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Sample records for bnct-rtpe bnct radiation

  1. SERA -- An advanced treatment planning system for neutron therapy and BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.; Albright, C.; Cohen, M.; Frandsen, M.; Harkin, G.; Rossmeier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed treatment planning calculations on a patient-specific basis are required for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Two integrated treatment planning systems developed specifically for BNCT have been in clinical use in the United States over the past few years. The MacNCTPLAN BNCT treatment planning system is used in the clinical BNCT trials that are underway at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A second system, BNCT rtpe (BNCT radiation therapy planning environment), developed independently by the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in collaboration with Montana State University (MSU), is used for treatment planning in the current series of BNCT clinical trials for glioblastoma at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This latter system is also licensed for use at several other BNCT research facilities worldwide. Although the currently available BNCT planning systems have served their purpose well, they suffer from somewhat long computation times (2 to 3 CPU-hours or more per field) relative to standard photon therapy planning software. This is largely due to the need for explicit three-dimensional solutions to the relevant transport equations. The simplifying approximations that work well for photon transport computations are not generally applicable to neutron transport computations. Greater computational speeds for BNCT treatment planning must therefore generally be achieved through the application of improved numerical techniques rather than by simplification of the governing equations. Recent efforts at INEEL and MSU have been directed toward this goal. This has resulted in a new paradigm for this type of calculation and the subsequent creation of the new simulation environment for radiotherapy applications (SERA) treatment planning system for BNCT. SERA is currently in initial clinical testing in connection with the trials at BNL, and it is expected to replace the present BNCT rtpe system upon general release

  2. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Wemple, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Capala, J.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years/the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape,and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe

  3. Some recent developments in treatment planning software and methodology for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has led the development of a unique, internationally-recognized set of software modules (BNCT-rtpe) for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The computational capability represented by this software is essential to the proper administration of all forms of radiotherapy for cancer. Such software addresses the need to perform pretreatment computation and optimization of the radiation dose distribution in the target volume. This permits the achievement of the optimal therapeutic ratio (tumor dose relative to critical normal tissue dose) for each individual patient via a systematic procedure for specifying the appropriate irradiation parameters to be employed for a given treatment. These parameters include angle of therapy beam incidence, beam aperture and shape, and beam intensity as a function of position across the beam front. The INEL software is used for treatment planning in the current series of human glioma trials at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and has also been licensed for research and developmental purposes to several other BNCT research centers in the US and in Europe

  4. Study of the potential of using 9B(p,n) for BNCT clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.; Bleuel, D.; Donahue, R.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Chu, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of using a 30-MeV proton accelerator utilizing the 9 Be(p,n) 9 B reaction as a neutron source for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) was investigated. MCNPX (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon-transport code X) was used to calculated neutron spectra and yields for comparison against existing experimental data and for the moderator optimization. Moderator performance was assessed using MCNPX and clinical efficacy was assessed using BNCT-RTPE to estimate in-phantom dose distributions and neutron fluences. The optimized source and moderator gave comparable tumor doses and treatment times to the clinical trials recently completed at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). (author)

  5. Comparison and analysis of BNCT radiation dose between gold wire and JCDS measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    We compared and evaluated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) radiation dose between gold wire measurement and JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS). Gold wire analysis demonstrates the actual BNCT dose though it dose not reflect the real the maximum and minimum dose in tumor tissue. We can conclude that JCDS is precise and high-reliable dose planning system for BNCT. (author)

  6. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  7. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, M.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT

  8. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Antonio Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyN T = 1,35x10 8 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10 -10 Gy/N T and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10 -14 Gy/N T . (author)

  10. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10 B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4 He and 7 Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 10 9 n/cm 2 sec) or with 60 Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10 BPA or 10 BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  11. The effect of ionizing radiation on the blood-brain-barrier (BBB): Considerations for the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III; Spickard, J.H.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    All methods of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in use or envisioned for treatment of brain tumors have, as an inseparable component, an element of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews data on the effects of ionizing radiation on the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and the blood-tumor-barrier (BTB) and the potential impact of the effects on the delivery techniques of BNCT. This paper has the following objectives: review the available technique for BNCT of brain tumors; review the literature on experimental and human studies regarding the effects of ionizing radiation on the BBB; discuss the impact of these effects on the fractionization question for BNCT; and draw conclusions from that information

  12. Development of reference problems for neutron capture therapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 5 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) are or have been used in clinical trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT): MacNCTPlan, NCTPlan, BNCT Rtpe, SERA, and JCDS. This paper describes work performed to comprehensively test and compare 4 of these NCT treatment planning systems in order to facilitate the pooling of patient data from the different clinical sites for analysis of the clinical results as well as to provide an important quality assurance tool for existing and future TPSs. Two different phantoms were used to evaluate the planning systems: the modified Snyder head phantom and a large water-filled box, similar to that used in the International Dosimetry Exchange for NCT. The comparison of the resulting dose profile, isodose contours, and dose volume histograms to reference calculations performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP5 yielded many interesting differences. Each of the planning systems deviated from the reference calculations, with the newer systems (i.e., SERA and NCTPlan) most often yielding better agreement than their predecessors (i.e., BNCT Rtpe and MacNCTPlan). The combination of simple phantoms and sources with more complicated and realistic planning conditions has produced a well-rounded and useful suite of test problems for NCT treatment planning system analysis. (author)

  13. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo Method - Code MCNP-4B; Caracterizacao do campo de radiacao numa instalacao para pesquisa em BNCT o metodo de Monte Carlo Codigo - MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Antonio Carlos

    2002-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT- is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an AmBe neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these BNCT studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluency {Nu}{sub {Tau}} = 1,35x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}, a fast neutron dose of 5,86x{sup -1}0 Gy/{Nu}{sub {Tau}} and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x{sup -14} Gy/{Nu}{sub {Tau}}. (author)

  14. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B; Caracterizacao do campo de radiacao numa instalacao para pesquisa em BNCT utilizando o metodo de Monte Carlo - codigo MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Antonio Carlos

    2002-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyN{sub T} = 1,35x10{sup 8} n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10{sup -10} Gy/N{sub T} and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10{sup -14} Gy/N{sub T}. (author)

  15. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6 Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  17. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  18. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10 B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10 B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  19. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  20. An update on the clinical trial of BNCT at the BMRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Capala, J.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.

    1999-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed more than six decades ago. It is a binary treatment modality that requires selective delivery of a 10 B-labeled compound to a tumor and slow neutron irradiation of the tumor-bearing tissues. In order to improve the penetration of the neutron beam, an epithermal neutron beam was developed at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). This epithermal neutron beam can deliver relatively high thermal neutron fluence at depth without severe skin damage. Boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F), a nontoxic boron carrier, was found to preferentially accumulate in tumor cells following intravenous infusion in patients with GBM. In preclinical BNCT studies in rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma, BPA-mediated BNCT was shown to be more efficacious than photon irradiation. In 1994, improvements in the neutron beam and in the understanding of the radiobiology of BPA-mediated BNCT led to the initiation of BNCT trials for human GBM at BMRR using BPA-F and epithermal neutrons. The primary objective of the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-mediated BNCT at BMRR is to evaluate the safety of the BPA-F-mediated BNCT using epithermal neutrons in patients with GBM at a series of escalating BNCT doses. An incidental objective is to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of BNCT at each dose level. For each dose escalation group, the average brain dose (ABD) is escalated, as well as the minimum tumor dose. In summary, the BNCT procedure employed in the phase I/II clinical trial of BPA-F-mediated BNCT for GBM at BNL was found to be safe in all patients. The palliation afforded by a single session of BNCT compares favorably with palliation provided by fractionated photon therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. If no evidence of radiation-induced brain toxicity is found in the current protocol, BNCT radiation dose will be further escalated

  1. INEL BNCT Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for March 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts

  2. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  3. PBF/BNCT [power burst facility/boron neutron capture therapy] program for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III.

    1989-06-01

    Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during June include progress within the areas of gross boron analysis in tissue, blood, and urine; analytical methodologies development for BSH (sodium borocaptate) purity determination; boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development; noninvasive boron quantification determination; dosimetry; and analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT

  4. Clinical practice in BNCT to the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Our concept of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is to selectively destroy tumour cells using the high LET particles yielded from the 10B(n,α)7Li reactions. The effort of clinical investigators has concentrated on how to escalate the radiation dose at the target point. BNCT in Japan combines thermal neutrons and BSH (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH). The radiation dose is determined by the neutron fluence at the target point and the boron concentration in the tumour tissue. According to the recent analysis, the ratio of boron concentration (BSH) in tumour tissue and blood is nearly stable at around 1.2 to 1.69. Escalation of the radiation dose was carried out by means of improving the penetration of the thermal neutron beam. Since 1968, 175 patients with glioblastoma (n=83), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumour (n=32) were treated by BNCT at 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MulTR n=98, KUR n=30, JRR-2 n=33). The retrospective analysis revealed that the important factors related to the clinical results and QOL of the patients were minimum tumour volume radiation dose, more than 18Gy of physical dose and maximum vascular radiation dose (less than 15Gy) in the normal cortex. We have planned several trials to escalate the target radiation dose. One trial makes use of a cavity in the cortex following debulking surgery of the tumour tissue to improve neutron penetration. The other trial is introduction of epithermal neutron. KUR and JRR-4 were reconstructed and developed to be able to irradiate using epithermal neutrons. The new combination of surgical procedure and irradiation using epithermal neutrons should remarkably improve the target volume dose compared to the radiation dose treated by thermal neutrons. (author)

  5. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  8. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  9. Tandem electrostatic accelerators for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) into a viable therapeutic modality will depend, in part, on the availability of suitable neutron sources compatible with installation in a hospital environment. Low-energy accelerator-based intense neutron sources, using electrostatic or radio frequency quadrupole proton accelerators have been suggested for this purpose and are underdevelopment at several laboratories. New advances in tandem electrostatic accelerator technology now allow acceleration of the multi-milliampere proton beams required to produce therapeutic neutron fluxes for BNCT. The relatively compact size, low weight and high power efficiency of these machines make them particularly attractive for installation in a clinical or research facility. The authors will describe the limitations on ion beam current and available neutron flux from tandem accelerators relative to the requirements for BNCT research and therapy. Preliminary designs and shielding requirements for a tandern accelerator-based BNCT research facility will also be presented

  10. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  11. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  12. Fatal carotid blowout syndrome after BNCT for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, T.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ishikawa, H.; Kumada, H.; Ohnishi, K.; Kamitani, N.; Suzuki, M.; Sakurai, H.; Harada, T.

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and tumor-selective radiation that does not cause serious damage to the surrounding normal tissues. BNCT might be effective and safe in patients with inoperable, locally advanced head and neck cancers, even those that recur at previously irradiated sites. However, carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a lethal complication resulting from malignant invasion of the carotid artery (CA); thus, the risk of CBS should be carefully assessed in patients with risk factors for CBS after BNCT. Thirty-three patients in our institution who underwent BNCT were analyzed. Two patients developed CBS and experienced widespread skin invasion and recurrence close to the carotid artery after irradiation. Careful attention should be paid to the occurrence of CBS if the tumor is located adjacent to the carotid artery. The presence of skin invasion from recurrent lesions after irradiation is an ominous sign of CBS onset and lethal consequences. - Highlights: • This study is fatal carotid blowout syndrome after BNCT for head and neck cancers. • Thirty-three patients in our institution who underwent BNCT were analyzed. • Two patients (2/33) developed CBS. • The presence of skin invasion from recurrent lesions after irradiation is an ominous sign of CBS. • We must be aware of these signs to perform BNCT safely.

  13. Long-survivors of glioblatoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose between long-survivors and non-long-survivors in patients with glioblatoma (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Among 23 GBM patients treated with BNCT, there were five patients who survived more than three years after diagnosis. The physical and weighted dose of the minimum gross tumor volume (GTV) of long-survivors was much higher than that of non-long survivors with significant statistical differences.

  14. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  15. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  16. 2-O-α-glucopytanosyl L-ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at HPRT locus of mouse splenocytes following BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kanji; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), normal tissue surrounding the tumor cells sometimes take up boron compounds resulting in radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. We have previously reported the evidence for increased the mutagenicity of thermal neutron in the presence of boron. In addition, we described the biological radio-protective effects of the ascorbic acid for mutation induction following BNCT in vitro. Here, we investigated these radio-protective effects of ascorbic acid for mutation induction in mouse splenocytes on HPRT locus following a BNCT study in vivo. (author)

  17. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  18. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfuraih, A.; Ma, A.; Spyrou, N.M.; Awotwi-Pratt, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  19. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, L.; Seppaelae, T.; Kallio, M.

    2000-01-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the 10 B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  20. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...... have also been initiated to investigate radiobiological effects of radiation generated during BNCT. For both experiments and treatment, a reliable dosimetry system is necessary. From work elsewhere, the use of alanine detectors appear to be an appropriate dosimetry technique....

  1. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Tamura, Yoji; Kawabata, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Malignant meningiomas is difficult pathology to be controlled as well as GBM. Since June of 2005, we applied BNCT for 7 cases of malignancy related meningiomas with 13 times neutron irradiation. Five were anaplastic, one was atypical meningiomas and one was sarcoma transformed from meningioma with cervical lymph node metastasis. All cases were introduced after repetitive surgeries and XRT or SRS. Follow-up images were available for 6 cases with observation duration between 2 to 9 months. We applied F-BPA-PET before BNCT in 6 out of 7 cases. One case was received methionine-PET. Five out of 6 cases who received BPA-PET study showed good BPA uptake more than 3 of T/N ratio. One atypical meningiomas cases showed 2.0 of T/N ratio. Original tumor sizes were between 9.2 to 92.7 ml. Two out of 5 anaplastic meningiomas showed CR and all six cases showed radiographic improvements. Clinical symptoms before BNCT such as hemiparesis and facial pain were improved after BNCT, except one case. An huge atypical meningiomas which arisen from tentorium and extended bilateral occipital lobes and brain stem, visual problems were worsened after repetitive BNCT with increase of peritumoral edema. Malignant meningiomas are seemed to be good candidate for BNCT. (author)

  2. Cross talk experiment with two-element CdTe detector and collimator for BNCT-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Masanobu; Ohya, Ryosuke; Saraue, Nobuhide; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a new radiation therapy. In BNCT, there exists some very critical problems that should be solved. One of the severest problems is that the treatment effect cannot be known during BNCT in real time. We are now developing a SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) system (BNCT-SPECT), with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector. BNCT-SPECT can obtain the BNCT treatment effect by measuring 478 keV gamma-rays emitted from the excited state of 7Li nucleus created by 10B(n,α) 7Li reaction. In the previous studies, we investigated the feasibility of the BNCT-SPECT system. As a result, the S/N ratio did not meet the criterion of S/N >1 because deterioration of the S/N ratio occurred caused by the influence of Compton scattering especially due to capture gamma-rays of hydrogen. We thus produced an arrayed detector with two CdTe crystals to test cross talk phenomenon and to examine an anti-coincidence detection possibility. For more precise analysis for the anti-coincidence detection, we designed and made a collimator having a similar performance to the real BNCT-SPECT. We carried out experiments with the collimator to examine the effect of cross talk of scattering gamma-rays between CdTe elements more practically. As a result of measurement the coincidence events were successfully extracted. We are now planning to carry out evaluation of coincidence rate from the measurement and comparison of it with the numerical calculations.

  3. Radiobiology studies for the evaluation of epithermal neutron beams used for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.; Jones, B.; Mill, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines our plans for a study to establish the radiobiological effectiveness of the various mixes of radiation components present in an epithermal neutron beam designed for BNCT and to incorporate these data into clinical protocols for the treatment of malignant glioma. This is a description of work which is funded and just now beginning in Birmingham so no results can be presented. Our project will involve a combination of experimental measurements carried out in Birmingham and in Boston and mathematical modelling carried out in Birmingham. Despite all the extant in-vitro and in-vivo work, there is no widely accepted method to determine biological effect by accounting for variations in beam component mix, dose rate and treatment fractionation for disparate from the various BNCT centres. The objectives of this study are: To develop a cell-based radiobiology protocol to provide essential data on safety and efficacy of beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in advance of clinical trials. To exploit the facilities at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for variable dose-rate epithermal irradiations to validate the above protocol. To develop mathematical models of this radiobiological system that can be used to inform decisions on dose selection, fractionation schedules, BNCT use as supplementary boosts or for re-treatment of recurrent cancers. To provide fundamental data relevant to the understanding of the radiobiology of simultaneous mixed high-and low-LET radiations over a clinically relevant dose-range. (author)

  4. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  5. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-01

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  6. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  7. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. Introducing BNCT treatment in new treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    The physical and radiobiological studies that should be performed before the initiation of BNCT are discussed. The need for dose-escalation versus response studies in large animal models is questioned. These studies are time consuming, expensive and legally difficult in some countries and may be dispensable. (author)

  9. Clinical results of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of BSH-based intra-operative BNCT (IO-BNCT) and BSH and BPA-based non-operative BNCT (NO-BNCT). We have treated 23 glioblastoma patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy since 1998. The median survival time (MST) of BNCT was 19.5 months, and 2-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 26.1%, 17.4% and 5.8%, respectively. This clinical result of BNCT in patients with GBM is superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment. - Highlights: ► In this study, we evaluate the clinical outcome of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. ► We have treated 23 glioblastoma (GBM) patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy. ► Clinical results of BNCT in patients with GBM are superior to that of single treatment of conventional radiotherapy compared with historical data of conventional treatment.

  10. Logic Estimation of the Optimum Source Neutron Energy for BNCT of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorrah, M.A.; Gaber, F.A.; Abd Elwahab, M.A.; Kotb, M.A.; Mohammed, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BNCT is very complicated technique; primarily due to the complexity of element composition of the brain. Moreover; numerous components contributes to the over all radiation dose both to normal brain and to tumor. Simple algebraic summation cannot be applied to these dose components, since each component should at first be weighed by its relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value. Unfortunately, there is no worldwide agreement on these RBE values. For that reason, the parameters required for accurate planning of BNCT of brain tumors located at different depths in brain remained obscure. The most important of these parameters is; the source neutron energy. Thermal neutrons were formerly employed for BNCT, but they failed to prove therapeutic efficacy. Later on; epithermal neutrons were suggested proposing that they would be enough thermalized while transporting in the brain tissues. However; debate aroused regarding the source neutrons energy appropriate for treating brain tumors located at different depths in brain. Again, the insufficient knowledge regarding the RBE values of the different dose components was a major obstacle. A new concept was adopted for estimating the optimum source neutrons energy appropriate for different circumstances of BNCT. Four postulations on the optimum source neutrons energy were worked out, almost entirely independent of the RBE values of the different dose components. Four corresponding condition on the optimum source neutrons energy were deduced. An energy escalation study was carried out investigating 65 different source neutron energies, between 0.01 eV and 13.2 MeV. MCNP4B Monte C arlo neutron transport code was utilized to study the behavior of neutrons in the brain. The deduced four conditions were applied to the results of the 65 steps of the neutron energy escalation study. A source neutron energy range of few electron volts (eV) to about 30 keV was estimated to be the most appropriate for BNCT of brain tumors located at

  11. Retrospective review of the clinical BNCT trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Ma, R.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the phase I/II dose escalation studies was to evaluate the safety of the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A secondary objective was to retrospectively assess the palliation of GBM by BNCT. Fifty-three subjects with GBM were treated under multiple dose escalation protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Twenty-six subjects were treated using one field, 17 subjects were treated using 2 fields and 10 subjects were treated using 3 fields. BPA-F related toxicity was not observed. The maximum radiation dose to a volume of approximately 1 cc of the normal brain varied from 8.9 to 15.9 gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq). The volume-weighted average radiation dose to normal brain varied from 1.9 to 9.5 Gy-Eq. Six RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 or 4 toxicities were attributed to BNCT. Four of the 53 subjects are still alive with 3 of them free of recurrent disease with over two years follow-up. The median times to progression and median survival time from diagnosis were 28.4 weeks and 12.8 months respectively. (author)

  12. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  13. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  14. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  15. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  16. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  17. Present status of Accelerator-Based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Andres Juan; Bergueiro, Javier; Cartelli, Daniel; Baldo, Matias; Castell, Walter; Asoia, Javier Gomez; Padulo, Javier; Suárez Sandín, Juan Carlos; Igarzabal, Marcelo; Erhardt, Julian; Mercuri, Daniel; Valda, Alejandro A; Minsky, Daniel M; Debray, Mario E; Somacal, Hector R; Capoulat, María Eugenia; Herrera, María S; Del Grosso, Mariela F; Gagetti, Leonardo; Anzorena, Manuel Suarez; Canepa, Nicolas; Real, Nicolas; Gun, Marcelo; Tacca, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at giving an updated report of the worldwide status of Accelerator-Based BNCT (AB-BNCT). There is a generalized perception that the availability of accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of BNCT. Accordingly, in recent years a significant effort has started to develop such machines. A variety of possible charged-particle induced nuclear reactions and the characteristics of the resulting neutron spectra are discussed along with the worldwide activity in suitable accelerator development. Endothermic (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be and (9)Be(p,n)(9)B and exothermic (9)Be(d,n)(10)B are compared. In addition to having much better thermo-mechanical properties than Li, Be as a target leads to stable products. This is a significant advantage for a hospital-based facility. (9)Be(p,n)(9)B needs at least 4-5 MeV bombarding energy to have a sufficient yield, while (9)Be(d,n)(10)B can be utilized at about 1.4 MeV, implying the smallest possible accelerator. This reaction operating with a thin target can produce a sufficiently soft spectrum to be viable for AB-BNCT. The machines considered are electrostatic single ended or tandem accelerators or radiofrequency quadrupoles plus drift tube Linacs. (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be provides one of the best solutions for the production of epithermal neutron beams for deep-seated tumors. However, a Li-based target poses significant technological challenges. Hence, Be has been considered as an alternative target, both in combination with (p,n) and (d,n) reactions. (9)Be(d,n)(10)B at 1.4 MeV, with a thin target has been shown to be a realistic option for the treatment of deep-seated lesions.

  18. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Fisher, C.D.; Bywaters, A.; Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the 'B(n,a)'Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term open-quotes compound biological effectivenessclose quotes (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a open-quotes boron localization factorclose quotes, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq)

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the cellular S-value, lineal energy and RBE for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chingsheng; Tung Chuanjong

    2006-01-01

    Due to the non-uniform uptake of boron-containing pharmaceuticals in cells and the short-ranged alpha and lithium particles, microdosimetry provides useful information on the cellular dose and response of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Radiation dose and quality in BNCT may be expressed in terms of the cellular S-value and the lineal energy spectrum. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate these microdosimetric parameters for different source-target configurations and sizes in cells. The effective relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam was evaluated using biological weighting functions that depended on the lineal energy. RBE changes with source-target configurations and sizes were analyzed. (author)

  20. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  1. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Stenstam, B.H.; Skoeld, K.; Henriksson, R.; Salford, L.; Carlsson, J.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  2. Neutron beams implemented at nuclear research reactors for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, E.; Kasesaz, Y.; Wagner, F. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a survey of neutron beams which were or are in use at 56 Nuclear Research Reactors (NRRs) in order to be used for BNCT, either for treatment or research purposes in aspects of various combinations of materials that were used in their Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design, use of fission converters and optimized beam parameters. All our knowledge about BNCT is indebted to researches that have been done in NRRs. The results of about 60 years research in BNCT and also the successes of this method in medical treatment of tumors show that, for the development of BNCT as a routine cancer therapy method, hospital-based neutron sources are needed. Achieving a physical data collection on BNCT neutron beams based on NRRs will be helpful for beam designers in developing a non-reactor based neutron beam.

  3. Recombination chambers for BNCT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    Parallel plate recombination ionization chambers are known as the detectors which can be used for determination of gamma and high-LET dose components and for characterization of radiation quality of mixed radiation fields. Specially designed chambers can operate correctly even at dose rates of therapeutic beams. In this work the investigations were extended to a set of cylindrical chambers including a TE chamber and three graphite chambers filled with different gases - CO 2 , N 2 and 10 BF 3 , in order to determine the thermal neutrons, 14 N capture, gamma, and fast neutron dose components. The separation of the dose components is based on differences of the shape of the saturation curve, in dependence on LET spectrum of the investigated radiation. The measurements using all the chambers and a parallel plate recombination chamber were performed in a reactor beam of NRI Rez (Czech Republic). The gamma component was determined with accuracy of about 5%, while the variations of its value could be monitored with accuracy of about 0.5%. Relative changes of the beam components could be detected with accuracy of about 5% using the parallel plate chamber. The use of the chambers filled with different gases considerably improved the resolution of the method. (author)

  4. Optimization of the irradiation beam in the BNCT research facility at IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vinicius Alexandre de

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic technique for the treatment of some types of cancer whose useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction that occurs when thermal neutron impinges upon a Boron-10 atom. In Brazil there is a research facility built along the beam hole number 3 of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, which was designed to perform BNCT research experiments. For a good performance of the technique, the irradiation beam should be mostly composed of thermal neutrons with a minimum as possible gamma and above thermal neutron components. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the irradiation beam on the sample irradiation position through the use of activation detectors (activation foils) and also to propose, through simulation using the radiation transport code, MCNP, new sets of moderators and filters which shall deliver better irradiation fields at the irradiation sample position In this work, a simulation methodology, based on a MCNP card, known as wwg (weight window generation) was studied, and the neutron energy spectrum has been experimentally discriminated at 5 energy ranges by using a new set o activation foils. It also has been concluded that the BNCT research facility has the required thermal neutron flux to perform studies in the area and it has a great potential for improvement for tailoring the irradiation field. (author)

  5. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  6. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10 B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  7. Optimization of beam shaping assembly based on D-T neutron generator and dose evaluation for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Hamza; Chen, Chaobin; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of developing an epithermal neutron beam for a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility based on a high intensity D-T fusion neutron generator (HINEG) and using the Monte Carlo code SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process) is proposed in this study. The Monte Carlo code SuperMC is used to determine and optimize the final configuration of the beam shaping assembly (BSA). The optimal BSA design in a cylindrical geometry which consists of a natural uranium sphere (14 cm) as a neutron multiplier, AlF3 and TiF3 as moderators (20 cm each), Cd (1 mm) as a thermal neutron filter, Bi (5 cm) as a gamma shield, and Pb as a reflector and collimator to guide neutrons towards the exit window. The epithermal neutron beam flux of the proposed model is 5.73 × 109 n/cm2s, and other dosimetric parameters for the BNCT reported by IAEA-TECDOC-1223 have been verified. The phantom dose analysis shows that the designed BSA is accurate, efficient and suitable for BNCT applications. Thus, the Monte Carlo code SuperMC is concluded to be capable of simulating the BSA and the dose calculation for BNCT, and high epithermal flux can be achieved using proposed BSA.

  8. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy

  9. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, J.; Marek, M.; Rataj, J.; Honova, H.; Petruzelka, L.; Prokes, K.; Tovarys, F.; Dbaly, V.; Honzatko, J.; Tomandl, I.

