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Sample records for bnct treatment planning

  1. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Babcock, R.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland`s Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995.

  2. Voxel model in BNCT treatment planning: performance analysis and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara J.; Carando, Daniel G.; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    2005-02-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made to study the performance of treatment planning systems in deriving an accurate dosimetry of the complex radiation fields involved in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of the patient's anatomy is one of the main factors involved in this subject. This work presents a detailed analysis of the performance of the 1 cm based voxel reconstruction approach. First, a new and improved material assignment algorithm implemented in NCTPlan treatment planning system for BNCT is described. Based on previous works, the performances of the 1 cm based voxel methods used in the MacNCTPlan and NCTPlan treatment planning systems are compared by standard simulation tests. In addition, the NCTPlan voxel model is benchmarked against in-phantom physical dosimetry of the RA-6 reactor of Argentina. This investigation shows the 1 cm resolution to be accurate enough for all reported tests, even in the extreme cases such as a parallelepiped phantom irradiated through one of its sharp edges. This accuracy can be degraded at very shallow depths in which, to improve the estimates, the anatomy images need to be positioned in a suitable way. Rules for this positioning are presented. The skin is considered one of the organs at risk in all BNCT treatments and, in the particular case of cutaneous melanoma of extremities, limits the delivered dose to the patient. Therefore, the performance of the voxel technique is deeply analysed in these shallow regions. A theoretical analysis is carried out to assess the distortion caused by homogenization and material percentage rounding processes. Then, a new strategy for the treatment of surface voxels is proposed and tested using two different irradiation problems. For a parallelepiped phantom perpendicularly irradiated with a 5 keV neutron source, the large thermal neutron fluence deviation present at shallow depths (from 54% at 0 mm depth to 5% at 4 mm depth) is reduced to 2% on average

  3. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  4. A treatment planning comparison of BPA- or BSH-based BNCT of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose during clinical BNCT requires knowledge (or reasonably valid assumptions) about the boron concentrations in tumor and normal tissues. For conversion of physical dose (Gy) into photon-equivalent dose (Gy-Eq), relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and/or compound-adjusted biological effectiveness (CBE) factors are required for each tissue. The BNCT treatment planning software requires input of the following values: the boron concentration in blood and tumor, RBEs in brain, tumor and skin for the high-LET beam components, the CBE factors for brain, tumor, and skin, and the RBE for the gamma component.

  5. Assessment of dose rate scaling factors used in NCTPlan treatment planning code for the BNCT beam of THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsing Hua open-pool reactor (THOR) at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has been used to investigate the feasibility and to enhance the technology of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for years. A rebuilt epithermal beam port for BNCT at THOR was finished in the summer of 2004, and then researches and experiments were performed to hasten the first clinical treatment case of BNCT in Taiwan in the near future. NCTPlan, a Monte Carlo-based clinical treatment planning code, was used to calculate the dose-rate distributions of BNCT in this work. A self-made Snyder head phantom with a servo-motor control system was irradiated in front of the THOR BNCT beam exit. The phantom was made from a 3 mm shell of quartz wool impregnated with acrylic casting resin mounted on an acrylic base, and was filled with water. Gold foils (bare and cadmium-covered) and paired ion chambers (one with graphite wall and filled with CO2 gas, another with A-150 plastic tissue equivalent wall and filled with tissue equivalent gas) were placed inside the Snyder phantom to measure and estimate the depth-dose distributions in the central axis of the beam. Dose components include the contribution of thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, photons and emitted α particles from 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. Comparison and analysis between computed and measured results of depth-dose distributions were made in this work. Dose rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were defined as normalization factors derived individually for each dose component in the BNCT in-phantom radiation field that provide the best agreement between measured and computed data. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry and the determined DRSFs used in NCTPlan code for the BNCT beam of THOR.

  6. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  7. Summary of recent BNCT Polish programme and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryziński, M A; Maciak, M; Wielgosz, M

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Polish achievements on the ground of BNCT research. Starting from preliminary built therapeutic stand at MARIA reactor going through designing of unique detectors for in-phantom and in-beam measurements for mixed radiation fields and finally coming to boron carriers synthesizing and examination in cellular and animal models. Now it is planned to restart research on boron compounds in specially designed BIMA line, to set up epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT research and education and to improve recombination detectors for neutron beams characterisation. PMID:26293009

  8. Boron determination in liver tissue by combining quantitative neutron capture radiography (QNCR) and histological analysis for BNCT treatment planning at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, C; Brochhausen, C; Altieri, S; Bartholomew, K; Bortolussi, S; Enzmann, F; Gabel, D; Hampel, G; Kirkpatrick, C J; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Schmidberger, H; Otto, G

    2011-09-01

    The typical primary malignancies of the liver are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, whereas colorectal liver metastases are the most frequently occurring secondary tumors. In many cases, only palliative treatment is possible. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) represents a technique that potentially destroys tumor tissue selectively by use of externally induced, locally confined secondary particle irradiation. In 2001 and 2003, BNCT was applied to two patients with colorectal liver metastases in Pavia, Italy. To scrutinize the rationale of BNCT, a clinical pilot study on patients with colorectal liver metastases was carried out at the University of Mainz. The distribution of the (10)B carrier (p-borono-phenylalanine) in the liver and its uptake in cancerous and tumor-free tissue were determined, focusing on a potential correlation between the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine and the biological characteristics of cancerous tissue. Samples were analyzed using quantitative neutron capture radiography of cryosections combined with histological analysis. Methodological aspects of the combination of these techniques and results from four patients enrolled in the study are presented that indicate that the uptake of p-borono-phenylalanine strongly depends on the metabolic activity of cells. PMID:21692653

  9. Computational dosimetry of a simulated combined standard X-Rays and BNCT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.R., E-mail: mcasal@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto de Oncologia ' Angel H. Roffo' , Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 5481, Bs.As. (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Herrera, M.S., E-mail: mariettaherrera@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de General San Martin, 25 de Mayo and M. de Irigoyen, San Martin (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General Paz 1499, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    There has been increasing interest in combining Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) with standard radiotherapy, either concomitantly or as a BNCT treatment of a recurrent tumor that was previously irradiated with a medical electron linear accelerator (LINAC). In this work we report the simulated dosimetry of treatments combining X-rays and BNCT

  10. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  11. Photoneutron source for in-hospital BNCT treatment. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent studies in Italy have focused on the possibility of exploiting high energy electron linear accelerators, normally used in gamma radiotherapy, as photo-neutrons source for in-hospital medical applications. Neutrons are produced by Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) reactions from high energy photons on high Z targets; by proper material and geometry optimization, interesting fluence rates of thermalized neutrons can be made available, with minimized fast neutron and gamma backgrounds, for a fractionated type of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) devoted to external treatment of some specific tumors. A photoneutron converter, constituted by high Z core and surrounded by Low Z materials, is shaped to produce thermal beam inside an irradiation cavity. A feasibility study on Beam Shaping Assembly using MCNPGN simulation code is performed on various geometrical shapes and material selection. A first prototype of the photoconverter has been realized and tested at some hospital high energy medical LINAC facilities. In this paper the preliminary experimental results of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectra produced by the photoconverter prototype are compared to the simulation data. (author)

  12. Postoperative treatment of glioblastoma with BNCT at the Petten Irradiation Facility (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy is based on the reaction occurring between the isotope 10B and thermal neutrons. A low energy neutron is captured by the nucleus and it disintegrates into two densely ionising particles, Li nucleus and He nucleus (α particle), with high biological effectiveness. On the basis of comprehensive preclinical investigations in the frame of the European Collaboration with Na2B12H11SH (BSH), as boron delivery agent, the first European phase I, clinical trial was designed at the only available epithermal beam in Europe, at the High Flux Reactor, Petten, in the Netherland. The goal of this study is to establish the safe BNCT dose for cranial tumors under defined conditions. BNCT is applied as postoperative radiotherapy in 4 fractions, after removal of the tumor for a group of patients suffering from glioblastoma, who would have no benefit from conventional treatment, but have sufficient life expectancy to detect late radiation morbidity due to BNCT. The starting dose is set at 80% of the dose where neurological effects occured in preclinical large animal experiments following a single fraction. The radiation dose will be escalated, by constant boron concentration in blood, in 4 steps for cohorts of ten patients, after an observation period of at least 6 months after the end of BNCT of the last patient of a cohort. The adverse events on healthy tissues due to BSH and due to the radiotherapy will be analysed in order to establish the maximal tolerated dose and dose limiting toxicity. Besides of the primary aim of this study the survival will be recorded. The first patient was treated in October 1997, and further four patients have been irradiated to date. The protocol design proved to be well applicable, establishing the basis for scientific evaluation, for performance of safe patient treatment in a very complex situation and for opening the possibility to perform further clinical research work on BNCT. (orig.)

  13. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  14. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  15. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT brain tumor treatment based on voxel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeng-Ning; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    For BNCT treatments, in addition to tumor target doses, non-negligible doses will result in all the remaining organs of the body. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as the average absorbed doses of each of organs of patients with brain tumor treated in the BNCT epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The effective doses were evaluated according to the definitions of ICRP Publications 60 and 103 for the reference male and female computational phantoms developed in ICRP Publication 110 by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code with the THOR-Y09 beam source. The effective dose acquired in this work was compared with the results of our previous work calculated for an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom. It was found that the effective dose for the female voxel phantom is larger than that for the male voxel phantom by a factor of 1.2-1.5 and the effective dose for the voxel phantom is larger than that for the mathematical phantom by a factor of 1.3-1.6. For a typical brain tumor BNCT, the effective dose was calculated to be 1.51Sv and the average absorbed dose for eye lenses was 1.07Gy.

  16. Experimental approach to the BNCT treatment of human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program named Taormina, is concerned with an attempt to set up a method to use Boron neutron capture therapy for liver metastases in diffused tumours. According to our project, the liver will be explanted, treated with a solution of organic Boron compound, then irradiated in a thermal neutron field. Such modalities give the significant advantage to preserve the remaining patient organs from damage. A collaboration including nuclear physicists and surgeons of the University of Pavia planned the original research project. Researchers in the fields of chemistry and anatomy gave contributions during the experiment in their particular fields of competence. The conditions which must be satisfied to get a safe neutron treatment are given. The Thermal Column (TC) of the reactor Triga Mark II of the University of Pavia was modified to reach the objectives. The possibility to get useful values of T parameter by searching the modalities to take the greatest possible advantage from the so called blood-brain barrier is investigated. Such a barrier effect, due to the particular metabolism of tumour cells, produces Boron accumulation into tumour tissues while Boron solutions are circulating inside the blood channels. The results of processing of 24 rats are given. The rather poor statistics do not allow meaningful conclusions but only some optimistic hope

  17. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  18. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included

  19. PET pharmacokinetic analysis to estimate boron concentration in tumor and brain as a guide to plan BNCT for malignant cerebral glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: nariai.nsrg@tmd.ac.jp; Ishiwata, Kiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Yuichi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan); Inaji, Motoki; Momose, Toshiya [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Igaraki (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Kikuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: To plan the optimal BNCT for patients with malignant cerebral glioma, estimation of the ratio of boron concentration in tumor tissue against that in the surrounding normal brain (T/N ratio of boron) is important. We report a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging method to estimate T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration based on pharmacokinetic analysis of amino acid probes. Methods: Twelve patients with cerebral malignant glioma underwent 60 min dynamic PET scanning of brain after bolus injection of {sup 18}F-borono-phenyl-alanine (FBPA) with timed arterial blood sampling. Using kinetic parameter obtained by this scan, T/N ratio of boron concentration elicited by one-hour constant infusion of BPA, as performed in BNCT, was simulated on Runge-Kutta algorithm. {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET scan, which is commonly used in worldwide PET center as brain tumor imaging tool, was also performed on the same day to compare the image characteristics of FBPA and that of MET. Result: PET glioma images obtained with FBPA and MET are almost identical in all patients by visual inspection. Estimated T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration after one-hour constant infusion of BPA, T/N ratio of FBPA on static condition, and T/N ratio of MET on static condition showed significant linear correlation between each other. Conclusion: T/N ratio of boron concentration that is obtained by constant infusion of BPA during BNCT can be estimated by FBPA PET scan. This ratio can also be estimated by MET-PET imaging. As MET-PET study is available in many clinical PET center, selection of candidates for BNCT may be possible by MET-PET images. Accurate planning of BNCT may be performed by static images of FBPA PET. Use of PET imaging with amino acid probes may contribute very much to establish an appropriate application of BNCT for patients with malignant glioma.

