellectual Property to whichever organisation is most likely to further develop the associated technology. The NDA has developed this Policy for two reasons. Firstly, this approach will incentives subcontractors to develop and bring forward new technologies. Secondly, by allowing subcontractors the freedom to use technologies, originally developed using NDA funding, for other waste owners the NDA anticipates that it will gain access to improvements, and where appropriate, a royalty stream. To meet the NDA's expectations it is important that BNGSL's Knowledge and Intellectual Property Management operate as a seamless whole. This need for unification is driven by a number of shared goals including: The need to work with subcontractors to create an atmosphere of trust, and clarity of legal rights, so that information can be shared both up and down the supply chain. The common interests of the KM and IP areas in improving the visibility of innovations created by BNGSL and its subcontractors, so that they can be shared and protected as appropriate. A shared desire to ensure that commercially restrictive markings are only applied to truly sensitive information, so that barriers to the

  10. Site investigation-the maximization of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    most, if not all, are inextricably linked: optioneering studies, delicensing part or all of a site, decommissioning work, to provide time-series data, to gain a quick appraisal of the problem, to prove safe management of the site, to underpin a risk assessment to fulfil regulatory requirements and, to undertake remediation. While a number of these issues will be discussed, the paper will concentrate primarily on the maximization of data arising from geotechnical investigations. On nuclear licensed sites, the majority of site investigation work is targeted at civil engineering projects, where geotechnical information is the primary aim. This data is invariably of limited use for contaminated land appraisal and it is therefore important to design a dual or multi-purpose site investigation if these additional requirements are to be met. Such an approach allows the following: 1) maximization of the potential data set 2) alleviation of the requirement for re-drilling or sampling at a later date 3) the collection of time-series data increased environmental protection and 4) reduced costs over the long term. BNFL is currently undertaking a number of pilot investigations whereby geotechnical and environmental aspirations are being merged. It is hoped that through this process an increased understanding of the environmental aspects of our sites can be established, thus allowing safe and effective management to take place. (author)

  11. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  12. A Review of the UK Fast Reactor Programme: March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the end of 1979 the Government announced a new programme of thermal reactor stations to be built over ten years (totalling 15GW), in addition to the two AGR stations at Torness and Heysham 'B' which had been approved by the previous Government. The first station of the new programme will be based on a Westinghouse PWR, subject to safety clearance and the outcome of a public inquiry, and it is envisaged that the remaining stations of the programme would be split between PWRs and AGRs. The AEA Chairman wrote formally to the Secretary of State for Energy in December 1979, putting forward on behalf of the Electricity Supply Authorities, NNC, BNFL and the AEA a recommended strategy for building the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), subject to normal licensing procedure and to public inquiry, so as to ensure that the key options for introducing commercial fast reactors, when required, should remain open. A Government statement is expected during the next few months. Meanwhile the level of effort on fast reactor research and development in the UK has been maintained, the fast reactor remaining the largest of the UKAEA's reactor development projects with expenditure totalling somewhat over £80M per annum. The main feature of the UK fast reactor programme has continued to be the operation of PFR (Sections 2 and 7) which is yielding a wealth of experience and of information relevant to the design of commercial fast reactors. Bum-up of standard driver fuel has reached 6-7% by heavy atoms, while specially enriched lead fuel pins have reached 11 % without failure. An extensive programme of work in the reactor and its associated steam plant was completed in March 1980 and the reactor then started its fifth power run. The fuel reprocessing plant at DNE is being commissioned and has reprocessed some of the spent fuel remaining from the DFR. It will start soon on reprocessing fuel discharged from the PFR. During the year improvements to the design of the future

  13. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A. [and others

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  14. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for the Sellafield Plant

  15. The challenge of knowledge management in a newly-formed national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction. In the autumn of 2006, the UK government made a commitment to establish a National Nuclear Laboratory based around Nexia Solutions and its 'state of the art' facility at Sellafield in Cumbria. The initial phase of the work to establish the laboratory is now complete and it has a remit for the following roles: to play a key role in supporting the UK's strategic R and D requirements; to operate world-class facilities; to ensure key skills are safeguarded and enhanced; to play a key role in the development of the UK's R and D supply base. It is evident that to be successful the National Nuclear Laboratory will need a strong capability in knowledge management to underpin its activities. Our origins in the R and D communities of BNFL and UKAEA have given us a broad portfolio of capabilities which range from reactor technology through fuel cycle technology to waste management and the knowledge held by our people is one of our major strengths. However, the capabilities and knowledge do need to be maintained and developed, for which we have a four part strategy: Strengthen internal systems and processes; Undertake strategic R and D programmes; Build networks with the nuclear industry across the world; Build links and partnerships with academic institutions. Systems and Processes. Internal systems and processes need to be strengthened to make the capture and sharing of knowledge and information more efficient. A key element will be succession planning for more experienced technologists. R and D programmes. Work is proceeding to develop a robust portfolio of R and D programmes. As well as fulfilling our remit to play a key role in the UK's strategic R and D requirements, this will also ensure that skills maintenance goes beyond formal training. Involvement in R and D programmes will develop capabilities in our younger scientists and engineers, particularly, to generate solutions relevant to the industrial-scale application of nuclear technology. We