    2000-01-01

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 10 8 /cm 2 s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  10. Design of a beam shaping assembly for an accelerator-based BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stichelbaut, F.; Forton, E.; Jongen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A complete BNCT system based on a high-intensity proton accelerator is developed by the IBA company. The neutron beam is produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction using a solid lithium target. The neutron energy spectrum is tailored with a beam shaping assembly surrounding the target. This device is the object of an extensive R and D project and is fully designed with the Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX. The emphasis is put on the treatment quality, notably the radiation dose at the skin level, and the achievable neutron flux. (author)

  11. In vitro studies of the cellular response to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Perona, M; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Pozzi, E; Casal, M; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M; Dagrosa, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, we have started to study the mechanisms of DNA damage and repair induced by BNCT in thyroid carcinoma some years ago. We have shown different genotoxic patterns for tumor cells irradiated with gamma rays, neutrons alone or neutrons plus different compounds, boronophenylalanine (BPA) or α, β - dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX (BOPP). In the present study we analyzed the expression of Ku70, Rad51 and Rad54 components of non homologous end-joing (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, respectively, induced by BNCT in human cells of thyroid carcinoma. Methods: A human cell line of follicular thyroid carcinoma (WRO) in exponential growth phase was distributed into the following groups: 1) Gamma Radiation, 2) Radiation with neutrons beam (NCT), 3) Radiation with n th in presence of BPA (BNCT). A control group for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal column facility of the RA-3 reactor (flux= 1.10 10 n/cm 2 sec) or with a source of 60 Co. The irradiations were performed during different lapses in order to obtain a total physical dose of 3 Gy (±10%). The mRNA expressions of Ku70, Rad 51 and Rad 54 were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at different times post irradiation (2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h). DNA damage was evaluated by immunofluorescence using an antibody against the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, which indicates double strand breaks in the DNA. Results: The expression of Rad51 increased at 2 h post-irradiation and it lasted until 6 h only in the neutron and neutron + BPA groups (p<0.05). Rad54 showed an up-regulation from 2 to 24 h in both groups irradiated with the neutron beam (with and without BPA) (p<0.05). On the other hand, Ku70 mRNA did not show a modification of its expression in the irradiated groups respect to the control group. Conclusion: these results would indicate an activation of the HRR pathway in the thyroid carcinoma cells treated by

  12. Capability of NIPAM polymer gel in recording dose from the interaction of 10B and thermal neutron in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeali, Azim; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khalili, Assef; Naseri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The capability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose resulting from boron neutron capture reaction in BNCT was determined. In this regard, three compositions of the gel with different concentrations of 10 B were prepared and exposed to gamma radiation and thermal neutrons. Unlike irradiation with gamma rays, the boron-loaded gels irradiated by neutron exhibited sensitivity enhancement compared with the gels without 10 B. It was also found that the neutron sensitivity of the gel increased by the increase of concentration of 10 B. It can be concluded that NIPAM gel might be suitable for the measurement of the absorbed dose enhancement due to 10 B and thermal neutron reaction in BNCT. - Highlights: • Three compositions of NIPAM gel with different concentration of 10 B have been exposed by gamma and thermal neutron. • The vials containing NIPAM gel have been irradiated by an automatic system capable of providing for dose uniformity. • Suitability of NIPAM polymer gel in measuring radiation doses in BNCT has been investigated.

  13. Calculational evaluations of the proposal for a reference dosimetric phantom for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjugg, H.; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Kotiluoto, P.; Savolainen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Standard dosimetric phantoms are used in radiotherapy to compare irradiations under standard conditions. They provide volumes of tissue substitute for the measurement of absorbed dose and are large enough to ensure that full contribution to the absorbed dose from scattered radiation is received at the point of measurement. Aim of this study was to find out a recommendation for the boundary values of size of a reference phantom. These reference conditions for the reference measurement methods are created for 'A code of practise for dosimetry, of BNCT in Europe' project. The major objective of the project is to prepare detailed guidelines for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams to be used for treatment of cancer patients by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at European research reactors and accelerators. For this objective Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out with MCNP 4B code in three different cubic phantoms for studying effect of different phantom sizes in important radiation components. These three phantoms are the proposed reference (measurement) phantom (20*20*20 cm), a phantom that was assumed to model an infinite phantom, and a smaller (15*15*15 cm) cubic phantom which exists in Petten BNCT facility in Netherlands. Function of the smallest phantom was to study acceptable lower limit to the phantom size to still reach the reference conditions. All the simulated phantoms were cubic water phantoms with one 0.5 cm thick (beam side) wall and three 1 cm thick walls of PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate). The comparisons were done with calculations of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates in analogous points. The source specification of the MCNP runs were accordance of 250 kW FiR 1 research reactor neutron beam with 14 cm beam aperture. In order to minimise the statistical error of the Monte Carlo calculations, over 60*106 source particles were simulated for infinite and reference phantom cases. Calculation results were in good

  14. Neutron therapy coupling brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Iara Ferreira.

    1994-12-01

    In the present dissertation, neutron radiation techniques applied into organs of the human body are investigated as oncologic radiation therapy. The proposal treatment consists on connecting two distinct techniques: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and irradiation by discrete sources of neutrons, through the brachytherapy conception. Biological and radio-dosimetrical aspects of the two techniques are considered. Nuclear aspects are discussed, presenting the nuclear reactions occurred in tumoral region, and describing the forms of evaluating the dose curves. Methods for estimating radiation transmission are reviewed through the solution of the neutron transport equation, Monte Carlo methodology, and simplified analytical calculation based on diffusion equation and numerical integration. The last is computational developed and presented as a quickly way to neutron transport evaluation in homogeneous medium. The computational evaluation of the doses for distinct hypothetical situations is presented, applying the coupled techniques BNTC and brachytherapy as an possible oncologic treatment. (author). 78 refs., 61 figs., 21 tabs

  15. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S J

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of 10(-3)-10(-5) for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with the unmodified neutron spectrum. A dominant effect of cell-killing yield on tumour cell survival demonstrates the importance of choice of boron carrier drug. However, these calculations do not indicate an unambiguous preference for one drug, due to the large overlap of tumour cell survival in the probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs. The cell survival value averaged over a bulky tumour volume is used to predict the overall BNCT therapeutic efficacy, using a simple model of tumour control probability (TCP).

  16. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Kei; Kurooka, Masaaki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Asano, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10 B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10 B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  17. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. First clinical results from the EORTC phase I Trial ''postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten irradiation facility''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Rassow, J.; Devries, M.J.; Goetz, C.; Paquis, P.; Grochulla, F.; Wolbers, J.G.; Haselsberger, K.; Turowski, B.; Moss, R.L.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Touw, D.; Wiestler, O.D.; Frankhauser, H.; Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the pre-clinical work of the European Collaboration on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy a study protocol was prepared in 1995 to initiate Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in patients at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. Bio-distribution and pharmacokinetics data of the boron drug Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (BSH) as well as the radiobiological effects of BNCT with BSH in healthy brain tissue of dogs were considered in designing the strategy for this clinical Phase I trial. The primary goal of the radiation dose escalation study is the investigation of possible adverse events due to BNCT; i.e. to establish the dose limiting toxicity and the maximal tolerated dose. The treatment is delivered in 4 fractions at a defined average boron concentration in blood. Cohorts of 10 patients are treated per dose group. The starting dose was set at 80% of the dose at which neurological symptoms occurred in preclinical dog experiments following a single fraction. After an observation period of at least 6 months, the dose is increased by 10% for the next cohort if less then three severe side effects related to the treatment occurred. The results of the first cohort are presented here. The evaluated dose level can be considered safe. (author)

  20. IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, S; Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Riley, K; Harling, O

    2011-12-01

    An optimization study of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube is presented. In the study we used the MIT/FCB experience. The enlarging of filter/moderator cross section dimensions and the decreasing of collimator length within the limits of the IRT-Sofia reactor design were analyzed. The influence of beam and reactor core axes non-coincidence on the beam properties was also evaluated. The irradiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon(®)) was also evaluated. The results provide information for making decisions on the IRT-Sofia BNCT beam construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of neutron flux distributions in BNCT using removal-diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemkiewicz, J.; Blue, T.E.; Gupta, N.

    1994-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is under investigation as a treatment modality for brain tumors. Successful routine use of BNCT will require a knowledge of the radiation dose distribution in a patient`s head prior to treatment. This will allow optimization of the treatment to fit the needs of individual patients. Determination of the dose distribution begins with calculation of the neutron flux distribution in the head. Most efforts to date have relied on Monte Carlo or discrete ordinates techniques to calculate this flux distribution. Use of removal-diffusion theory has the advantage of a relatively short computer time to complete a calculation. Previous work by our group has shown good agreement between neutron flux distributions calculated using removal-diffusion theory and Monte Carlo methods for parallel incident neutrons and a rectangular parallelepiped water phantom. This work compares neutron flux distributions calculated using removal-diffusion theory and Monte Carlo methods for a homogeneous ellipsoidal water phantom that models the human head.

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  3. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  4. Neutron Flux Measurement Produced by BNCT Target using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We are investigating neutron production target system performance for boron captured neutron therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutron is useful for this therapy and in present study we performed a simple method to measure neutron flux and energy, which are important for the accurate cancer therapy. The simple method and result of neutron flux and energy measurement experiment are presented

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, Manjeet; Capala, Jacek; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Elowitz, Eric H.; Joel, Darrel D.; Hungyuan, B. Liu; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Chanana, Arjun D.

    1996-01-01

    , respectively. The 10 B concentration in the normal brain was ≤ that in the blood. Radiation Dosimetry: The estimated radiation doses were recorded using a normal brain endothelium to blood 10 B concentration ratio of 1:1 and a tumor to blood 10 B concentration ratio of 3.5:1. The average 10 B blood concentration during irradiation was 13.0 ± 1.5μg 10 B/g (range: 11.2-15.4). The maximum tumor dose ranged from 47.6-64.4 Gy-Eq (mean 52.8±4.2 Gy-Eq). The minimum target volume dose ranged from 7.8-16.2 Gy-Eq (mean 12.3±1.8 Gy-Eq). Dose to scalp ranged from 10-15 Gy-Eq. The critical brain structures in all cases received less than 6.5 Gy-Eq. Clinical Outcome: Following BNCT all patients experienced in-field alopecia, and grade 1 erythema was noted in 2 patients. Transient drop in lymphocyte counts was noted in 6 patients that returned to normal range in 2 weeks. No CNS toxicity attributed to BNCT was observed. At a median follow up of 9.5 mo (range 3-15 mo), 1 patient is dead from disseminated craniospinal disease and 6 from local recurrence. In the remaining 3 patients, all but 1 patient has shown evidence of disease progression at the primary site. Conclusion: It is feasible to deliver a single-fraction of BPA-based BNCT. At the dose prescribed, the patients did not experience any adverse morbidity. To further evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT, a dose escalation study delivering a minimum target volume dose of 17 Gy-Eq is in progress

  6. In vivo BNCT in experimental and spontaneous tumors at RA-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Within the search for new applications of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the basic research oriented towards the study of BNCT radiobiology to optimize its therapeutic gain, we previously proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and showed, for the first time, the success of BNCT to treat oral cancer in an experimental model. The staff of the Ra-1 Reactor (Constituyentes Atomic Center) adapted the thermal beam and physical set-up to perform in vivo BNCT of superficial tumors in small animals. We preformed a preliminary characterization of the thermal beam, performed beam only irradiation of normal and tumor bearing hamsters and in vivo BNCT of experimental oral squamous cell carcinomas in hamsters mediated by boron phenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ). Having demonstrated the absence of radio toxic effects in healthy tissue and a therapeutic effect of in vivo BNCT in hamster cheek pouch tumors employing the Ra-1 thermal beam, we performed a feasibility study of the treatment by BNCT of 3 terminal cases of spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in cats following the corresponding biodistribution studies. This was the first treatment of spontaneous tumors by BNCT in our country and the first treatment by BNCT in cats worldwide. This preclinical study in terminal cases showed significant tumor control by BNCT with no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  7. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza Atomic Center, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Rio Negro (Argentina); Nievas, S.I. [Department of Chemistry, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  9. Monte Carlo dose calculations for BNCT treatment of diffuse human lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the possibility to apply BNCT in the core of diffuse lung tumours, dose distribution calculations were made. The simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP.4c2, using the male computational phantom Adam, version 07/94. Volumes of interest were voxelized for the tally requests, and results were obtained for tissues with and without Boron. Different collimated neutron sources were tested in order to establish the proper energies, as well as single and multiple beams to maximize neutron flux uniformity inside the target organs. Flux and dose distributions are reported. The use of two opposite epithermal neutron collimated beams insures good levels of dose homogeneity inside the lungs, with a substantially lower radiation dose delivered to surrounding structures. (author)

  10. Dynamic infrared imaging of cutaneous melanoma and normal skin in patients treated with BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Cruz, G.A. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: santacr@cnea.gov.ar; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J. [Universidad Favaloro, Solis 453 (1078), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gossio, S. [FCEyN, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, D. [Fundacion Favaloro, Av. Belgrano 1746 (1093), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roth, B.M.C.; Menendez, P. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481 (1417), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pereira, M.D. [Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, PAV 22393 (Argentina); Albero, M.; Cubau, L.; Orellano, P. [INVAP S.E., F.P. Moreno 1089 (R8400AMU), S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Liberman, S.J. [Dpto. de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    We recently initiated a program aimed to investigate the suitability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up nodular melanoma patients treated with BNCT. The reason that makes infrared imaging attractive is the fact that it constitutes a functional and non-invasive imaging method, providing information on the normal and abnormal physiologic response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that ultimately appear as differences in the skin temperature. An infrared camera, with a focal plane array of 320x240 uncooled ferroelectric detectors is employed, which provides a video stream of the infrared emission in the 7-14 {mu}m wavelength band. A double blackbody is used as reference for absolute temperature calibration. After following a protocol for patient preparation and acclimatization, a basal study is performed. Subsequently, the anatomic region of interest is subjected to a provocation test (a cold stimulus), which induces an autonomic vasoconstriction reflex in normal structures, thus enhancing the thermal contrast due to the differences in the vasculature of the different skin regions. Radiation erythema reactions and melanoma nodules possess typically a faster temperature recovery than healthy, non-irradiated skin. However, some other non-pathological structures are also detectable by infrared imaging, (e.g. scars, vessels, arteriovenous anastomoses and injuries), thus requiring a multi-study comparison in order to discriminate the tumor signal. Besides the superficial nodules, which are readily noticeable by infrared imaging, we have detected thermal signals that are coincident with the location of non-palpable nodules, which are observable by CT and ultrasound. Diffuse regions of fast temperature recovery after a cold stimulus were observed between the third and sixth weeks post-BNCT, concurrent with the clinical manifestation of radiation erythema. The location of the erythematous visible and

  11. Dynamic infrared imaging of cutaneous melanoma and normal skin in patients treated with BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, G.A.; Bertotti, J.; Marin, J.; Gonzalez, S.J.; Gossio, S.; Alvarez, D.; Roth, B.M.C.; Menendez, P.; Pereira, M.D.; Albero, M.; Cubau, L.; Orellano, P.; Liberman, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    We recently initiated a program aimed to investigate the suitability of dynamic infrared imaging for following-up nodular melanoma patients treated with BNCT. The reason that makes infrared imaging attractive is the fact that it constitutes a functional and non-invasive imaging method, providing information on the normal and abnormal physiologic response of the nervous and vascular systems, as well as the local metabolic rate and inflammatory processes that ultimately appear as differences in the skin temperature. An infrared camera, with a focal plane array of 320x240 uncooled ferroelectric detectors is employed, which provides a video stream of the infrared emission in the 7-14 μm wavelength band. A double blackbody is used as reference for absolute temperature calibration. After following a protocol for patient preparation and acclimatization, a basal study is performed. Subsequently, the anatomic region of interest is subjected to a provocation test (a cold stimulus), which induces an autonomic vasoconstriction reflex in normal structures, thus enhancing the thermal contrast due to the differences in the vasculature of the different skin regions. Radiation erythema reactions and melanoma nodules possess typically a faster temperature recovery than healthy, non-irradiated skin. However, some other non-pathological structures are also detectable by infrared imaging, (e.g. scars, vessels, arteriovenous anastomoses and injuries), thus requiring a multi-study comparison in order to discriminate the tumor signal. Besides the superficial nodules, which are readily noticeable by infrared imaging, we have detected thermal signals that are coincident with the location of non-palpable nodules, which are observable by CT and ultrasound. Diffuse regions of fast temperature recovery after a cold stimulus were observed between the third and sixth weeks post-BNCT, concurrent with the clinical manifestation of radiation erythema. The location of the erythematous visible and

  12. Nuclear engineering aspects of glioma BNCT research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, G.; Mazzini, M.

    1998-01-01

    A research project on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCZ) of gliomas has been set up in Italy, with the participation of Departments of Oncology and Mechanical and Nuclear Construction (DCMN) of the University of Pisa, as well as the Neuroscience and Physics Departments of the Universities of Roma. The specific objective of DCMN Research Unit is the study of the physical-engineering aspects related to BNCT. The paper outlines the research lines in progress at DCMN: Monte Carlo calculations of neutron dose distribution for BNCT treatment planning; measurements of neutron fluxes, spectra and doses by neutron detectors specifically set up; design of modifications to the nuclear reactors of ENEA Casaccia Center. In particular, the paper emphasizes the most original contributions on dosimetric aspects, both from informatic and experimental points of view.(author)

  13. Improvement of neutron irradiation field of research reactors for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1992-01-01

    The modification of research reactors for an improvement of the irradiation field for BNCT has been investigated in comparison with the field characteristics of the 'old' configuration at the Musashi reactor. The new point of this study is that the evaluation has been done by using an arrangement including both the facility structure and a whole-body phantom, and also by considering the whole-body absorbed dose. (author)

  14. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarnegin, Elham [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-11

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  15. Thermal hydraulic design features for the BNCT application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1993-06-01

    This project report is based on our investigations for thermal design of a heat pipe for removing generated heat resulting from Proton bombardments of a Lithium target for a BNCT application. In our investigation, an integral analysis was employed to investigate the vapor an liquid flow in a flat plate heat pipe heated asymmetrically for removal of the 75 kW generated from the BNCT application. The flat plate heat pipe configuration will be used for removing the heat which is generated as a result of proton bombardment of the lithium target. The working fluid in the heat pipe occurs in two phase namely liquid and vapor. The wick contains all the liquid phase and the vapor phase is mainly in the core region. Heat is applied by an external source at the evaporator section which vaporizes the working fluid in this section. This results in a pressure difference which drives the vapor to the condenser section where condenses and releases latent heat of vaporization to a heat sink in the condense section. Due to the vaporization of liquid in the evaporator, the liquid-vapor interface enters into the wick surface and hence capillary pressure is developed there. This capillary pressure causes the condensed liquid in the condenser to be pumped back to the evaporator again. The results of our investigation have enabled us to correlate such diverse information as; the thickness of the wick, the diameter of the heat pipe, the wetting angle, the capillary radius, the surface tension, the latent heat of evaporation, the permeability and porosity of the chosen wick, the length of the heat pipe, and the viscosity and density of the two phases; with the heat removal capabilities of the heat pipe. Expressions for the pressure and velocity distributions are obtained and discussed in relation to our application to BNCT. The present design clearly shows that it is possible to attain temperatures well below the melting temperature of the lithium in the BNCT application.

  16. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia S.; Di Santo, Norberto R.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Pucci, Gladys N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10 B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  17. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Thomasz, L.; Longhino, J.

    2006-01-01

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 10 8 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm 3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  18. In vitro biological models in order to study BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Farias, Silvia S.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) lacks an effective treatment. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of 10 B-boronated compounds by some tumours, followed by irradiation with an appropriate neutron beam. The radioactive boron originated ( 11 B) decays releasing 7 Li, gamma rays and alpha particles, and these latter will destroy the tumour. In order to explore the possibility of applying BNCT to UTC we have studied the biodistribution of BPA. In vitro studies: the uptake of p- 10 borophenylalanine (BPA) by the UTC cell line ARO, primary cultures of normal bovine thyroid cells (BT) and human follicular adenoma (FA) thyroid was studied. No difference in BPA uptake was observed between proliferating and quiescent ARO cells. The uptake by quiescent ARO, BT and FA showed that the ARO/BT and ARO/FA ratios were 4 and 5, respectively (p< 0.001). The present experimental results open the possibility of applying BNCT for the treatment of UTC. (author)

  19. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Kwan, J.W.; Burlon, A.A.; Di Paolo, H.; Henestroza, E.; Minsky, D.M.; Valda, A.A.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.

    2007-01-01

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  20. Medical setup of intraoperative BNCT at JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    Since October 1999, we have been performing clinical trials of intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT) using a mixed thermal-epithermal beam at the Japan Research Reactor No. 4 (JRR-4). For immediate pre-BNCT care, including administration of a boron compound as well as post-BNCT care, a collaborating neurosurgical department of the University of Tsukuba was prepared in the vicinity of JRR-4. Following craniotomy in the treatment room, anesthetized patients were transported into the irradiation room for BNCT. The boron concentration in tissue was measured by the PGA and ICP-AES methods. The long-term follow-up was done at the University of Tsukuba Hospital. IOBNCT is a complex clinical procedure, which requires sophisticated operating team and co-medical staffs and also cooperation with physicist team. IOBNCT is a complex clinical procedure requiring a high level of cooperation among the operating team, co-medical staff, and physicists. For the safe and successful performance of IOBNCT, we have made the program including critical pathway and prepared various equipments for IOBNCT. To ensure the safe and successful performance of IOBNCT, we developed a critical pathway for use during the procedure, and prepared various apparatus for IOBNCT. (author)

  1. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Ziegner.fl@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz DE-55128 (Germany); Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad PK-44000 (Pakistan); Blaickner, Matthias [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Palmans, Hugo [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, Peter [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Böck, Helmuth [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  2. Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2015-12-01

    BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, M.; Ilieva, K.; Apostolov, T.

    2009-01-01

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  4. Follow up of glioblastoma patients treated with BNCT using spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, L.; Haekkinen, A.M.; Kivisaari, L.; Lundbom, N.; Joensuu, H.; Seppaelae, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the metabolite changes of BPA-mediated BNCT on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and on brain white matter with proton magnetic spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI). Four glioblastoma patients treated with BNCT were been examined with both MRI and 1 H-MRSI before BNCT and at 3-month intervals following BNCT. We found no change in the choline (Cho) of the tumors of 2 patients 3 months after BNCT, but at 6 months the choline increased in agreement with clinically observed progression of glioblastomas. No N-acetylaspartate (NAA) changes were found in the normal appearing white matter in 3 patients. Unexpectedly, choline changes were seen in both ipsi- and contralateral white matter regions. The small number of patients studied prevents making firm conclusions, but 1 H-MRSI may be a useful method in follow-up of patients treated with BNCT and deserves further study. Presence of only minimal NAA changes in some patients treated with BNCT is intriguing, and may suggest absence of marked neuronal damage within the first 6 months following BNCT treatment when average brain doses <5.2 Gy (W) are used. (author)

  5. Intracellular targeting of mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) to malignant glioma by transferrin-PEG liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Iida, Kyouko

    2006-01-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most difficult tumor to control with usual therapies. In our institute, we select boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an adjuvant radiation therapy after surgical resection. This therapy requires the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. In this study, we focused on a tumor-targeting 10 B delivery system (BDS) for BNCT that uses transferrin-conjugated polyethylene-glycol liposome encapsulating BSH (TF-PEG liposome-BSH) and compared 10 B uptake of the tumor among BSH, PEG liposome-BSH and TF-PEG liposome-BSH. In vitro, we analyzed 10 B concentration of the cultured human U87Δ glioma cells incubated in medium containing 20 μg 10 B/ml derived from each BDS by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In vivo, human U87Δ glioma-bearing nude mice were administered with each BDS (35mg 10 B/kg) intravenously. We analyzed 10 B concentration of tumor, normal brain and blood by ICP-AES. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH showed higher absolute concentration more than the other BDS. Moreover, TF-PEG liposome-BSH decreased 10 B concentration in blood and normal tissue while it maintained high 10 B concentration in tumor tissue for a couple of days. This showed the TF-PEG liposome-BSH caused the selective delivery of high concentration of 10 B to malignant tumor tissue. The TF-PEG liposome-BSH is more potent BDS for BNCT to obtain absolute high 10 B concentration and good contrast between tumor and normal tissue than BSH and PEG liposome-BSH. (author)

  6. INEL BNCT research program publications, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document is a collection of the published reports describing research supporting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). These reports have previously appeared in the book: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy, edited by A. H. Soloway, R. F. Barth, D. E. Carpenter, Plenum Press, 1993. Reports have also appeared in three journals: Angewandte Chemie, Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, and Nuclear Science and Engineering. This individual papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  7. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  8. Meeting the challenge of homogenous boron targeting of heterogeneous tumors for effective boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Rebagliati, J. Raul; Batistoni, Daniel; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.; Gonzalez, Beatriz N.

    2006-01-01

    BNCT is a tumor cell targeted radiation therapy. Inadequately boron targeted tumor populations jeopardize tumor control. Meeting the to date unresolved challenge of homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors with effective boron carriers would contribute to therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of variation in boron content delivered by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of (BPA+GB-10) in different portions of tumor, precancerous tissue around tumor and normal pouch tissue in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Boron content was evaluated by ICP-AES. The degree of homogeneity in boron targeting was assessed in terms of the coefficient of variation ([S.D./Mean]x100) of boron values. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA and the least significant difference test. GB-10 and GB-10 plus BPA achieved respectively a statistically significant 1.8-fold and 3.3-fold increase in targeting homogeneity over BPA. The combined boron compound administration protocol contributes to homogeneous targeting of heterogeneous tumors and would increase therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by exposing all tumor populations to neutron capture reactions in boron. (author)

  9. INEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Research Program for calendar year 1993. Contributions from all the principal investigators are included, covering chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, boron drug analysis), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (tissue and efficacy studies of small and large animal models). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented. Results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with boron neutron capture therapy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory are updated. Boron-containing drug purity verification is discussed in some detail. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging of boron in vivo are discussed. Several boron-carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux of the Petten (The Netherlands) High Flux Reactor beam (HFB11B), and comparison to predictions are shown.

  10. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of {sup 10}B uptake by cell modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, M.; Tamaki, N. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Inst. for Dermatol. Res., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. Radiation Oncol., Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish {sup 10}B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance {sup 10}B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  11. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakura, M.; Tamaki, N.; Hiratsuka, J.

    2000-01-01

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10 B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10 B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  12. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  13. Feasibility study to develop BNCT facility at the Indonesian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastowo, H.

    2001-01-01

    A survey on the Indonesian research reactors and its supporting facilities has been done in order to check the possibility to install BNCT facility. Oncologists from several hospitals have been informing about the BNCT treatment for tumours and they give a positive response to support utilisation of the BNCT facility. Several aspects required to support the BNCT treatment have also been identified and related activities on that matter soon will be initiated. The interim result in our survey indicated that utilisation of the 30 MW Multipurpose reactor would not be possible from the technical point of view. Further study will be concentrated on the TRIGA reactor and an epithermal neutron beam facility at the thermal column of this reactor will be designed for further work. (author)

  14. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Norimasa; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kuwabara, Chiaki; Aihara, Teruhito; Harada, Tamotsu; Imajo, Yoshinari; Ono, Koji; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  15. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  16. Physics of epi-thermal boron neutron capture therapy (epi-thermal BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Wakisaka, Yushi; Morimoto, Nami; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Toki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    The physics of epi-thermal neutrons in the human body is discussed in the effort to clarify the nature of the unique radiologic properties of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This discussion leads to the computational method of Monte Carlo simulation in BNCT. The method is discussed through two examples based on model phantoms. The physics is kept at an introductory level in the discussion in this tutorial review.

  17. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10 B enriched decaborane

  18. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of {sup 10}B enriched decaborane.

  19. Complexion of Boric Acid with 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (DG) as a novel boron carrier for BNCT

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer; Demiroglu, Hasan; Avcibasi, Ugur; Oto, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Hulya; Deniz, Sabahattin; Basak, Ali Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an intensive research area for cancer researchers. Especially the side effects and inabilities of conventional therapies in some cases, directs researchers to find out a new cancer therapy methods such as BNCT. One of three important problem of BNCT is targeting of boron to tumor tissue. Borono Phenyl Alanine (BPA) and Borono Sodium Borocaptate (BSH) are already using in clinical studies as boron carriers. New boron carriers are searching fo...