  20. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  1. INEEL BNCT research program. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1996. Contributions from the individual investigators about their projects are included, specifically, physics: treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry, measurement of the Finnish research reactor epithermal neutron spectrum, BNCT accelerator technology; and chemistry: analysis of biological samples and preparation of 10B enriched decaborane

  2. BNCT of canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dog was diagnosed with osteosarcoma (8x6x5cm) in the right wing of ilium by radiography, radionuclide scintigraphy and histological study of biopsy material. The treatment plan was as follows: γ-therapy in combination with chemotherapy; prevention of hematogenous pulmonary metastases by the transfusion of 130 ml of allogenic marrow from a healthy donor; administration of 11.4g 10B-boronphenylalanine into the right iliac artery; resection of the right iliac wing with the osteosarcoma lesion; neutron irradiation (MEPhI Reactor) of the bone fragment (dose on healthy osteocytes - 15±4 Gy (W), on tumor - 50±9 Gy (W); reimplantation and fixation of the fragment; three courses of adjuvant chemotherapy. The doses were determined in full-scale calculations of the reactor radiation fields with a model of the bone under the code RADUGA. The 10B concentration (μg/g) in the bone was: normal tissue - 9±3, tumor - 28±5. In 24 hours post operation the dog was able to walk using the treated limb, and 6 months later it moved freely. The patient has been under observation for 30 months. The results of the research demonstrate complete cure. The use of similar treatment plans improves the therapeutic efficiency of BNCT. (author)

  3. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  4. Liposome and co-spray-dried PVP / o-carborane formulations for BNCT treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Olusanya, Temidayo; Stich, Theresia; Higgins, Samantha Caroline; Lloyd, Rhiannon Eleanor Iris; Pilkington, Geoffrey John; Fatouros, Dimitrios; Calabrese, Gianpiero; Smith, James Richard; Tsibouklis, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a method for selectively destroying malignant (normally glioma) cells whilst sparing normal tissue. Irradiation of 10B (large neutron capture cross-section) with thermal neutrons effects the nuclear fission reaction: 10B + 1n → → 7Li+ + α + γ; where the penetration of α-particles and 7Li+ is only 8 and 5 µm, respectively, i.e., within a single cell thickness. Poor selectivity is the main reason why BNCT has not become a mainstream cancer therap...

  5. INEEL BNCT Research Program Annual Report, CY-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2001-03-01

    This report is a summary of the activities conducted in conjunction with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 2000. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, neutron source design and demonstration, and support the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National BNCT Program goals are the goals of this Program. Contributions from the individual contributors about their projects are included, specifically described are the following, chemistry: analysis of biological samples and an infrared blood-boron analyzer, and physics: progress in the patient treatment planning software, measurement of neutron spectra for the Argentina RA-6 reactor, and recalculation of the Finnish research reactor FiR 1 neutron spectra, BNCT accelerator technology, and modification to the research reactor at Washington State University for an epithermal-neutron beam.

  6. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Depth-dose evaluation for lung and pancreas cancer treatment by BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth-dose distributions were evaluated for possible treatment of both lung and pancreas cancers using an epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP calculations showed that physical dose in tumors were 6 and 7 Gy/h, respectively, for lung and pancreas, attaining an epithermal neutron flux of 5x108 ncm-2s-1. The boron concentrations were assumed at 100 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively, for lung and pancreas tumors and normal tissues contains 1/10 tumor concentrations. The dose ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively, for lung and pancreas. The dose evaluation suggests that BNCT could be applied for both lung and pancreas cancer treatment. (author)

  8. Accelerator based-boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)-clinical QA and QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-particle and recoil Li atom yielded by the reaction (10B, n), due to their high LET properties, efficiently and specifically kill the cancer cell that has incorporated the boron. Efficacy of this boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been demonstrated mainly in the treatment of recurrent head/neck and malignant brain cancers in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). As the clinical trial of BNCT is to start from 2009 based on an accelerator (not on the Reactor), this paper describes the tentative outline of the standard operation procedure of BNCT for its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) along the flow of its clinical practice. Personnel concerned in the practice involve the attending physician, multiple physicians in charge of BNCT, medical physicists, nurses and reactor stuff. The flow order of the actual BNCT is as follows: Pre-therapeutic evaluation mainly including informed consent and confirmation of the prescription; Therapeutic planning including setting of therapy volume, and of irradiation axes followed by meeting for stuffs' agreement, decision of irradiating field in the irradiation room leading to final decision of the axis, CT for the planning, decision of the final therapeutic plan according to Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS) and meeting of all related personnel for the final confirmation of therapeutic plan; and BNCT including the transport of patient to KUR, dripping of boronophenylalanine, setting up of the patient on the machine, blood sampling for pharmacokinetics, boron level measurement for decision of irradiating time, switch on/off of the accelerator, confirmation of patient's movement in the irradiated field after the neutron irradiation, blood sampling for confirmation of the boron level, and patient's leave from the room. The QA/QC check is principally to be conducted with the two-person rule. The purpose of the clinical trial is to establish the usefulness of BNCT, and

  9. A clinical trial protocol for second line treatment of malignant brain tumors with BNCT at University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiyama, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K., E-mail: knakai@Neurosurg-tsukuba.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyouku (Japan); Kumada, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishikawa, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Isobe, T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have evaluated the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor using a new protocol. One of the two patients enrolled in this trial is a man with recurrent glioblastoma and the other is a woman with anaplastic meningioma. Both are still alive and no severe adverse events have been observed. Our findings suggest that NCT will be safe as a palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for recurrent glioma and malignant brain tumor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases with recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic meningioma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No severe adverse events have been observed using BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT has a possibility of a safe palliative therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  10. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, L. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, M. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the {sup 10}B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  11. The relationship between boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle irradiation therapy that is theoretically available for selective radiation of tumor cells. Boronophenylalanine-positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) was used in this study. Boron is used as a tracer compound for the neutron capture reaction and has been particularly useful for the recent noncraniotomy BNCT. In this report, we introduce this type of PET as a principal axis in BNCT and relationship with PET. We calculated the drug accumulation to the tumor before neutron irradiation to individualize the treatment. We decided the indication for BNCT on the basis of a PET study and are now expanding the indications to other systemic cancers, including head and neck, lung, and liver cancers. In addition, other irradiation modalities have developed a radiation plan on the basis of a PET study, and several studies attempted improving the results; however, the lesion is exposed to high radiation doses and appear as high accumulation on BPA-PET during BNCT. We determined the neutron exposure time from the dosage for normal tissue in the actual treatment, but the lesion/normal tissue ratio obtained from BPA-PET is for evaluating the tumor dose and following the treatment plan. We also found that a PET study was useful in the follow-up stage to aid in diagnosis of pathologic conditions such as increase in tumor volume, recurrence, or radiation necrosis and for patients who had already been treated for malignant brain tumor. (author)

  12. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: Accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, F.I. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.W. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Lui, W.Y. [Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 {mu}g B/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4 h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3 h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  13. The BNCT project in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of clinical trials is expected before NCT Osaka 2000. The experiences from different part of project are presented. The BNCT facility at LVR-15 reactor of NRI consists of epithermal neutron beam with improved construction (6.98 x 108/cm2s with acceptable background of fast neutrons and gammas) and irradiation and control rooms equipped by appropriate devices. Internationally-recognized software MacNCTPLAN is utilized for computational dosimetry and treatment planning. In the part of protocol the following parameters have been assessed: patient selection, BSH dosage, fractionation, starting dose, dose escalation steps. At the LVR-15, at horizontal channel, a prompt gamma ray analysis (PGRA) system has been developed and is operated for BNCT purposes. Some human blood samples were analyzed and compared with classical ICP method. During the process of licensing the experience was obtained, some notes are discussed in the paper. The first results were received for the study of biological effect of the LVR source for small animal model. (author)

  14. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  15. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented

  16. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  17. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18F (T1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  18. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  19. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single 7LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 (6LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% 6Li) and TLD-700 (7LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% 7LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom, with representative

  20. Neutron-photon mixed field dosimetry by TLD-700 glow curve analysis and its implementation in dose monitoring for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggio, E. F.; Longhino, J. M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Departamento de Fisica de Reactores y Radiaciones / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Andres, P. A., E-mail: efboggio@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Division Proteccion Radiologica / CNEA, Av. E. Bustillo Km 9.5, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    BNCT is a cancerous cells selective, non-conventional radiotherapy modality to treat malignant tumors such as glioblastoma, melanoma and recurrent head and neck cancer. It consists of a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing drug containing a non-radioactive isotope (Boron-10) with high slow neutron capture cross-section. In a second step, the patient is irradiated with neutrons, which are absorbed by the Boron-10 agent with the subsequently nuclear reaction B- 10(n,a)Li-7, thereby resulting in dose at cellular level due to the high-Let particles. The neutron fields suitable for BNCT are characterized by high neutron fluxes and low gamma dose. Determination of each component is not an easy task, especially when the volume of measurement is quite small or inaccessible for a miniature ionization chamber, for example. A method of measuring the photon and slow neutron dose(mainly by N-14 and B-10) from the glow curve (GC) analysis of a single {sup 7}LiF thermoluminescence detector is evaluated. This method was suggested by the group headed by Dr. Grazia Gambarini. The dosemeters used were TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF:Mg,Ti with 95.6% {sup 6}Li) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti with 99.9% {sup 7}LiF) from Harshaw. Photon dose measurement using the GC analysis method with TLD-700 in mixed fields requires the relation of the two main peaks of a TLD-600 GC shape obtained from an exposition to the same neutron field, and a photon calibrated GC with TLD-700. The requirements for slow neutron dose measurements are similar. In order to properly apply the GC analysis method at the Ra-6 Research Reactor BNCT facility, measurements were carried out in a standard water phantom, fully characterized on the BNCT beam by conventional techniques (activation detectors and paired ionization chambers technique). Next, the method was implemented in whole body dose monitoring of a patient undergoing a BNCT treatment, using a Bo MAb (Bottle Manikin Absorption) phantom

  1. Feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from a viewpoint of dose distribution analysis using Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA), a currently available BNCT treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: The BNCT treatment plans were constructed for 3 patients with MPM using the SERA system, with 2 opposed anterior-posterior beams. The 1B concentrations in the tumor and normal lung in this study were assumed to be 84 and 24 ppm, respectively, and were derived from data observed in clinical trials. The maximum, mean, and minimum doses to the tumors and the normal lung were assessed for each plan. The doses delivered to 5% and 95% of the tumor volume, D05 and D95, were adopted as the representative dose for the maximum and minimum dose, respectively. Results: When the D05 to the normal ipsilateral lung was 5 Gy-Eq, the D95 and mean doses delivered to the normal lung were 2.2-3.6 and 3.5-4.2 Gy-Eq, respectively. The mean doses delivered to the tumors were 22.4-27.2 Gy-Eq. The D05 and D95 doses to the tumors were 9.6-15.0 and 31.5-39.5 Gy-Eq, respectively. Conclusions: From a viewpoint of the dose-distribution analysis, BNCT has the possibility to be a promising treatment for MPM patients who are inoperable because of age and other medical illnesses

  2. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  3. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented

  4. BNCT Technology Development on HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Park, Kyung Bae; Whang, Seung Ryul; Kim, Myong Seop

    2007-06-15

    So as to establish the biological effects of BNCT in the HANARO Reactor, biological damages in cells and animals with treatment of boron/neutron were investigated. And 124I-BPA animal PET image, analysis technology of the boron contents in the mouse tissues by ICP-AES was established. A Standard clinical protocol, a toxicity evaluation report and an efficacy investigation report of BNCT has been developed. Based on these data, the primary permission of clinical application was acquired through IRB of our hospital. Three cases of pre-clinical experiment for boron distribution and two cases of medium-sized animal simulation experiment using cat with verifying for 2 months after BNCT was performed and so the clinical demonstration with a patient was prepared. Also neutron flux, fast neutron flux and gamma ray dose of BNCT facility were calculated and these data will be utilized good informations for clinical trials and further BNCT research. For the new synthesis of a boron compound, o-carboranyl ethylamine, o-carboranylenepiperidine, o-carboranyl-THIQ and o-carboranyl-s-triazine derivatives were synthesized. Among them, boron uptake in the cancer cell of the triazine derivative was about 25 times than that of BPA and so these three synthesized methods of new boron compounds were patented.

  5. Radiation Dosimetry in the BNCT Patient Treatment Room at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMRR was a 3 MW light water reactor that had an epithermal neutron beam that was used to perform clinical trials on patients with malignant brain tumors. A series of measurements and calculations had been performed in the treatment room both prior to the trials and during the trials. The details of the measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations are presented and compared.