  16. Scientific evidence and the toxic tort. A socio-legal study of the issues, expert evidence and judgement in Reay and Hope v. British Nuclear Fuels plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R.J

    1999-07-01

    Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant, and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned, the case was a forerunner in having Counsels' Opening Statements in writing in advance of the trial, as well as having written daily submissions of key issues from plaintiffs and defendants upon conclusion of oral evidence. The circumstances that led to the trial relate to events in excess of thirty to forty years ago when the fathers of Dorothy Reay and Vivien Hope were employed by the Defendants and their predecessors (the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) as fitters for

  17. Current status and future development of modular high temperature gas cooled reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes an examination of the international activities with regard to the development of the modular HTGR coupled to a gas turbine. The most significant of these gas turbine programmes include the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) being designed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL) of the United Kingdom, and the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) by a consortium of General Atomics of the United States of America, MINATOM of the Russian Federation, Framatome of France and Fuji Electric of Japan. Details of the design, economics and plans for these plants are provided in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Test reactors to evaluate the safety and general performance of the HTGR and to support research and development activities including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications are being commissioned in Japan and China. Construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) at its Oarai Research Establishment has been completed with the plant currently in the low power physics testing phase of commissioning. Construction of the high temperature reactor (HTR-10) by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) in Beijing, China, is nearly complete with initial criticality expected in 2000. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of purpose, status and testing programmes for these two plants. In addition to the activities related to the above mentioned plants, Member States of the IWGGCR continue to support research associated with HTGR safety and performance as well as development of alternative designs for commercial applications. These activities are being addressed by national energy institutes and, in some projects, private industry, within China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. Chapter 6 includes details

  18. Project WAGR: The UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - removing the core and looking to completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benest, T. G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Headquarters, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    have not delivered the required performance. In such cases, simple tooling and manual intervention have been adopted to maintain the project ahead of programme and below the dose budget. For campaigns where manual intervention was precluded by high dose rates, the contractor has undertaken a risk assessment of each task and elected to develop a number of different tools to cover the most likely risks. Although this strategy incurs costs for tools that may never be utilised, these costs are dwarfed by the project costs of potential delays. Excellent progress has been maintained throughout the remote dismantling with the reliability of the equipment and the experience of the workforce being major contributors to the success. Management arrangements have also contributed to the current excellent programme position. The close working relationship between UKAEA and their prime contractor, and management of the interfaces with the regulators, has enabled problems to be identified early and then dealt with quickly and effectively. The current phase of operations is now planned for completion in early 2005 over 18 months ahead of programme. Currently the WAGR project has operated for over 6 years without a lost time accident to either UKAEA staff or any of the contractor's operatives. In the last 12 months, the maximum radiation dose to an individual was <1.0 mSv. To date, 270 tonnes of graphite and 206 tonnes of steel have been encapsulated. 38 boxes of low level waste have been sent, or are awaiting transport, to BNFL's Drigg site for disposal, and a further 102 boxes of ILW are now stored on-site pending the availability of a national facility. Thus far the UKAEA WAGR project is well ahead of programme, achieving all its objectives and demonstrating to a world-wide audience that a power reactor can be decommissioned safely and efficiently shortly after shutdown.