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  1. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994

  2. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  3. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  4. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  5. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  7. An automated method for breathing frequency determination for rat lung radiobiology in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, J.L.; Coderre, J.A.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    Whole-body plethysmography was used to the measure the breathing rate in rats as a functional indication of radiation-induced lung damage, either weekly or bi-weekly for a period of 180 days following thorax irradiations in a BNCT radiobiology study. A three-minute digital breathing signal was collected in each measurement. Software has been developed to automatically discriminate against large-amplitude noise due to animal movement. After segmenting the signal into consecutive, overlapping and circular blocks, the mean frequency spectrum of the processed signal was calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The breathing rate was defined as the primary frequency of the spectrum and the standard deviation was estimated using the bootstrap method. The mean standard deviation of all measurements in the data set (n=4269) was 2.4%. The improved accuracy with low standard deviation of the measurements ensures good sensitivity and a low threshold for detection of responding animals; breathing rates more than 20% (∼3 σ) above the control mean were considered responding. (author)

  8. The BNCT facility at the HFR Petten: Quality assurance for reactor facilities in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Watkins, P.; Vroegindeweij, C.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Huiskamp, R.; Ravensberg, K.; Appelman, K.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Gabel, D.

    2001-01-01

    The first clinical trial in Europe of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma was opened in July 1997. The trial is a Phase I study with the principal aim to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose and the dose limiting toxicity under defined conditions. It is the first time that a clinical application could be realised on a completely multi-national scale. The treatment takes place at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a German radiotherapist, and treats patients coming from different European countries. It has therefore been necessary to create a very specialised organisation and contractual structure with the support of administrations from different countries, who had to find and adapt solutions within existing laws that had never foreseen such a situation. Furthermore, the treatment does not take place in an hospital environment and even more so, the facility is at a nuclear research reactor. Hence, special efforts were made on quality assurance, in order that the set-up at the facility and the personnel involved complied, as closely as possible, with similar practices in conventional radiotherapy departments. (author)

  9. Dosimetric study of varying aperture-surface distance at the Finnish BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Seppaelae, Tiina; Nieminen, Katja; Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kortesniemi, Mika; Savolainen, Sauli

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of experimental and calculated dosimetric values in a water phantom was performed at the Finnish BNCT facility at the FiR 1 research reactor. The purpose was to study the effect of changing aperture to surface distance (ASD) to radiation dose and to verify the accuracy of the treatment planning and to provide data for comparison of the methods. A magnesium ionisation chamber flushed with argon gas was used to measure absorbed photon dose rate. Diluted manganese (Mn) and gold (Au) foils and Mn wires were used to determine Mn and Au activation reaction rates. Computer simulations with both SERA and MCNP programs were used to independently calculate the corresponding values. Photon dose and activation reaction rate depth profiles at beam central axis an axial profiles at 2.5 and 6 cm depths were measured and calculated for 11 and 14 and 17 cm diameter apertures. Depth profiles for activation reaction rates were determined for the clinically used 11 and 14 cm diameter apertures for 0, 5, and 10 cm ASD. In addition, the optional 17 cm beam was characterised at 0 and 5 cm ASD. The beam intensity decreases by approximately 20% and 40% when ASD is increased to 5 cm or 10 cm, respectively. The shape of the 55 Mn activation reaction rate depth profile and photon depth radial profile did not vary more than 5% for the 14 cm beam when the ASD was increased from 0 cm to 10 cm. (author)

  10. Development of a treatment planning system for BNCT based on positron emission tomography data: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Daquino, G. G.; Muzi, L.; Esposito, J.

    2004-01-01

    Present standard treatment planning (TP) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM - a kind of brain tumor), used in all boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) trials, requires the construction (based on CT and/or MRI images) of a 3D model of the patient head, in which several regions, corresponding to different anatomical structures, are identified. The model is then employed by a computer code to simulate radiation transport in human tissues. The assumption is always made that considering a single value of boron concentration for each specific region will not lead to significant errors in dose computation. The concentration values are estimated "indirectly", on the basis of previous experience and blood sample analysis. This paper describes an original approach, with the introduction of data on the in vivo boron distribution, acquired by a positron emission tomography (PET) scan after labeling the BPA (borono-phenylalanine) with the positron emitter 18F. The feasibility of this approach was first tested with good results using the code CARONTE. Now a complete TPS is under development. The main features of the first version of this code are described and the results of a preliminary study are presented. Significant differences in dose computation arise when the two different approaches ("standard" and "PET-based") are applied to the TP of the same GBM case.

  11. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M.

    1997-01-01

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  13. Functional and histological assessment of the radiobiology of normal rat lung in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, J.L.; Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Coderre, J.A.; Kiger, W.S. III; Patel, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the radiobiology and sensitivity of the normal rat lung to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiation. Rat thorax irradiations were carried out with x-rays or with neutrons in the presence or absence of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Lung damage were assessed functionally with breathing rate measurement up to 180 days after irradiation and then histologically. Breathing rates 20% (∼3 σ) above the control group (sham-irradiated rats) mean were considered as positive responses to lung radiation damage. Though most responding animals demonstrated radiation induced pneumonitis (≤110 days) as well as pulmonary fibrosis (>110 days), some animals receiving neutrons plus BPA showed only the latter. The breathing rate dose response data were fit using probit analysis. The ED 50 values measured for x-rays, neutron beam only, and neutrons plus BPA were 11.5±0.4 Gy, 9.2±0.5 Gy, and 6.7±0.4 Gy, respectively. The biological weighting factors for the neutron beam (n+γ), the thermal neutron dose component, and the 10 B dose component were determined to be 1.2±0.1, 2.2±0.4, and 2.3±0.3, respectively. The histological dose response curves were linear. Consistent with the functional assay, the weighting factors measured histologically were 1.2±0.1 for the thermal neutron beam and 1.9±0.2 for the 10 B dose component. (author)

  14. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, V.A.; Garabalino, M.A.; Colombo, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  15. First evaluation of the biologic effectiveness factors of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a human colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martín; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ((10)BPA) and for 2,4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ((10)BOPP). Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ((60)Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy (±10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10(9) n/cm(2) sec). The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 ± 2.2 and 2.0 ± 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 ± 3.7 and 3.5 ± 1.3. BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma

  16. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  17. Development of local radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed

  18. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Yong, Liu; Kashino, Genro; Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction ( 10 B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT

  19. Biocompatibility of functionalized boron phosphate (BPO4) nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Grandi, Stefania; Ciana, Annarita; Guidetti, Gianni F; Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Cansolino, Laura; Tomasi, Corrado; Balduini, Alessandra; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Merli, Daniele; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Canobbio, Ilaria; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing the death of the neoplastic cell. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used boron-containing compounds. Here we report the development and the characterization of BPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel possible alternative drug for BNCT. An extensive analysis of BPO4 NP biocompatibility was performed using both mature blood cells (erythrocytes, neutrophils and platelets) and a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity study was performed on neoplastic coloncarcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BPO4 functionalization with folic acid, introduced to improve the uptake by tumor cells, appeared to effectively limit the unwanted effects of NPs on the analyzed blood components. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality based on the accumulation of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, inducing the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing neoplastic cell death. This team of authors reports on a folic acid functionalized BPO4 nanoparticle with improved characteristics compared with conventional BNCT approaches, as demonstrated in tumor cell lines, and hopefully to be followed by translational human studies. © 2014.

  20. Fission reactor based epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for routine clinical application in BNCT-Hatanaka memorial lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Otto K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on experience gained in the recent clinical studies at MIT/Harvard, the desirable characteristics of epithermal neutron irradiation facilities for eventual routine clinical BNCT are suggested. A discussion of two approaches to using fission reactors for epithermal neutron BNCT is provided. This is followed by specific suggestions for the performance and features needed for high throughput clinical BNCT. An example of a current state-of-the-art, reactor based facility, suited for routine clinical use is discussed. Some comments are provided on the current status of reactor versus accelerator based epithermal neutron sources for BNCT. This paper concludes with a summary and a few personal observations on BNCT by the author.

  1. BNCT clinical trials of skin melanoma patients in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Berta M.; Bonomi, Marcelo R.; Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical outcome of six skin melanoma BNCT irradiations is presented. Three patients (A, B and C), with multiple subcutaneous skin metastases progressed to chemotherapy were infused with ∼14 g/m 2 of boronophenylalanine ( 10 BPA)-fructose and irradiated in the hyperthermal neutron beam of the RA-6 reactor. Patient A received two one fraction irradiations in different areas of the leg, B received one fraction and C was irradiated in three consecutive fields at the calf, heel and foot sole. The maximum prescribed dose to normal skin ranged from 16.5 to 24 Gy-Eq. With a minimum follow-up of 10 months there was a G1 acute epithelitis in A and B and a G3 in C. No late toxicity was observed. Due to the in-field tumor-growth-delay and the absence of severe acute and/or late toxicity observed during the follow-up period, a dose-escalation trial is ongoing. (author)

  2. Liquid Li based neutron source for BNCT and science application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiike, H; Murata, I; Iida, T; Yoshihashi, S; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Hashimoto, N; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S

    2015-12-01

    Liquid lithium (Li) is a candidate material for a target of intense neutron source, heat transfer medium in space engines and charges stripper. For a medical application of BNCT, epithermal neutrons with least energetic neutrons and γ-ray are required so as to avoid unnecessary doses to a patient. This is enabled by lithium target irradiated by protons at 2.5 MeV range, with utilizing the threshold reaction of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be at 1.88 MeV. In the system, protons at 2.5 MeV penetrate into Li layer by 0.25 mm with dissipating heat load near the surface. To handle it, thin film flow of high velocity is important for stable operation. For the proton accelerator, electrostatic type of the Schnkel or the tandem is planned to be employed. Neutrons generated at 0.6 MeV are gently moderated to epithermal energy while suppressing accompanying γ-ray minimum by the dedicated moderator assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Idaho Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, R.V. III; Griebenow, M.L.; Ackermann, A.L.; Miller, L.G.; Miller, D.L.; Wheeler, F.J.; Bradshaw, K.M.; Wessol, D.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Nigg, D.W.; Randolph, P.D.; Bauer, W.F.; Gavin, P.R.; Richards, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program has been funded since 1988 to evaluate brain tumor treatment using Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH (borocaptate sodium or BSH) and epithermal neutrons. The PBF/BNCT Program pursues this goal as a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, multiorganizational endeavor applying modern program management techniques. The initial focus was to: (1) establish a representative large animal model and (2) develop the generic analytical and measurement capabilities require to control treatment repeatability and determine critical treatment parameters independent of tumor type and body location. This paper will identify the PBF/BNCT Program elements and summarize the status of some of the developed capabilities

  4. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  5. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  6. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  7. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10 B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10 B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18 F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123 I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  8. Comparison of doses delivered in clinical trials of neutron capture therapy in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Binns, P.J.; Riley, K.J.; Coderre, J.A.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III

    2006-01-01

    A combined 81 brain tumor patients have been treated in dose escalation trials of Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) at Harvard-MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Pooling the clinical outcomes from these trials will permit evaluation with more statistical rigor. However, differences in physical and computational dosimetry between the institutions make direct comparison of the clinical dosimetry difficult. This paper describes work performed to normalize the BNL clinical dosimetry to that of Harvard-MIT for combined dose response analysis. This normalization involved analysis of MIT measurements and calculations using the BNL treatment planning system (TPS), BNCT - Rtpe, for two different phantoms. The BNL TPS was calibrated to dose measurements made by MIT at the BMRR in the BNL calibration phantom, a Lucite cube, and then validated by MIT dose measurements at the BMMR in an ellipsoidal water phantom. Treatment plans for all BNL patients were recomputed using the newly determined TPS calibration, yielding reductions in reported mean brain doses of 19% on average in the initial 15 patients and 31% in the latter 38 patients. These reductions in reported doses have clinically significant implications for those relying on reported BNL doses as a basis for initial dose selection in clinical studies. (author)

  9. Liposome and co-spray-dried PVP / o-carborane formulations for BNCT treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Smith, James Richard; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness. Poor selectivity is the main reason why BNCT has not become a mainstream cancer therap...

  10. Experimental study on the performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xingcai; Manabe, Masanobu; Tamaki, Shingo; Liu, Shuangtong; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-01

    The performance of an epithermal neutron (0.5eVflux monitor designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was experimentally studied by using a prototype monitor in an appropriate neutron field at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. It was convinced from the experimental results that the developed monitor worked well and the epithermal neutron fluxes in BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 5% by the monitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  12. Brain effects observed in the canine healthy tissue tolerance studies for BNCT with borocaptate sodium at the epithermal neutron beam of the HFR, Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefert, A.; Casado, J.; Moss, R.L.; Philipp, K.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P.R.; Duehmke, E.

    1993-01-01

    Before the first clinical trails of BNCT with borocaptate sodium (BSH) on patients suffering from malignant brain tumours can be performed at the epithermal neutron bean of the HFR Petten, the tolerance of healthy tissue exposed to this beam has to be determined. Therefore irradiation experiments are currently being performed on beagle dogs at different mean blood 10 B concentrations. To monitor radiation induced brain damage after irradiation, a method has to be employed which provides sufficient sensitivity for detecting radiation induced damage to tissue. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method which yields excellent discrimination between grey and white matter. Information on the integrity of the blood-brain-barrier can be obtained by using paramagnetic contrast agents like Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). This paper summarizes the results of the MRI's performed on the irradiated beagle dogs up to August 1992 and compares these results with the findings of histopathology

  13. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jorge E.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.

    2006-01-01

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  14. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colombo, Lucas L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, B1650KNA San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Sara J. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Instrumentation and Control, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, Daniel G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10{sup 6} DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm{sup 3}. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm{sup 3}. The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  15. Abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Proof of principle in an experimental model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Schwint, Amanda E.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Curotto, Paula; Colombo, Lucas L.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Farias, Ruben O.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Carando, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, the abscopal effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Twenty-six BDIX rats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb syngeneic colon cancer cells in the right hind flank. Three weeks post-inoculation, the right leg of 12 rats bearing the tumor nodule was treated with BPA-BNCT (BPA-Boronophenylalanine) at the RA-3 nuclear reactor located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at an absorbed dose of 7.5 Gy to skin as the dose-limiting tissue. The remaining group of 14 tumor-bearing rats were left untreated and used as control. Two weeks post-BNCT, 1 x 10 6 DHD/K12/TRb cells were injected subcutaneously in the contralateral left hind flank of each of the 26 BDIX rats. Tumor volume in both legs was measured weekly for 7 weeks to determine response to BNCT in the right leg and to assess a potential influence of BNCT in the right leg on tumor development in the left leg. Within the BNCT group, a statistically significant reduction was observed in contralateral left tumor volume in animals whose right leg tumor responded to BNCT (post-treatment/pre-treatment tumor volume <1) versus animals who failed to respond (post/pre ≥1), i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 271 ± 128 mm 3 . In addition, a statistically significant reduction in contralateral left leg tumor volume was observed in BNCT-responsive animals (post/pre <1) vs untreated animals, i.e., 13 ± 15 vs 254 ± 251 mm 3 . The present study performed in a simple animal model provides proof of principle that the positive response of a tumor to BNCT is capable of inducing an abscopal effect. (orig.)

  16. "Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Maria E. Itoiz; Silvia I. Thorp; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The minor abundance stable isotope of boron, 10B, interacts with low energy (thermal) neutrons to produce high linear energy transfer (LET) a-particles and 7Li ions. These disintegration products are known to have a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Their short range (<10 {micro}m) would limit the damage to cells containing 10B (1,2). Thus, BNCT would target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Clinical trials of BNCT for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and/or melanoma and, more recently, head and neck tumors and liver metastases, using boronophenylalanine (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborane (BSH) as the 10B carriers, have been performed or are underway in Argentina, Japan, the US and Europe (e.g. 3-8). To date, the clinical results have shown a potential, albeit inconclusive, therapeutic advantage for this technique. Contributory translational studies have been carried out employing a variety of experimental models based on the implantation of tumor cells in normal tissue (e.g. 5).

  17. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  18. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Time factor of BSH from intravenous infusion to neutron irradiation for BNCT in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Nagahiro, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Hatanaka, H.; Haritz, D.; Grochulla, F.; Haselsberger, K.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The present report evaluates the time factor of BSH from infusion to irradiation in patients with glioblastoma as a cooperative study in Europe and Japan. For BNCT with BSH after intravenous infusion, this work confirms that the planned neutron irradiation after intravenous BSH infusion appears to be optimal around 12-19 hours after the infusion. (author)

  20. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance

  1. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  2. Development of cancer therapy facility of Hanaro and medical research in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin; Kim, M. S.; Kim, M. J.; Park, S. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. H.; Kwack, H. S.; Kim, M. S. [Korea Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Park, S. H.; Shin, C. H. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    In order to support the domestic research on the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT) which is a promising treatment method for tumor in principle, a neutron irradiation facility and a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) equipment for the boron concentration measurement are developed and installed at Hanaro. Meanwhile basic research has been performed to develop BNCT medical technology using above Hanaro facilities when they are ready. The Hanaro BNCT facility gives almost pure thermal neutron beam, it can be applied to all level of BNCT research from the cell culture and animal study to clinical trials by focussed irradiation, and its use does not cause any interference with other utilization. It can also be used for other purposes such as standard thermal neutron field and a dynamic neutron radiography with excellent features. The PGNAA equipment will be used not only for the boron concentration measurement but also for the general multi-element simultaneous analyses. The medical research for BNCT covers basic research on dose evaluation, boron compound behaviour and new compound development. Technologies for neutron and gamma transport calculation and their measurement, and micro dosimetry are developed. While import of a dose planning program has been pushed, domestic development of the program has been tried. Imaging technologies for boron distribution using SPECT or PET are developed by labeling I-123 or F-18 to BPA. Data for the BPA accumulation into the brain tumor are produced by clinical trials of the technology. A general and versatile method for the synthesis of o-carborane clusters containing of their important biological activities as neurotransmitter, antipsychotic or anticancer is developed. We found three promising compounds of which accumulation into B-16 melanoma cell is about 10 times of BPA.

  3. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  4. Prediction of boron concentration in blood from low dose infusion for the patients of BNCT at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to measure boron concentration in blood during neutron irradiation in BNCT. We have investigated the predictability of boron concentration in blood from the data at 1st craniotomy after low dose BSH infusion. Two patients entered BNCT at JRR2 in 1995/1996, and 5 patients entered BNCT at JRR4 in 1992/2000. The patients include 2 male and 5 female and their age ranged from 20 to 66. In 5 patients 1 g of BSH was infused before 1st tumor removal operation and boron concentrations in blood were examined around this operation. All patients were infused 100 mg/kg of BSH at 12 hours prior to BNCT and boron concentrations were examined before and after BNCT using prompt gamma ray analysis or ICP-AES. Each results showed biphasic pharmacokinetic profile. Personal variations of the pharmacokinetics of BSH were small. Final and 1 g data were well correlated and final boron concentrations at BNCT were predictable from 1 g studies. (author)

  5. Prediction of boron concentration in blood from low dose infusion for the patients of BNCT at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, T. [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to measure boron concentration in blood during neutron irradiation in BNCT. We have investigated the predictability of boron concentration in blood from the data at 1st craniotomy after low dose BSH infusion. Two patients entered BNCT at JRR2 in 1995/1996, and 5 patients entered BNCT at JRR4 in 1992/2000. The patients include 2 male and 5 female and their age ranged from 20 to 66. In 5 patients 1 g of BSH was infused before 1st tumor removal operation and boron concentrations in blood were examined around this operation. All patients were infused 100 mg/kg of BSH at 12 hours prior to BNCT and boron concentrations were examined before and after BNCT using prompt gamma ray analysis or ICP-AES. Each results showed biphasic pharmacokinetic profile. Personal variations of the pharmacokinetics of BSH were small. Final and 1 g data were well correlated and final boron concentrations at BNCT were predictable from 1 g studies. (author)

  6. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a single and double application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Thorp, S; Garabalino, M A; Farias, R O; Gonzalez, S J; Heber, E M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Molinari, A J; Miller, M; Nigg, D W; Curotto, P; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development from tissue with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) gives rise to second primary tumors. We previously demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect on tumor development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mediated by the boron compounds BPA (boronophenylalanine) and decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in a hamster pouch oral precancer model. Seeking to optimize BNCT, the aim of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology for oral precancer and assess new BNCT protocols in terms of inhibition of tumor development and radiotoxicity. Groups of cancerized hamsters were locally exposed to single or double applications (2 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 8Gy to tissue with PMD; to a single application of BPA-BNCT at 6Gy and to a double application (4 weeks apart) of BPA-BNCT or (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy. Cancerized, sham-irradiated hamsters served as controls. Clinical status, tumor development from tissue with PMD and mucositis were followed for 8 months. The marked therapeutic efficacy of single applications of BNCT at 6 and 8Gy were associated to severe radiotoxicity. Dose fractionation into 2 applications reduced mucositis but also reduced therapeutic efficacy, depending on dose and interval between applications. A double application (4 weeks apart) of (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT at a total dose of 10Gy rendered the best therapeutic advantage, i.e. 63% - 100% inhibition of tumor development with only slight mucositis in 67% of cases. The data reported herein show that issues such as dose levels and dose fractionation, interval between applications, and choice of boron compounds are pivotal to therapeutic advantage and must be tailored for a particular pathology and anatomic site. The present study determined treatment conditions that would contribute to optimize BNCT for precancer and that would warrant cautious assessment in a clinical scenario (author)

  7. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  8. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  9. Four cases of facial melanoma treated by BNCT with {sup 10}B-p-boronophenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H. [Tohoku Univ., IDAC, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Karashima, H. [Mitsubishi Ind. Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Tsuru, K.; Araki, K.; Ichihashi, M. [Kobe Univ., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We treated four cases of facial melanoma by BNCT with {sup 10}B-paraboronophenylalanine {center_dot} fructose complex (BPA). The patients received 180 to 200 mg BPA/kg-BW intravenously for 3 to 5 hours. One to two hours after the end of BPA administration, they were irradiated with a thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The local control of the tumors was good and complete regression was achieved in all cases. The acute and subacute skin reactions ranged from dry desquamation to erosion and were within tolerable limits. After 2 to 3 months, the skin recovered from damage with slight pigmentation or depigmentation and without serious functional or cosmetic problems. Our results indicate BNCT of facial melanoma is promising not only for tumor cure but also for good QOL of the patients, although surgery is the standard and first choice for the treatment of malignant melanoma. (author)

  10. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboronok, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Yoshida, F; Uspenskii, S; Selyanin, M; Zelenetskii, A; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron-hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Andrea; Michel, Jean; Moss, Raymond L; Stecher-Rasmussen, Finn; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bendel, Peter; Mauri, Pier Luigi; Altieri, Saverio; Hilger, Ralf; Salvadori, Piero A; Menichetti, Luca; Zamenhof, Robert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang A G

    2008-10-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having a high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, being limited to approximately one cell diameter. This opens the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy. BNCT strongly depends on the selective uptake of 10B in tumor cells and on its distribution inside the cells. The chemical properties of boron and the need to discriminate different isotopes make the investigation of the concentration and distribution of 10B a challenging task. The most advanced techniques to measure and image boron are described, both invasive and non-invasive. The most promising approach for further investigation will be the complementary use of the different techniques to obtain the information that is mandatory for the future of this innovative treatment modality.

  12. On line local measurement of thermal neutron flux on BNCT patient using SPND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, M.L.; Gonzalez, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first on-line neutron flux measurement on a patient using a self-powered neutron detector (SPND) was assessed during the fourth clinical trial of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project carried out at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) and the medical center Angel H. Roffo. The SPND was specially developed and assembled for BNCT by CNEA. Its small size, 1 cm sensible length and 1.9 mm diameter, allowed performing a localized measurement. Since the treated tumors were cutaneous melanomas of nodular type, the SPND was located on the patient's skin. The patient was exposed to three different and consecutive fields and in each of them the SPND was used to measure local thermal neutron fluxes at selected dosimetric reference points. The values of the measured fluxes agreed with the ones estimated by calculation. This trial also demonstrated the usefulness of the SPND for assessing flux on-line. (author)

  13. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  14. Thermally optimized lithium neutron producing target design for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park Shane; Joo Hyeong Min; Jang Byeong Ill; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim Jong Kyung; Chai, Jong Seo

    2006-01-01

    In accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction is prevalently used as a neutron source. However, lithium has a very low melting point and poor thermal conductivity. Thus lithium target needs an efficient cooling. In this study, ways of increasing proton beam diameter and slanting target are proposed to reduce the heat density of lithium target. Thermal analysis on the lithium target design shows that water cooling is feasible if the proton beam diameter and target slopes are in the available range of the contour plots generated from this study. On the basis of the thermal analysis, the prototype of target system was designed and manufactured. Full-model thermal analysis and temperature measuring experiment were subsequently performed. The calculated temperature distribution coincided with the contour plots and the experimental results. These results will be used in the manufacture of the prototype accelerator-based BNCT facility at Hanyang University. (author)

  15. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  16. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, M.A.P.; Tomac Junior, U.

    1990-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author) [pt

  17. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M S; González, S J; Burlon, A A; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2011-12-01

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment optimization of a brain tumor in BNCT by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat, S.; Binesh, A.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain cancers are one of the most important diseases. BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is used to brain tumor treatment. In this method the 1 0B (n,α) 7 Li reaction is used. The purpose of this study is absorbed dose evaluation of tumoral and healthy parts of brain. To achieve this aim the brain was simulated by a cylindrical phantom with the dimensions of 20 cm in diameter and height. In BNCT treatment the BSH (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) is injected to the human body and absorbed in the healthy and tumoral parts by the ratios of 18 and 65 ppm respectively. So in this research the absorption of BSH in tumoral and healthy parts of brain was considered as the mentioned ratio. Then the neutron with the energy range of 50 eV - 10 keV was exposed to the brain and maximum absorbed dose in healthy and tumoral parts of brain were calculated for a cylindrical tumor with the thickness of about 1 cm which was considered in 5.5 cm depth of brain. This research showed the suitable energy to treat this tumor by BNCT is interval 4 keV- 6keV. The average of dose which is met with healthy and tumor tissue was gained for 6 keV energy of brain 1.18x10 -12 cGy/n and 5.98x10 -12 cGy/n respectively. Maximum of dose which is met with healthy tissue was 4.3 Gy which is much less than standard amount 12.6 Gy. Therefore BNCT method is known as an effective way in the therapy of this kind of tumor. (authors)

  19. Design of a model for BSA to meet free beam parameters for BNCT based on multiplier system for D–T neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S.; Farhad Masoudi, S.; Kasesaz, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using natural uranium as a neutron multiplier for D–T neutron generator is examined. ► To optimize output neutron beam, a moderator/filter/reflector arrangement was designed. ► The MCNP4C code has been used for BSA optimization and other simulations. ► The results show that using this system the BNCT in-air recommended parameters are met. - Abstract: Extensive research has recently been carried out for the development of high-energy D–T neutron generators as neutron sources for BNCT. The energy of these high-energy neutrons must be reduced by designing a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) to make them usable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases drastically as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is very important to find ways to treat the neutrons economically. In this paper the possibility of using natural uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated in order to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D–T neutron generator. According to the simulations and performed calculations, a sphere containing natural uranium as neutron multiplier was used to increase the number of neutrons generated by the D–T neutron generator. The energy of fast neutrons that are generated by D–T fusion reaction and amplified by neutron multiplier system is decreased using proper materials as moderators and fast neutron filters in BSA. The gamma rays which are generated as a result of neutron interaction with moderators are removed from neutron spectrum using bismuth as the gamma filter. Also, a thermal neutron absorber omits undesired low-energy neutrons which lead to a high radiation dose for the skin and soft tissues. The results show that passing neutrons through such a BSA causes the establishment of free beam parameters yet the reduction of the output beam intensity is unavoidable. The neutron spectrum related to our BSA has a proper epithermal flux and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes are

  20. Quality assurance for BNCT at nuclear facilities. A necessary burden or the unavoidable seal of approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Morrissey, J.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Rassow, J.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT clinical trial at the HFR Petten is performed on a completely multi-national basis. The irradiation facility is located in one country (The Netherlands), is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a radiotherapist from another country (Germany) and treats patients coming from different European countries. In gaining the necessary approval, it became apparent, especially in the many discussions with the (Dutch) Health authorities that Quality Assurance (QA) would be and is a critical aspect. This is even more so, in the case of BNCT, where it was not only a (relatively) new experimental treatment (in 1996/97) about to be performed for the first time in Europe, but it was to be performed in a non-hospital environment and furthermore in a nuclear research reactor. It was necessary therefore to comply, as closely as possible, with similarly accepted practices in conventional radiotherapy. Despite QA being a sometimes burdensome task, this paper nevertheless raises the issue as to whether it is necessary or whether it is the seal of approval for BNCT as an acceptable mode of treatment in mainstream radiotherapy. (author)

  1. An accelerator neutron source for BNCT. Technical progress report, 1 June 1993--31 May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, T.E.; Vafai, K.