  6. BNCT. Computational Analysis; BNCT. Analisis computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a new oncologic radiotherapy technique in the process of research which consists of injecting a non-poisonous pharmacovector into an ill patient in such a way that the tumor receives isotope boron-10, so that the tumoral area can later be bombarded with a beam of neutrons, many of which are captured the isotope in question. (Author)

  7. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V

    2002-01-01

    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  8. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  9. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine (10BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina (10BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 106 MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of 10B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R2 = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R2 = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT treatment for each individual

  10. INEL BNCT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  11. New EORTC clinical trials for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to ethical reasons, a separated optimization of the two components of BNCT in the frame of clinical investigations can only be performed applying the whole binary system. The ongoing trial at HFR (High Flux Reactor Petten) has proven the feasibility of BNCT under defined conditions. On that basis the European Commission supported a comprehensive research project on boron imaging including three further clinical studies. In the first trial the boron uptake related to the blood boron concentration and surrounding normal tissue in various solid tumours will be examined using BSH (Sodiumborocaptate), BPA (Boronophenylalanine) or both in order to explore tumour entities, which may gain benefit from BNCT. The major objectives of the second trial are to define the maximum tolerated single and cumulative dose, and the dose limiting toxicity of BSH. The third clinical trial, a phase II study is designed to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of fractionated BNCT at the Petten treatment facility against cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma using BPA. (author)

  12. BNCT and dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some portion of the radiation dose received by a patient during BNCT consists of primary and secondary gammas. The biological effect of that portion of the dose will depend upon the time history of the delivered dose. The well-known models for relating time-dose effects to clinical experience, are of questionable value in understanding dose effects in the time regime of a few hours, and for doses of less than tolerance. In order to examine the time-dose effect in the regime of interest to BNCT a simple phenomenological model was developed and normalized to the accepted body of clinical experience. The model has been applied to the question of fractionation of BNCT and the results are presented. The model is simply a linear healing model with two time constants. In other words, a first hit of radiation is assumed to wound (or potentiate) a cell. Given time, the cell will fully repair itself. If a second hit occurs before the cell has healed, the cell is killed. Apparently, there are two kinds of healing, one which occurs in 30 to 60 minutes, the other in two to four days. A small fraction of the cells will die on the first hit

  13. In-phantom dosimetry for BNCT with Fricke and normoxic-polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, G.; Agosteo, S.; Carrara, M.; Gay, S.; Mariani, M.; Pirola, L.; Vanossi, E.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of in-phantom dose distributions and images are important for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy treatment planning. The method for spatial determination of absorbed doses in thermal or epithermal neutron fields, based on Fricke-xylenol-orange-infused gel dosimeters in form of layers, has revealed to be very reliable, as gel layer dosimeters give the possibility of obtaining spatial dose distributions and measurements of each dose contribution in neutron fields, by means of a properly studied procedure. Quite recently, BNCT has been applied to treat liver metastases; in this work the results of in-phantom dosimetry for explanted liver in BNCT treatments are described. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters in which a polymerization process appears as a consequence of absorbed dose, have been recently tested, because of their characteristic absence of diffusion. In fact, due to the diffusion of ferric ions, Fricke-gel dosimeters require prompt analysis after exposure to avoid spatial information loss. In this work the preliminary results of a study about the reliability of polymer gel in BNCT dosimetry are also discussed. Gel layers have been irradiated in a phantom exposed in the thermal column of the TRIGA MARK II reactor (Pavia). The results obtained with the two kinds of gel dosimeter have been compared.

  14. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  15. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were (1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, (2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, (3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologically achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally (4) that the treatment be safe for the patients

  16. A new NEDO research project towards hospital based accelerator BNCT using advanced DDS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new national project of developing a hospital based accelerator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with advanced drug delivery system (DDS) has been started in 2005. In this paper, the outline of the new project will be introduced. The project includes two main topics: 1) a hospital based accelerator for BNCT will be developed by a research consortium of Universities and companies. A fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) type of accelerator with internal target is planned. 2) New boronated DDS using different methods including porphyrins, virus envelope vector, and liposome are planned. BNCT may become a first line charged particle therapy if the hospital based accelerator become feasible due to broadening the opportunity to use the neutron source. Due to such clinical convenience, there will be also possibility to spread the indication of BNCT for the diseases (cancer and other diseases) which has not been the candidate for BNCT in the nuclear-reactor era. (author)

  17. Treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of treatment planning in radiotherapy are discussed in detail. Included are, among others, machine data and their acquisition, photon dose calculations and tests thereof, criteria of acceptability, sources of uncertainties, from 2D to 3D and from 3D to IMRT, dosimetric measurements for RTP validation, frequency of QA tests and suggested tolerances for TPS, time and staff requirements, model based segmentation, multi-dimensional radiotherapy (MDCRT), and biological IMRT process. (P.A.)

  18. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  19. BNCT irradiation facility at the JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Y.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakurai, F.; Takayanagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR--4 was modified for fuel enrichment reducing and reactor equipment renewal. And also a medical irradiation facility for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) was installed at the JRR--4 in that time. The medical irradiation facility has been composed of a heavy water tank, a collimator and an irradiation room. The heavy water tank has four layers of heavy water for spectrum shifter and 75cm-thickness aluminum for the shield of fast neutron. The collimator is for collimating thermal neutron and epithermal neutron using polyethylene with lithium-fluoride and shielding gamma ray by bismuth. The irradiation room has sufficient space at exit side of the beam, to accommodate a large working area for setting the patient. Both of the medical treatment room and the patient-monitoring area were prepared adjacent to the irradiation room. The medical irradiation facility in the JRR-4 is designed to permit selection of neutron energies from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron by changing the thickness of heavy water layers. Therefore it is available to continue the same kind of BNCT with thermal neutron used to perform in the JRR-2, as well as to commence the research and development of BNCT with epithermal neutron, which will make the brain tumor treatment possible at a deep part of brain. The full power operation of the JRR-4 was resumed with LEU fuel in October 1998 and currently performing some experiments to measure the neutron fluxes and physical doses for determinate characterization of the medical irradiation facility. The first medical irradiation for BNCT was carried out on 25th October 1999. The patient was treated by Tsukuba University group using thermal neutron beam included epi-thermal neutrons. (author)

  20. Integral multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A.; Kortbeek, Nikky; Post, Gerhard; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to plan treatments for rehabilitation outpatients. These patients require a series of treatments by therapists from various disciplines. In current practice, when treatments are planned, a lack of coordination between the different disciplines, along with a failure

  1. Integral multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A.; Kortbeek, N.; Post, G.F.; Nollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to plan treatments for rehabilitation outpatients. These patients require a series of treatments by therapists from various disciplines. In current practice, when treatments are planned, a lack of coordination between the different disciplines, along with a failure

  2. Preliminary Design of LEU MNSR for BNCT with Excellent Epithermal Neutron Flux Treatment Beam%高额超热中子束流治疗孔道低浓化BNCT堆初步设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 钱金栋; 谢金森

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) with high enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel and accordance with the requirements of BNCT, the 19.5% of enriched fuel UO2 fuel core for BNCT with epithermal neutron treatment beam was primary designed, the reactor core parameters such as epithermal neutron flux density,epithermal neutron flux unit of fast neutron dose rate,epithermal neutron flux unit photon dose rate of γ,epithermal neutron flux ratio of thermal neutron flux, neutron spectrum were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the design program was an excellent epithermal neutron treatment beam.%根据硼中子俘获治疗( BNCT)中子源的要求,在高浓铀为燃料的微型反应堆(MNSR)的基础上,以富集度19.5%的UO2为燃料,将其堆芯低浓化并且添加水平超热中子束流治疗孔道,开展超热中子束流BNCT堆堆芯低浓化初步设计.计算BNCT堆的超热中子注量率、单位超热中子注量的快中子剂量率、单位超热中子注量的γ光子剂量率、超热中子注量与热中子的注量之比、中子束流能谱等关键参数.结果表明,该设计可以得到优良的超热中子束流.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  4. Extra-corporeal liver BNCT for the treatment of diffuse metastases: What was learned and what is still to be learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: aris.zonta@pv.infn.it; Pinelli, T. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Prati, U.; Roveda, L. [Oncologic Surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence Fond. ' T. Campanella' , Catanzaro (Italy); Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mazzini, G. [Department of Animal Biol., IGM-CNR Histochemistry and Cytometry Section, Pavia (Italy); Dionigi, P. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Fossati, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Pavia Section, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Almost eight years ago, in December 2001, we performed for the first time in the world thermal neutron irradiation on an isolated liver of a patient. The organ was affected by diffuse metastases of a colon carcinoma and had been previously loaded with a {sup 10}B compound. In July 2003, the same procedure was applied again on a patient for the treatment of unresectable and incurable hepatic metastases of a carcinoma of the rectum. Both patients are dead at present. Now we can analyze in depth the clinical history of these patients and evaluate the effectiveness of this therapy. From this exciting experience we learned much, and we also found out about complications till then unknown, which need to be studied and addressed experimentally. Unfortunately we can base our conclusions just on the experience we had with these two patients. We could have been much more detailed and firm in our statements if the number of clinical cases was larger. The BNCT Pavia project has been suspended, but it is more than likely to resume in a short time. Good findings were many. The procedure is feasible; the original concept of complete immersion of the diseased liver in a homogeneous neutron field proved effective and winning. The tumor masses resulted completely necrotic and unknown metastases too appeared radically treated; healthy hepatic tissue was preserved from both morphological and functional points of view; no symptoms of cirrhosis appeared even four years after treatment. For the long term surviving patient, quality of life was excellent. Other findings require to be tackled in depth. The 'post-irradiation syndrome' we observed in both patients, with identical symptoms and biochemical derangements, creates a dramatic-even though totally reversible-clinical condition, that is the probable cause of death for our second patient, suffering from cardiomyopathy, 33 days after treatment. For the first patient, recurrences were a late yet fatal complication, for which

  5. Isodose Curves and Treatment Planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hungyuan B.

    The development of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been progressing in both ^{10 }B compound development and testing and neutron beam delivery. Animal tests are now in progress with several ^{10}B compounds and once the results of these animal tests are promising, patient trials can be initiated. The objective of this study is to create a treatment planning method based on the dose calculations by a Monte Carlo code of a mixed radiation field to provide linkage between phantom dosimetry and patient irradiation. The research started with an overall review of the development of BNCT. Three epithermal neutron facilities are described, including the operating Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) beam, the designed Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) beam, and a designed accelerator based neutron source. The flux and dose distributions in a head model have been calculated for irradiation by these neutron beams. Different beam parameters were inter -compared for effectiveness. Dosimetric measurements in an elliptical lucite phantom and a cylindrical water phantom were made and compared to the MCNP calculations for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Repeated measurements were made and show consistent. To improve the statistical results calculated by MCNP, a neutron source plane was designed to start neutrons at the BMRR irradiation port. The source plane was used with the phantoms for dosimetric calculations. After being verified by different phantom dosimetry and in-air flux measurements at the irradiation port, the source plane was used to calculate the flux and dose distributions in the head model. A treatment planning program was created for use on a PC which uses the MCNP calculated results as input. This program calculates the thermal neutron flux and dose distributions of each component of radiation in the central coronal section of the head model for irradiation by a neutron beam. Different combinations of head orientations and irradiation

  6. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of {sup 10}B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 {mu}g B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses.

  7. Carborane-containing metalloporphyrins for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For BNCT of malignant brain tumors, it is crucial that there be relatively high boron concentrations in tumor compared with normal tissues within the neutron-irradiated treatment volume. Fairchild and Bond estimated that major advances in BNCT should be possible if ratios of 10B concentrations in tumor to those in normal tissue (e.g. brain and blood) were at least 5: 1. Given that the only current boron carrier being tested clinically in the U.S., p-boronophenyl-alanine[BPA], yields tumor blood and tumor brain ratios of about 3:1, the criteria for new boronated compounds should be to at least match these ratios and maintain tumor boron concentrations greater than 30 μg B/g. Although previously tested boronated porphyrins have not only matched but surpassed these ratios, it was at a cost of greater toxicity. Chemical and hematological assays of blood analytes; showed marked thrombocytopenia, a decrease to about one-tenth the normal concentration of platelets circulating in the blood, in addition to abnormalities in concentrations of circulating enzymes, that indicated liver toxicity. The physical appearance and behavior of the affected mice were different from those of mice injected with solvent only. Although thrombocytopenia and other toxic effects had disappeared after a few days, previously tested porphyrins would not be safe to infuse into patients for BNCT of potentially hemorrhagic malignant tumors in the brain such as glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma. We synthesized a different boronated porphyrin, tetracarboranylphenylporphyrin, [TCP] and inserted nickel, copper, or manganese into its coordination center. Biological studies of NiTCP in mice and of CuTCP in rats show that these compounds elicit little or no toxicity when given at potentially therapeutic doses

  8. Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions open-quotes How much?close quotes and open-quotes What kind?close quotes of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with and without borated polyethylene. A calculational model was developed of a treatment room, patient open-quotes scatterer,close quotes and the epithermal neutron beam. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used to compute the total effective dose equivalent rates at specific points of interest outside of the treatment room. A conservative occupational effective dose rate limit of 0.01 mSv h-1 was the guideline for this study. Conservative Monte Carlo calculations show that constructing the treatment room walls with 1.5 m of ordinary concrete, 1.2 m of barytes concrete, 1.0 m of ordinary concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene, or 0.8 m of barytes concrete preceded by 10 cm of 5% boron-polyethylene will adequately protect facility personnel. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  10. FiR 1 Reactor in Service for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Although BNCT dominates the current utilization of the reactor, it also has an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics, etc. with isotope produc- tion and activation analysis services. The whole reactor building has been renovated, creating a dedicated clinical BNCT facility at the reactor. Close to 30 patients have been treated since May 1999, when the licence for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. (author)

  11. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  12. Dosimetric feasibility study for an extracorporeal BNCT application on liver metastases at the TRIGA Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaickner, M; Kratz, J V; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B; Hampel, G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the dosimetric feasibility of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of explanted livers in the thermal column of the research reactor in Mainz. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to calculate the biologically weighted dose for different ratios of the (10)B-concentration in tumour to normal liver tissue. The simulation results show that dosimetric goals are only partially met. To guarantee effective BNCT treatment the organ has to be better shielded from all gamma radiation. PMID:21872481