  19. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    available for the answers to these questions to be fairly certain. It is the power and money of the nuclear profiteers and their establishment which supresses it. The real answer is to think for yourself. What is the most likely cause of nuclear-power-related clustering of cancers? Have you yourself noticed changes in cancer and leukemia rates or in congenital illness among the people you know and in particular among young people in the last twenty years? What could be causing them? Look at the bone-cancer increases in Wales (Fig. 1.3 of this report). What could be the cause? Why did they suddenly ban atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1960s? There is considerable evidence pointing to links between childhood cancer and other illness and nuclear isotopic pollution. The difficulty has always been that the nuclear establishment and its apologists, including governments, have sought to prevent such evidence from appearing in the literature or in the media. A further problem has been that there have been few occasions when studies could be made which unequivocally analysed population responses to radioactive pollutants. Recently, the High Court case in which the Sellafield leukemia victims sued BNFL was lost because the judge decided that the link could not formally be proved: almost on the basis of weighing evidence on a spring balance. For this reason, the developing evidence from the Wales Radiation Cancer Laboratory, and in particular the bone-cancer increase alluded to in the first edition of this book, has become a critical piece of evidence of causation: a smoking gun in the hands of the nuclear polluters. For there is no other confounding cause in this instance. Wales populations, which were exposed to high levels of Strontium-90 and Plutonium in the 1960s have developed a 400 per cent excess of bone cancer relative to the England control group, twenty years after the dose was delivered. Both isotopes are known to cause bone cancer in humans and in animals. These

  20. Dealing with opponents of industry: Let the allies work for you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The opponents of industry, and most Green campaigning groups, thrive on controversy. Opponents of industry, and of the nuclear industry in particular, can expect to find a more receptive public audience than do the companies they attack. Therefore, there is little to be gained by industry entering into direct conflict, or even high-profile debate, with opponents. Industry spokesmen do not rate as being trustworthy in the eyes of the public. And it does not pay to directly attack the credibility, however justified such criticisms are, of the likes of Greenpeace. In a polarised debate, if your company is seen to be partisan and the opponents to be neutral, the public will gravitate towards the opponents. The way forward is to influence the forces which ran help industry establish the middle ground to dissipate the tension. The problem for industry is not so much that it has opponents, but that it does not have enough third party advocates to mediate in disputes. Therefore, the first step is to identify the key issues facing a company or industry. The second, is to work with credible people and organisations to establish independent mechanisms which can prevent an unfavourable climate building up around those issues. The art of dealing with opponents, is the art of identifying such mechanisms (people, organisations and professions) to influence an increasingly cynical and distrusting public. These opinion-formers should be the main focus of a communications strategy designed to counter opponents. They are the conduit through which to influence public opinion in general. For instance, the debate surrounding the incidence of leukaemia around nuclear sites cannot be answered by the industry using the facts, scientific evidence, or by entering into a noisy dialogue with opponents. However, the medical profession, along with scientists working outside the nuclear industry, is in a position to shift public concern away from nuclear sites. BNFL has promoted

  1. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2005 twenty civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom became the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a new organization created by the British Government to manage the cleanup of these sites. As a key part of this transition, the NDA became the owner and manager of these sites, which formerly were owned by the site operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited plc (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). This was one of the most significant events in the history of the United Kingdom's nuclear industry and represented a true sea change, affecting many aspects of life and business on and around these sites as well as nationally. The NDA's budget for the cleanup of the twenty sites and the management of the overall cleanup program is approximately pounds 2 Billion per annum, almost $4 Billion. It is important to note that approximately half of this amount is spent with the supply chains which serve the management and operations contractors, including pounds 500 million at Sellafield alone. Additionally, the site management and operations contractors receive most of the pounds 2 Billion through contracts between the NDA and the various site management companies. This represents a lot of government money moving through contracts between entities, which invokes procurement and contracting rules and regulations, that while not new, have not previously been this broadly applied to nuclear site cleanup activities throughout the UK. The current estimate for the total life cycle cleanup costs for all twenty civil nuclear sites is pounds 56 Billion, a figure that is likely to increase further. The first rules to mention are the European Union Procurement Guidelines, which are designed to help ensure that procurements involving government funds are conducted in an open, fair, and transparent environment. While it is difficult to argue with the intent of these rules, at least for now they are having a slowing down effect on