    1994-02-01

    This is the progress report for the project entitled, ''An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT.'' The progress report is for the period from July 1, 1993 to date. The overall objective of our research project is to develop an Accelerator Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (AENIF) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The AENIF consists of a 2.5 MeV high current proton accelerator, a lithium target to produce source neutrons, and a moderator/reflector assembly to obtain from the energetic source neutrons an epithermal neutron field suitable for BNCT treatments. Our project goals are to develop the non-accelerator components of the AENIF, and to specifically include in our development: (1) design, numerical simulation, and experimental verification of a target assembly which is capable of removing 75 kW of beam power; (2) re-optimization of the moderator assembly design based on in-phantom dose assessments using neutron spectra calculated in phantom and an energy-dependent neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE); (3) construction of a prototype moderator assembly and confirmation of its design by measurements; (4) design of the shielding of the accelerator and treatment rooms for an AENIF; and (5) design of a high energy beam transport system which is compatible with the shielding design and the thermal-hydraulic design

  2. In vivo tyrosinase mini-gene transfer enhances killing effect of BNCT on amelanotic melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Iwakura, M. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Using accentuated melanogenesis principally occurring within melanoma cells, we have successfully treated human malignant melanoma (Mm) with {sup 10}B-BPA BNCT. Despite this success, there are still remaining issues for poorly melanogenic Mm and further non-pigment cell tumors. We found the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B-BPA to Mm is primarily due to the complex formation of BPA and melanin-monomers activity synthesized within Mm cells. Then, we succeeded in transferring the tyrosinase gene into amelanotic to substantially produce melanin monomers. These cells has demonstrated increased boron accumulation and enhanced killing effect of BNCT. Further, transfection of TRP-2 (DOPAchrome tautomerase) gene into poorly eumelanotic and slightly phenomelanotic Mm cells in culture cell systems also led to increased BPA accumulation. Thereafter, we studied in vivo gene transfer. We transferred the tyrosinase mini-gene by intra-tumor injection into poorly melanotic Mm proliferating subcutaneously in hamster skin, and performed BNCT. Compared to control tumors, gene-transferred tumors showed increased BPA accumulation leading to enhanced killing effect. (author)

  3. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author

    2004-01-01

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material Fluental TM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  4. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaboronok, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakai, K.; Yoshida, F.; Uspenskii, S.; Selyanin, M.; Zelenetskii, A.; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron–hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. - Highlights: • Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer. • Boron–HA (BHA) acid can contain a large number of boron atoms for BNCT. • Active targeting can be realized with CD44 and other HA receptors on tumor cells. • BHA showed a certain degree of toxicity against C6 tumor cells and V79 fibroblasts. • BHA was injected into rats via the tail vein, boron was detected in tumors in vivo.

  5. Monitoring total boron in blood for BNCT by a novel atomic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, J.; Kulvik, M.; Ruokonen, I.; Vaehaetalo, J.; Faerkkilae, M.; Kallio, M.; Zilliacus, R.

    2000-01-01

    In BNCT the duration and timing of the is adjusted by 10 B concentrations in whole blood. Time-frame for determinations is less than 20 minutes. Therefore fast and accurate boron determinations are a prerequisite for BNCT. We present a method based on ICP-AES instrument for whole blood and plasma boron determinations with protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid as sample pre-treatment and beryllium as an internal standard. The method was compared to established but tedious ICP-mass spectrometric method with wet ashing as a sample pre-treatment. The ICP-AES method is in good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.99) the ICP-MS. Within-day and between-day imprecisions were less than 3,5% CV for whole blood samples. Samples taken during and after BPA-F infusion (290 mg/kg) revealed an uneven distribution between plasma and erythrocytes. The present method is feasible and one of the fastest currently available for BNCT. Our results indicate that BPA-F or its metabolites do not seem to be tightly bound to plasma proteins. It also seems that determination of boron in plasma sample may be preferable than measuring boron in whole blood. (author)

  6. Development of liquid-lithium film jet-flow for the target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reactions for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Miura, Kuniaki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Aritomi, Masanori

    2014-06-01

    A feasibility study on liquid lithium target in the form of a flowing film was performed to evaluate its potential use as a neutron generation target of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction in BNCT. The target is a windowless-type flowing film on a concave wall. Its configuration was adapted for a proton beam which is 30mm in diameter and with energy and current of up to 3MeV and 20mA, respectively. The flowing film of liquid lithium was 0.6mm in thickness, 50mm in width and 50mm in length. The shapes of the nozzle and concave back wall, which create a stable flowing film jet, were decided based on water experiments. A lithium hydrodynamic experiment was performed to observe the stability of liquid lithium flow behavior. The flowing film of liquid lithium was found to be feasible at temperatures below the liquid lithium boiling saturation of 342°C at the surface pressure of 1×10(-3)Pa. Using a proto-type liquid lithium-circulating loop for BNCT, the stability of the film flow was confirmed for velocities up to 30m/s at 220°C and 250°C in vacuum at a pressure lower than 10(-3) Pa. It is expected that for practical use, a flowing liquid lithium target of a windowless type can solve the problem of radiation damage and target cooling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reprint of Application of BNCT to the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer recurrences: Research and developments in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadan, M.A.; González, S.J.; Batalla, M.; Olivera, M.S.; Policastro, L.; Sztejnberg, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Argentine BNCT Project a new research line has been started to study the application of BNCT to the treatment of locoregional recurrences of HER2+ breast cancer subtype. Based on former studies, the strategy considers the use of immunoliposomes as boron carriers nanovehicles to target HER2 overexpressing cells. The essential concerns of the current stage of this proposal are the development of carriers that can improve the efficiency of delivery of boron compounds and the dosimetric assessment of treatment feasibility. For this purpose, an specific pool of clinical cases that can benefit from this application was determined. In this work, we present the proposal and the advances related to the different stages of current research. - Highlights: • A new proposal of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancer treatment is introduced. • The proposal considers development of immunoliposomes as boron carrier nanovehicles. • Locoregional recurrences after treatment were identified as candidates for initial BNCT studies. • First analysis show acceptable neutron flux distributions provided by RA-6 BNCT facility.

  8. A preclinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of spontaneous tumors in cats at RA-6 in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Calzetta, Osvaldo A.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Longhino, J.; Rao, Monica; Cantarelli, Maria de los A.

    2005-01-01

    BNCT is a binary treatment modality that combines irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam with tumor-seeking, boron containing drugs to produce selective irradiation of tumor tissue. Having demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of RA-1. Having demonstrated partial tumor control with no radio toxic effects, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of BPA-BNCT on tumor and normal tissue in 3 cases of spontaneous SCC in feline patients employing a higher neutron fluence than in the previous study. The present study was performed at RA-6 with the thermalized epithermal neutron beam. All three irradiations were successful. Except for an initial, moderate and reversible mucositis, no significant radio toxic effects were observed in terms of clinical follow-up, histological examination, biochemical analysis and assessment of autopsy material. Partial tumor control was evidenced in terms of growth inhibition and partial necrosis and improvement in the quality of life during the survival period. Optimization of the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT would require improvement in boron tumor targeting and strategies to increase in-depth dose in large tumors. (author)

  9. Early phase II study on BNCT in metastatic malignant melanoma using the boron carrier BPA (EORTC protocol 11011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, Andrea; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Moss, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the trial is to examine the clinical response of metastatic melanoma following BNCT with BPA. The trial contains an optional biodistribution sub-study, which is done if operable metastases are removed prior BNCT. BNCT is applied in 2 fractions at the HFR in Petten. In cases of diffuse brain metastases the whole brain is irradiated homogeneously using 5 irradiation beams from different directions. Up to now 4 patients suffering from multiple brain metastases (more than 20) have been included. In all cases we observed a partial response or no change in the irradiated volume. However, none of the patients survived more than 3 months. The pharmacokinetic of the BPA can be predicted very precisely using a two-compartment model. The treatment can be performed safety. (author)

  10. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  11. The use of positron emission tomography in BNCT treatment planning for metastatic malignant melanoma and glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.; Nichols, T.; Smith, G.; Miller, L.; Kahn, M.

    2000-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) evaluations of six glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and one metastatic melanoma (MM) patient have been carried out utilizing fluorine-18 labeled p-boronophenylalanine. Four of the GBM patients were imaged both prior to and post BNCT. In one GBM patient, biopsy derived boron distribution data compared favorably to the PET derived data. The PET data have been used as input to dosimetry calculations and the results vary from those obtained using current protocols. In addition, PET images of the thorax would indicate that the utility of PET for staging tumors for BNCT may extend beyond the brain. However, higher than anticipated levels of activity in the lungs (as also seen in salivary glands) indicate the more effective BNCT agents will be required. (author)

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF A NEUTRON BEAM SHAPING ASSEMBLY DESIGN FOR BNCT AND ITS DOSIMETRY SIMULATION BASED ON MCNPX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Ardana

    2017-10-01

    OPTIMASI DESAIN KOLIMATOR NEUTRON UNTUK SISTEM BNCT DAN UJI DOSIMETRINYA MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM MCNPX. Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sistem BNCT yang meliputi dua tahapan simulasi dengan menggunakan program MCNPX yaitu uji simulasi untuk optimasi desain kolimator neutron untuk sistem BNCT berbasis Siklotron 30 MeV dan uji simulasi untuk menghitung fluks neutron dan dosimetri radiasi pada kanker sarkoma jaringan lunak pada leher dan kepala. Tujuan simulasi untuk mendapatkan desain kolimator yang paling optimal dalam memoderasi fluks neutron cepat yang dihasilkan dari sistem target berilium sehingga dapat dihasilkan fluks neutron yang sesuai untuk sistem BNCT. Uji optimasi dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan masing-masing komponen dalam kolimator seperi reflektor, moderator, filter neutron cepat, filter neutron thermal, filter radiasi gamma dan lubang keluaran. Desain kolimator yang diperoleh dari hasil optimasi tersusun atas moderator berbahan Al dengan ketebalan 39 cm, filter neutron cepat berbahan LiF2 setebal 8,2 cm, dan filter neutron thermal berbahan B4C setebal 0,5 cm. Untuk reflektor, filter radiasi gamma dan lubang keluaran masing-masing menggunakan bahan PbF2, Pb dan Bi. Fluks neutron epithermal yang dihasilkan dari kolimator yang didesain adalah sebesar 2,83 x 109 n/s cm-2 dan telah memenuhi seluruh parameter fluks neutron yang sesuai untuk sistem BNCT. Selanjutnya uji simulasi dosimetri pada kanker sarkoma jaringan lunak pada leher dan kepala dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan konsentrasi senyawa boron pada model phantom leher manusia (ORNL. Selanjutnya model phantom tersebut diiradiasi dengan fluks neutron yang berasal dari kolimator yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Hasilnya, fluks neutron thermal mencapai nilai tertinggi pada kedalaman 4,8 cm di dalam model phantom leher ORNL dengan laju dosis tertinggi terletak pada area jaringan kanker. Untuk masing-masing variasi konsentrasi senyawa boron pada model phantom leher ORNL supaya

  13. Co-registration of the BNCT treatment planning images for clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salli, Eero; Seppaelae, Tiina; Kankaanranta, Leena; Asikainen, Sami; Savolainen, Sauli; Koivunoro, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    We have co-registered MRI, CT and FBPA-PET images for BNCT in clinical practice. Co-registration improves the spatial accuracy of the treatment planning by enabling use of information from all the co-registered modalities. The multimodal co-registration has been implemented as a service product provided by the Imaging Center of Helsinki University Central Hospital to other departments. To increase the accuracy of co-registration and patient positioning in the head area BNCT, a patient-specific fixation mask suitable for PET, MRI and CT was developed. The goal of the fixation mask is to normalize the orientation of the patient's head and neck. Co-registration is performed at the image processing unit by using a rigid body model, mutual-information based algorithms and partly in-house developed software tools. The accuracy of co-registration is verified by comparing the locations of the external skin markers and anatomical landmarks in different modalities. After co-registration, the images are transformed and covered into a format required by the BNCT dose-planning software and set to the dose-planning unit of the hospital. So far co-registration has been done for 22 patients. The co-registration protocol has proved to be reliable and efficient. Some registration errors are seen on some patients in the neck area because the rigid-body model used in co-registration is not fully valid for the brain-neck entity. The registration accuracy in this area could likely be improved by implementing a co-registration procedure utilizing a partly non-rigid body model. (author)

  14. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252 Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252 Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252 Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Development of a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole accelerator facility for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Thatar Vento, V; Levinas, P; Bergueiro, J; Di Paolo, H; Burlon, A A; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Minsky, D M; Estrada, L; Hazarabedian, A; Johann, F; Suarez Sandin, J C; Castell, W; Davidson, J; Davidson, M; Giboudot, Y; Repetto, M; Obligado, M; Nery, J P; Huck, H; Igarzabal, M; Fernandez Salares, A

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for accelerator-based (AB) BNCT at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina in Buenos Aires. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. An electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. The machine being designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 1.2 MV intended to work in air. Such a machine is conceptually shown to be capable of transporting and accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.4 MeV. The general geometric layout, its associated electrostatic fields, and the acceleration tube are simulated using a 3D finite element procedure. The design and construction of the ESQ modules is discussed and their electrostatic fields are investigated. Beam transport calculations through the accelerator are briefly mentioned. Likewise, work related to neutron production targets, strippers, beam shaping assembly and patient treatment room is briefly described.

  16. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1998-01-01

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (10 9 n/cm 2 /s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  17. Dose rate distribution calculation of elaborate head phantom for BNCT based on repeated structure card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohua; Yu Tao; Xue Qing

    2009-01-01

    Because of cursory character of the head geometry phantom which adopted in BNCT for glioma cure, filling the head by using Universe card and Fill card of MCNP code is performed, and subtle description of head phantom is accomplished in this paper. Then, dose distribution calculation in head injected with boron and without boron is implemented with fast, super-thermal and thermal neutrons respectively. Finally, the curve of dose rate and depth in head is acquired. The calculation result is consistent with the related reference report, which proves that elaborate head phantom constructed in this paper is correct. (authors)

  18. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rafi Mohd Solleh; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Julia Abdul Karim; Yoshiaki, Kiyanagi

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 10 8 n/ cm 2 / s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 10 9 n/ cm 2 / s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  19. Development of the patient setting system for BNCT at JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A new treatment planning software: Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) is in progress its development for BNCT with epithermal neutron beam in JAERI. Irradiation conditions such as beam angle to a patient are calculated by JCDS. In order to implement these conditions, it is necessary to precisely set the patient to actual irradiation position simulated by JCDS beforehand. Therefore, the Patient Setting System, which accurately and quickly sets the patient to the irradiation position, is being developed with JCDS concurrently. In this report, the current status of the development of JCDS and the Patient Setting System in JAERI will be described. (author)

  20. Spectrum shaping assessment of accelerator-based fusion neutron sources to be used in BNCT treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Daquino, G. G.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of an irradiation facility, for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application, using a set of advanced type, accelerator based, 3H(d,n) 4He (D-T) fusion neutron source device is presented. Some general issues concerning the design of a proper irradiation beam shaping assembly, based on very hard energy neutron source spectrum, are reviewed. The facility here proposed, which represents an interesting solution compared to the much more investigated Li or Be based accelerator driven neutron source could fulfil all the medical and safety requirements to be used by an hospital environment.

  1. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous canine oral melanoma: A large animal model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.E.; Sande, R.D.; Papageorges, M.; Bauer, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Oral melanomas in dogs are the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Prevalence has been recorded at 127 per 100,000 dogs/year. There is a predilection for the gingiva of male dogs with heavy pigmentation. The tumors are resistant to treatment with conventional radiation and chemotherapy. The tumors are very aggressive and have generally metastasized to the regional lymph nodes at the time of initial diagnosis. Distant metastases occur in approximately 85% of patients. Metastatic sites include lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, skeleton, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Fifteen (15) dogs with oral lesions biopsied and diagnosed as malignant melanoma were entered in the study. A thorough diagnostic regimen was performed in an attempt to detect the regional spread and distant metastases of the tumor

  3. Tumor control induced by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as a function of dose in an experimental model of liver metastases at 5 weeks follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E C C; Trivillin, V A; Colombo, L L; Monti Hughes, A; Thorp, S; Cardoso, J E; Garabalino, M A; Molinari, A J; Heber, E M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Nigg, D W; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    BNCT has been proposed for the treatment of multifocal, non-resectable, bilobar colorectal liver metastases that do not respond to chemotherapy. We recently reported that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) induced significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in rat liver at 3 weeks follow-up with no contributory liver toxicity (Pozzi et al.,2012). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tumor control and potential liver toxicity of BPA-BNCT at 5 weeks follow-up. Prescribed dose was retrospectively evaluated based on blood boron values, allowing for assessment of response over a range of delivered dose values (author)

  4. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T., E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Andoh, T. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Division of Pediatrics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Sonobe, H. [Department of Pathology, Chugoku Central Hospital, Fukuyama 720-0001 (Japan); Epstein, Alan L. [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA 90033 (United States); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  5. A phase-I clinical trial for cranial BNCT at Harvard-MIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, P.M.; Palmer, M.R.; Harling, O.K.

    2000-01-01

    Phase I trial designed to determine the maximum tolerable dose to normal tissue for cranial BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) irradiations was recently completed at Harvard Medical School and MIT. Twenty-two subjects diagnosed with either glioblastoma multiforme or intracranial melanoma were treated between 1996 and 1999. Subjects received either one or two administrations of boronophenylalanine intravenously at doses between 250 and 350 mg/kg body weight, then exposed in one, two or three fields to epithermal neutrons at the MIT Research Reactor in one or two fractions. Over the course of the study, the maximum normal tissue dose target was increased from 8.8 to 14.2 RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) Gy in 10% increments. Subjects have been followed clinically and radiographically. Of those patients surviving beyond six months, no MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) white-matter changes were observed and no long-term complications attributable to BNCT were evident. Tumor responses were observed, particularly with the melanoma subjects. With increasing doses, difficulties arose from long irradiation times (approximately 3 hours) and the emergence of acute reactions in the skin and mucosa. The trial was stopped in May 1999. Future trials will be initiated with the new high intensity, low background fission converter beam at MIT. (author)

  6. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, Marcela A.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nievas, Susana; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10 B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7 Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10 B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 1 -0H 10 ), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10 B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10 B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10 B/kg ip

  7. RADIATION DOSIMETRY IN THE BNCT PATIENT TREATMENT ROOM AT THE BMRR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.-P.

    2005-05-08

    The Medical Research Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BMRR) was a heterogeneous, tank type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was operated on demand at a power level up to 3 mega-watts (MW) for medical and biological research [1]. The reactor first went critical on March 15, 1959, with 17 fresh fuel elements (2.52 kg uranium-235 in a total of 2.7 kg uranium) in the center core. The BMRR had two treatment rooms on opposite sides of the core. It had a predominately thermal neutron beam in the Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNE) on the west side of the core. By early 1990, a redesigned beam line had a predominately epithermal neutron beam in the Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (ENIF) on the east side of the core [2]. The ENP was approximately 11 feet by 21 feet in size with its focal point consisting of a bismuth plate mounted in the wall adjacent to the reactor shield about 36 inches above the floor. The beam originated at a shutter constructed of 0.75 inch steel filled with concrete and weighing {approx}21 tons. Access to the ENIF was through a pair of hand operated steel shielding doors, each 42 inches wide, 84 inches high and 5 inches thick. The inner door had a 4-inch thick layer of paraffin on the side facing the reactor. The doors 5000 pounds weighed each. Additional shielding material had been added to the entire beam port at reactor wall within the ENIF. The shielding material consisted of 2-inch thick polyethylene sheets, which were impregnated with 95%-enriched {sup 6}Li in lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The shielding sheets around the port face were designed to allow the insertion of a variety of different beam collimators.

  8. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, E. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)], E-mail: epozzi@cnea.gov.ar; Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I. [Instrumentation and Control Department, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Zarza, L.; Estryk, G. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Quintana, J. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in {sup 6}Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by 10 B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark experiments

  10. 2.5 MeV CW 4-vane RFQ accelerator design for BNCT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaowen; Wang, Hu; Lu, Yuanrong; Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Kun; Zou, Yubin; Guo, Zhiyu

    2018-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) promises a bright future in cancer therapy for its highly selective destruction of cancer cells, using the 10B +n→7Li +4 He reaction. It offers a more satisfactory therapeutic effect than traditional methods for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, head and neck cancer, melanoma, liver cancer and so on. A CW 4-vane RFQ, operating at 162.5 MHz, provides acceleration of a 20 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV, bombarding a liquid lithium target for neutron production with a soft neutron energy spectrum. The fast neutron yield is about 1.73×1013 n/s. We preliminarily develop and optimize a beam shaping assembly design for the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction with a 2.5 MeV proton beam. The epithermal neutron flux simulated at the beam port will reach up to 1 . 575 ×109 n/s/cm2. The beam dynamics design, simulation and benchmark for 2.5 MeV BNCT RFQ have been performed with both ParmteqM (V3.05) and Toutatis, with a transmission efficiency higher than 99.6% at 20 mA. To ease the thermal management in the CW RFQ operation, we adopt a modest inter-vane voltage design (U = 65 kV), though this does increase the accelerator length (reaching 5.2 m). Using the well-developed 3D electromagnetic codes, CST MWS and ANSYS HFSS, we are able to deal with the complexity of the BNCT RFQ, taking the contribution of each component in the RF volume into consideration. This allows us to optimize the longitudinal field distribution in a full-length model. Also, the parametric modeling technique is of great benefit to extensive modifications and simulations. In addition, the resonant frequency tuning of this RFQ is studied, giving the tuning sensitivities of vane channel and wall channel as -16.3 kHz/°C and 12.4 kHz/°C, respectively. Finally, both the multipacting level of this RFQ and multipacting suppressing in the coaxial coupler are investigated.

  11. The radiation biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) produces a complex mixture of high and low-LET radiations in tissue. Using data on the biological effectiveness of these various dose components, derived primarily in small animals irradiated with thermal neutrons, it has been possible to express clinical BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units. The accuracy of these calculated doses in normal tissue and tumor will be reviewed. Clinical trials are underway at a number of centers. There are differences in the neutron beams at these centers, and differences in the details of the clinical protocols. Ideally, data from all centers using similar boron compounds and treatment protocols should be compared and combined, if appropriate, in a multi-institutional study in order to strengthen statistical analysis. An international dosimetry exchange is underway that will allow the physical doses from the various treatment centers to be quantitatively compared. As a first step towards the comparison of the clinical data, the normal brain tolerance data from the patients treated in the initial Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Harvard/MIT BNCT clinical trials have been compared. The data provide a good estimate of the normal brain tolerance for a somnolence syndrome endpoint, and provide guidance for setting normal brain tolerance limits in ongoing and future clinical trials. Escalation of the dose in BNCT can be accomplished by increasing the amount of the boron compound administered, increasing the duration of the neutron exposure, or both. The dose escalations that have been carried out to date at the various treatment centers will be compared and contrasted. Possible future clinical trials using BNCT in combination with other modalities will be discussed

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  13. Measurement of dose rate components of the BNCT beam at THOR using paired ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai Wenchyi; Chen Angyu; Liu Yuanhao; Jiang Shianghuei; Liu Yenwan Hsueh; Liu Hongming

    2006-01-01

    Paired ionization chambers were used in this work to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates of the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR along the beam axis free-in-air and in the water phantom. The position dependent and kerma rate weighted neutron sensitivities of the TE(TE) chamber were adopted in the measurements. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron fluence rates and neutron kerma rates using the MCNP4C code were used to support the measurements and compare with the measured results. It concludes that the relative neutron sensitivity of the Mg(Ar) chamber warrants a detailed investigation to improve the accuracy of the dose rate measurement using paired ionization chambers in a mixed field. (author)

  14. Effects of secondary interactions on the dose calculation in treatments with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aimed of this work consists of evaluating the influence of the secondary contributions of dose (thermal neutrons dose, epithermal neutrons dose, fast neutrons dose and photon dose) in treatment planning with BNCT. MCNP4B Code was used to calculate RBE-Gy doses through the irradiation of the modified Snyder head head phantom.A reduction of the therapeutical gain of monoenergetic neutron beans was observed in non invasive treatments, provoked for the predominance of the fast neutron dose component in the skin, showing that the secondary contributions of dose can contribute more in the direction to raise the dose in the fabric healthy that in the tumor, thus reducing the treatment efficiency. (author)

  15. Study on high speed lithium jet for neutron source of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tooru; Zhang, Mingguang; Mak, Michael; Stefanica, Jiri; Dostal, Vaclav; Zhao Wei

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility study of a liquid lithium type proton beam target was performed for the neutron source of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). As the candidates of the liquid lithium target, a thin sheet jet and a thin film flow on a concave wall were chosen, and a lithium flow experiment was conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic stability of the targets. The surfaces of the jets and film flows with a thickness of 0.5 mm and a width of 50 mm were observed by means of photography. It has been found that a stable sheet jet and a stable film flow on a concave wall can be formed up to certain velocities by using a straight nozzle and a curved nozzle with the concave wall, respectively. (author)

  16. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the DOE program at The University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine is the development of effective molecular medicine for use in neutron-capture therapy (NCT). The research focuses primarily on the preparation of new boron-rich NCT agents and the technology to detect them in-vivo. The detection technology involves the development of effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for verifying and measuring NCT agents in-vivo. The synthetic program is directed toward the design of novel boron NCT (BNCT) agents which are targeted to the cell nucleus and gadolinium liposomes targeted to the liver. The UT-DOE program is unique in that it has access to both state-of-the-art whole-body and microscopy MRI instruments.

  17. A core laboratory offering full evaluation of new boron compounds. A service to the BNCT community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Patel, H.; Palmer, M.R.; Lin, H.C.; Busse, P.M.; Harling, O.; Binns, P.J.; Riley, K.J.; Bernard, J.

    2000-01-01

    A joint project by the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School and The Nuclear Reactor Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is proposed which would provide a core laboratory for the evaluation of new boron compounds. Federal agency funding has been applied for to support such a facility. The facility's evaluation of candidate boron compounds will include: quantitative cellular boron uptake; cell survival curve analysis (using a thermal neutron beam); small or large animal pharmacokinetic analysis; macro- and micro boron distribution analysis using high-resolution autoradiography, prompt gamma analysis and ICP-AES; small or large animal in vivo tumor control studies (using thermal or epithermal neutron beams); and pharmacological in vivo toxicity evaluation. The laboratory will include small and large animal surgical facilities and resources for additional boron compound chemistry as required by the evaluation procedure. This facility will be open to the BNCT research community. (author)

  18. PhoNeS: A novel approach to BNCT with conventional radiotherapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, R.; Giannini, G.; Calligaris, F.; Fontanarosa, D.; Longo, F.; Scian, G.; Totaro, P.; Vittor, K.; Vallazza, E.; Severgnini, M.; Vidimari, R.; Bartesaghi, G.; Conti, V.; Mascagna, V.; Perboni, C.; Prest, M.; Gambarini, G.; Gay, S.; Valente, M.A.; Mozzanica, A.; Monti, A.; Ostinelli, A.; Azario, L.; Fidanzio, A.; Piermattei, A.; Borla, O.; Elisabetta Durisi; Fasolo, F.; Nastasi, U.; Perosino, E.; Zanini, A.; Tommasino, L.