  13. Application of HVJ envelope system to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been used clinically for the treatment of malignant tumors. Two drugs, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sulfhydral borane (BSH), have been used as boron delivery agents. These drugs seem to be taken up preferentially in solid tumors, but it is uncertain whether therapeutic quantities of boron atoms are taken up by micro-invasive or distant tumor cells. High accumulation and high selective delivery of boron into tumor tissues are the most important requirements to achieve efficient BNCT for malignant tumor. The HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) vector system is a novel fusion-mediated gene delivery system based on inactivated hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus). Although we developed this vector system for gene transfer, it can also deliver proteins, synthetic oligonucleotides, and drugs. HVJ-liposome, which is liposome fused with HVJ-E, has higher boron trapping efficiency than HVJ-E alone. We report the boron delivery into cultured cells with HVJ-liposome systems. The cellular 10B concentration after 60 min incubation with HVJ-E containing BSH was 24.9 μg/g cell pellet for BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and 19.4 μg/g cell pellet for SCC VII cells (murine squamous cell carcinoma). These concentrations are higher than that of 60 min incubated cells with BSH containing (100μg 10B/ml) medium. These results indicate the HVJ-E fused with tumor cell membrane and rapidly delivered boron agents, and that the HVJ-E-mediated delivery system could be applicable to BNCT. Plans are underway to begin neutron radiation experiments in vivo and in vitro. (author)

  14. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  15. Treatment planning for restorative implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Klemons, Gary

    2015-04-01

    In this article, current literature on fixed and removable prosthodontics is reviewed along with evidence-based systematic reviews, including advice from those in the dental profession with years of experience, which help restorative dentists manage and treat their cases successfully. Treatment planning for restorative implantology should be looked at in 4 sections: (1) review of past medical history, (2) oral examination and occlusion, (3) dental imaging (ie, cone-beam computed tomography), and (4) fixed versus removable prosthodontics. These 4 concepts of treatment planning, along with proper surgical placements of the implant(s), result in successful cases. PMID:25835794

  16. BNCT and Targeted Radiotherapy (TRT) developments in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of treatment modalities for cancer including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, these treatments are not always effective. The search for new and more efficient ways to combat cancer has opened new perspectives. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a new approach in cancer treatment that has been proposed to combat glioblastomas of the brain, neck cancer and malignant melanomas, tumors that are resistant to traditional cancer therapies. BNCT is based on the 10B(n,α)7Li nuclear reaction, which can potentially deliver a very high and fatal radiation dose to cancerous cells by concentrating boron in them. It is a promising, though complicated treatment. This type of therapy offers a number of potentially significant advantages compared to traditional radiation therapy. Treatment is better targeted to cancerous cells so that when a tumour is irradiated with neutrons, the damage to normal tissue is respectively less. It is also less demanding for the patient as treatment is only one to two sessions, compared to conventional radiation therapy where patients can be treated up to 30 times. It provides an excellent example of the importance of innovation in the search for a cure to cancer. The recent developments in BNCT in Romania as well as the major drawbacks will be presented. (authors)

  17. PREFACE: First European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Nick

    2007-07-01

    The "First European Workshop on Monte Carlo treatment planning", was an initiative of the European working group on Monte Carlo treatment planning (EWG-MCTP). It was organised at Ghent University (Belgium) on 22-25October 2006. The meeting was very successful and was attended by 150 participants. The impressive list of invited speakers and the scientific contributions (posters and oral presentations) have led to a very interesting program, that was well appreciated by all attendants. In addition, the presence of seven vendors of commercial MCTP software systems provided serious added value to the workshop. For each vendor, a representative has given a presentation in a dedicated session, explaining the current status of their system. It is clear that, for "traditional" radiotherapy applications (using photon or electron beams), Monte Carlo dose calculations have become the state of the art, and are being introduced into almost all commercial treatment planning systems. Invited lectures illustrated that scientific challenges are currently associated with 4D applications (e.g. respiratory motion) and the introduction of MC dose calculations in inverse planning. But it was striking that the Monte Carlo technique is also becoming very important in more novel treatment modalities such as BNCT, hadron therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, Tomotherapy, etc. This emphasizes the continuous growing interest in MCTP. The people who attended the dosimetry session will certainly remember the high level discussion on the determination of correction factors for different ion chambers, used in small fields. The following proceedings will certainly confirm the high scientific level of the meeting. I would like to thank the members of the local organizing committee for all the hard work done before, during and after this meeting. The organisation of such an event is not a trivial task and it would not have been possible without the help of all my colleagues. I would also like to thank

  18. An analysing of heat treatment process planning

    OpenAIRE

    B. Smoljan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Process planning of heat treatment has been investigated. The established approach of heat treatingprocess planning is suitable for effective integration of heat treatment in computer added manufacturing.Design/methodology/approach: Process plan of heat treating process has been established based on fundamentalprocess planning principals. The heat treatment was treated in the same as other manufacture processes.Findings: The general approach for process planning of heat treatment pro...

  19. Towards a new therapy protocol for liver metastases. Effect of boron compounds and BNCT on normal liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taormina project developed a new method for BNCT treatment of multifocal unresectable liver metastases based on whole liver autograft. The Roffo Institute liver surgeons propose a new technique based on partial liver autograft that would pose less risk to the patient but would require significant healthy liver regeneration following BNCT. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BPA, GB-10 (Na210B10H10) and (GB-10 + BPA) and of BNCT mediated by these boron compounds on normal liver regeneration in the Wistar rat. Normal liver regeneration, body weight, hemogram, liver and kidney function were assessed following partial hepatectomy post administration of BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10 + BPA) and post in vivo BNCT at the RA-6 Reactor. These end-points were evaluated 9 days following partial hepatectomy, the time at which complete liver regeneration occurs in untreated controls. The corresponding biodistribution studies were conducted to perform dosimetric calculations. BPA, GB-10 and (GB-10 + PBA) and in vivo BNCT mediated by these boron compounds in dose ranges compatible with therapy did not cause alterations in the outcome of normal liver regeneration, and did not induce alterations in body weight, hemogram, liver or kidney function. The experimental data available to date support the development of a new BNCT protocol for the treatment of liver metastases that requires the regeneration of normal liver past-BNCT. (author)

  20. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant; Hansen, Christian R; Bertelsen, Anders; Eriksen, Jesper G; Johansen, Jørgen; Brink, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also provide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose to healthy tissues. Auto-Planning was able to produce clinically acceptable treatment plans in all 26 cases. Target coverages in the two types of plans were similar, but automatically generated plans had less irradiation of healthy tissue. In 94% of the evaluations, the autoplans scored at least as high as the previously delivered clinical plans. For all patients, the Auto-Planning tool produced clinically acceptable head and neck treatment plans without any manual intervention, except for the initial target and OAR delineations. The main benefit of the method is the likely improvement in the overall treatment quality since consistent, high-quality plans are generated which even can be further optimized, if necessary. This makes it possible for the dosimetrist to focus more time on difficult dose planning goals and to spend less time on the more tedious parts of the planning process.

  1. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb-BNCT

  3. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant;

    2016-01-01

    qual-ity since consistent, high-quality plans are generated which even can be further optimized, if necessary. This makes it possible for the dosimetrist to focus more time on difficult dose planning goals and to spend less time on the more tedious parts of the planning process.......Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also pro-vide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing...... radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck...

  4. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  5. Tandem-ESQ for accelerator-based BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the '7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. (author)

  6. BNCT activities at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that satisfactory thermal/epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) could be designed at TRIGA research reactors These reactors are generally perceived as being safe to install and operate in populated areas. This contribution presents the most recent BNCT research activities on the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute, where epithermal neutron beam for 'in-vitro' irradiation has been developed and experimentally verified. Furthermore, The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials of human patients in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor has been carried out. The simulation results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beam throughout the world, could be installed in TC of the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  7. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×106 n/cm2 shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. - Highlights: • Feasibility of using laser-accelerated proton beam for BNCT has been investigated. • The considered beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ~2×106 (n/cm2.shot). • For BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz

  8. QA of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for commissioning and performance of treatment planning systems have been proposed and performed at several occasions. These tests are valuable, but it is evident that we need a more comprehensive QA for the planning systems. International bodies are working on this subject today, and recommendations will soon appear. However, very little results and experiences are published from running QA protocols. In our department we have been using an in house 2D system for many years, and as both developer and user we needed a QA protocol. Two years ago we bought a commercial 3D system, and a new QA protocol had to be set up for this situation. This protocol include: 1) description of duties for responsible persons, 2) education/competence levels for users, 3) acceptance tests for both system and treatment unit data, and 4) constancy tests for the same. Experience so far reveals that a QA protocol is necessary for use of sophisticated 3D systems, even though no error in the system itself have been found that would have given erroneous dosage. Clear definitions of who is responsible for the different aspects of using the system has proven essential. An introductory course have to be given to all new users to avoid misuse. Acceptance tests of system is necessary, not only to accept the system but also to learn how to use it correctly and detect its limitations. Acceptance tests of basic treatment unit data is mandatory before they can be taken into clinical use. Also constancy tests have proven necessary when modifications are done. The experience with such a protocol gives lot of input back to the manufacturer too. It also raises principal questions about what should be checked and what is the responsibility of the manufacturers. More details will be presented in the meeting

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  10. Dose estimation of animal experiments at the THOR BNCT beam by NCTPlan and Xplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose estimation of animal experiments affects many subsequent derived quantities, such as RBE and CBE values. It is important to ensure the trustiness of calculated dose of the irradiated animals. However, the dose estimation was normally calculated using simplified geometries and tissue compositions, which led to rough results. This paper introduces the use of treatment planning systems NCTplan and Xplan for the dose estimation. A mouse was taken as an example and it was brought to hospital for micro-PET/CT scan. It was found that the critical organ doses of an irradiated mouse calculated by simplified model were unreliable in comparison to Xplan voxel model. The difference could reach the extent of several tenths percent. It is recommended that a treatment planning system should be introduced to future animal experiments to upgrade the data quality. - Highlights: • This study presents the new BNCT treatment planning system Xplan for animal experiments. • Xplan is based on a pixel-to-pixel conversion which has the same resolution as the CT images. • NCTplan and a simplified geometry for rat were used for the sake of comparison. • The spatial resolution applied in calculation is crucial to the reliability of estimated dose

  11. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of 252Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from 252Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom

  12. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma; Chkillou, B.; Jehouani, A. [EPRA, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, B.P. 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2009-04-15

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from {sup 252}Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom.

  13. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Chkillou, B; Jehouani, A

    2009-04-01

    The development of suitable neutron sources and neutron beam is critical to the success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In this work a compact system designed for BNCT is presented. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source and a moderator/reflector/filter/shield assembly. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimized to maximize the epithermal neutron component which is useful for BNCT treatment of deep seated tumors with the suitably low level of beam contamination. The MCMP5 code has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons, secondary gamma rays originating from (252)Cf source and the primary gamma rays emitted directly by this source at the exit face of the compact system. The fluence rate distributions of such particles were also computed along the central axis of a human head phantom. PMID:19168369

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  15. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  16. Conceptual design of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in the thermalizing column of TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in TC/DC of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients.(author)

  17. Progress on the accelerator based SPES-BNCT project at INFN Legnaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisent, A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Colautti, P [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Esposito, J [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Nardo, L De [Physics Department, Padova University (Italy); Conte, V [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Agosteo, D [Nuclear Engineering Department, Milano Polytechnic (Italy); Jori, G [Biology Department, Padova University (Italy); Posocco, P A [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tecchio, L B [INFN-LNL, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA - FIS-NUC, Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - FIS-ION, Rome (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In the framework of an advanced Exotic Ion Beam facility project, named SPES (Study and Production of Exotic Species), that will allow a frontier program in Nuclear and Interdisciplinary Physics, an intense thermal neutron beam facility, devoted to perform Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) experimental treatments on skin melanoma tumor is currently under construction based on the SPES proton driver. A vast radiobiological investigation in vitro and in vivo has started with the new {sup 10}B carriers developed. Special microdosimetric detectors have been constructed to properly measure all the BNCT dose components and their qualities. Both microdosimetric and radiobiological measurements are being performed at the Enea-Casaccia TAPIRO reactor.

  18. Diagnostic reasoning and treatment planning: II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurcombe, B

    1987-12-01

    The concepts of therapy-oriented and problem-oriented plans are discussed and their advantages and disadvantages considered. Goal-directed planning is proposed as an alternative to intuitive decision making. Goal-directed planning involves the abstraction of pivotal problems from a diagnostic formulation, the restatement of problems as goals, the selection of appropriate therapy, the designation of a target date, the stipulation of objectives, the selection of methods of evaluation and the monitoring of progress. Systematic goal-directed planning fosters teamwork, promotes accountability, obviates therapeutic drift and enhances outcome evaluation. Its chief disadvantage is its unfamiliarity. PMID:3502386

  19. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  20. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  1. First tomographic image of neutron capture rate in a BNCT facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, , UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Prov. Bs. As. (Argentina)] [Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Green, S.; Wojnecki, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2 TT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Ghani, Z. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This work discusses the development of online dosimetry of the boron dose via Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) during a BNCT treatment irradiation. Such a system will allow the online computation of boron dose maps without the large current uncertainties in the assessment of the boron concentration in different tissues. The first tomographic boron dose image with a SPECT prototype is shown.

  2. The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Project at the TRIGA Reactor in Mainz, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampel, G.; Grunewald, C.; Schütz, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal column of the TRIGA reactor in Mainz is being used very effectively for medical and biological applications. The BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) project at the University of Mainz is focussed on the treatment of liver tumours, similar to the work performed at Pavia (Italy) a few...