  2. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    Disconnecting the criticality alarm permanently in June 1996 signified that the hazards in the PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) plant had been so removed and reduced that criticality was no longer a credible event. Turning off the PUREX criticality alarm also marked a salient point in a historic deactivation project, 1 year before its anticipated conclusion. The PUREX/UO3 Deactivation Project began in October 1993 as a 5-year, $222.5- million project. As a result of innovations implemented during 1994 and 1995, the project schedule was shortened by over a year, with concomitant savings. In 1994, the innovations included arranging to send contaminated nitric acid from the PUREX Plant to British Nuclear Fuels, Limited (BNFL) for reuse and sending metal solutions containing plutonium and uranium from PUREX to the Hanford Site tank farms. These two steps saved the project $36.9- million. In 1995, reductions in overhead rate, work scope, and budget, along with curtailed capital equipment expenditures, reduced the cost another $25.6 million. These savings were achieved by using activity-based cost estimating and applying technical schedule enhancements. In 1996, a series of changes brought about under the general concept of ``reengineering`` reduced the cost approximately another $15 million, and moved the completion date to May 1997. With the total savings projected at about $75 million, or 33.7 percent of the originally projected cost, understanding how the changes came about, what decisions were made, and why they were made becomes important. At the same time sweeping changes in the cultural of the Hanford Site were taking place. These changes included shifting employee relations and work structures, introducing new philosophies and methods in maintaining safety and complying with regulations, using electronic technology to manage information, and, adopting new methods and bases for evaluating progress. Because these changes helped generate cost savings and were

  3. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 1. Lessons to Learn from Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokaimura and the New Era of the European Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    profile. The operators were not aware of this because of lack of instrumentation. There had been several precursors, i.e., incidents at other RBMK plants, that had not been properly evaluated, and the lessons had not been applied. After the accident, all the blame was placed at the grass-roots level. Nevertheless, major changes were made in the design. However, there is much left to do. Tokaimura, 1999: The workers during the night shift at Tokaimura were cutting corners to save time. Because a nonexistent weighing instrument did not exist, they were not aware that they had overcharged a vessel, nor were they aware that they were handling material with higher enrichment than usual because there was no information anywhere about the enrichment. Their training was so insufficient that they were hardly aware of the dangers that erroneous handling of fissionable material posed. There had been many previous criticality accidents that could serve as precursors. After the accident, most of the blame was placed on the workers. Accountability and responsibility of the management and the authorities were not discussed, nor were necessary improvements of the instrumentation. The dawn of a new era with low electricity prices will hopefully mean a more relaxed attitude and improved safety culture. The entire European electrical grid is integrated now. Reactor manufacturers have become fewer and bigger. For example, the original suppliers of the Swedish reactors, ABB and Westinghouse, are now owned by British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. Germany's Siemens is controlled now by Framatome. Both BNFL and Framatome have plants all over the world. (author)

  4. Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - annex document. To accompany the explanatory document and draft authorisation prepared by the Environment Agency to assist public consultation on the application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    ions are absorbed onto resins and removed from solution. DML's policy for these metal ion radionuclides is to ''concentrate and contain'', so that as high a fraction as possible is contained within solid waste and as law a fraction as possible discharged in the liquid and aerial waste streams. Liquid waste is treated - repeatedly if necessary - until the concentration of the radionuclides is below a level at which further treatment will not yield any significant further. improvement. The solid wastes created are tent to the BNFL Drigg low level waste repository for final disposal - either directly, or after conditioning at AEA Technology's facilities at Winfrith in Dorset. Some solid wastes that initially have a higher concentration of radionuclides than would be permissible to dispose at Drigg are stored on site for a period to allow radioactive decay before final disposal. (author) (abstract truncated)

  5. Health protection in the decommissioning phase in Italy and its acceptability to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the nuclear plants in Italy have ended their commercial activity more than 15 years ago and practically since then they are in the decommissioning phase together with other facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. From the radioprotection point of view, the decommissioning phase has a minor impact than that related to the production phase. For the aspects regarding the general public, liquid discharges and gaseous effluents are at lower levels and accident analyses foresee events at lower scale; for what regards workers, operations with high level-wastes are, in principle, not more demanding in term of radiation doses than several inspection or replacement operations needed in maintenance periods during the commercial life of the nuclear plant. Then, as such, the decommissioning phase does not raise particular radioprotection problems and certainly it is of less radiological risk than the previous phase. There are however other considerations that make this phase of relevant potential risk if actions are not coordinate in a global scheme aiming to solve all the problems that this phase sets. The situation in Italy of temporary depositories of radioactive wastes has already been shown. On the contrary than in almost all European countries Italy has not a licensed centralized repository for low-medium activity wastes, not to speak of HLW. The localisation, on more than 25 places scattered all over the territory, of wastes stemming from medical activity and previous nuclear power activity as well as of spent fuel elements is from the radiological protection point of view far from being an optimised solution. Solidified high activity wastes in glass matrix, resulting from the Italian spent fuel elements reprocessed by BNFL that should be returned to our country, make the problem even worst. The need for the establishment of a national repository for nuclear wastes, raised by technical-scientific institutions long time ago, has become in Italy a shared objective among