    2007-01-01

    PhoNeS (Photo Neutron Source) is an INFN project devoted to the optimization of the neutron production and moderation in radiotherapy linear accelerators. LinAcs producing high energy (15-25MeV) photon beams are becoming widespread. At this energy neutron photo-production is unavoidable and the neutron dose must be controlled and reduced during normal radiotherapy. A technique known as BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) uses neutrons for radiotherapic treatments: the cells are given a drug containing B10 which undergoes fission after neutron capture, inducing heavy damages to the DNA of the cell itself. This paper will describe the moderator developed by PhoNeS and the results in terms of neutron flux and spectrum and photon contamination of the measurements performed on several radiotherapy accelerators

  19. Gel dosimeters as useful dose and thermal-fluence detectors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Valente, M.; Moss, R.L.; Daquino, G.G.; Nievaart, V.A.; Mariani, M.; Vanossi, E.; Carrara, M.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetry method based on Fricke-Xylenol-Orange-infused gels in form of layers has shown noticeable potentiality for in-phantom or in-free-beam dose and thermal flux profiling and imaging in the high fluxes of thermal or epithermal neutrons utilised for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Gel-dosimeters in form of layers give the possibility not only of obtaining spatial dose distributions but also of achieving measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields. The discrimination of the various dose components is achieved by means of pixel-to-pixel manipulations of pairs of images obtained with gel-dosimeters having different isotopic composition. It is possible to place large dosimeters, detecting in such a way large dose images, because the layer geometry of dosimeters avoids sensitive variation of neutron transport due to the gel isotopic composition. Some results obtained after the last improvements of the method are reported. (Author)

  20. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Molinari, Ana J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB

  1. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  2. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  3. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AB-BNCT beam shaping assembly based on {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    A numerical optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Accelerator Based-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) has been performed. The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be has been considered using a proton beam on a lithium fluoride target. Proton energy and the dimensions of a simple BSA geometry have been varied to obtain a set of different configurations. The optimal configuration of this set is shown.

  5. Development of An Epi-thermal Neutron Field for Fundamental Researches for BNCT with A DT Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Yuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is known to be a new promising cancer therapy suppressing influence against normal cells. In Japan, Accelerator Based Neutron Sources (ABNS are being developed for BNCT. For the spread of ABNS based BNCT, we should characterize the neutron field beforehand. For this purpose, we have been developing a low-energy neutron spectrometer based on 3He position sensitive proportional counter. In this study, a new intense epi-thermal neutron field was developed with a DT neutron source for verification of validity of the spectrometer. After the development, the neutron field characteristics were experimentally evaluated by using activation foils. As a result, we confirmed that an epi-thermal neutron field was successfully developed suppressing fast neutrons substantially. Thereafter, the neutron spectrometer was verified experimentally. In the verification, although a measured detection depth distribution agreed well with the calculated distribution by MCNP, the unfolded spectrum was significantly different from the calculated neutron spectrum due to contribution of the side neutron incidence. Therefore, we designed a new neutron collimator consisting of a polyethylene pre-collimator and boron carbide neutron absorber and confirmed numerically that it could suppress the side incident neutrons and shape the neutron flux to be like a pencil beam.

  6. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  8. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the TRIGA Mark II of Pavia, Italy - The BNCT of the diffuse tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Gadan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The selectivity based on the B distribution rather than on the irradiation field makes Boron neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) a valid option for the treatment of the disseminated tumours. As the range of the high LET particles is shorter than a cell diameter, the normal cells around the tumour are not damaged by the reactions occurring in the tumoral cells. PAVIA 2001: first treatment of multiple hepatic metastases from colon ca by BNCT and auto-transplantation technique: TAOrMINA project. The liver was extracted after BPA infusion, irradiated in the Thermal Column of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II reactor, and re-implanted in the patient. Two patients were treated, demonstrating the feasibility of the therapy and the efficacy in destroying the tumoral nodules sparing the healthy tissues. In the last years, the possibility of applying BNCT to the lung tumours using epithermal collimated neutron beams and without explanting the organ, is being explored. The principal obtained results of the BNCT research are presented, with particular emphasis on the following aspects: a) the project of a new thermal column configuration to make the thermal neutron flux more uniform inside the explanted liver, b) the Monte Carlo study by means of the MCNP code of the thermal neutron flux distribution inside a patient's thorax irradiated with epithermal neutrons, and c) the measurement of the boron concentration in tissues by (n,α) spectroscopy and neutron autoradiography. The dose distribution in the thorax are simulated using MCNP and the anthropomorphic model ADAM. To have a good thermal flux distribution inside the lung epithermal neutrons must be used, which thermalize crossing the first tissue layers. Thermal neutrons do not penetrate and the obtained uniformity is poor. In the future, the construction of a PGNAA facility using a horizontal channel of the TRIGA Mark II is planned. With this method the B concentration can be measured also in liquid samples (blood, urine) and in those

  9. Evaluation of neutron irradiation fields for BNCT by using absorbed dose in a phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, O.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous paper, the author defined the open-quotes irradiation timeclose quotes as the time of irradiation in which the maximum open-quotes total background doseclose quotes becomes 2,500 RBE-cGy. In this paper, he has modified the definition a little as the time of irradiation in which the maximum open-quotes lμg/g B-10 doseclose quotes becomes 3,000 RBE-cGy, because he assumed that normal tissue contained 1μg/g B-10. Moreover, he has modified the dose criteria for BNCT as follows: The open-quotes eye doseclose quotes, open-quotes total body doseclose quotes and open-quotes except-head doseclose quotes should be less that 200, 100 and 50 RBE-cGy, respectively. He has added one more criterion for BNCT that the thermal neutron fluence at the tumor position should be over 2.5x10 12 n/cm 2 at the open-quotes irradiation timeclose quotes. The distance from the core side to the irradiation port in the open-quotes old configurationclose quotes of the Musashi reactor (TRIGA-II, 100kW) was 160 cm. He is now planning to design an eccentric core and to move the reactor core nearer to the irradiation port, distance between the core side and the irradiation port to be 140, 130 and 120cm. The other assumptions used in this paper are as follows: (1) The B-10 concentrations in tumor are 30 and/or 10μg/g. (2) The depth of the tumor is 5.0 cm to 5.5 cm from the surface. (3) The RBE values used are 1.0 for all gamma rays and 2.3 for B 10 (n,α) reaction products. (4) The RBE values for neutrons are the following three cases: the first case is using 1.6 for all neutrons; the second one is using 3.2 for non-thermal neutrons and 1.6 for thermal neutrons; the third case is using 4.8 for fast neutrons, 3.2 for faster epithermal and epithermal neutrons, and 1.6 for thermal neutrons

  10. Initial Experimental Verification of the Neutron Beam Modeling for the LBNL BNCT Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Smith, A.R.; Stone, N.A.; Vuji, J.

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for future clinical BNCT trials, neutron production via the 7Li(p,n) reaction as well as subsequent moderation to produce epithermal neutrons have been studied. Proper design of a moderator and filter assembly is crucial in producing an optimal epithermal neutron spectrum for brain tumor treatments. Based on in-phantom figures-of-merit,desirable assemblies have been identified. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron to characterize epithermal neutron beams created using several microampere of 2.5 MeV protons on a lithium target. The neutron moderating assembly consisted of Al/AlF3 and Teflon, with a lead reflector to produce an epithermal spectrum strongly peaked at 10-20 keV. The thermal neutron fluence was measured as a function of depth in a cubic lucite head phantom by neutron activation in gold foils. Portions of the neutron spectrum were measured by in-air activation of six cadmium-covered materials (Au, Mn, In, Cu, Co, W) with high epithermal neutron absorption resonances. The results are reasonably reproduced in Monte Carlo computational models, confirming their validity

  11. Monte Carlo simulation to study the doses in an accelerator BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro A.; Valda, Alejandro A.; Somacal, Hector R.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Minsky, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction has been studied as a neutron source for accelerator-based BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In order to optimize the design of the neutron production target and the beam shaping assembly, extensive MCNP simulations have been performed. These simulations include a thick Li metal target, a whole-body phantom, a moderator-reflector assembly (Al/AlF 3 as moderator and graphite as reflector) and the treatment room. The doses were evaluated for two proton bombarding energies of 1.92 MeV (near to the threshold of the reaction) and 2.3 MeV (near to the resonance of the reaction) and for three Al/ALF 3 moderator thicknesses (18, 26 and 34 cm). To assess the doses, a comparison using a Tumor Control Probability (TCP) model was done. In a second instance, the effect of the specific skin radiosensitivity (an RBE of 2.5 for the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction) and a 10 B uptake of 17 ppm was considered for the scalp. Finally, the simulations show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the high neutron yield at this energy, leading to the lowest treatment times. Moreover, the 26 cm Al/AlF 3 moderator has shown the best performance among the studied cases. (author)

  12. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  13. Detailed dosimetry and clinical outcome analysis for the argentine BNCT trials of cutaneous nodular melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Casal, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Three female patients with biopsy-proven nodular melanoma were treated to six separate sites as part of the Phase I/II BNCT clinical trial conducted at the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and the Instituto A. Roffo, Argentina. This work reports on the detailed dosimetry for the clinical trials, and presents a preliminary analysis to investigate the possible influence of tumor size and total equivalent dose on the observed local tumor response. Also, the appropriateness of applying 3.5 tumor-to-blood 10 B concentration ratio for the BPA compound in nodular melanoma cases is discussed. The statistical analysis showed that tumor response depends not only on the dose but also, and highly, on the tumor size. For these three patients, there was no significant difference between minimum and mean equivalent doses as explicative for tumor response. The collection of sixteen experimental-based tumor-to-blood ratios determined by CNEA in nodular melanoma patients derived an average value and standard deviation of 2.5 ± 0.6. This result suggests that a lower ratio could be more suitable for estimating the clinical dosimetry. It is also consistent with the worse tumor control rate in nodular melanomas observed by other researchers. (author)

  14. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    The primary objectives of the DOE Program at the University of Tennessee Biomedical Imaging Center are the development of new boron-neutron-capture agents as well as the technology to detect boron compounds in-vivo. The detection technology focuses on the development of effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for verifying and measuring BNCT agents in-vivo. A significant portion of the effort is directed toward the design of boron-containing neutron-capture-therapy agents. The UT -- DOE program is unique in that it has access to two state-of-the-art multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging units housed in the Biomedical Imaging Center at the University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville. In addition the UT -- DOE researchers actively collaborate with colleagues at other DOE facilities (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Associated Universities). An important goal of the DOE program at UT is to provide training for students (predoctoral and postdoctoral). The University of Tennessee is one of the very few institutions in the world where students have hands-on'' access to both modern scientific equipment and medical imaging modalities such as the clinical MRI units. The academic nature of the program facilitates collaborative interactions with other DOE programs and helps to insure the continued availability of skilled scientists dedicated to the advancement of diagnostic medical procedures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Simulation of the BNCT of Brain Tumors Using MCNP Code: Beam Designing and Dose Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Rasouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction BNCT is an effective method to destroy brain tumoral cells while sparing the healthy tissues. The recommended flux for epithermal neutrons is 109 n/cm2s, which has the most effectiveness on deep-seated tumors. In this paper, it is indicated that using D-T neutron source and optimizing of Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA leads to treating brain tumors in a reasonable time where all IAEA recommended criteria are met. Materials and Methods The proposed BSA based on a D-T neutron generator consists of a neutron multiplier system, moderators, reflector, and collimator. The simulated Snyder head phantom is used to evaluate dose profiles in tissues due to the irradiation of designed beam. Monte Carlo Code, MCNP-4C, was used in order to perform these calculations.   Results The neutron beam associated with the designed and optimized BSA has an adequate epithermal flux at the beam port and neutron and gamma contaminations are removed as much as possible. Moreover, it was showed that increasing J/Φ, as a measure of beam directionality, leads to improvement of beam performance and survival of healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. Conclusion According to the simulation results, the proposed system based on D-T neutron source, which is suitable for in-hospital installations, satisfies all in-air parameters. Moreover, depth-dose curves investigate proper performance of designed beam in tissues. The results are comparable with the performances of other facilities.

  16. A novel design of beam shaping assembly to use D-T neutron generator for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Karimi, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    In order to use 14.1MeV neutrons produced by d-T neutron generators, two special and novel Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), including multi-layer and hexagonal lattice have been suggested and the effect of them has been investigated by MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The results show that the proposed BSA can provide the qualified epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. The final epithermal neutron flux is about 6e9 n/cm2.s. The final proposed BSA has some different advantages: 1) it consists of usual and well-known materials (Pb, Al, Fluental and Cd); 2) it has a simple geometry; 3) it does not need any additional gamma filter; 4) it can provide high flux of epithermal neutrons. As this type of neutron source is under development in the world, it seems that they can be used clinically in a hospital considering the proposed BSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new approach to determine tumor-to-blood 10B concentration ratios from the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Carando, D.G.; Bonomi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to determine the tumor-to-blood 10 B concentration ratio in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is introduced. It is a statistical method, which uses maximum likelihood estimation on the clinical outcome of a BNCT treatment. Its performance is shown in a clinical case of cutaneous multiple nodular melanomas. The calculations involve a detailed dosimetry analysis, the determination of tumor control probabilities for the different nodules, the maximum likelihood estimation itself, and a parametric bootstrap to obtain confidence intervals for the tumor-to-blood ratio. The obtained ratio is 3.05±0.46 with a 95%-confidence interval. These results are consistent with those found in literature. Moreover, a single patient with multiple nodules proves enough to get statistically relevant results. The proposed method does not involve surgery and can be performed after a BNCT treatment without being invasive for the patient

  18. PET pharmacokinetic analysis to estimate boron concentration in tumor and brain as a guide to plan BNCT for malignant cerebral glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: nariai.nsrg@tmd.ac.jp; Ishiwata, Kiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Yuichi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan); Inaji, Motoki; Momose, Toshiya [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Igaraki (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Kikuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: To plan the optimal BNCT for patients with malignant cerebral glioma, estimation of the ratio of boron concentration in tumor tissue against that in the surrounding normal brain (T/N ratio of boron) is important. We report a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging method to estimate T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration based on pharmacokinetic analysis of amino acid probes. Methods: Twelve patients with cerebral malignant glioma underwent 60 min dynamic PET scanning of brain after bolus injection of {sup 18}F-borono-phenyl-alanine (FBPA) with timed arterial blood sampling. Using kinetic parameter obtained by this scan, T/N ratio of boron concentration elicited by one-hour constant infusion of BPA, as performed in BNCT, was simulated on Runge-Kutta algorithm. {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET scan, which is commonly used in worldwide PET center as brain tumor imaging tool, was also performed on the same day to compare the image characteristics of FBPA and that of MET. Result: PET glioma images obtained with FBPA and MET are almost identical in all patients by visual inspection. Estimated T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration after one-hour constant infusion of BPA, T/N ratio of FBPA on static condition, and T/N ratio of MET on static condition showed significant linear correlation between each other. Conclusion: T/N ratio of boron concentration that is obtained by constant infusion of BPA during BNCT can be estimated by FBPA PET scan. This ratio can also be estimated by MET-PET imaging. As MET-PET study is available in many clinical PET center, selection of candidates for BNCT may be possible by MET-PET images. Accurate planning of BNCT may be performed by static images of FBPA PET. Use of PET imaging with amino acid probes may contribute very much to establish an appropriate application of BNCT for patients with malignant glioma.

  19. PET pharmacokinetic analysis to estimate boron concentration in tumor and brain as a guide to plan BNCT for malignant cerebral glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Tadashi; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Inaji, Motoki; Momose, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Ishii, Kenji; Ohno, Kikuo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To plan the optimal BNCT for patients with malignant cerebral glioma, estimation of the ratio of boron concentration in tumor tissue against that in the surrounding normal brain (T/N ratio of boron) is important. We report a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging method to estimate T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration based on pharmacokinetic analysis of amino acid probes. Methods: Twelve patients with cerebral malignant glioma underwent 60 min dynamic PET scanning of brain after bolus injection of 18 F-borono-phenyl-alanine (FBPA) with timed arterial blood sampling. Using kinetic parameter obtained by this scan, T/N ratio of boron concentration elicited by one-hour constant infusion of BPA, as performed in BNCT, was simulated on Runge-Kutta algorithm. 11 C-methionine (MET) PET scan, which is commonly used in worldwide PET center as brain tumor imaging tool, was also performed on the same day to compare the image characteristics of FBPA and that of MET. Result: PET glioma images obtained with FBPA and MET are almost identical in all patients by visual inspection. Estimated T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration after one-hour constant infusion of BPA, T/N ratio of FBPA on static condition, and T/N ratio of MET on static condition showed significant linear correlation between each other. Conclusion: T/N ratio of boron concentration that is obtained by constant infusion of BPA during BNCT can be estimated by FBPA PET scan. This ratio can also be estimated by MET-PET imaging. As MET-PET study is available in many clinical PET center, selection of candidates for BNCT may be possible by MET-PET images. Accurate planning of BNCT may be performed by static images of FBPA PET. Use of PET imaging with amino acid probes may contribute very much to establish an appropriate application of BNCT for patients with malignant glioma.

  20. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  1. Performance testing of the neutron flux monitors from 10keV to 1MeV developed for BNCT: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xingcai; Manabe, Masanobu; Tamaki, Shingo; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Wang, Tieshan

    2017-07-01

    The neutron flux monitors from 10keV to 1MeV designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were experimentally tested with prototype monitors in an appropriate neutron field produced at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. The experimental test results and related analysis indicated that the performance of the monitors was good and the neutron fluxes from 10keV to 1MeV of practical BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 10% by the monitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphometric and immunocytochemical analysis of melanoma samples for individual optimization of therapy for boron neutron capture (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, M; Dagrosa, A; Brandizzi, D; Nievas, S; Olivera, M S; Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors from different patients with the same histological diagnosis can show different responses to ionizing radiation including BNCT. Further knowledge about individual tumor characteristics is needed in order to optimize the individual application of this therapy. In previous studies we have shown different patterns of boron intracellular concentration in three human melanoma cell lines. When we performed xenografts with these cell lines in nude mice a wide range of boron concentrations in tumor was observed. We also evaluated the tumor temperature obtained by thermography. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the BPA uptake related to different histological and thermal characteristics of each tumor in nude mice bearing human melanoma. We also studied the proliferation and the vasculature in tumors by immunohistochemical studies and the relationship with the BPA uptake. Materials and Methodos: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) into the back right flank with 3.106 human melanoma cells (MELJ). To evaluate the BPA uptake, animals were injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (ip) and sacrificed 2 h post administration. Each sample of tumor was divided into two equal parts, one for uptake of B and another for histological studies. Boron measurements in tissues were performed by ICP-OES. For the histological studies, samples from the tumors were fixed in buffered 10% formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Infrared imaging studies were performed the day before the biodistribution, measuring the tumor and body temperatures. Immunohistochemical studies were performed with antibodies Ki-67 and CD31. The first one is a marker of proliferative rate and the second one is a specific marker of endothelial cells which allows to identify the vasculature. Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and avidin biotin complex immunostaining were used. Results: Tumor BPA uptake showed

  3. A study of computational dosimetry and boron biodistribution for ex – situ lung BNCT at RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Trivillin, V. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.; Curotto, P; Miller, M.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Saint Martin, G.; Schwint, A.E.; González, S.J.; Farías, R.O; Portu, A.; Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Lange, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of the preclinical ex-situ BNCT Project for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases, we performed boron biodistribution studies in a sheep model and computational dosimetry studies in human lung to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed technique. Herein we report preliminary data that supports the use of the sheep model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Furthermore, the estimation of the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed treatment in humans, based on boron uptake values in the large animal model, yields promising tumor control probability values even in the most conservative scenario considered. (author)

  4. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University--Neutron flux measurement with gold foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sakai, M; Yoshihashi, S; Manabe, M; Zushi, N; Murata, I; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S; Nagasaki, M; Horiike, H

    2015-12-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodistribution of a new boron compound for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Miura, M.; Coderre, J.A.; Garavaglia, Ricardo; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed and validated the HCP carcinogenesis model of oral cancer, a model that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation, for BNCT research in a separate study. We herein perform a biodistribution study of a lipophilic carborane-containing tetraphenylporphyrin, CuTCPH, in this model. This compound was previously tested in a model of mice bearing subcutaneously transplanted mammary carcinomas. In the present study CuTCPH was administered as a single i.p. injection at a dose of 32 μg/g b.w. (10 μg B/g b.w.) or as 4 i.p. injections over 2 days at a dose of 32 μg/g b.w. per injection. Blood (Bl) and tissue, i.e. tumor (T), precancerous tissue surrounding tumor (P), normal pouch (N), skin, tongue, cheek and palate mucosa, liver, spleen, parotid gland and brain were sampled 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hs post-administration in the single dose protocol and 1-4 days after the last injection in the multidose protocol. Boron (B) analysis was performed by ICP-AES. The maximum ratio of B concentration for the single dose protocol was 32.7:1 for T:N and 31.8:1 for T:Bl. The B value in tumor reached a maximum of 43.8 ppm. However, the mean value of 16 ± 14.3 ppm fell short of therapeutically useful levels. The multidose protocol yielded maximum ratios of 53.33:1 for T:N and 3633.3:1 for T:Bl. The maximum absolute B value in tumor reached 106.40 ppm. The mean value in tumor 3 days post-administration was 68.02 ± 25.02. Absolute and relative maximum and average B values markedly exceeded the therapeutic threshold values. (author)

  6. Neutron intensity monitor with activation foil for p-Li neutron source for BNCT--Feasibility test of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Otani, Yuki; Sato, Fuminobu

    2015-12-01

    Proton-lithium (p-Li) reaction is being examined worldwide as a candidate nuclear production reaction for accelerator based neutron source (ABNS) for BNCT. In this reaction, the emitted neutron energy is not so high, below 1 MeV, and especially in backward angles the energy is as low as about 100 keV. The intensity measurement was thus known to be difficult so far. In the present study, a simple method was investigated to monitor the absolute neutron intensity of the p-Li neutron source by employing the foil activation method based on isomer production reactions in order to cover around several hundreds keV. As a result of numerical examination, it was found that (107)Ag, (115)In and (189)Os would be feasible. Their features found out are summarized as follows: (107)Ag: The most convenient foil, since the half life is short. (115)In: The accuracy is the best at 0°, though it cannot be used for backward angles. And (189)Os: Suitable nuclide which can be used in backward angles, though the gamma-ray energy is a little too low. These would be used for p-Li source monitoring depending on measuring purposes in real BNCT scenes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  8. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masamichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  9. An accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio González, Elizabeth; Martín Hernández, Guido

    2017-09-01

    BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a therapeutic modality used to irradiate tumors cells previously loaded with the stable isotope 10B, with thermal or epithermal neutrons. This technique is capable of delivering a high dose to the tumor cells while the healthy surrounding tissue receive a much lower dose depending on the 10B biodistribution. In this study, therapeutic gain and tumor dose per target power, as parameters to evaluate the treatment quality, were calculated. The common neutron-producing reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be for accelerator-based BNCT, having a reaction threshold of 1880.4 keV, was considered as the primary source of neutrons. Energies near the reaction threshold for deep-seated brain tumors were employed. These calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. A simple but effective beam shaping assembly (BSA) was calculated producing a high therapeutic gain compared to previously proposed facilities with the same nuclear reaction.

  10. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  11. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  12. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global

  13. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M A; Heber, E M; Monti Hughes, A; Pzzi, E C C; Molinari, A J; Niggg, D W; Bauer, W; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with

  14. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcelo E; Sztejnberg, Manuel L; González, Sara J; Thorp, Silvia I; Longhino, Juan M; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global thermal and mixed

  15. BNCT of intracerebral melanoma. Enhanced survival and cure following Cereport mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, R.F.; Yang, W.; Bartus, R.T.; Rotaru, J.H.; Ferketich, A.K.; Moeschberger, M.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cereport is a bradykinin analogue that produces a transient, pharmacologically mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study was designed to determine if Cereport could enhance the delivery of BPA and the efficacy of BNCT in nude rats bearing intracerebral implants of the human MRA 27 melanoma. Animals that received intracarotid (i.c.) injection of Cereport and i.c. BPA had a mean survival time of 115 d compared to 82 d without Cereport, 42 d for i.v. BPA with Cereport and 31 d for irradiated controls. The combination of i.c. Cereport and BPA produced a 400% increase in the life span with 35% long-term survivors (>180 d). (author)

  16. Exploring new labelling strategies for boronated compounds: towards fast development and efficient assessment of BNCT drug candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Gona, Kiran Babu

    2016-01-01

    208 p. La terapia por captura de neutrones (BNCT o Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), fue descrita por primera vez por Locher en 1936 y es una modalidad terapéutica binaria para el tratamiento del cáncer que se basa en la captura de neutrones térmicos por medio de átomos de 10B, previamente acumulados en las células tumorales. La captura del neutrón térmico resulta en la formación de un núcleo de 11B, que fisiona para generar dos iones altamente energéticos: 4He2+ y 7Li3+. El daño y la poster...