  3. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  4. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortesniemi, M. E-mail: mika.kortesniemi@hus.fi; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15{+-}8 and 320{+-}70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7{+-}0.1 {mu}g/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  5. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  6. An analysing of heat treatment process planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smoljan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Process planning of heat treatment has been investigated. The established approach of heat treatingprocess planning is suitable for effective integration of heat treatment in computer added manufacturing.Design/methodology/approach: Process plan of heat treating process has been established based on fundamentalprocess planning principals. The heat treatment was treated in the same as other manufacture processes.Findings: The general approach for process planning of heat treatment processes has been established. Heattreatment processes have to be designed into operations and sub-operations with the same principles that are alsovalid for other manufacturing processes.Research limitations/implications: The further research should be focused on development of methods for thebetter application of achieved results.Practical implications: This way of heat treatment process planning is more appropriate for integral trends ofmanufacturing, i.e., with the trend of introducing the modern systems in all parts of industrial manufacturing.Originality/value: The global approach of process planning of heat treatment processes was established andbetter unification with other manufacturing processes was achieved.

  7. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  8. Training Psychotherapists in Hierarchical Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    MAKOVER, RICHARD B.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment planning is a central and persistent challenge in psychotherapy. This paper outlines a four-level planning hierarchy that encourages the therapist to conceptualize a desired overall outcome (the "aim") that can be realized through subsidiary objectives (the "goals"). The "strategies" by which goals are pursued and the "tactics" that carry out those strategies are subordinate and instrumental elements of the treatment process. Greater emphasis on this type of ...

  9. Normalisation: ROI optimal treatment planning - SNDH pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose precision maximally to the target / ROI (Region of Interest), taking care of tolerance dose of normal tissue is the aim of ideal treatment planning. This goal is achieved with advanced modalities such as, micro MLC, simulator and 3-dimensional treatment planning system. But SNDH PATTERN uses minimum available resources as, ALCYON II Telecobalt unit, CT Scan, MULTIDATA 2-dimensional treatment planning system to their maximum utility and reaches to the required precision, same as that with advance modalities. Among the number of parameters used, 'NORMALISATION TO THE ROI' will achieve the aim of the treatment planning effectively. This is dealing with an example of canal of esophagus modified treatment planning based on SNDH pattern. Results are attractive and self explanatory. By implementing SNDH pattern, the QUALITY INDEX of treatment plan will reach to greater than 90%, with substantial reduction in dose to the vital organs. Aim is to utilize the minimum available resources efficiently to achieve highest possible precision for delivering homogenous dose to ROI while taking care of tolerance dose to vital organs

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  11. BNCT-Project at the Finnish TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epithermal neutron irradiation station for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) will be constructed in the thermal column of the Finnish Triga reactor. The first target of the BNCT at FiR 1 is the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The epithermal neutrons have the capability to penetrate deep into the brain tissue thermalizing at the same time. The thermal neutrons are captured by 10B-nuclei situated ideally in the tumor cells only and thus the reaction products destroy selectively only the tumor cells. The graphite filling of the thermal column will be replaced by a special moderator material: Al+AlF3. The moderator material and its thickness has been chosen so that the system produces as much as possible epithermal neutrons with low fast neutron and gamma contamination. Both fast neutrons and gamma radiation are harmful for the patient. To reduce the gamma radiation there is a lead-bismuth gamma shield at the outer end of the moderator block. In spite of the low power (250 kW) of the reactor the needed epithermal neutron dose to destroy the tumor will be accumulated in a reasonable time e.g. 0.5 to 1.5 h. This is possible because of the rather short distance between the reactor core and the irradiation target. (author)

  12. Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, R. A.; And Others

    This manual for the development of emergency operating plans for municipal wastewater treatment systems was compiled using information provided by over two hundred municipal treatment systems. It covers emergencies caused by natural disasters, civil disorders and strikes, faulty maintenance, negligent operation, and accidents. The effects of such…

  13. A colorimetric determination of boron in biological sample for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has shown better prognosis in the treatment of glyemas and gluoblastomas grade III and IV than other therapies. During the treatment the levels of Na210B12H11SH must be known in several compartiments of the organism and with this purpose the method of colorimetric determination of boron using curcumine was established. This method is simple, reprodutible and adequate sensitivity for this control. (author)

  14. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  15. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  16. Radiotherapy treatment planning linear-quadratic radiobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J Donald

    2015-01-01

    Understand Quantitative Radiobiology from a Radiation Biophysics PerspectiveIn the field of radiobiology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) equation has become the standard for defining radiation-induced cell killing. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning: Linear-Quadratic Radiobiology describes tumor cell inactivation from a radiation physics perspective and offers appropriate LQ parameters for modeling tumor and normal tissue responses.Explore the Latest Cell Killing Numbers for Defining Iso-Effective Cancer TreatmentsThe book compil

  17. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  18. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  19. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  20. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  1. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  2. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  3. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  4. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed

  5. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  6. A toolkit for epithermal neutron beam characterisation in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auterinen, Iiro; Serén, Tom; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    2004-01-01

    Methods for dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been developed and utilised within the Finnish BNCT project as well as within a European project for a code of practise for the dosimetry of BNCT. One outcome has been a travelling toolkit for BNCT dosimetry. It consists of activation detectors and ionisation chambers. The free-beam neutron spectrum is measured with a set of activation foils of different isotopes irradiated both in a Cd-capsule and without it. Neutron flux (thermal and epithermal) distribution in phantoms is measured using activation of Mn and Au foils, and Cu wire. Ionisation chamber (IC) measurements are performed both in-free-beam and in-phantom for determination of the neutron and gamma dose components. This toolkit has also been used at other BNCT facilities in Europe, the USA, Argentina and Japan.

  7. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  8. 64: 3-D treatment planning. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full function brachytherapy treatment planning program has been developed as part of the 3-D treatment planning system U-MPlan. This program integrates more conventional brachytherapy planning with multi-modality imaging. As a result, source locations can be derived from and displayed over a variety of images including CT, MR, and digitized radiographs. Derived three-dimensional anatomical data can be used to help in designing and evaluating dose distributions. Cross-sectional calculational planes can be defined relative to the anatomy or modified to be oriented with respect to the implant symmetry. Special utilities are provided for designing stereotactic brain implants. Calculational results can be viewed both two- and three-dimensionally relative to axonometric views of image cross-sections and derived anatomical structures. Isodose surfaces can be generated and displayed as well as dose displays across anatomical surfaces. Dose-volume histograms and composite or subtracted plans can be used to evaluate and/or compare rival plans. 5 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  10. Cationized gelatin-HVJ envelope with sodium borocaptate improved the BNCT efficacy for liver tumors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cell-selective radiation therapy that uses the alpha particles and lithium nuclei produced by the boron neutron capture reaction. BNCT is a relatively safe tool for treating multiple or diffuse malignant tumors with little injury to normal tissue. The success or failure of BNCT depends upon the 10B compound accumulation within tumor cells and the proximity of the tumor cells to the body surface. To extend the therapeutic use of BNCT from surface tumors to visceral tumors will require 10B compounds that accumulate strongly in tumor cells without significant accumulation in normal cells, and an appropriate delivery method for deeper tissues. Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) is used as a vehicle for gene delivery because of its high ability to fuse with cells. However, its strong hemagglutination activity makes HVJ-E unsuitable for systemic administration. In this study, we developed a novel vector for 10B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) delivery using HVJ-E and cationized gelatin for treating multiple liver tumors with BNCT without severe adverse events. We developed cationized gelatin conjugate HVJ-E combined with BSH (CG-HVJ-E-BSH), and evaluated its characteristics (toxicity, affinity for tumor cells, accumulation and retention in tumor cells, boron-carrying capacity to multiple liver tumors in vivo, and bio-distribution) and effectiveness in BNCT therapy in a murine model of multiple liver tumors. CG-HVJ-E reduced hemagglutination activity by half and was significantly less toxic in mice than HVJ-E. Higher 10B concentrations in murine osteosarcoma cells (LM8G5) were achieved with CG-HVJ-E-BSH than with BSH. When administered into mice bearing multiple LM8G5 liver tumors, the tumor/normal liver ratios of CG-HVJ-E-BSH were significantly higher than those of BSH for the first 48 hours (p < 0.05). In suppressing the spread of tumor cells in mice, BNCT treatment was as effective with CG-HVJ-E-BSH as with BSH

  11. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of a 'single' application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-1(Na210B10H10) or (GB-10+BPA) to treat hamster cheek pouch tumors with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a model of precancerous tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies. Employing this model we evaluated the long-term potential inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue and eventual radiotoxicity of a single application of BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or (GB-10+BPA), in the RA-6. The clinical rationale of this study was to search for a BNCT protocol that is therapeutic for tumor, not radio-toxic for the normal tissue that lies in the neutron beam path, and exerts the desired inhibitory effect on the development of second primary tumors, without exceeding the radio-tolerance of precancerous tissue, the dose limiting tissue in this case. Second primary tumors that arise in precancerous tissue (also called locoregional recurrences) are a frequent cause of therapeutic failure in head and neck tumors. Aim: Evaluate the radiotoxicity and inhibitory effect of a 'double' application of the same BNCT protocols that were proved therapeutically successful for tumor and precancerous tissue, with a long term follow up (8 months). A 'double' application of BNCT is a potentially useful strategy for the treatment of tumors, in particular the larger ones, but the cost in terms of side-effects in dose-limiting tissues might preclude its application and requires cautious evaluation. Materials and methods: We performed a double application of 1) BPA-BNCT; 2) (GB- 10+BPA)-BNCT

  12. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  13. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  14. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database

  15. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, J.R. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1992. Contributions from all the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor targeting compounds, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of biological samples), physics (radiation dosimetry software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of borocaptate sodium and boronophenylalanine is presented, results of 21 spontaneous-tumor-bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) are discussed, and predictions for an epithermal-neutron beam at the Georgia Tech Research Reactor (GTRR) are shown. Cellular-level boron detection and localization by secondary ion mass spectrometry, sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, low atomization resonance ionization spectroscopy, and alpha track are presented. Boron detection by ICP-AES is discussed in detail. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors with BNCT is presented. Measurement of the epithermal-neutron flux at BNL and comparison to predictions are shown. Calculations comparing the GTRR and BMRR epithermal-neutron beams are also presented. Individual progress reports described herein are separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  16. Electron Density Calibration for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, F.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Celis-López, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, A.

    2006-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images are used as basic input data for most modern radiosurgery treatment planning systems (TPS). CT data not only provide anatomic information to delineate target volumes, but also allow the introduction of corrections for tissue inhomogeneities into dose calculations during the treatment planning procedure. These corrections involve the determination of a relationship between tissue electron density (ρe) and their corresponding Hounsfield Units (HU). In this work, an elemental analysis of different commercial tissue equivalent materials using Scanning Electron Microscopy was carried out to characterize their chemical composition. The tissue equivalent materials were chosen to ensure a large range of ρe to be included in the CT scanner calibration. A phantom was designed and constructed with these materials to simulate the size of a human head.

  17. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    for commissioning of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator, ensuring agreement with measurements within 1% for a range of situations, is presented. The resulting Monte Carlo model was validated against measurements for a wider range of situations, including small field output factors, and agreement...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...... and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...

  18. Quality assurance for BNCT at nuclear facilities. A necessary burden or the unavoidable seal of approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BNCT clinical trial at the HFR Petten is performed on a completely multi-national basis. The irradiation facility is located in one country (The Netherlands), is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a radiotherapist from another country (Germany) and treats patients coming from different European countries. In gaining the necessary approval, it became apparent, especially in the many discussions with the (Dutch) Health authorities that Quality Assurance (QA) would be and is a critical aspect. This is even more so, in the case of BNCT, where it was not only a (relatively) new experimental treatment (in 1996/97) about to be performed for the first time in Europe, but it was to be performed in a non-hospital environment and furthermore in a nuclear research reactor. It was necessary therefore to comply, as closely as possible, with similarly accepted practices in conventional radiotherapy. Despite QA being a sometimes burdensome task, this paper nevertheless raises the issue as to whether it is necessary or whether it is the seal of approval for BNCT as an acceptable mode of treatment in mainstream radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Radiobiological aspects of radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of an oncological treatment is to eradicate the tumor without inducing unacceptable side effects. The optimization of a dose distribution with external beams requires the selection of the radiation type and energy, the number of fields, their sizes and incidence angles of the beams and then the possible use of wedges or compensating filters. The goal of optimal treatment planning is to provide maximum tumor killing while sparing normal tissues as much as possible. New, more sophisticated planning systems, based on three dimensional dose distribution calculations, require simplified data interpretation techniques. Dose volume histograms represent a convenient and useful tool to summarize dose distribution information through the entire volume of a given anatomic structure and to quickly highlight characteristics such as dose uniformity and hot and cold spots. It is difficult however to choose among competing histograms concerning different organs when they cross one another. This paper discusses the development of a computerized treatment planning system in which dose volume histograms are used to estimate tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities

  20. Treatment planning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama-Ito, Hiroko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the treatment planning (TP) and its peripheral system for carbon ion therapy that has been developed and in clinical use in recent two years at our institution. A new treatment planning system which is FOCUS customized to our irradiation system will be launched in clinical use soon. A new DICOM based PACS has been developed and in use. Now MRI, PET images are ready to be utilized for patient definition with image fusion functionality of radiotherapy TP. We implemented the exchange functionality of TP data specified by RTOG 3D QA Center in FOCUS, Pinnacle3 and heavy ion TP. Target volume and normal structure contours and dose distributions are exchangeable. A database system of carbon ion therapy dedicated to analysis of therapy data has been designed and implemented. All accessible planning data and treatment records of more than 1000 patients treated for seven and half years have been archived. The system has a DICOM RT sever and a database for miscellaneous text data. Limited numbers of private attributes were introduced for ion therapy specific objects. On-line as well as manual registration along with edit functionalities is prepared. Standard web browser is used to search and retrieve information. A DICOM RT viewer has been developed to view and retrieve RT images, dose distributions and structure set. These system described above are all designed to conform to the up-to-date standards of radiation therapy so as to be bases of the future development of the therapy at our institution. (author)

  1. Advanced Treatment Planning in Cancer Thermal Therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros SAMARAS; Esra NEUFELD; Niels KUSTER

    2016-01-01

    CEM43 thermal dose is a very common concept in thermal oncology. Thermal dose is the maximum amount of energy that can be transmitted during hyperthermia therapy conducted on temperature-sensitive tissue. Thermal dose is also the maximum value of local energy accumulation in human bodies, which can lead to tissue injury and pain. Thermal dose can also decrease the ifnishing temperature and reduce the energy to the tolerable range. There are two functions of the individualized hyperthermia treatment plan: it determines the setting and location that can realize the best tumor hyperthermia therapy; at the same time, it can decrease the effect of hyperthermia therapy on healthy tissues. There are four steps in the treatment plan of hyperthermia therapy for tumors: the ifrst step is to establish a three dimensional human body model and its corresponding an atomical structure that can be used in numerical algorithmvia medical imaging resources; the second step is to determine the volume of the electromagnetic energy accumulation. Based on the peculiarity of frequency and materials, even full-wave electromagnetic wave or quasi-static technique can be used to determine the tissue distribution. Evaluation of the therapy can be conducted based on thermal dose and the corresponding tissue damage model; the third step is to use Arrhenius model to provide direct evaluation of tissues in the thermal ablation zone, solidiifcation zone, as well as the necrotic area; the last step is the optimization of the treatment plan.

  2. American brain tumor patients treated with BNCT in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.

  3. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  4. Concept of a BNCT line with in-pool fission converter at MARIA reactor in Swierk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Krzysztof; Golnik, Natalia; Osko, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    BNCT facility in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk is under construction at the horizontal channel H2 of the research reactor MARIA. Measurements of the neutron energy spectrum performed at the front of the H2 experimental channel, have shown that flux of epithermal neutrons (above 10 keV) at the BNCT irradiation port was below 109 n cm-2 s-1 i.e. it was too low to be directly used for the BNCT treatment. Therefore, a fission converter will be placed between the reactor core and the periphery of the graphite reflector of MARIA reactor. The uranium converter will be powered by the densely packed EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enrichment. Preliminary calculations have shown that the total neutron flux in the converter will be about 1013 n cm-2 s-1 and flux of epithermal neutrons at the entrance to the filter/moderator of the beam will be about 2·1013 n cm-2 s-1.

  5. Nevada Test Site Treatment Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Treatment Plans (STPS) are required for facilities at which the US Department of Energy (DOE) or stores mixed waste, defined by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) as waste containing both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and a radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act. On April 6, 1993, DOE published a Federal Register notice (58 FR 17875) describing its proposed process for developing the STPs in three phases including a Conceptual, a Draft, and a Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). All of the DOE Nevada Operations Office STP iterations have been developed with the state of Nevada`s input. The options and schedules reflect a ``bottoms-up`` approach and have been evaluated for impacts on other DOE sites, as well as impacts to the overall DOE program. Changes may have occurred in the preferred option and associated schedules between the PSTP, which was submitted to the state of Nevada and US Environmental Protection Agency April 1995, and the Final STP (hereafter referred to as the STP) as treatment evaluations progressed. The STP includes changes that have occurred since the submittal of the PSTP as a result of state-to-state and DOE-to-state discussions.

  6. Photographic-assisted diagnosis and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin, Ron

    2011-04-01

    The advent of digital photography allows the practitioner to show the patient the photographs immediately, to co-diagnose, and to work with the patient chairside or in a consult room while showing the patient some simple imaging techniques, such as whitening the teeth, making the teeth look longer, and showing the effects of orthodontics or veneers to get better alignment and other factors of smile design and esthetic dentistry. This article describes recommended digital dental photographic equipment, how to produce the standard series of diagnostic dental photographs, photographic assisted diagnosis and treatment planning including a discussion of anthropometrics and cephalometrics, and digital imaging techniques.

  7. Present status of BNCT at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, we have two facilities for BNCT such as a reactor-based and an accelerator-based neutron source. In this article, we will present the characteristics overview of both facilities. (author)

  8. Biodistribution of Boron compounds in an experimental model of liver metastases for Boron Neutron Capture (BNCT) Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality that involves the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumors followed by irradiation with thermal or epithermal neutrons. The high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling 7Li nuclei emitted during the capture of a thermal neutron by a 10B nucleus have a short range and a high biological effectiveness. Thus, BNCT would potentially target neoplastic tissue selectively. In previous studies we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. More recently we performed experimental studies in normal rat liver that evidenced the feasibility of treating liver metastases employing a novel BNCT protocol proposed by JEC based on ex-situ treatment and partial liver auto-transplant. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies with different boron compounds and different administration protocols to determine the protocols that would be therapeutically useful in 'in vivo' BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Materials and Methods. A total of 70 BDIX rats (Charles River Lab., MA, USA) were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DH/DK12/TRb (ECACC, UK) to induce the development of subcapsular metastatic nodules. 15 days post-inoculation the animals were used for biodistribution studies. A total of 11 protocols were evaluated employing the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B1-0H10), alone or combined employing different doses and administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by ICP-OES. Results. Several protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue, i.e. BPA 15.5 mg 10B/kg iv + GB-10 50 mg 10B/kg iv; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip; BPA 46.5 mg 10B/kg ip + iv; BPA 46

  9. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  10. Dentofacial Asymmetries: Challenging Diagnosis and Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish; Agrawal, Jiwan Asha; Nanjannawar, Lalita; Fulari, Sangamesh; Kagi, Vishwal

    2015-07-01

    Dentofacial asymmetry is quite common and when sufficiently severe can require surgical orthodontic intervention. Asymmetries can be classified according to the structures involved into skeletal, dental and functional. In diagnosing asymmetries, a thorough clinical examination and radiographic survey are essential to determine the extent of soft tissue, skeletal, dental and functional involvement. Dental asymmetries, as well as a variety of functional deviations, can be managed orthodontically, whereas significant structural facial asymmetries require a comprehensive orthodontic and orthognathic management. With less severe dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations the advisability of treatment should be carefully considered. The following article also contains a case report highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis in treatment plan for management of dentofacial asymmetry. PMID:26229387

  11. Verification of ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophthalmic brachytherapy dose calculations were performed as an independent verification of commercial dosimetry software (BEBIG Plaque Simulator). Excel spreadsheets were constructed to follow the formalism of the AAPM Task Group No. 43. As a software commissioning tool, TG43 seed-based coordinates were reformatted to be compatible with plaque-based BEBIG dose tables for centrally positioned seeds. Plaque central axis doses were also calculated for rings of seeds. Close agreement with BEBIG doses was obtained in both cases. Tailored spreadsheet versions were subsequently created to verify patient treatment plans. Treatment time and dose to a specified central-axis point are calculated for ROPES plaques fully loaded with I-125 model 6702 seeds. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  12. 49: 3-D treatment planning. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For practical 3-D treatment planning, one of the most important perspectives to be used is the 'beam's-eye-view' (BEV), since it displays the relationship of the target volume with the proposed radiation beams. Several BEV features comprise the 3-D planning system U-MPlan, including BEV displays which include contour and shaded solid surfaces of defined anatomy, block entry using joystick and digitizer tablet, automatic block and multi-leaf collimator design, output of block coordinates to hard copy devices, direct output to a computer-controlled block and compensator cutter, use of video digitized radiographs as a backdrop for the BEV graphics, image analysis of digitized films, complete image correlation between BEV-type imaging and CT, MR, PET, etc., and a photon dose calculation algorithm which makes accurate and fast calculations in BEV planes and under blocks. The correlation and use of radiographs and other BEV-type images with CT-type information allows a new degree of precision to be incorporated into radiation therapy planning. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  14. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  15. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Esther, E-mail: e.wild@dkfz.de; Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Oelfke, Uwe [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  16. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the 'B(n,a)'Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term open-quotes compound biological effectivenessclose quotes (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a open-quotes boron localization factorclose quotes, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq)

  17. Alopecia areata: a new treatment plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsantali A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adel AlsantaliDepartment of Dermatology, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Many therapeutic modalities have been used to treat alopecia areata, with variable efficacy and safety profiles. Unfortunately, none of these agents is curative or preventive. Also, many of these therapeutic agents have not been subjected to randomized, controlled trials, and, except for topical immunotherapy, there are few published studies on long-term outcomes. The treatment plan is designed according to the patient's age and extent of disease. In this paper, the therapeutic agents are organized according to their efficacy and safety profiles into first-line, second-line, and third-line options.Keywords: alopecia areata, corticosteroids, immunotherapy, intralesional, phototherapy, sulfasalazine

  18. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. - Highlights: • We performed experimental boron biodistribution studies for lung metastases. • 3 protocols employing BPA and GB-10 would be therapeutically useful. • BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic for experimental lung metastases

  19. Quantitative evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) drugs for boron delivery and retention at subcellular scale resolution in human glioblastoma cells with imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ahmad, T.; Barth, R. F.; Kabalka, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    low phenylalanine diet prior to the initiation of BNCT. Since BPA currently is used clinically for BNCT, our observations may have direct relevance to future clinical studies utilizing this agent and provides support for individualized treatment planning regimens rather than the use of fixed BPA infusion protocols. PMID:24684609

  20. An international dosimetry exchange for BNCT part II: computational dosimetry normalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K J; Binns, P J; Harling, O K; Albritton, J R; Kiger, W S; Rezaei, A; Sköld, K; Seppälä, T; Savolainen, S; Auterinen, I; Marek, M; Viererbl, L; Nievaart, V A; Moss, R L

    2008-12-01

    The meaningful sharing and combining of clinical results from different centers in the world performing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires improved precision in dose specification between programs. To this end absorbed dose normalizations were performed for the European clinical centers at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Petten (The Netherlands), Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic), VTT, Espoo (Finland), and Studsvik, Nyköping (Sweden). Each European group prepared a treatment plan calculation that was bench-marked against Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) dosimetry performed in a large, water-filled phantom to uniformly evaluate dose specifications with an estimated precision of +/-2%-3%. These normalizations were compared with those derived from an earlier exchange between Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and MIT in the USA. Neglecting the uncertainties related to biological weighting factors, large variations between calculated and measured dose are apparent that depend upon the 10B uptake in tissue. Assuming a boron concentration of 15 microg g(-1) in normal tissue, differences in the evaluated maximum dose to brain for the same nominal specification of 10 Gy(w) at the different facilities range between 7.6 and 13.2 Gy(w) in the trials using boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery compound and between 8.9 and 11.1 Gy(w) in the two boron sulfhydryl (BSH) studies. Most notably, the value for the same specified dose of 10 Gy(w) determined at the different participating centers using BPA is significantly higher than at BNL by 32% (MIT), 43% (VTT), 49% (JRC), and 74% (Studsvik). Conversion of dose specification is now possible between all active participants and should be incorporated into future multi-center patient analyses. PMID:19175101

  1. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  2. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  3. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  4. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities

  5. Federal Facilities Compliance Act, Conceptual Site Treatment Plan. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-29

    This Conceptual Site Treatment Plan was prepared by Ames Laboratory to meet the requirements of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act. Topics discussed in this document include: general discussion of the plan, including the purpose and scope; technical aspects of preparing plans, including the rationale behind the treatability groupings and a discussion of characterization issues; treatment technology needs and treatment options for specific waste streams; low-level mixed waste options; TRU waste options; and future waste generation from restoration activities.

  6. Feasibility of BNCT radiobiological experiments at the HYTHOR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J.; Ceballos, C.; Soncin, M.; Fabris, C.; Friso, E.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Jori, G.; Rosi, G.; Nava, E.

    2008-06-01

    HYTHOR (HYbrid Thermal spectrum sHifter tapirO Reactor) is a new thermal-neutron irradiation facility, which was installed and became operative in mid 2005 at the TAPIRO (TAratura PIla Rapida potenza 0) fast reactor, in the Casaccia research centre (near Rome) of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie Energia ed Ambiente). The facility has been designed for in vivo radiobiological studies. In HYTHOR irradiation cavity, 1-6 mice can be simultaneously irradiated to study skin melanoma treatments with the BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy). The therapeutic effects of HYTHOR radiation field on mouse melanoma has been studied as a preliminary investigation before studying the tumour local control due to boron neutron capture effect after boronated molecule injection. The method to properly irradiate small animals has been precisely defined. Results show that HYTHOR radiation field is by itself effective in reducing the tumour-growth rate. This finding has to be taken into account in studying the effectiveness of new 10B carriers. A method to properly measure the reduction of the tumour-growth rate is reported and discussed.