  17. Depth-dose evaluation for lung and pancreas cancer treatment by BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Yuji [Musashi Institute of Technology, Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreas cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 8} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT could be applied for both lung and pancreas cancer treatment. (author)

  18. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO and medical research in BNCT; development of the technique for boron concentration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Dong; Byun, Soo Hyun; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Suk Kwon; Kim, In Jung; Park, Chang Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective and Necessity of the Project- Development of a boron concentration analysis facility used for BNCT. - Development of the technique for boron concentration analysis. Contents and Scopes of the Project - Construction of the boron concentration analysis facility based on PGAA. Estimation of the neutron beam characteristics. -Establishment of the technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Estimation of the reliability for the boron analysis. Results of the Project -Installation of the boron concentration analysis facility at Hanaro. - Neutron beam characteristics are the sample position (neutron flux : 7.9 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s, Cd-ratio : 266) Technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Boron detection sensitivity and limit (detection sensitivity : 2, 131 cps/mg-B, detection limit : 67 ng for 10,000 sec). 63 refs., 37 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  19. A sensitivity study on neutron flux variation due to 10B concentration in dose calculation for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Hoon

    2006-02-01

    The effects of inclusion of 10 B concentration on neutron flux and dose in dose calculation were studied. In order to provide the quantitative effects of inclusion of 10 B concentrations on depressions of neutron and photon flux and dose, the fluxes and doses with voxel head phantoms for various 10 B concentrations homogeneously distributed were calculated by using MCNPX simulations. A lithium target system and beam shaping assembly, which have been developed at the Hanyang University, were used as epithermal neutron beam. The calculation results show that the neutron flux at the center of the head phantom decreases by approximately 5.4% per 10 ppm of 10 B concentration in comparison with the neutron flux in the case of boron-free. It was also observed that the tissue dose at the center of the head phantom is depressed by approximately 4.7% per 10 ppm of the 10 B concentration and the tumor dose by approximately 5.3% per 10 ppm. According to depth of tumors, it was observed that the depressions of the doses in the tumors are ranged in 3.7 ∼ 9.2%. The dose calculations in the case of boron-free show that it is overestimated in comparison with the dose calculations in the cases of the inclusion of 10 B concentrations for the normal tissue and the tumors. Therefore, in dose calculation for BNCT, the depressions of neutron flux and dose should be considered. The results in this study are available to setting up the depression ratios which can be used for converting neutron and gamma fluxes and doses in phantom with boron free into the fluxes and doses in phantom with inclusion of 10 B concentrations in treatment. It is expected that the depression ratios is practicable to dose evaluation for BNCT

  20. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  1. Measurement of the 33S(n,α) cross-section at n_TOF(CERN): Applications to BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Gilarte, Marta; Praena, Javier; Porras, Ignacio; Quesada, José Manuel; Mastinu, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Aim The main purpose of this work is to present a new (n,α) cross-section measurement for a stable isotope of sulfur, 33S, in order to solve existing discrepancies. Background 33S has been studied as a cooperating target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) because of its large (n,α) cross-section in the epithermal neutron energy range, the most suitable one for BNCT. Although the most important evaluated databases, such as ENDF, do not show any resonances in the cross-section, experimental measurements which provided data from 10 keV to 1 MeV showed that the lowest-lying and strongest resonance of 33S(n,α) cross-section occurs at 13.5 keV. Nevertheless, the set of resonance parameters that describe such resonance shows important discrepancies (more than a factor of 2) between them. Materials and methods A new measurement of the 33S(n,α)30Si reaction cross-section was proposed to the ISOLDE and Neutron Time-of-Flight Experiments Committee of CERN. It was performed at n_TOF(CERN) in 2012 using MicroMegas detectors. Results In this work, we will present a brief overview of the experiment as well as preliminary results of the data analysis in the neutron energy range from thermal to 100 keV. These results will be taken into account to calculate the kerma-fluence factors corresponding to 33S in addition to 10B and those of a standard four-component ICRU tissue. Conclusions MCNP simulations of the deposited dose, including our experimental data, shows an important kerma rate enhancement at the surface of the tissue, mainly due to the presence of 33S. PMID:26933393

  2. Measurement of the (33)S(n,α) cross-section at n_TOF(CERN): Applications to BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Gilarte, Marta; Praena, Javier; Porras, Ignacio; Quesada, José Manuel; Mastinu, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a new (n,α) cross-section measurement for a stable isotope of sulfur, (33)S, in order to solve existing discrepancies. (33)S has been studied as a cooperating target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) because of its large (n,α) cross-section in the epithermal neutron energy range, the most suitable one for BNCT. Although the most important evaluated databases, such as ENDF, do not show any resonances in the cross-section, experimental measurements which provided data from 10 keV to 1 MeV showed that the lowest-lying and strongest resonance of (33)S(n,α) cross-section occurs at 13.5 keV. Nevertheless, the set of resonance parameters that describe such resonance shows important discrepancies (more than a factor of 2) between them. A new measurement of the (33)S(n,α)(30)Si reaction cross-section was proposed to the ISOLDE and Neutron Time-of-Flight Experiments Committee of CERN. It was performed at n_TOF(CERN) in 2012 using MicroMegas detectors. In this work, we will present a brief overview of the experiment as well as preliminary results of the data analysis in the neutron energy range from thermal to 100 keV. These results will be taken into account to calculate the kerma-fluence factors corresponding to (33)S in addition to (10)B and those of a standard four-component ICRU tissue. MCNP simulations of the deposited dose, including our experimental data, shows an important kerma rate enhancement at the surface of the tissue, mainly due to the presence of (33)S.

  3. Studies for the application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, Marina; Thomasz, Lisa; Perona, Marina; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Nievas, Susana I.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy for cancer, which it is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when boron-10 that it is a non radioactive isotope of the natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to produce an alpha particle and a nucleus of lithium-7. Both particles have a range smaller than the diameter of a cell causing cell tumor death without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissues. In previous studies we have shown that BNCT can be a possibility for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC). However, more than 80 % of patients with thyroid neoplasm present differentiated carcinoma (CDT). These carcinomas are treated by surgery followed by therapy with 131 I and mostly these forms are well controlled. But in some patients recurrence of the tumor is observed. BNCT can be an alternative for these patients in who the tumor lost the capacity to concentrate iodide. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the possibility of treating differentiated thyroid cancer by BNCT. Materials and Methods: The human cell lines of follicular (WRO) and papillary carcinomas (TPC-1) were grown in RPMI and modified DMEM medium respectively. Both supplemented with 10 % of SFB. The cell line of thyroid rat, FRTL-5, used as control normal, was cultured in DMEM/F12. The uptakes of 125 I and p-borophenylalanine BPA (6.93mM) were studied. The intracellular boron concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) at 2 hr post incubation. The NIH strain of male nude mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks and weighing 20 to 25 g were implanted (s.c) in the back right flank with different concentrations of tumor cells. The size of the tumors was measured with a caliper twice or three times a week and the volume was calculated according the following formulae: A 2 x B/2 (were A is the width and B is the length). To evaluate the BPA uptake, animals

  4. Photon iso-effective dose for cancer treatment with mixed field radiation based on dose-response assessment from human and an animal model: clinical application to boron neutron capture therapy for head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, S. J.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Monti Hughes, A.; Provenzano, L.; Koivunoro, H.; Carando, D. G.; Thorp, S. I.; Casal, M. R.; Bortolussi, S.; Trivillin, V. A.; Garabalino, M. A.; Curotto, P.; Heber, E. M.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Kankaanranta, L.; Joensuu, H.; Schwint, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment modality that combines different radiation qualities. Since the severity of biological damage following irradiation depends on the radiation type, a quantity different from absorbed dose is required to explain the effects observed in the clinical BNCT in terms of outcome compared with conventional photon radiation therapy. A new approach for calculating photon iso-effective doses in BNCT was introduced previously. The present work extends this model to include information from dose-response assessments in animal models and humans. Parameters of the model were determined for tumour and precancerous tissue using dose-response curves obtained from BNCT and photon studies performed in the hamster cheek pouch in vivo models of oral cancer and/or pre-cancer, and from head and neck cancer radiotherapy data with photons. To this end, suitable expressions of the dose-limiting Normal Tissue Complication and Tumour Control Probabilities for the reference radiation and for the mixed field BNCT radiation were developed. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and p-values showed that TCP and NTCP models agreed with experimental data (with r  >  0.87 and p-values  >0.57). The photon iso-effective dose model was applied retrospectively to evaluate the dosimetry in tumours and mucosa for head and neck cancer patients treated with BNCT in Finland. Photon iso-effective doses in tumour were lower than those obtained with the standard RBE-weighted model (between 10% to 45%). The results also suggested that the probabilities of tumour control derived from photon iso-effective doses are more adequate to explain the clinical responses than those obtained with the RBE-weighted values. The dosimetry in the mucosa revealed that the photon iso-effective doses were about 30% to 50% higher than the corresponding RBE-weighted values. While the RBE-weighted doses are unable to predict mucosa toxicity, predictions based on the proposed

  5. A micro-PET/CT approach using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine in an experimental animal model of F98 glioma for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L., E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Petroni, D.; Panetta, D. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Burchielli, S. [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Matteucci, M. [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Pascali, G.; Del Turco, S. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Altieri, S. [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salvadori, P.A. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The present study focuses on a micro-PET/CT application to be used for experimental Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which integrates, in the same frame, micro-CT derived anatomy and PET radiotracer distribution. Preliminary results have demonstrated that {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-tyrosine (FET)/PET allows the identification of the extent of cerebral lesions in F98 tumor bearing rat. Neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectrometry on axial tissues slices confirmed the tumor localization and extraction, after the administration of fructose-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Therefore, FET-PET approach can be used to assess the transport, the net influx, and the accumulation of FET, as an aromatic amino acid analog of BPA, in experimental animal model. Coregistered micro-CT images allowed the accurate morphological localization of the radiotracer distribution and its potential use for experimental BNCT.

  6. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  7. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K(nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11) in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 (ae-B20H17NH3), administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  8. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  9. Design and characterization of a novel neutron shield for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch at RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.; Monti Hughes, A.; Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Thorp, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Our research group at the Radiation Pathology Division of the Department of Radiobiology (National Atomic Energy Commission) has previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols to treat oral cancer in an experimental hamster cheek pouch model. In particular, to perform studies in this experimental model at the thermal facility constructed at RA-3, we designed and constructed a shielding device for thermal neutrons, to be able to expose the cheek pouch while minimizing the dose to the rest of the body. This device allowed for the irradiation of one animal at a time. Given the usage rate of the device, the aim of the present study was to design and construct an optimized version of the existing shielding device that would allow for the simultaneous irradiation of 2 animals at the thermal facility of RA-3. Taking into account the characteristics of the neutron source and preliminary biological assays, we designed the shielding device for the body of the animal, i.e. a rectangular shaped box with double acrylic walls. The space between the walls contains a continuous filling of 6Li 2 CO 3 (95% enriched in 6Li), approximately 6 mm thick. Two small windows interrupt the shield at one end of the box through which the right pouch of each hamster is everted out onto an external acrylic shelf for exposure to the neutron flux. The characterization of the shielding device showed that the neutron flux was equivalent at both irradiation positions confirming that we were able to design and construct a new shielding device that allows for the irradiation of 2 animals at the same time at the thermal facility of RA-3. This new version of the shielding device will reduce the number of interventions of the reactor operators, reducing occupational exposure to radiation and will make the procedure more efficient for researchers. In addition, we addressed the generation of tritium as a product of the capture reaction in lithium. It was considered as a

  10. BNCT enhanced fast neutron therapy: in vitro studies for preparing a clinical trial at the Essen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Hideghety, K.; Poeller, F.; Pignol, J.P.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    At the University Hospital Essen a cyclotron producing d(14)+Be fast neutrons is used routinely for patient treatment. Fast neutrons have demonstrated their potential to sterilize glioblastoma but could not show a clinical benefit because of lethal damages to healthy brain. At depth, fast neutrons are thermalized allowing neutron capture reactions, which can be used to enhance the applied dose. A selective increase of the dose to the tumor cells by BNCT may offer a chance to an effective treatment. In order to prepare a clinical trial in vitro experiments were performed. MeWo cells were irradiated in a tissue equivalent phantom at a depth of 6.5 cm. 91% 10 B enriched BSH was used to generate BNC effects. For a total dose of 1 Gy the thermal fluence rate was 3.4x10 10 cm -2 . An amount of 960 ppm 10 B present in the cell medium during irradiation led to a reduction of the cell survival from 3.6% (neutron alone) to 0.2%. If the irradiation was performed after incubation of the cells in BSH, but in a medium without BSH the survival was 1.6%. The in vitro set up demonstrates the capacity of BSH to considerably increase the biological effects of the neutron irradiation and add arguments for the opening of a clinical trial. (author)

  11. Tumor control and normal tissue complications in BNCT treatment of nodular melanoma: A search for predictive quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar; Casal, M. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pereira, M.D. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, PAV 22393 (Argentina); Santa Cruz, G.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carando, D.G. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dpto. de Matematica, Pab. I Ciudad Universitaria, UBA, (1428) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blaumann, H. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonomi, M. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, (1033) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Feld, D.; Fernandez, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gossio, S. [FCEyN, Pab. II Ciudad Universitaria, UBA, (1428) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jimenez Rebagliatti, R.; Kessler, J.; Longhino, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Menendez, P. [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nievas, S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roth, B.M.C [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Av. San Martin 5481, (1417) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Liberman, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, (1429) Cdad. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    A previous work concerning tumor control and skin damage in cutaneous melanoma treatments with BNCT has been extended to include doses, volumes and responses of 104 subcutaneous lesions from all patients treated in Argentina. Acute skin reactions were also scored for these patients, and cumulative dose-area histograms and dose-based figures of merit for skin were calculated. Broadening the tumor response analysis with the latest data showed that the (minimum or mean) tumor dose is not a good predictor of the observed clinical outcome by itself. However, when the tumor volume was included in the model as second explicative variable, the dose increases its significance and becomes a critical variable jointly with the volume (p-values<0.05). A preliminary analysis to estimate control doses for two groups of tumor sizes revealed that for small tumor volumes (< 0.1 cm{sup 3}) doses greater than 20 Gy-Eq produce a high tumor control (> 80%). However, when tumor volumes are larger than 0.1 cm{sup 3}, control is moderate (< 40%) even for minimum doses up to 40 Gy-Eq. Some quantities based on skin doses, areas and complication probabilities were proposed as candidates for predicting the severity of the early skin reactions. With the current data, all the evaluated figures of merit derived similar results: ulceration is present among the cases for which these quantities take the highest values.

  12. Tumor control and normal tissue complications in BNCT treatment of nodular melanoma: A search for predictive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.J.; Casal, M.; Pereira, M.D.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Carando, D.G.; Blaumann, H.; Bonomi, M.; Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Feld, D.; Fernandez, C.; Gossio, S.; Jimenez Rebagliatti, R.; Kessler, J.; Longhino, J.; Menendez, P.; Nievas, S.; Roth, B.M.C; Liberman, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A previous work concerning tumor control and skin damage in cutaneous melanoma treatments with BNCT has been extended to include doses, volumes and responses of 104 subcutaneous lesions from all patients treated in Argentina. Acute skin reactions were also scored for these patients, and cumulative dose-area histograms and dose-based figures of merit for skin were calculated. Broadening the tumor response analysis with the latest data showed that the (minimum or mean) tumor dose is not a good predictor of the observed clinical outcome by itself. However, when the tumor volume was included in the model as second explicative variable, the dose increases its significance and becomes a critical variable jointly with the volume (p-values 3 ) doses greater than 20 Gy-Eq produce a high tumor control (> 80%). However, when tumor volumes are larger than 0.1 cm 3 , control is moderate (< 40%) even for minimum doses up to 40 Gy-Eq. Some quantities based on skin doses, areas and complication probabilities were proposed as candidates for predicting the severity of the early skin reactions. With the current data, all the evaluated figures of merit derived similar results: ulceration is present among the cases for which these quantities take the highest values.

  13. Application of 10BSH entrapped transferrin-PEG-liposome to boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) for solid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.; Ishida, O.; Iwatsuru, M.; Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2000-01-01

    The successful treatment of cancer by BNCT requires the selective concentration of 10 B within malignant tumor cells. Intracellular targeting ability and cytotoxic effects of 10 B entrapped TF-PEG-liposomes, in which TF is covalently linked to the distal terminal of PEG chains on the external surface of PEG-liposomes, were examined in Colon 26 tumor-bearing mice. TF-PEG-liposomes readily bound to tumor cells in vivo, and were internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. 10 B-PEG-liposomes and 10 B-TF-PEG-liposomes showed prolonged residence time in the circulation and low RES uptake in tumor-bearing mice, resulting in enhanced extravasation of the liposomes into the solid tumor tissue and reached high level of 10 B content in tumor. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with 10 B-PEG-liposomes or 10 B-TF-PEG-liposome, tumor growth was suppressed relative to controls. These results suggest that intravenous injection of 10 B TF-PEG-liposome can increase the intracellular retention of 10 B atoms, which were introduced by receptor mediated endocytosis after binding, causing tumor growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. (author)

  14. Neutron flux and gamma dose measurement in the BNCT irradiation facility at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Ferrari, M.; Postuma, I.; Fatemi, S.; Prata, M.; Ballarini, F.; Carante, M. P.; Farias, R.; González, S. J.; Marrale, M.; Gallo, S.; Bartolotta, A.; Iacoviello, G.; Nigg, D.; Altieri, S.

    2018-01-01

    University of Pavia is equipped with a TRIGA Mark II research nuclear reactor, operating at a maximum steady state power of 250 kW. It has been used for many years to support Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research. An irradiation facility was constructed inside the thermal column of the reactor to produce a sufficient thermal neutron flux with low epithermal and fast neutron components, and low gamma dose. In this irradiation position, the liver of two patients affected by hepatic metastases from colon carcinoma were irradiated after borated drug administration. The facility is currently used for cell cultures and small animal irradiation. Measurements campaigns have been carried out, aimed at characterizing the neutron spectrum and the gamma dose component. The neutron spectrum has been measured by means of multifoil neutron activation spectrometry and a least squares unfolding algorithm; gamma dose was measured using alanine dosimeters. Results show that in a reference position the thermal neutron flux is (1.20 ± 0.03) ×1010 cm-2 s-1 when the reactor is working at the maximum power of 250 kW, with the epithermal and fast components, respectively, 2 and 3 orders of magnitude lower than the thermal component. The ratio of the gamma dose with respect to the thermal neutron fluence is 1.2 ×10-13 Gy/(n/cm2).

  15. The BNCT resistant fraction of cancer cells. An in vitro morphologic and cytofluorimetric study on a rat coloncarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Mazzini, G.

    2006-01-01

    Given the high efficacy of the BNCT treatment, recurrences reasonably depends on the failure of a cell fraction to uptake and retain adequate levels of boronated compounds. Aim of this study is to identify, quantify and characterize the resistant cell fraction relative to the delivered boron concentration. Experiments were performed on the DHD/K12/TRb line by means of cytofluorimetric DNA analysis, plating efficiency and morphologic observations. Cells were incubated with p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 ppm for 18 h. Following neutron exposure, cells were reseeded for subsequent morphologic observations, counting and DNA analysis. Samples of irradiated cells not BPA enriched and non-irradiated cells with and without boron were compared with them. After 24 hs there were no differences among the four conditions, in terms of number of recovered cells, morphology and cell cycle distribution. Starting from 48 hs and up to 7 days BPA irradiated cells showed growth in dimensions, important cell number reduction and multiclonal DNA profile worsening with time. After 9 days normally sized cell clones appeared confirming the presence of a resistant cell fraction able to restore the original cell population after 21 days. The incidence of surviving cells turned out to be in the range 0,026-0,05%. (author)

  16. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  17. Optimization of a neutron production target and a beam shaping assembly based on the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlon, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Valda, A. A.; Minsky, D. M.; Somacal, H. R.; Debray, M. E.; Stoliar, P.

    2005-02-01

    In this work a thick LiF target was studied through the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction as a neutron source for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) to provide a testing ground for numerical simulations aimed at producing an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly design. Proton beams in the 1.88-2.0 MeV energy range were produced with the tandem accelerator TANDAR ( TANDem ARgentino) at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A cylindrical water-filled head-phantom, containing a boric acid sample, was irradiated to study the resulting neutron flux. The dose deposited in the boric acid sample was inferred through the Compton-suppressed detection of the gamma radiation produced from the 10B( n, αγ) 7Li capture reaction. The thermal neutron flux was evaluated using bare and Cd-covered activation gold foils. In all cases, Monte Carlo simulations have been done showing good agreement with the experimental results. Extensive MCNP simulation trials have then been performed after the preliminary calculation tool validation in order to optimize a neutron beam shaping assembly. These simulations include a thick Li metal target (instead of LiF), a whole-body phantom, two different moderator-reflector assemblies (Al/AlF 3/LiF, Fluental ®, as moderator and lead as reflector and a combination of Al, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and LiF as moderator and lead as reflector) and the treatment room. The doses were evaluated for proton bombarding energies of 1.92 MeV (near to the threshold of the reaction), 2.0 MeV, 2.3 MeV (near the reaction resonance) and 2.5 MeV, and for three Fluental ® and Al/PTFE/LiF moderator thicknesses (18, 26 and 34 cm). In a later instance, the effect of the specific skin radiosensitivity (an RBE of 2.5 for the 10B( n, α) 7Li reaction) and a 10B uptake 50% greater than the healthy tissue one, was considered for the scalp. To evaluate the doses in the phantom, a comparison of

  18. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  19. A method to build an analytic model of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction rate space distribution for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Josselin; Moss, Raymond; Hachem, Sabet; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    This work provides the basis of a methodology to build a deterministic model for the spatial distribution of the (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li reaction rate in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), as a function of space variables, boron concentration and beam incidence angle in homogeneous isotropic environments but also in different heterogeneous environments. Building the analytic function in a simple homogeneous environment with numerical methods leads to a mathematical formulation of the (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li reactions rate.

  20. Design and development of an integral high-resolution radiation dosimetry system for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedelago, J; Valente, M.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for overall high performance of dosimetry systems increases due to the growing complexity of medical treatments. Non conventional treatment modalities like Boron Neutron Capture Treatment (BNCT) and hadron therapy, as well as conventional modern methods like IMRT, Tomotherapy might significantly improve diseases control. The Fricke gel dosimetry is a valuable method for in-phantom dose measurements in complex irradiation modalities like IMRT and BNCT. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and further analysis immediately in situ at the radiation facility. This work presents a novel and integral dosimetry system aimed to attain portability requirements. It is based on Fricke gel dosimeter optically analyzed offering several specific advantages like tissue-equivalence and continuos 3D dose mapping. Moreover, the versatilities of Fricke gel dosimetry about different chemical and isotopic compositions allows its application on different high performance conventional and non conventional radiation procedures. Specific radiation transport models were developed with the aim of enabling relative simple optical technique for sample analysis. Theoretical approaches are supported by analytical solution of Boltzmann s equation of radiation transport. Instrumentations design and construction were completely realized at the facilities of the Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X - LIIFAMIR ).The developed integral dosimetry system includes dedicated software for data acquisition and further processing in order to employ the system set up for direct in situ measurements for routine clinical scopes

  1. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models

  2. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  3. Prompt gamma and neutron detection in BNCT utilizing a CdTe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Koivunoro, Hanna; Reijonen, Vappu; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a novel sensor technology based on CdTe detectors was tested for prompt gamma and neutron detection using boronated targets in (epi)thermal neutron beam at FiR1 research reactor in Espoo, Finland. Dedicated neutron filter structures were omitted to enable simultaneous measurement of both gamma and neutron radiation at low reactor power (2.5 kW). Spectra were collected and analyzed in four different setups in order to study the feasibility of the detector to measure 478 keV prompt gamma photons released from the neutron capture reaction of boron-10. The detector proved to have the required sensitivity to detect and separate the signals from both boron neutron and cadmium neutron capture reactions, which makes it a promising candidate for monitoring the spatial and temporal development of in vivo boron distribution in boron neutron capture therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and construction of shoulder recesses into the beam aperture shields for improved patient positioning at the FiR 1 BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Kotiluoto, P.; Hippelaeinen, E.; Kortesniemi, M.; Seppaelae, T.; Seren, T.; Mannila, V.; Poeyry, P.; Kankaanranta, L.; Collan, J.; Kouri, M.; Joensuu, H.; Savolainen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made at the FiR 1 BNCT facility to ease the positioning of the patient with a tumor in the head and neck region into a lateral neutron beam. Shoulder recesses were constructed horizontally on both sides of the beam aperture. When shoulder recesses are not needed, they are filled with neutron attenuating filling blocks. MCNP simulations using an anthropomorphic human model BOMAB phantom showed that the main contribution to the increase in the effective dose to the patient's body due to the shoulder recesses was from the neutron dose of the arm. In a position when one arm is inside the shoulder recess, the maximal effective dose of the patient was estimated to be 0.7 Sv/h. Dose measurements using the twin ionization chamber technique showed that the neutron dose increased on the sides as predicted by the MCNP model but there was no noticeable change in the gamma doses. When making the recesses into the lithium containing neutron shield material tritium contamination was confined using an underpressurized glove box and machine tools with local exhaust. The shoulder recesses give space for more flexible patient positioning and can be considered as a significant improvement of the Finnish BNCT facility

  5. Study of a neutron producing target via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction near its energy threshold for BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, Alejandro; Kreiner, Andres J.; Debray, Mario E.; Stoliar, Pablo; Kesque, Jose M.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Schuff, Juan; Vazquez, Monica; Caraballo, Maria E.; Valda, Alejandro; Somacal, Hector; Davidson, Miguel; Davidson, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of Accelerator Based BNCT (AB-BNCT) the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction near its energy threshold is one of the most promising. In this work a thick LiF target irradiated with a proton beam was studied as a neutron source. The 1.88-2.0 MeV proton beam was produced by the tandem accelerator TANDAR at CNEA's facilities in Buenos Aires. A water-filled phantom, containing a boron sample was irradiated with the resulting neutron beam. The boron neutron capture reaction produces a 0.478 MeV gamma ray in 94 % of the cases. The neutron yield was monitored by detecting this gamma ray using a germanium detector with an 'anti-Compton' shield. Moreover, the thermal neutron flux was evaluated at different depths inside the phantom using bare and Cd-covered gold foils. A maximum neutron thermal flux of 1.4 x 10 8 1/(cm 2 -s-mA) was obtained at 4.2 cm from the phantom surface. (author)

  6. Design and optimization of a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT based on a neutron generator located at CEADEN, Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Cabal, F.; Martin, G.; Abrahantes, A.

    2007-01-01

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the most suitable neutron energy for treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors in the context of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Two figures-of-merit, i.e. the absorbed dose for healthy tissue and the absorbed tumor dose at a given depth in the brain are used to measure the neutron beam quality. Also irradiation time, therapeutic gain and the power generated in the target are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Moderators, reflectors and delimiters are designed and optimized to moderate the high-energy neutrons from the fusion reactions 2 H(d;n) 3 He and 3 H(d;n) 4 Hedown to a suitable energy spectrum. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation as well as Fluental TM for the neutron spectrum shifting. A semi spherical target is proposed in order to dissipate twice the amount of power generated in the target, and decrease all the dimensions of the BSA. The cooling system of the target is also included in the calculations. Calculations are performed using the MCNP code. After the optimization of our beam-shaper a study of the dose distribution in the head had been made. The therapeutic gain is increased in 9% while the current required for one hour treatment is decreased in comparison with the trading prototypes of NG used for BNCT. (Author)

  7. Design and optimization of a beam-shaping assembly (BSA) for BNCT based on a neutron generator located at CEADEN, Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Cabal, F.; Martin, G; Abrahantes, A.

    2007-01-01

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the most suitable neutron energy for treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors in the context of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Two figures-of-merit, i.e. the absorbed dose for healthy tissue and the absorbed tumor dose at a given depth in the brain are used to measure the neutron beam quality. Also irradiation time, therapeutic gain and the power generated in the target are utilized as beam assessment parameters. Moderators, reflectors and delimiters are designed and optimized to moderate the high-energy neutrons from the fusion reactions 2 H(d;n) 3 He and 3 H(d;n) 4 He down to a suitable energy spectrum. Metallic uranium and manganese are successfully tested for fast-to-epithermal neutron moderation as well as Fluental TM for the neutron spectrum shifting. A semispherical target is proposed in order to dissipate twice the amount of power generated in the target, and decrease all the dimensions of the BSA. The cooling system of the target is also included in the calculations. Calculations are performed using the MCNP code. After the optimization of our beam-shaper a study of the dose distribution in the head had been made. The therapeutic gain is increased in 9% while the current required for one hour treatment is decreased in comparison with the trading prototypes of NG used for BNCT. (Author)

  8. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  9. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF A LIQUID-MODERATOR-BASED NEUTRON SPECTROMETER FOR BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Shingo; Kusaka, Sachie; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao

    2017-10-27

    Boron neutron capture therapy is known to be an effective radiation cancer therapy that requires neutron irradiation. A neutron field generated by an accelerator-based neutron source has various energy spectra, and it is necessary to evaluate the neutron spectrum in the treatment field. However, the method used to measure the neutron spectrum in the treatment field is not well established. Many researchers are making efforts to improve the spectrometers. To solve this problem, we are developing a liquid-moderator-based neutron spectrometer that is based on the same theory as that of the Bonner sphere spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a liquid moderator and absorber. In the present study, we performed a design study to improve the previously developed liquid-moderator-based neutron spectrometer. By carrying out a numerical simulation of the designed new spectrometer, we finally assessed and confirmed the validity of this spectrometer numerically. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The alanine detector in BNCT dosimetry: dose response in thermal and epithermal neutron fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, T; Bassler, N; Blaickner, M; Ziegner, M; Hsiao, M C; Liu, Y H; Koivunoro, H; Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Palmans, H; Sharpe, P; Langguth, P; Hampel, G

    2015-01-01

    The response of alanine solid state dosimeters to ionizing radiation strongly depends on particle type and energy. Due to nuclear interactions, neutron fields usually also consist of secondary particles such as photons and protons of diverse energies. Various experiments have been carried out in three different neutron beams to explore the alanine dose response behavior and to validate model predictions. Additionally, application in medical neutron fields for boron neutron capture therapy is discussed. Alanine detectors have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, Germany, in five experimental conditions, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been made in the epithermal neutron beams at the research reactors FiR 1 in Helsinki, Finland, and Tsing Hua open pool reactor in HsinChu, Taiwan ROC. Readout has been performed with electron spin resonance spectrometry with reference to an absorbed dose standard in a (60)Co gamma ray beam. Absorbed doses and dose components have been calculated using the Monte Carlo codes fluka and mcnp. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using the Hansen & Olsen alanine response model. The measured dose response of the alanine detector in the different experiments has been evaluated and compared to model predictions. Therefore, a relative effectiveness has been calculated for each dose component, accounting for its dependence on particle type and energy. Agreement within 5% between model and measurement has been achieved for most irradiated detectors. Significant differences have been observed in response behavior between thermal and epithermal neutron fields, especially regarding dose composition and depth dose curves. The calculated dose components could be verified with the experimental results in the different primary and secondary particle fields. The alanine detector can be used without

  11. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  12. Desain Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA berbasis D-D Neutron Generator 2,45 MeV untuk Uji Fasilitas BNCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desman P. Gulo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is one of the cancer treatments that are being developed in nowadays. In order to support BNCT treatment for cancer that exists in underneath skin like breast cancer, the facility needs a generator that is able to produce epithermal neutron. One of the generator that is able to produce neutron is D-D neutron generator with 2.45 MeV energy. Based on the calculation of this paper, we found that the total production of neutron per second (neutron yield from Neutron Generator (NG by PSTA-BATAN Yogyakarta is 2.55×1011 n/s. The energy and flux that we found is in the range of quick neutron. Thus, it needs to be moderated to the level of epithermal neutron which is located in the interval energy of 1 eV to 10 KeV with 109 n/cm2s flux. This number is the recommendation standard from IAEA. Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA is needed in order to moderate the quick neutron to the level of epithermal neutron. One part of BSA that has the responsibility in moderating the quick neutron to epithermal neutron is the moderator. The substance of moderator used in this paper is MgF2 and A1F3. The thickness of moderator has been set in in such a way by using MCNPX software in order to fulfill the standard of IAEA. As the result of optimizing BSA moderator, the data obtain epithermal flux with the total number of 4.64×108 n/cm2/s for both of moderators with the thickness of moderator up to 15 cm. At the end of this research, the number of epithermal flux does not follow the standard of IAEA. This is because the flux neutron that is being produced by NG is relatively small. In conclusion, the NG from PSTA-BATAN Yogyakarta is not ready to be used for the BNCT treatment facility for the underneath skin cancer like breast cancer.