  7. Collimator and shielding design for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility at TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometry of reactor core, thermal column, collimator and shielding system for BNCT application of TRIGA MARK II Reactor were simulated with MCNP5 code. Neutron particle lethargy and dose were calculated with MCNPX code. Neutron flux in a sample located at the end of collimator after normalized to measured value (Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel Munem, 2007) at 1 MW power was 1.06 x 108 n/ cm2/ s. According to IAEA (2001) flux of 1.00 x 109 n/ cm2/ s requires three hours of treatment. Few modifications were needed to get higher flux. (Author)

  8. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  9. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  10. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Protocols for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme at Brookhaven: Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    In this report we discuss some issues considered in selecting initial protocols for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of human glioblastoma multiforme. First the tolerance of normal tissues, especially the brain, to the radiation field. Radiation doses limits were based on results with human and animal exposures. Estimates of tumor control doses were based on the results of single-fraction photon therapy and single fraction BNCT both in humans and experimental animals. Of the two boron compounds (BSH and BPA), BPA was chosen since a FDA-sanctioned protocol for distribution in humans was in effect at the time the first BNCT protocols were written and therapy studies in experimental animals had shown it to be more effective than BSH.

  12. Proceedings of neutron irradiation technical meeting on BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The 'Neutron Irradiation Technical Meeting for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)' was held on March 13, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment. The Meeting is aimed to introduce the neutron beam facility for medical irradiation at JRR-4 to Japanese researchers widely, as well as providing an opportunity for young researchers, engineers, medical representatives such surgeons and doctors of pharmacology to present their research activities and to exchange valuable information. JAERI researcher presented the performance and the irradiation technology in the JRR-4 neutron beam facility, while external researchers made various and beneficial presentations containing such accelerator-based BNCT, spectrum-shifter, biological effect, pharmacological development and so on. In this meeting, a special lecture titled 'The Dawn of BNCT and Its Development.' was given by MD, Prof. Takashi Minobe, an executive director of Japan Foundation for Emergency Medicine. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. (authors)

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.it; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in {sup 10}B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  15. Considerations for boron neutron capture therapy studies; Consideracoes sobre o estudo da BNCT (terapia de captura neutronica por boro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria Gaspar, P. de

    1994-12-31

    Radiotherapy is indispensable as a mean to eradicate deeply or infiltrating tumor tissue that can not be removed surgically. Therefore, it is not selective and may also kill the surrounding health tissue. The principle of BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) consist in targeting a tumor selectively with a boron-10 compound. This nuclide has a large capture cross section for thermal neutrons and the nuclear reaction and the delivered energy in locus will selective the tumor. Since its initial proposal in 1963 BNCT has made much progress, however it is not used in a routine treatment. In this work it was approached some complex procedures, as the obtention of selective boron compounds, the adequate set up of neutron beams, the biodistribution, the in vivo and in vitro studies, and also human patients treatments. This work provide fundamentals about BNCT to professional of different areas of knowledge since it comprises multidisciplinary study. It includes appendixes for the ones not related to the field for a better comprehension of the many aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic aspects involved. It is also presented a glossary containing technical and basic terms referred in the work. (author). 174 refs, 1 fig, 12 apps.

  16. SU-D-BRD-04: The Impact of Automatic Radiation Therapy Plan Checks in Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, O; Yang, F; Ford, E [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The physics plan check verifies various aspects of a treatment plan after dosimetrists have finished creating the plan. Some errors in the plan which are caught by the physics check could be caught earlier in the departmental workflow. The purpose of this project was to evaluate a plan checking script that can be run within the treatment planning system (TPS) by the dosimetrists prior to plan approval and export to the record and verify system. Methods: A script was created in the Pinnacle TPS to automatically check 15 aspects of a plan for clinical practice conformity. The script outputs a list of checks which the plan has passed and a list of checks which the plan has failed so that appropriate adjustments can be made. For this study, the script was run on a total of 108 plans: IMRT (46/108), VMAT (35/108) and SBRT (27/108). Results: Of the plans checked by the script, 77/108 (71%) failed at least one of the fifteen checks. IMRT plans resulted in more failed checks (91%) than VMAT (51%) or SBRT (63%), due to the high failure rate of an IMRT-specific check, which checks that no IMRT segment < 5 MU. The dose grid size and couch removal checks caught errors in 10% and 14% of all plans – errors that ultimately may have resulted in harm to the patient. Conclusion: Approximately three-fourths of the plans being examined contain errors that could be caught by dosimetrists running an automated script embedded in the TPS. The results of this study will improve the departmental workflow by cutting down on the number of plans that, due to these types of errors, necessitate re-planning and re-approval of plans, increase dosimetrist and physician workload and, in urgent cases, inconvenience patients by causing treatment delays.

  17. Monitoring Hazardous Fuels Treatments: Southeast Regional Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this document is to provide technical guidance on monitoring activities to refuge staff involved in planning and conducting hazardous fuel...

  18. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia de Freitas Brandao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results Intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the I 1 and I 2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the I 1 and I 2 infiltration zones. Conclusion Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones.

  19. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /1 and /2 tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h-1.p-1.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /1 and /2 infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  20. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Samia de Freitas, E-mail: samiabrandao@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and methods: simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted into biologically weighted dose rates. Results: intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 produced biologically weighted mean dose rates of 3.2E-11, 1.3E-10, 1.9E-11 and 6.9E-13 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively, on the healthy tissue, on the balloon periphery and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} tumor infiltration zones. On the other hand, Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT produced a biologically weighted mean dose rate of 5.2E-09, 2.3E-07, 8.7E-09 and 2.4E-09 RBE.Gy.h{sup -1}.p{sup -1}.s, respectively on the healthy tissue, on the target tumor and on the /{sub 1} and /{sub 2} infiltration zones. Conclusion: Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT delivered a selective irradiation to the target tumor and to infiltration zones, while intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 delivered negligible doses on the tumor infiltration zones. (author)

  1. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA ((GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT) or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  2. Feasibility of the Utilization of BNCT in the Fast Neutron Therapy Beam at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Katja; Lennox, Arlene J.; Kroc, Thomas K.; DeLuca, Jr., Paul M.

    2000-06-01

    The Neutron Therapy Facility at Fermilab has treated cancer patients since 1976. Since then more than 2,300 patients have been treated and a wealth of clinical information accumulated. The therapeutic neutron beam at Fermilab is produced by bombarding a beryllium target with 66 MeV protons. The resulting continuous neutron spectrum ranges from thermal to 66 MeV in neutron energy. It is clear that this spectrum is not well suited for the treatment of tumors with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) only However, since this spectrum contains thermal and epithermal components the authors are investigating whether BNCT can be used in this beam to boost the tumor dose. There are clinical scenarios in which a selective tumor dose boost of 10 - 15% could be clinically significant. For these cases the principal treatment would still be fast neutron therapy but a tumor boost could be used either to deliver a higher dose to the tumor tissue or to reduce the dose to the normal healthy tissue while maintaining the absorbed dose level in the tumor tissue.

  3. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  4. Automated treatment planning engine for prostate seed implant brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a computer-intelligent planning engine for automated treatment planning and optimization of ultrasound- and template-guided prostate seed implants. Methods and Materials: The genetic algorithm was modified to reflect the 2D nature of the implantation template. A multi-objective decision scheme was used to rank competing solutions, taking into account dose uniformity and conformity to the planning target volume (PTV), dose-sparing of the urethra and the rectum, and the sensitivity of the resulting dosimetry to seed misplacement. Optimized treatment plans were evaluated using selected dosimetric quantifiers, dose-volume histogram (DVH), and sensitivity analysis based on simulated seed placement errors. These dosimetric planning components were integrated into the Prostate Implant Planning Engine for Radiotherapy (PIPER). Results: PIPER has been used to produce a variety of plans for prostate seed implants. In general, maximization of the minimum peripheral dose (mPD) for given implanted total source strength tended to produce peripherally weighted seed patterns. Minimization of the urethral dose further reduced the loading in the central region of the PTV. Isodose conformity to the PTV was achieved when the set of objectives did not reflect seed positioning uncertainties; the corresponding optimal plan generally required fewer seeds and higher source strength per seed compared to the manual planning experience. When seed placement uncertainties were introduced into the set of treatment planning objectives, the optimal plan tended to reach a compromise between the preplanned outcome and the likelihood of retaining the preferred outcome after implantation. The reduction in the volatility of such seed configurations optimized under uncertainty was verified by sensitivity studies. Conclusion: An automated treatment planning engine incorporating real-time sensitivity analysis was found to be a useful tool in dosimetric planning for prostate

  5. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). STP reference document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare a plan describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste (hazardous/radioactive waste). DOE decided to prepare its site treatment plan in a three phased approach. The first phase, called the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP), was issued in October 1993. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the CSTP described mixed waste streams generated at SRS and listed treatment scenarios for each waste stream utilizing an onsite, offsite DOE, and offsite or onsite commercial or vendor treatment option. The CSTP is followed by the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), due to be issued in August 1994. The DSTP, the current activity., will narrow the options discussed in the CSTP to a preferred treatment option, if possible, and will include waste streams proposed to be shipped to SRS from other DOE facilities as well as waste streams SRS may send offsite for treatment. The SRS DSTP process has been designed to address treatment options for each of the site`s mixed waste streams. The SRS Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP) is due to be issued in February 1995. The compliance order would be derived from the PSTP.

  6. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). STP reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare a plan describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste (hazardous/radioactive waste). DOE decided to prepare its site treatment plan in a three phased approach. The first phase, called the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP), was issued in October 1993. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the CSTP described mixed waste streams generated at SRS and listed treatment scenarios for each waste stream utilizing an onsite, offsite DOE, and offsite or onsite commercial or vendor treatment option. The CSTP is followed by the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), due to be issued in August 1994. The DSTP, the current activity., will narrow the options discussed in the CSTP to a preferred treatment option, if possible, and will include waste streams proposed to be shipped to SRS from other DOE facilities as well as waste streams SRS may send offsite for treatment. The SRS DSTP process has been designed to address treatment options for each of the site's mixed waste streams. The SRS Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP) is due to be issued in February 1995. The compliance order would be derived from the PSTP

  7. The Trimeric Model: A New Model of Periodontal Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Azouni, Khalid G; Tarakji, Bassel

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of periodontal disease is a complex and multidisciplinary procedure, requiring periodontal, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic treatment modalities. Several authors attempted to formulate models for periodontal treatment that orders the treatment steps in a logical and easy to remember manner. In this article, we discuss two models of periodontal treatment planning from two of the most well-known textbook in the specialty of periodontics internationally. Then modify them to arri...

  8. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified.

  9. Manpower Planning for Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. Kenneth; And Others

    This document discusses the components necessary in the development of a forecasting process by which manpower needs can be determined and the development of action programs by which the projected needs may be satisfied. The primary focus of this manual is directed at that person in a state agency who has the responsibility for planning the…

  10. Optimal partial-arcs in VMAT treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Wala, Jeremiah; Chen, Wei; Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the delivery efficiency of VMAT by extending the recently published VMAT treatment planning algorithm vmerge to automatically generate optimal partial-arc plans. Methods and materials: A high-quality initial plan is created by solving a convex multicriteria optimization problem using 180 equi-spaced beams. This initial plan is used to form a set of dose constraints, and a set of partial-arc plans is created by searching the space of all possible partial-arc plans that satisfy these constraints. For each partial-arc, an iterative fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm (vmerge) is used to improve the delivery efficiency. Merging continues as long as the dose quality is maintained above a user-defined threshold. The final plan is selected as the partial arc with the lowest treatment time. The complete algorithm is called pmerge. Results: Partial-arc plans are created using pmerge for a lung, liver and prostate case, with final treatment times of 127, 245 and 147 seconds. Treatment times...

  11. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaumann, H.R. E-mail: blaumann@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Sanz, D.E.; Longhino, J.M.; Larrieu, O.A. Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm{sup 2} rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  12. BNCT dose calculation in irregular fields using the sector integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaumann, H R; Sanz, D E; Longhino, J M; Larrieu, O A Calzetta

    2004-11-01

    Irregular fields for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been already proposed to spare normal tissue in the treatment of superficial tumors. This added dependence would require custom measurements and/or to have a secondary calculation system. As a first step, we implemented the sector-integration method for irregular field calculation in a homogeneous medium and on the central beam axis. The dosimetric responses (fast neutron and photon dose and thermal neutron flux), are calculated by sector integrating the measured responses of circular fields over the field boundary. The measurements were carried out at our BNCT facility, the RA-6 reactor (Argentina). The input data were dosimetric responses for circular fields measured at different depths in a water phantom using ionisation and activation techniques. Circular fields were formed by shielding the beam with two plates: borated polyethilene plus lead. As a test, the dosimetric responses of a 7x4 cm(2) rectangular field, were measured and compared to calculations, yielding differences less than 3% in equivalent dose at any depth indicating that the tool is suitable for redundant calculations.