  13. Measurement of gamma-ray emission from p-Li, p-Be, and d-Be reactions for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Murata, Isao; Ootera, Yasutaka; Kitamura, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission for each p-Li, p-Be, and d-Be nuclear reaction was investigated for accelerator-based BNCT. Measured gamma-ray energy spectra were analyzed and gamma-ray yield for a thick target was evaluated as a function of incident beam energy. Two intense gamma rays at 429 and 477 keV were observed in the p-Li reaction. The gamma ray at 477 keV was specified to be mainly due from the reaction of 7 Li(p,p') 7 Li * . In the p-Be reaction, a Doppler-broadened peak was observed at 3.56 MeV, resulting from the 9 Be(p,α) 6 Li * reaction. Four gamma peaks identified were from the transition of 10 B * generated by the d-Be reaction. Gamma-ray emission characteristics for each reaction are summarized. (author)

  14. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT. Comprehensive progress report, August 1, 1989--July 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the DOE program at The University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine is the development of effective molecular medicine for use in neutron-capture therapy (NCT). The research focuses primarily on the preparation of new boron-rich NCT agents and the technology to detect them in-vivo. The detection technology involves the development of effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for verifying and measuring NCT agents in-vivo. The synthetic program is directed toward the design of novel boron NCT (BNCT) agents which are targeted to the cell nucleus and gadolinium liposomes targeted to the liver. The UT-DOE program is unique in that it has access to both state-of-the-art whole-body and microscopy MRI instruments.

  15. A Study on Optimized Neutron Beam Generation by Analysis of Neutron Angular Distribution from 7Li(p,n)7Be Reaction for Accelerator-Based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung O

    2008-02-01

    Perpendicular neutrons (i.e., solid angle bin of 50-150 .deg. ) among ones generated from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction, which are focused on the relative low energy regions, was used to produce optimized epithermal neutron beam for Accelerator-based BNCT. By this time, most of the studies for generating the therapeutic neutron beam have used the neutrons emitted to the collinear with the incoming proton. However, it is very difficult to produce the high quantity of epithermal neutrons due to the relative high energy neutrons to be used. In this study, it was found that perpendicular neutrons (solid angle 50-150 .deg. ) include about two times as many neutrons in the energy range of 100 - 300 keV as the existing studies. In particular, epithermal neutron beam from the dual beam port assembly was simulated by MCNPX: this assembly was designed for using the neutrons in optimized neutron angle bin (solid angle 50-150 .deg. ). As the results of the IAEA recommendations for all parameters, and moderation length could be reduced. The advantage depth (AD) and dose rate in the mathematical phantom are calculated to evaluate the dosimetric characterization of the designed epithermal neutron beams. It was recognized that the tumor positioned at the maximum depth of 70 mm from skin could be treated, and tumor at 60 mm depth is approximately taken with only a treatment of a few minutes by using the beam from the dual beam port assembly. It is therefore expected that the neutrons emitted into the solid angle bin of 50 - 150 .deg. from 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction are very effective to produce epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. The new dual beam port assembly which is possible to generate the therapeutic neutron beam satisfies with the IAEA recommendations at each beam port and can be used for reference study of epithermal neutron beam design

  16. Comparison of three experimental protocols in pre clinical studies for thyroid cancer treatment using sodium butyrate in combination with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Carpano, M; Majdalani E; Nievas, S; Olivera, M; Pisarev, M; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Dagrosa A

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could be an alternative for the treatment of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). However new strategies are being assayed in order to optimize its application. Histone de acetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) like sodium butyrate (NaB), are emerging as a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which target the epigenome. Since histone hyper acetylation mediates changes in chromatin conformation, HDAC-I are involved in different epigenetically controlled activities like apoptosis, proliferation, cell differentiation, induction of cell cycle arrest and motility. The purpose of the present studies was to analyze different treatment regimens of combination of NaB and boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in animals bearing transplants of a human thyroid carcinoma Methods: NIH nude mice of 6-8 weeks were implanted (s.c.) with 10 6 of human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (WRO). Three regimens were evaluated in 48 animals after 15 days when tumors had a size between 50 and 100 mm 3 . Group 1 (n=10): BPA and NaB (50 mM) via i.p. at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.w. 24 h before boron compound administration; group 2 (n=10): BPA and NaB 3.4% in the water ad libitum during a month after 15 days post-implantation; group 3 (n=10): BPA alone. In all the groups BPA was injected at a dose of 350 mg/Kg b.w. (i.p.) and the animals were sacrificed at 2 h post-administration. Boron measurements in tissues and blood were performed by ICP-OES. A control group without NaB (n=6) for each regimen was included. The tumor growth and the body weight were determined twice a week during a month. Results: The administration of NaB 3.4% during a month previous to BNCT did not modify the body weight of the mice and decreased the tumor growth compared to its control group (p<0.01). The biodistribution studies showed a tumor boron concentration of 32.6 ± 1.4 ppm for group 1 (NaB 50 mM plus BPA), of 16.9 ± 3.7 ppm

  17. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) exposed to high fluxes of gamma radiation, thermal neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Martini, M.; Meinardi, F.; Raffaglio, C.; Salvadori, P.; Scacco, A.; Sichirollo, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), widely experimented and utilized in personal dosimetry, have some advantageous characteristics which induce one to employ them also in radiotherapy. The new radiotherapy techniques are aimed at selectively depositing a high dose in cancerous tissues. This goal is reached by utilising both conventional and other more recently proposed radiation, such as thermal neutrons and heavy charged particles. In these inhomogeneous radiation fields a reliable mapping of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose is desirable, and the utilized dosemeters have to give such a possibility without notably perturbing the radiation field with the materials of the dosemeters themselves. TLDs, for their small dimension and their tissue equivalence for most radiation, give good support in the mapping of radiation fields. After exposure to the high fluxes of therapeutic beams, some commercial TL dosemeters have shown a loss of reliability. An investigation has therefore be performed, both on commercial and on laboratory made phosphors, in order to investigate their behaviour in such radiation fields. In particular the thermal neutron and gamma ray mixed field of the thermal column of a nuclear reactor, of interest for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (B.N.C.T.) and a proton beam, of interest for proton therapy, were considered. Here some results obtained with new TL phosphors exposed in such radiation fields are presented, after a short description of some radiation damage effect on commercial LiF TLDs exposed in the (n th ,γ) field of the thermal column of a reactor. (author)

  18. Enhanced tumor cell killing following BNCT with hyperosmotic mannitol-induced blood-brain barrier disruption and intracarotid injection of boronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.H.; Hwang, J.J.; Chen, F.D.; Liu, R.S.; Liu, H.M.; Hsueh, Y.W.; Kai, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by means of intracarotid injection combined with opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been shown significantly enhanced the tumor boron concentration and the survival time of glioma-bearing rats. However, no direct evidence demonstrates whether this treatment protocol can enhance the cell killing of tumor cells or infiltrating tumor cells and the magnitude of enhanced cell killing. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tumor cell killing of boron neutron capture therapy could be enhanced by hyperosmotic mannitol-induced BBB disruption using BPA-Fr as the capture agent. F98 glioma-bearing rats were injected intravenously or intracarotidly with BPA at doses of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) and with or without mannitol-induced hyperosmotic BBB disruption. The rats were irradiated with an epithermal neutron beam at the reactor of National Tsing-Hua University (THOR). After neutron beam irradiation, the rats were euthanized and the ipsilateral brains containing intracerebral F98 glioma were removed to perform in vivo/in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. The results demonstrate BNCT with optimizing the delivery of BPA by means of intracarotid injection combined with opening the BBB by infusing a hyperosmotic solution of mannitol significantly enhanced the cell killing of tumor cells and infiltrating tumor cells, the tumor boron concentration and the boron ratio of tumor to normal brain tissues. (author)

  19. DOSE EFFECT OF THE 33S(n,α) 30SI REACTION IN BNCT USING THE NEW n_TOF-CERN DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Praena, J; Porras, I; Quesada, J M

    2017-09-23

    33S is a stable isotope of sulphur which is being studied as a potential cooperative target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in accelerator-based neutron sources because of its large (n,α) cross section in the epithermal neutron energy range. Previous measurements resolved the resonances with a discrepant description of the lowest-lying and strongest one (at 13.5 keV). However, the evaluations of the major databases do not include resonances, except EAF-2010 which shows smaller values in this range than the experimental data. Furthermore, the glaring lack of data below 10 keV down to thermal (25.3 meV) has motivated a new measurement at n_TOF at CERN in order to cover the whole energy range. The inclusion of this new 33S(n,α) cross section in Monte Carlo simulations provides a more accurate estimation of the deposited kerma rate in tissue due to the presence of 33S. The results of those simulations represent the goal of this work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Synthesis and in-vivo detection of boronated compounds for use in BNCT. Final progress report, August 1, 1989--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1993-08-01

    Carboranes contain ten boron atoms in a three-dimensional space equivalent to a benzene ring; consequently, the carborane isomers can be utilized to prepare a variety of boron-rich agents for potential use in boron-neutron capture therapy. We developed synthetic methodology suitable for use with carboranes preparing amino acids and other physio-logically active compounds of potential use in BNCT. The methodology involves the conversion of simple carboranes into more complex, reactive organometallic reagents which can then be utilized to prepare agents which will target the nuclei of tumor cells. Specific examples include the projected syntheses of boron analogs of known intercolators such as Diazaquone (AZQ) which have been proven effectiveness in chemotherapy. We have also synthesized and carried out biodistribution studies of gadolinium labeled liposomes (GLL) which were developed in our laboratory. Gadolinium like boron-10, has an excellent neutron cross section and is considered to be of potential use in neutron capture therapy. GLL are constructed by adding gadolinium based amphiphiles.

  1. Design and optimization of a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator and dose evaluation using a simulated head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S; Masoudi, S Farhad

    2012-12-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to design a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator. The optimization of this configuration has been realized in different steps. This proposed system consists of metallic uranium as neutron multiplier, TiF(3) and Al(2)O(3) as moderators, Pb as reflector, Ni as shield and Li-Poly as collimator to guide neutrons toward the patient position. The in-air parameters recommended by IAEA were assessed for this proposed configuration without using any filters which enables us to have a high epithermal neutron flux at the beam port. Also a simulated Snyder head phantom was used to evaluate dose profiles due to the irradiation of designed beam. The dose evaluation results and depth-dose curves show that the neutron beam designed in this work is effective for deep-seated brain tumor treatments even with D-T neutron generator with a neutron yield of 2.4×10(12) n/s. The Monte Carlo Code MCNP-4C is used in order to perform these calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  3. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 (10B) atoms to individual tumor cells. Cell killing results from the 10B (n, α)7Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of 10B atoms are localized in the tumor cells. Intranuclear 10B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of 10B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumor cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as PET and MRI. In this study, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high grade gliomas, recurrent tumors of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumor cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This suggests that it might be advantageous if patients were placed on a

  4. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular-scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Ahmad, T; Barth, R F; Kabalka, G W

    2014-06-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer depends on the selective delivery of a sufficient number of boron-10 ((10)B) atoms to individual tumour cells. Cell killing results from the (10)B (n, α)(7) Li neutron capture and fission reactions that occur if a sufficient number of (10)B atoms are localized in the tumour cells. Intranuclear (10)B localization enhances the efficiency of cell killing via damage to the DNA. The net cellular content of (10)B atoms reflects both bound and free pools of boron in individual tumour cells. The assessment of these pools, delivered by a boron delivery agent, currently cannot be made at subcellular-scale resolution by clinically applicable techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based imaging instrument, a CAMECA IMS 3f ion microscope, capable of 500 nm spatial resolution was employed. Cryogenically prepared cultured human T98G glioblastoma cells were evaluated for boron uptake and retention of two delivery agents. The first, L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used clinically for BNCT of high-grade gliomas, recurrent tumours of the head and neck region and melanomas. The second, a boron analogue of an unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-borono-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (cis-ABCPC), has been studied in rodent glioma and melanoma models by quantification of boron in the nucleus and cytoplasm of individual tumour cells. The bound and free pools of boron were assessed by exposure of cells to boron-free nutrient medium. Both BPA and cis-ABCPC delivered almost 70% of the pool of boron in the free or loosely bound form to the nucleus and cytoplasm of human glioblastoma cells. This free pool of boron could be easily mobilized out of the cell and was in some sort of equilibrium with extracellular boron. In the case of BPA, the intracellular free pool of boron also was affected by the presence of phenylalanine in the nutrient medium. This

  5. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  6. Measurement of spatial distribution of neutrons and gamma rays for BNCT using multi-imaging plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Takata, Takushi; Takada, Jun; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    Quality assurance of the spatial distributions of neutrons and gamma rays was tried using imaging plates (IPs) and converters to enhance the beam components in the epithermal neutron mode of the Kyoto University Reactor. The converters used were 4mm thick epoxy resin with B4C at 6.85 weight-percent (wt%) (10)B for epithermal neutrons, and 3mm thick carbon for gamma rays. Results suggested that the IP signal does not need a sensitivity correction regardless of the incident radiation that produces it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is included in a textbook which is primarily intended for medical students. The following topics are dealt with: radiation effects on molecules; chemical and biochemical radiation effects; modification of radiation effects and radiosensitivity; radiation-induced pathomorphological and pathophysiological effects in organs and organ systems; radiation syndrome; radiation effects in embryos and fetuses; genetic radiation effects; carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis after irradiation; and radiation effects after intake of radionuclides

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy: A guide to the understanding of the pathogenesis of late radiation damage to the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.M.; Whitehouse, E.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.

    1994-01-01

    Before the commencement of new boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials in Europe and North America, detailed information on normal tissue tolerance is required. In this study, the pathologic effects of BNCT on the central nervous system (CNS) have been investigated using a rat spinal cord model. The neutron capture agent used was 10 B-enriched sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH), at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight. Rats were irradiated on the thermal beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The large spine of vertebra T 2 was used as the lower marker of the irradiation field. Rats were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone to a maximum physical absorbed dose of 11.4 Gy, or with thermal neutrons in combination with BSH, to maximum absorbed physical doses of 5.7 Gy to the CNS parenchyma and 33.7 Gy to the blood in the vasculature of the spinal cord. An additional group of rats was irradiated with 250 kVp X-rays to a single dose of 35 Gy. Spinal cord pathology was examined between 5 and 12 months after irradiation. The physical dose of radiation delivered to the CNS parenchyma, using thermal neutron irradiation in the presence of BSH, was a factor of two to three lower than that delivered to the vascular endothelium, and could not account for the level of damage observed in the parenchyma. The histopathological observations of the present study support the hypothesis that the blood vessels, and the endothelial cells in particular, are the critical target population responsible for the lesions seen in the spinal cord after BNCT type irradiation and by inference, after more conventional irradiation modalities such as photons or fast neutrons. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Models for estimation of the 10B concentration after BPA-fructose complex infusion in patients during epithermal neutron irradiation in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Paeivi M.; Kortesniemi, Mika; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Diaz, Aidnag Z.; Hiismaeki, Pekka; Savolainen, Sauli E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To create simple and reliable models for clinical practice for estimating the blood 10 B time-concentration curve after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients during neutron irradiation in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Methods and Materials: BPA-F (290 mg BPA/kg body weight) was infused i.v. during two hours to 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. Compartmental models and bi-exponential function fit were constructed based on the 10 B blood time-concentration curve. The constructed models were tested with data from six additional patients who received various amounts of infused BPA-F and data from one patient who received a one-hour infusion of 170 mg BPA/kg body weight. Results: The resulting open two-compartment model and bi-exponential function estimate the clearance of 10 B after 290 mg BPA/kg body weight infusion from the blood with satisfactory accuracy during the first irradiation field (1 ppm, i.e., 7%). The accuracy of the two models in predicting the clearance of 10 B during the second irradiation field are for two-compartment model 1.0 ppm (8%) and 0.2 ppm (2%) for bi-exponential function. The models predict the average blood 10 B concentration with an increasing accuracy as more data points are available during the treatment. Conclusion: By combining the two models, a robust and practical modeling tool is created for the estimation of the 10 B concentration in blood after BPA-F infusion

  10. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.F.; Blue, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h -1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  13. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  14. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  15. Comparative study of two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP) for the application of BNCT to an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Viaggi, Mabel; Juvenal, Guillermo; Pisarev, Mario A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron compounds by tumors. Once the uptake, relative to normal tissues, is equal of greater than 3, the tumoral area is irradiated with an appropriate neutron beam. The 10 B is then converted into 11 B and this decays releasing an atom of Li, gamma rays and alpha particles. These latter have a high linear energy transfer (LET) and will cause local damage, eventually killing the tumoral cells. At the present time several clinical trials are being conducted in different countries to treat patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanomas. So far the results obtained, specially with this last disease, are quite encouraging. Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which does not respond to the therapies available at the present. Usually it has a very bad prognosis with a very short survival period. We have previously shown that the human UTC cell line ARO has an uptake of borophenylanine (BPA) significantly greater than normal thyroid or than human follicular adenoma cells in culture. Moreover, an animal model for UTC was developed in our laboratory by transplanting the human ARO cells into nude mice. This model closely resembles the evolution of human disease and even produces lung metastasis, like the human. In the present studies we have compared the uptake of two boron compounds: BPA and boronated porphyrin (BOPP). BPA was administered via ip in a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, while BOPP was given either ip or iv, in doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The animals were sacrificed at different times after the injection: up to 150 min for BPA and after 24 h with BOPP. The concentration of boron was determined by ICP-AES. The results obtained showed that the uptake of BPA was significantly greater in the tumoral area and in the infiltrated surrounding skin than in the other organs examined (liver, kidney, lung, mice thyroid, blood, spleen and distal skin

  16. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  17. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, A.

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?) water air , in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60 Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?) water air can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy

  18. Comparison of the image-derived radioactivity and blood-sample radioactivity for estimating the clinical indicators of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohashi, Kayako; Shimosegawa, Eku; Naka, Sadahiro; Kanai, Yasukazu; Horitsugi, Genki; Mochida, Ikuko; Matsunaga, Keiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Kato, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2- 18 F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of 10 B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering 10 B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of 10 B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying 10 B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET. However, the method to measure blood radioactivity either by blood sampling or image data has not been standardized. We compared image-derived blood radioactivity of FBPA with blood sampling data and studied appropriate timing and location for measuring image-derived blood counts. We obtained 7 repeated whole-body PET scans in five healthy subjects. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, heated in a heating blanket. Time-activity curves (TACs) of image-derived blood radioactivity were obtained using volumes of interest (VOIs) over ascending aorta, aortic arch, pulmonary artery, left and right ventricles, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta. Image-derived blood radioactivity was compared with those measured by blood sampling data in each location. Both the TACs of blood sampling radioactivity in each subject, and the TACs of image-derived blood radioactivity showed a peak within 5 min after the tracer injection, and promptly decreased soon thereafter. Linear relationship was found between blood sampling radioactivity and image-derived blood radioactivity in all the VOIs at any timing of data sampling (p radioactivity measured in the left and right ventricles 30 min after injection showed high correlation with blood radioactivity. Image-derived blood radioactivity was lower than blood sampling radioactivity data by 20 %. Reduction of blood radioactivity of FBPA in left ventricle after 30 min of FBPA

  19. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  20. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  1. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  2. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kill any cancer cells that remain. Lifetime Dose Limits There is a limit to the amount of radiation an area of ... total dose of radiation more quickly or to limit damage to healthy cells. Different ways of delivering ...

  3. Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts of radiation and could be caused by Dirty bombs - a mix of explosives with radioactive powder Fallout from a nuclear bomb Accidental release from a nuclear reactor or a nuclear weapons plant A lot of radiation over a short ...

  4. Medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK).

  5. Radiation watchdog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.

    1984-01-01

    Designated by WHO as a Collaborating Centre, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee provides assistance to all countries of the Americas in radiation accidents including human contamination or overexposure. It also conducts courses in radiation emergency response for health professionals from throughout the world

  6. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long ...

  7. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  8. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  9. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  10. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  11. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

  14. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk

  15. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  16. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  18. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  19. Radiation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet has been produced by UKAEA and the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation to give some basic information about what radiation is and how it is used in day to day diagnosis and treatment. It will be of interest to people undergoing treatment, their relatives and friends, and anyone who wants to know more about this important area. After a brief historical introduction the booklet explains what radiation is, the natural and man-made sources of radiation, how it is produced and how X-rays are used in medical diagnosis and treatment. The radiation protection measures taken and safety standards followed are mentioned. (author)

  20. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  1. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  2. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  3. Radiation signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)

  4. Radiation hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Chukhlovin, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-Art ofl radiation hematology and review of the problems now facing this brauch of radiobiology and nuclear medicine are presented. Distortion of division and maturation of hemopoiesis parent cells is considered as main factor of radiopathology for hematopoetic system. Problems of radiation injury and functional variation of hematopoetic microenvironment cell populations are discussed. 176 figs.; 23 figs.; 18 tabs

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  7. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  9. Radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The book gives accounts of some social and environmental impacts of the developing radiation industries, including the experiences of affected communities and individuals. Its structure is based on a division which has been made between nuclear and non-nuclear radiation sources, because they create distinctly different problems for environmental protection and so for public health policy. The emissions from electronic and electrical installations - the non-nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part I. Emissions from radioactive substances - the nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part II. Part III is for readers who want more detailed information about scientific basis of radiation-related biological changes and their associated health effects. 75 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs., ills

  10. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this contribution about carcinogenesis induced by ionizing radiation some radiation dose-response relationships are discussed. Curves are shown of the relation between cell survival and resp. low and high LET radiation. The difference between both curves can be ascribed to endogenous repair mechanisms in the cell. The relation between single-gen mutation frequency and the surviving fractions of irradiated cells indicates that these repairing mechanisms are not error free. Some examples of reverse dose-response relationships are presented in which decreasing values of dose-rate (LET) correspond with increasing radiation induced cell transformation. Finally some molecular aspects of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed. (H.W.). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  12. Beneficial radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Feinendegen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is harmful and may cause cancer, as is well known. However, again and again, low doses of ionizing radiation, under certain conditions, are said to have beneficial effects on human health and, in particular, may reduce the cancer rate. This effect, which is discussed controversially in the technical and scientific literature, is called 'hormesis'. Studies of possible positive effects of ionizing radiation are becoming increasingly more important in scientific research. The article is an attempt to show, by the model case of cancer, under what conditions such positive health effects can occur, at least in principle, and will also contain rough plausibility assessments of the existence of such conditions. Aspects not covered include other existing or presumed positive biological effects of ionizing radiation, such as acceleration of growth, or general increase in the life expectancy of organisms. Also genetic damage will not be discussed in greater detail, despite the existence of some parallels with cancer, both cases constituting lesions to the genetic material of the cells, in one case, germ cells and, in the case of cancer, somatic cells. Also, acute radiation effect will be excluded which occur only at high radiation doses and, as such, always cause damage which, in therapeutic application to cancer, may again be lifesaving. It should be emphasized that the article is limited to a greatly restricted range of biological effects of ionizing radiation which, consequently, are of limited value for overall assessment. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  14. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  15. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  16. Radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display

  17. Radiating confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems for operators handling radioactive wastes are described. These include a personnel monitoring system which is suitable for small groups (ie as few as 50) of personnel. The use of microelectronics enable facilities such as automatic personal dose recording with three accumulative registers and automatic reporting of exceeded dose limits. At a controlled entrance the user is identified with a personal identification number. Exit is then also monitored. The use of pocket dosimeters increase the flexibility of this system. In another system a 'rotary man lock' only allows exit from the radiation controlled zone when satisfactory radiation checks have been made. The radiation and security checks available with this system are described. A 'sack monitor' for low level wastes contained in plastic bags is illustrated. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendrinsky, J.

    1987-04-01

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  19. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  20. Infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Ellis, R.J.; Murray, W.E.; Parr, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    All people are exposed to IR radiation from sunlight, artificial light and radiant heating. Exposures to IR are quantified by irradiance and radiant exposure to characterize biological effects on the skin and cornea. However, near-IR exposure to the retina requires knowledge of the radiance of the IR source. With most IR sources in everyday use the health risks are considered minimal; only in certain high radiant work environments are individuals exposed to excessive levels. The interaction of IR radiation with biological tissues is mainly thermal. IR radiation may augment the biological response to other agents. The major health hazards are thermal injury to the eye and skin, including corneal burns from far-IR, heat stress, and retinal and lenticular injury from near-IR radiation. 59 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Radiation shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Yasuaki

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, the thickness of the radiation shields is minimized to save the quantity of shields thereby utilizing spaces in a facility effectively. That is, the radiation shields of the present invention comprise first and second shields forming stepwise gaps. They are disposed between a high dose region and a low dose region. The first and second shields have a feature in that the thickness thereof can be set to a size capable of shielding the gaps in accordance with the strength of the radiation source to be shielded. With such a constitution, the thickness of the shields of the radiation processing facility can be minimized. Accordingly, the quantity of the shields can be greatly saved. Spaces in the facility can be utilized effectively. (I.S.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Radiation sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  4. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  5. Radiation sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wykes, J.S.; Adsley, I.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation detectors, suitable for use in industrial environments, eg coal mines are claimed. At least two scintillation crystals are mounted on a resilient support material, preferably silicone rubber. The sensors are both robust and compact. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.B.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In medicine, as in other fields of scientific endeavor, the development of advanced and specialized techniques has resulted in increased hazards for employees. However, by possessing both an appreciation of the proper use of factors that regulate radiation exposure around radiology equipment and a knowledge of the biologic effects of radiation, which can include possible genetic and somatic consequences, it is possible to maximize the usefulness of these valuable procedures while minimizing the risk to medical personnel involved with patient care

  7. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  8. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  9. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2001-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported

  12. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  13. Directional radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  14. Tidal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1977-01-01

    The general theory of tides is developed within the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation. It is based on the concept of Fermi frame and the associated notion of tidal frame along an open curve in spacetime. Following the previous work of the author an approximate scheme for the evaluation of tidal gravitational radiation is presented which is valid for weak gravitational fields. The emission of gravitational radiation from a body in the field of a black hole is discussed, and for some cases of astrophysical interest estimates are given for the contributions of radiation due to center-of-mass motion, purely tidal deformation, and the interference between the center of mass and tidal motions

  15. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  16. Ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiations in Belgium is summarised under the headings: the outline law of 19 March 1958; the General Regulation for the protection of the population and workers against the danger of ionising radiation (introduction; application; the control of classified establishments; organisation of general protection; importation, transit and distribution of radioactive substances; transport of radioactive substances; nuclear propulsion; ionising radiation in human or veterinary medicine; prohibitions and authorisations; exceptional measures; monitoring of the national territory and of the population as a whole; the approval of experts, organisations and doctors; monitoring; the public company for the management of radioactive waste and fissile materials); the law of 4 August 1955 concerning state security in the field of nuclear energy; civil responsibility; the Interministerial Commission on Nuclear Safety and State Security in the Nuclear Field; the non-proliferation of nuclear arms. (U.K.)

  17. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  18. Radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1955-01-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  20. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains an evaluation of data available about the deleterious effects of exposure of people to ionising radiation, assuming that the total exposure is low (low dose) or that exposure to dose takes place gradually (low dose rate). It is a revision of the 1985 Health Council report on 'The scientific foundations for radiation protection policy based on the UNSCEAR-77, -82, and BEIR reports'. The report is also meant to be a reply to a request for advice made by the Minister of Welfare, Public Health and Culture in 1989. Scientific opinion on induction of cancer by radiation has clearly changed since 1988. This is a consequence of new publications of epidemiological studies among survivors of the atomic explosions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Committee that has produced the present report has paid much attention to this development. Besides, in the request for advice just mentioned it is asked whether the margins of uncertainty which complicated the quantitative assessment of the radiation risk can be reduced. Consequently the Committee has dealt extensively with the potential errors and uncertainties in available data. Especially these 2 elements - a careful consideration of a recent shift in scientific opinion and a constant attention for the magnitude of potential uncertainties - have had a predominant influence on the content and design of this report. The Committee has tried to answer as fully as possible the complex question how to transform results of scientific research into a well-organised data set on which the government can base its radiation protection policy. The Committee had also compared its evaluation to the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the points of view of the Dutch policy directive 'Dealing with radiation risks'. (author). 111 refs.; 12 tabs

  2. Radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shack, R.B.; Lynch, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    Even in this era of modern radiotherapy, injuries associated with the medical and industrial use of radiation devices will continue to pose a difficult problem for the reconstructive surgeon. It must be borne in mind that the single most serious hazard to surgery in irradiated tissue is the lodgement of bacteria in tissue rendered avascular by the radiation and the secondary necrosis from the infection itself. The basic principles of wound management must be augmented by thorough knowledge of the use of well-vascularized muscle and musculocutaneous flap to provide adequate, blood-rich, soft-tissue coverage.

  3. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation physics program is directed toward understanding the basic mechanism by which charged particles lose energy in traversing matter, and presenting this information in a way meaningful to the study of radiation dosimetry and biological damage. Measurements of the absolute cross sections for the ejection of electrons from ionization by fast charged particles, measurements of optical fluorescence from liquid systems, preliminary analyses of electron emission cross sections for proton bombardment of carbon foils, and nonexponential decay of fluorescence in both polar and nonpolar solutions are covered

  4. Radiation toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allow radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that models are needed that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  5. Radiation toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allows radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that we need models that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  6. Radiation enteropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthmann, E.H. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Imdahl, A. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Eggstein, S. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG)

  7. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  8. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  9. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar A, J.; Medina G, H.

    1988-01-01

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  10. Radiation enteropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farthmann, E.H.; Imdahl, A.; Eggstein, S.

    1994-01-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  12. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  13. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensicke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The textbook is written with special regard to radiation protection of man. It shall enable the reader to assess the potential radiation risks to living organisms and lead him to an insight into radiation protection measures. The following topics are covered: physical fundamentals of ionizing radiations; physical and chemical fundamentals of biological radiation effects; radiation effects on cells, organs, organ systems, and whole animal organisms focussing on mammals and man; modification of radiation effects; chemical radiation protection; therapy of radiation injuries; radionuclide kinetics; biological radiation effects in connection with radiation hazards and with the limitation of radiation exposure. It is intended for vocational education of medical personnel

  14. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  15. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... material placed in the body near cancer cells ( internal radiation therapy , also called brachytherapy ). Systemic radiation therapy uses radioactive ... material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, more commonly called brachytherapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses ...

  16. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  17. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  18. An evaluation of the various aspects of the progress in clinical applications of laser driven ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideghéty, K.; Szabó, E. R.; Polanek, R.; Szabó, Z.; Ughy, B.; Brunner, S.; Tőkés, T.

    2017-03-01

    There has been a vast development of laser-driven particle acceleration (LDPA) using high power lasers. This has initiated by the radiation oncology community to use the dose distribution and biological advantages of proton/heavy ion therapy in cancer treatment with a much greater accessibility than currently possible with cyclotron/synchrotron acceleration. Up to now, preclinical experiments have only been performed at a few LDPA facilities; technical solutions for clinical LDPA have been theoretically developed but there is still a long way to go for the clinical introduction of LDPA. Therefore, to explore the further potential bio-medical advantages of LDPA has pronounced importance. The main characteristics of LDPA are the ultra-high beam intensity, the flexibility in beam size reduction and the potential particle and energy selection whilst conventional accelerators generate single particle, quasi mono-energetic beams. There is a growing number of studies on the potential advantages and applications of Energy Modulated X-ray Radiotherapy, Modulated Electron Radiotherapy and Very High Energy Electron (VHEE) delivery system. Furthermore, the ultra-high space and/or time resolution of super-intense beams are under intensive investigation at synchrotrons (microbeam radiation and very high dose rate (> 40 Gy/s) electron accelerator flash irradiation) with growing evidence of significant improvement of the therapeutic index. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an advanced cell targeted binary treatment modality. Because of the high linear energy transfer (LET) of the two particles (7Li and 4He) released by 10BNC reaction, all of the energy is deposited inside the tumour cells, killing them with high probability, while the neighbouring cells are not damaged. The limited availability of appropriate neutron sources, prevent the more extensive exploration of clinical benefit of BNCT. Another boron-based novel binary approach is the 11B-Proton Fusion, which result in

  19. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  20. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  1. Radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wara, W.M.; Irvine, A.R.; Neger, R.E.; Howes, E.L. Jr.; Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The records were reviewed of all patients treated with irradiation to the eye at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1960 and 1975. Eight patients were identified who had developed radiation retinopathy 1 to 3 years postrirradiation. Lesions included retinal vascular occlusions, hemorrhages, microaneurysms, exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachments, and optic atrophy with blindness. Four patients had received less than 5000 rad in 6 weeks to the retina, a dose usually considered within normal tissue tolerance

  2. Radiation shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookes, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes a shelter comprising a cavity for receiving life to be sheltered; a roof for covering at least a portion of said cavity, and at least one aqueous, protective barrier layer adapted to prevent transmission through said roof and into said cavity of at least a portion of radiation in a predetermined spectrum. The cavity walls may be impregnated with an oil suitable for dressing burns. (author)

  3. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  4. Radiation smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The principle is described of the production of radiation smog resulting from radioactive emisions. The differences are discussed in the contamination over the territory of Czechoslovakia following the Chernobyl accident. The higher surface contamination of industrial areas recorded after the accident can be explained by electroprecipitation of industrial impurities with the radicals and ions of the radioactive cloud. (E.S.). 3 figs., 16 refs

  5. Radiation pager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Methods of interdicting nuclear materials to date have favored the use of large portal detectors at choke points, or hand carried instruments used by trained personnel for conducting spot searches. Although these methods are effective in some instances, it is often impractical to insert choke points at busy traffic areas, and it is not cost effective to maintain a force of skilled operators whose focus is nuclear interdiction. Recent technology developments are causing profound changes in the philosophy and methods employed for interdicting nuclear materials. Breakthrough advances in the miniaturization of detectors and low power electronics have made possible a new class of small gamma-ray radiation detectors, roughly the size of a message pager, with unprecedented sensitivity for their size. These instruments, named Radiation Pagers TM , are ideally suited for use by untrained individual law enforcement personnel and emergency responders in the course of their regular duties. New tactics that utilize a radiation detector worn by every officer are creating a moving curtain of detection with a significantly higher likelihood of locating illicit nuclear contraband. These individual detectors also provide each officer with a high level of confidence that they are not being unknowingly irradiated in the course of their work. (author)

  6. Applications of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanagodimath, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiations are powerful and non destructive tools in industry, medicine, defence, agriculture and research. In the present lecture, the types of nuclear radiations, radiation sources, detection of radiation, uses of radiation, dangers of nuclear radiation and nuclear energy will be discussed. (author)

  7. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manwei

    1987-01-01

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  8. Radiation danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The author is a journalist and has written the book 4 weeks after the Chernobyl accident because 'the experts have failed in informing on the consequences of Chernobyl in a way to keep the insecurity in the population within tolerable limits'. It is aimed at the interested layman. First the events as seen through the Austria media and the measures taken by the authorities during the 4 weeks are reviewed. In the rest of the books there is elementary information on some aspects of radioactivity, reactors and radiation limits although 'the connection between radioactivity and health is very complex'. (G.Q.)

  9. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  11. Radiation technology science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Gwan

    1988-02-01

    This book deals with radiation technology and introduces various contents. It includes concept of radiation, fundamental physics, atom, electromagnetic radiation, electricity and magnetism, electromagnetism, interaction between X-rays and matter, process of latent image, intensifying screen, quality of radiography, special X-ray equipment, mammography, summary of computer, X-ray emission, nuclear magnetic resonance, grounded theory of radiation biology, initial effect of radiation, late effect of radiation, health physics, radiation protection, ultrasonic diagnosis.

  12. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, S F; Campos, T P R

    2015-07-01

    This article proposes a combination of californium-252 ((252)Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: (252)Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0-5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the (252)Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis.

  13. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  14. Radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The overall thrust of the research is aimed at understanding the effects of radiation on organisms. Specific subject areas include: the effects of heavy-particle beam nuclear interactions in tissue on dosimetry; tracer studies with radioactive fragments of heavy-ion beams; the effects of heavy/ions on human kidney cells and Chinese hamster cells; the response of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system in rats to heavy-ion beams; the use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy of human cancer; heavy-ion radiography; the biological effects of high magnetic fields; central nervous system neurotoxicity; and biophysical studies on cell membranes

  15. RADIATION DOSIMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

    1960-05-10

    An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

  16. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  17. Environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The types of ionizing radiations from the atomic nucleus are explained, such as the beams alpha, beta and gamma. The definitions of spectrometry and nuclear traces have been included.The study presents two researches realized in Costa Rica on the radioactive nuclear and artificial elements in the environment. The first shown is the analysis of coastal sediments where explains which are radioactive artificial isotopes and the pollution that occurs in food, coastal sediments, fertilizers, the soil, the water and the air. Within the analysis techniques are the gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and nuclear strokes. Among the conclusions of this initial investigation is shown that at Punta Leona descendants of Uranium and Thorium present lower concentrations in relation to the gulf and its variations are not important. In the following study the radon gas is analyzed in the human environment where is determined that it is the second generator that causes cancer in lungs after the tobacco. This work indicates that the doses come from natural and artificial sources of radiation for the public are a whole of 2.7 mSv/year, information provided by the UNSCEAR, 2000. The radon gas is inert and radioactive of atomic number 86, includes 23 isotopes and 3 natural isotopes. The radon is everywhere, as are houses and buildings, in Costa Rica it is located in old homes with little ventilation. It describes the equipment used for the detection of radon gas in the environment. Within the conclusions radon gas is concentrated in confined spaces which can be harmful to health. It is determined that enough ventilation in places of high concentrations of radon is important. Finally it is recommended to monitor the sites where can be detected high concentrations of radon and that they have important influx of people [es

  18. Radiation chemistry comes before radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Peter; Wardman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to illustrate some contributions of radiation chemistry to radiobiology and related science, and to draw attention to examples where radiation chemistry is central to our knowledge of specific aspects. Radiation chemistry is a mature branch of radiation science which is continually evolving and finding wider applications. This is particularly apparent in the study of the roles of free radicals in biology generally, and radiation biology specifically. The chemical viewpoint helps unite the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with the diversity of biological responses. While historically, the main application of radiation chemistry of relevance to radiation biology has been investigations of the free-radical processes leading to radiation-induced DNA damage and its chemical characterization, two features of radiation chemistry point to its wider importance. First, its emphasis on quantification and characterization at the molecular level helps provide links between DNA damage, biochemical repair processes, and mutagenicity and radiosensitivity. Second, its central pillar of chemical kinetics aids understanding of the roles of 'reactive oxygen species' in cell signalling and diverse biological effects more generally, and application of radiation chemistry in the development of drugs to enhance radiotherapy and as hypoxia-specific cytotoxins or diagnostic agents. The illustrations of the broader applications of radiation chemistry in this article focus on their relevance to radiation biology and demonstrate the importance of synergy in the radiation sciences. The past contributions of radiation chemistry to radiation biology are evident, but there remains considerable potential to help advance future biological understanding using the knowledge and techniques of radiation chemistry.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of proton boron fusion reaction for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Yoon, Do Kun; Suh, Tae Suk [Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The principle of the proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) is based on this reaction as the radiation therapy technique. First, because three alpha particles can contribute to the death of the tumor cell by the use of one proton, high therapy efficiency can be achieved by using smaller flux than conventional proton therapy or the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), after the thermal neutron was captured by the labeled boron in the tumor region, an alpha particle is emitted from the capture reaction point. An alpha particle induces the death of the tumor cell by the one capture reaction. However, three alpha particles are emitted from the point of the proton boron fusion reaction. If this reaction is applied to the radiation therapy, the therapy results could be more effective in inducing the death of tumor cells using a smaller flux. In addition, the proton's energy loss during its propagation through matter is described by the Bragg-peak. After the boron-labeled compound is accumulated in the tumor region, if the portion of the proton's maximum dose (Bragg-peak) is included at the tumor region, which is the boron uptake region (BUR), a dramatic therapy effect with less damage to normal tissue can be expected. This study was performed to introduce a therapy method using the proton boron fusion reaction and verify the theoretical validity of PBFT using Monte Carlo simulations. In this study, there are two parts of the simulation to confirm the validity of PBFT. First, the variation of the Bragg-peak of the proton depending on the location of the BUR was examined. The other simulation was performed to confirm the existence of the prompt gamma ray peak of 719 keV from energy spectrum simulation. PBFT method is still at the conceptual stage, the verification of its effectiveness is required for the use of a physical approach.

  20. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features on ... should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. Causes External radiation therapy uses high-powered x- ...

  3. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  4. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  5. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  6. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  7. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  8. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Misao; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    Drains of laundry, shower and hand-washing in a nuclear power plant are collected in a cleaning water drain tank and sent to a cleaning water drain evaporation device. The liquid is highly condensed and burnt here. Evaporated water is sent to a cleaning water drain monitor tank and discharged out of the system. A sample taking port and a monitoring branched pipe are disposed upstream of the cleaning water monitor tank. A pH meter and an electroconductivity meter are connected to a branched pipe of the evaporated water, and the outputs therefrom are sent to an alarm device. The alarm device generates an alarm when the output of the pH meter is greater than a determined first appropriate value within a range from 9.5 to 10.0 and the output of the electroconductive meter is also greater than a predetermined second appropriate value within a range from 10 to 20μS/cm. A highly reliable radiation monitor with low cost and without erroneous alarm can thus be obtained. (I.N.)

  9. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  10. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  11. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is concerned with radiation safety of radiologist and other hospital personnel. Part 1 deals with properties of radiation in general (especially of ionizing radiation). In part 2, different applications of radiation in hospitals are discussed. Part 3 indicates what to do to make improvements to not totally safe situations in hospitals. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  12. CHERENKOV RADIATION DETECTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... the number of quanta emitted per unit radiation length of radiator in frequency and + d. RAR. = The radiation length of beta particles for laboratory energies in aluminum (in g cm-2). XC. = The critical distance in the radiator. ηo. = The absolute quantum efficiency of photo cathode at peak of the response ...

  13. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  14. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  15. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  17. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  18. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  19. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  20. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  1. Chlorin derivatives for potential use in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, J.; Neumann, M.; Ruf, S.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    A series of BSH containing alkyl ether homologues of pytropheophorbide a has been prepared. Cellular uptake studies show that is possible to accumulate 2.2 mg of the heptyl ether after 2 h of incubation with a 0.04 mM solution. That means a boron amount of 330 μg per gram cell mass. Cytotoxicity studies allow radiobiological experiments. The patterns of subcellular localisation visualised by fluorescence microscopy and CLSM show that much of the chlorins is located close to the nucleus and in the nucleus membrane. However, no chlorin was found in the nucleus. (author)

  2. Boron-rich oligomers for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gula, M.; Perleberg, O.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of two BSH derivatives is described, which can be used for oligomerization in DNA-synthesizers. Synthesis pathways lead to final products in five and six steps, respectively. Because of chirality interesting results were expected. NMR-measurements confirm this expectation. Possible oligomers with high concentrations of boron can be attached to biomolecules. These oligomers can be explored with several imaging methods (EELS, PEM) to determine the lower detection limit of boron with these methods. (author)

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  4. Radiation versus radiation: nuclear energy in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a proper perspective on radiation exposures from nuclear energy. Instead of comparing these exposures with other pollutants, natural and man-made, it assesses the radiation doses that result from the human environment and from the entire fuel cycle associated with nuclear generated electricity. It explores radiation versus radiation, not only in terms of absolute levels but, more importantly, of the enormous variability characterizing many radiation sources. The quantitative findings and their implications are meant to contribute to a balanced understanding of the radiological impact of nuclear energy, and so to help to bridge the information gap that is perceived to exist on this issue. The 1988 Unscear report and its seven scientific annexes provide an authoritative and dispassionate factual basis for examining radiation levels from all sources, natural and man-made. It is the main source for this paper. (author)

  5. From radiation chemistry to radiation engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a steady recognition that radiation in the form of electrons or gamma rays can offer positive advantages as a processing technology. Underlying this process industry, and largely responsible for its success, are significant contributions from the field of basic and applied radiation chemistry. In this paper it is attempted to relate fundamental radiation chemistry studies directly to the practical engineering applications

  6. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  7. Guideline Implementation: Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Because radiologic technology is used in a variety of perioperative procedures and settings, it is essential for perioperative RNs to be knowledgeable of the risks related to radiation and the ways to adequately protect patients and health care providers from unintended radiation exposure. The updated AORN "Guideline for radiation safety" provides guidance on preventing injury from ionizing radiation exposure during therapeutic, diagnostic, and interventional procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel practice radiation safety. The key points address the requirements for an organization's radiation safety program, measures used to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, proper handling and testing of radiation protection devices, and considerations for protecting employees and patients who are pregnant and who will be exposed to radiation. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New Finnish radiation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  9. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Radiation effects on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.; Shalaby, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers polymer radiation effects to be available in more than a decade. This volume reviews the fundamental chemistry and physics of polymer-radiation interaction and examines recent progress in most major areas of the field. Its 38 chapters, cover: fundamentals of polymer radiation chemistry; technological applications of radiation to polymers (including radiation processing; radiation curing; sterilization; cross-linking, polymerization, grafting, x-ray resists, and others); and degradation of stabilization of irradiated polymers (including nuclear plants, scintillation detectors for particle physics, and others)

  11. Introduction to radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, Ch.J.

    1978-08-01

    This document is to introduce personnel who come into contact with any radiological activities to different aspects of radiation hygiene. The basic theory of radiation physics is given and units and dose equivalents are discussed. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described and risk analysis is introduced. The various sources of radiation to which the population is exposed are outlined. Saftey standards and legislation regarding radiation hygiene are described and the various methods and instruments for measuring radiation are given. Dosimetry and safety precautions and measures are finally discussed. (C.F.)

  12. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  13. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  14. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  15. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  16. Radiation Safety Awareness among Radiation Workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: All x-ray utilization in human medicine leads to exposure of the patient and personnel to radiation. Although the quantity is low in diagnostic examinations, special attention should be given to this fact in order to minimize unnecessary exposure for both groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be avoided ...

  17. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  18. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  19. Radiation and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation are summarized. The principles and practice of radiation protection, as applied to human populations, are described with reference to the ICRP recommendations for 'justification, optimization and dose limits'. (U.K.)

  20. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every 3 to 6 months to check the success of the radiation treatment. Alternative Names Radiation - pelvis - ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  1. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  2. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant women. Ionizing radiation is the kind of electromagnetic radiation produced by x-ray machines, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides), ... and conceive is quite low. Studies of the atomic bomb survivors indicate even in the high-exposure ...

  3. Working with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This simple booklet is written primarily to supply information about radiation, its potential dangers and radiation protection, to those working for, or considering taking up employment with, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  5. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Is it safe? > Radiation and pregnancy Radiation and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  6. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  7. Radiation education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Teruko; Higashijima, Emiko; Hisajima, Michihiro

    2005-01-01

    Part of goals of general education of physics is to provide students for basic knowledge on radiation. This includes understanding of both its risks and benefits. Students should know how to protect and defence from radiation but they should not overwhelm the risk of radiation. Sometimes, students think that atomic power is so terrible and frightening that they keep away from use of atomic power. Basic knowledge about risks of radiation will reduce the excessive reaction or anxiety coming from radiation. It also makes people understand other possible risks and benefits of radiation accompanied by modern scientific technologies such as nuclear technologies. We believe that the radiation education is an essential requisite for the peaceful usage of nuclear energy and radiation technology for the future. (author)

  8. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  9. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  10. Ionizing radiation and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Among the well accepted causes of neoplasia, ionizing radiation is quite prominent. Its oncogenic role was suspected by a few pioneers in the field of radiation biology, and some evidence for its oncogenicity has been available for almost 80 years. Since then unquestionable and abundant proof, statistical and experimental, has linked radiation with multiple tumors in mammals. Other forms of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet) are also causally related to neoplasia. This review, however, refers only to the tumors associated with ionizing radiation, either electromagnetic (i.e., gamma and x-rays) or particulate (alpha particles, neutrons, etc.). The field of radiation oncogenesis can be compared to a sea of hypotheses, with a few solid islands of facts. This paper considers the facts (specific radiation-induced neoplasms, risk data, etc.) and then considers some of the hypotheses (possible mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis)

  11. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  12. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  13. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  14. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  15. Radiation safety at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1995-09-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, operates proton accelerators up to an energy of 450 GeV and an electron-positron storage ring in the 50 GeV energy range for fundamental high-energy particle physics. A strong radiation protection group assures the radiation safety of these machines both during their operation and in periods of maintenance and repair. Particular radiation problems in an accelerator laboratory are presented and recent developments in radiation protection at CERN discussed. (author)

  16. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  17. Nonionizing radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    While a great deal of work has been done by international bodies to establish permissible levels for ionizing radiation, much less attention has been paid to the nonionizing forms of radiation and their possible health effects. Taking into account that equipment producing such radiation is now widely used both in the house and in industry, the paper presents the possible health effects of ultraviolet, visible, laser, infrared and microwave radiation, of electric and magnetic fields and of the ultrasound waves

  18. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  19. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  1. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  2. Neutron capture therapy (NCT) and in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) a new technology on binary targeting radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongmao

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is finally becoming 'a new option against cancer'. The difficulties for its development progress of that firstly is to improve the performance of boron compounds,secondly, it is the requirements of quantification and accuracy upon radiation dosimetry evaluation in clinical trials. Furthermore, that is long anticipation on hospital base neutron sources. It includes dedicated new NCT reactor, accelerator based neutron sources, and isotope source facilities. In addition to reactors, so far, the technology of other types of sources for clinical trials is not yet completely proven. The In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator specially designed for NCT, based on the MNSR successfully developed by China, can be installed inside or near the hospital and operated directly by doctors. The Irradiator has two neutron beams for respective treatment of the shallow and deep tumors. It is expected to initiate operation in the end of this year. It would provide a safe, low cost, and effective treatment tool for the NCT routine application in near future. (authors)

  3. Radiation and medicine: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.; Singh, H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the development of the various nuclear medicine techniques which have been evolved since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. The role of various disciplines, such as radiobiology, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and computers in the application of radiation in medicine is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiIanni, E.J.; Cooley, H.J.; Fujita, M.; Noback, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring radiation field strength comprising in combination, (a) biased potential radiation detector having an output circuit, the detector being of the type that is effective when biased to respond to impingement of radiation by generating an output pulse at its output circuit, and when not biased being ineffective to generate an output pulse when impinged by radiation, (b) biasing means operatively coupled to the radiation detector for selectively biasing the radiation detector to generate an output pulse in response to impingement by radiation, (c) time counting means including timing control means operable to start and terminate time counting, the radiation detector output circuit being operatively coupled to the time counting means and being effective upon generation of an output pulse to cause the time counting means to terminate time counting, (d) master control means operatively coupled to (1) the biasing means to selectively cause the biasing means to bias the radiation detector to respond to impingement by radiation, (2) the time counting means and effective to cause the time counting means to start time counting simultaneously with the operative biasing of the radiation detector, the master control means receiving a signal when the radiation detector generates an output pulse

  5. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  6. Introduction to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Troesch, G.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are developed through the five chapters of the manual: radiation dosimetry, basic principles, dose units and radiation protection instrumentation; protection against external irradiation and internal contamination; safety of nuclear facilities, principles, regulations and organization; radiation protection into nuclear reactors; environmental monitoring of radioactive wastes and effluents [fr

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  8. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  9. Quark radiation from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred

  10. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  11. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  12. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej

    1997-10-01

    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  13. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  14. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  15. Radiation protection seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIMODAL MONTE CARLO BASED TREATMENT PLANNING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Takada, Kenta; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Takata, Takushi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Akira; Sakae, Takeji

    2017-10-26

    To establish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the University of Tsukuba is developing a treatment device and peripheral devices required in BNCT, such as a treatment planning system. We are developing a new multimodal Monte Carlo based treatment planning system (developing code: Tsukuba Plan). Tsukuba Plan allows for dose estimation in proton therapy, X-ray therapy and heavy ion therapy in addition to BNCT because the system employs PHITS as the Monte Carlo dose calculation engine. Regarding BNCT, several verifications of the system are being carried out for its practical usage. The verification results demonstrate that Tsukuba Plan allows for accurate estimation of thermal neutron flux and gamma-ray dose as fundamental radiations of dosimetry in BNCT. In addition to the practical use of Tsukuba Plan in BNCT, we are investigating its application to other radiation therapies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  18. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  19. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  20. Prostaglandis and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, I.N.; Nikol'skij, A.V.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1984-01-01

    It was established that some biochemical distortions in the brain of animals, subjected to superlethal doses of ionizing radiation don't develope; the starting mechanisms of a radiation damage can be fundamentally another, as compared to the medullar and intestinal forms of radiation sickness. It enables to assume that observed changes in activity of prostaglandin-synthetase system during irradiation by 250 Gr dose are based on earlier formed changes in membrane permeability and distortion of receptor cell activity. Investigations of the effect of radiation damage modificators give additional information when studying the primary biochemical processes, initiating radiation sickness