  13. Radiation field characterization of a BNCT research facility using Monte Carlo method - code MCNP-4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - BNCT - is a selective cancer treatment and arises as an alternative therapy to treat cancer when usual techniques - surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy - show no satisfactory results. The main proposal of this work is to project a facility to BNCT studies. This facility relies on the use of an Am Be neutron source and on a set of moderators, filters and shielding which will provide the best neutron/gamma beam characteristic for these Becton studies, i.e., high intensity thermal and/or epithermal neutron fluxes and with the minimum feasible gamma rays and fast neutrons contaminants. A computational model of the experiment was used to obtain the radiation field in the sample irradiation position. The calculations have been performed with the MCNP 4B Monte Carlo Code and the results obtained can be regarded as satisfactory, i.e., a thermal neutron fluencyNT = 1,35x108 n/cm , a fast neutron dose of 5,86x10-10 Gy/NT and a gamma ray dose of 8,30x10-14 Gy/NT. (author)

  14. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  15. Evolving treatment plan quality criteria from institution-specific experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dosimetric aspects of radiation therapy treatment plan quality are usually evaluated and reported with dose volume histogram (DVH) endpoints. For clinical practicality, a small number of representative quantities derived from the DVH are often used as dose endpoints to summarize the plan quality. National guidelines on reference values for such quantities for some standard treatment approaches are often used as acceptance criteria to trigger treatment plan review. On the other hand, treatment prescription and planning approaches specific to each institution warrants the need to report plan quality in terms of practice consistency and with respect to institution-specific experience. The purpose of this study is to investigate and develop a systematic approach to record and characterize the institution-specific plan experience and use such information to guide the design of plan quality criteria. In the clinical setting, this approach will assist in (1) improving overall plan quality and consistency and (2) detecting abnormal plan behavior for retrospective analysis. Methods: The authors propose a self-evolving methodology and have developed an in-house prototype software suite that (1) extracts the dose endpoints from a treatment plan and evaluates them against both national standard and institution-specific criteria and (2) evolves the statistics for the dose endpoints and updates institution-specific criteria. Results: The validity of the proposed methodology was demonstrated with a database of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy cases. As more data sets are accumulated, the evolving institution-specific criteria can serve as a reliable and stable consistency measure for plan quality and reveals the potential use of the ''tighter'' criteria than national standards or projected criteria, leading to practice that may push to shrink the gap between plans deemed acceptable and the underlying unknown optimality. Conclusions: The authors have developed

  16. Generating Treatment Plan in Medicine: A Data Mining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Razali; Shahriyah Ali

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on a research effort on generating treatment plan to handle the error and complexity of treatment process for healthcare providers. Focus has been given for outpatient and was based on data collected from various health centers throughout Malaysia. These clinical data were recorded using SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) format approach as being practiced in medicine and were recorded electronically via Percuro Clinical Information System (Percuro). Cross-In...

  17. Comparing Treatment Plan in All Locations of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jang-Chun; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Jen, Yee-Min; Li, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Wei-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare treatment plans of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for all esophageal cancer (EC) tumor locations. This retrospective study from July 2009 to June 2014 included 20 patients with EC who received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with radiation doses >50.4 Gy. Version 9.2 of Pinnacle3 with SmartArc was used for treatment planning. Dosimetric quality was evaluated based on doses to several or...

  18. A minimally invasive approach for a compromised treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibaum, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    A primary goal in dentistry is the execution of appropriate treatment plans that are minimally invasive and maintainable. However, it is sometimes necessary to repair existing dental restorations or revise treatment plans to accommodate changes in a patient's condition. In the present case, a patient who was satisfied with a removable partial overdenture lost a critical abutment tooth. A creative, minimally invasive approach enabled the patient to keep his existing partial prosthesis and avoid the need for a full reconstruction or complete denture.

  19. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  20. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  1. Planning of emergency medical treatment in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical staffs and health physicists have shown deep concerning at the emergency plans of nuclear power plants after the TMI nuclear accident. The most important and basic countermeasure for accidents was preparing appropriate and concrete organization and plans for treatment. We have planed emergency medical treatment for radiation workers in a nuclear power plant institute. The emergency medical treatment at institute consisted of two stages, that is on-site emergency treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and analyzed all possible accidents in the institute and discussed on practical treatments for some possible accidents. The manuals of concrete procedure of emergency treatment for some accidents were prepared following discussion and facilities and equipment for medical treatment and decontamination were provided. All workers in the institute had periodical training and drilling of on-site emergency treatment and mastered technique of first aid. Decontamination and operation rooms were provided in the facillity medical service. The main functions at the facility medical service have been carried out by industrial nurses. Industrial nurses have been in close co-operation with radiation safety officers and medical doctors in regional hospital. (author)

  2. Explicit and convex optimization of plan quality measures in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Engberg, Lovisa; Forsgren, Anders; Hårdemark, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Given the widespread agreement that doses-at-volume play important roles in quality assessment of radiation therapy treatment plans, planning objectives that correlate well with explicit dose-at-volume optimization are likely to correlate well with plan quality. In this study, planning objectives are formulated to explicitly either minimize or maximize convex approximations of dose-at-volume, namely, mean-tail-doses. This is in contrast to the conventionally used planning objectives, which are used to maximize clinical goal fulfilment by relating to deviations from dose-at-volume thresholds. Advantages of the proposed planning objectives are investigated through juxtaposition with conventional objectives in a computational study of two patient cases, each with three doses-at-volume to be minimized subject to PTV coverage. With proposed planning objectives, this is translated into minimizing three mean-tail-doses. Comparison with conventional objectives is carried out in the dose-at-volume domain and in the no...

  3. Assessment tool for planning fallback Tomotherapy treatment plans; Evaluacion de la herramienta fallback planning para planes de tratamiento de tomoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Rubio, P.; Rodriguez Romero, R.; Montes Uruen, A.

    2015-07-01

    Interruption of radiotherapy treatments in an increase the total time of the same to the detriment of tumour control. In centers that have a unique special unit as the TomoTherapy, is emphasized the difficulty to resume treatment at another unit, since the technique of helical TomoTherapy is not portable to conventional accelerators and therefore requires the planning of new dosimetry distributions emulating the initially obtained and accepted. This work evaluates the ability of an automatic planning tool to mimic TomoTherapy plans. (Author)

  4. USC-ABC ATMnet for radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Prakash N.; Petrovich, Zbigniew P.; Boswell, William D., Jr.; George, Frederick W., III; Chow, Edward T.

    1996-05-01

    Three dimensional visualization of tumor and normal tissues are often valuable in precision treatment planning for radiation therapy of cancer. This is often not possible in many remote treatment facilities because of the high cost of imaging and computer equipment. At the University of Southern California, School of Medicine we are developing and testing a high speed, wide area, computer communications network to provide access to such resources from remote locations. In this paper, we present our concept of a Virtual Academic Medical Center, our network design and report on initial evaluations of effectiveness and clinical acceptability of 3D, CT simulation and treatment planning from a distance.

  5. A study of computational dosimetry and boron biodistribution for ex – situ lung BNCT at RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context of the preclinical ex-situ BNCT Project for the treatment of diffuse lung metastases, we performed boron biodistribution studies in a sheep model and computational dosimetry studies in human lung to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed technique. Herein we report preliminary data that supports the use of the sheep model as an adequate human surrogate in terms of boron kinetics and uptake in clinically relevant tissues. Furthermore, the estimation of the potential therapeutic efficacy of the proposed treatment in humans, based on boron uptake values in the large animal model, yields promising tumor control probability values even in the most conservative scenario considered. (author)

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  7. Comparative study of conformal versus intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to establish some early clinical experience in the use of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as an alternative treatment method to conformal irradiation, we selected a number of specifically difficult clinical cases to compare. Complex tumour shapes located in the skull (two cases), close to the spinal cord (two cases) and one standard prostate case were chosen for this study. A Varian CadPlan system is used for the conformal treatment plans and Helios for the IMRT plans. In both these techniques, the linear accelerator multileaf collimator system is used to shape the beam about the target volume. The Royal North Shore Hospital Varian Clinac 600C/D linear accelerator also has dynamic multileaf collimator control (DMLC) capabilities for IMRT. The five cases reported here were planned by the radiation therapists for conformal treatment and then re-planned by physics using the CadPlan's Helios inverse planning option to produce an alternative IMRT plan. Both planners worked independently of each other. Treatment set-up errors were not considered as part of this study but it is apparent here that positional errors and immobilisation are particularly important factors to consider. An allowance for all errors must therefore be included for all critical organ outlines as well as the target volume for both the conformal or IMRT treatments. Visually, the covering of regularly shaped treatment volumes for the IMRT plans was improved marginally over the conformal plan. However, complex treatment volumes (such as the posterior orbital region with surrounding critical structures) showed very clear improvements. The IMRT dose drop-off at the edge of the target volume was not as sharp as the conformal equivalent. The dose-volume-histogram (DVH) provides a limited analytical tool to quantify these observations. The DVH generally indicated similar curves for the IMRT and conformal target volume but significant IMRT improvements in limiting the dose to

  8. Knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning versus planning by experts: validation of a KBRT algorithm for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning algorithm was recently developed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how plans that are generated with the objective KBRT approach compare to those that rely on the judgment of the experienced planner. Thirty volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were randomly selected from a database of prostate plans that were generated by experienced planners (expert plans). The anatomical data (CT scan and delineation of organs) of these patients and the KBRT algorithm were given to a novice with no prior treatment planning experience. The inexperienced planner used the knowledge-based algorithm to predict the dose that the OARs receive based on their proximity to the treated volume. The population-based OAR constraints were changed to the predicted doses. A KBRT plan was subsequently generated. The KBRT and expert plans were compared for the achieved target coverage and OAR sparing. The target coverages were compared using the Uniformity Index (UI), while 5 dose-volume points (D10, D30, D50, D70 and D90) were used to compare the OARs (bladder and rectum) doses. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to check for significant differences (p < 0.05) between both datasets. The KBRT and expert plans achieved mean UI values of 1.10 ± 0.03 and 1.10 ± 0.04, respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no statistically significant difference between both results. The D90, D70, D50, D30 and D10 values of the two planning strategies, and the Wilcoxon test results suggests that the KBRT plans achieved a statistically significant lower bladder dose (at D30), while the expert plans achieved a statistically significant lower rectal dose (at D10 and D30). The results of this study show that the KBRT treatment planning approach is a promising method to objectively incorporate patient anatomical variations in radiotherapy treatment planning

  9. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  10. Initial application of digital tomosynthesis to improve brachytherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydush, Alan H.; Mirzaei McKee, Mahta; King, June; Godfrey, Devon J.

    2007-03-01

    We present preliminary investigations that examine the feasibility of incorporating volumetric images generated using digital tomosynthesis into brachytherapy treatment planning. The Integrated Brachytherapy Unit (IBU) at our facility consists of an L-arm, C-arm isocentric motion system with an x-ray tube and fluoroscopic imager attached. Clinically, this unit is used to generate oblique, anterior-posterior, and lateral images for simple treatment planning and dose prescriptions. Oncologists would strongly prefer to have volumetric data to better determine three dimensional dose distributions (dose-volume histograms) to the target area and organs at risk. Moving the patient back and forth to CT causes undo stress on the patient, allows extensive motion of organs and treatment applicators, and adds additional time to patient treatment. We propose to use the IBU imaging system with digital tomosynthesis to generate volumetric patient data, which can be used for improving treatment planning and overall reducing treatment time. Initial image data sets will be acquired over a limited arc of a human-like phantom composed of real bones and tissue equivalent material. A brachytherapy applicator will be incorporated into one of the phantoms for visualization purposes. Digital tomosynthesis will be used to generate a volumetric image of this phantom setup. This volumetric image set will be visually inspected to determine the feasibility of future incorporation of these types of images into brachytherapy treatment planning. We conclude that initial images using the tomosynthesis reconstruction technique show much promise and bode well for future work.

  11. Standardized treatment planning methodology for passively scattered proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the number of proton therapy centers increases, so does the need for studies which compare proton treatments between institutions and with photon therapy. However, results of such studies are highly dependent on target volume definition and treatment planning techniques. Thus, standardized methods of treatment planning are needed, particularly for proton treatment planning, in which special consideration is paid to the depth and sharp distal fall-off of the proton distribution. This study presents and evaluates a standardized method of proton treatment planning for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We applied our institution’s planning methodology for proton CSI, at the time of the study, to an anatomically diverse population of 18 pediatric patients. We evaluated our dosimetric results for the population as a whole and for the two subgroups having two different age-specific target volumes using the minimum, maximum, and mean dose values in 10 organs (i.e., the spinal cord, brain, eyes, lenses, esophagus, lungs, kidneys, thyroid, heart, and liver). We also report isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVH) for 2 representative patients. Additionally we report population-averaged DVHs for various organs. The planning methodology here describes various techniques used to achieve normal tissue sparing. In particular, we found pronounced dose reductions in three radiosensitive organs (i.e., eyes, esophagus, and thyroid) which were identified for optimization. Mean doses to the thyroid, eyes, and esophagus were 0.2%, 69% and 0.2%, respectively, of the prescribed dose. In four organs not specifically identified for optimization (i.e., lungs, liver, kidneys, and heart) we found that organs lateral to the treatment field (lungs and kidneys) received relatively low mean doses (less than 8% of the prescribed dose), whereas the heart and liver, organs distal to the treatment field, received less than 1% of the prescribed dose. This study described and evaluated

  12. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  13. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  14. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kagawa National Children' s Hospital, Kagawa 765-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakagawa0517@yahoo.co.jp; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Department of Research Reactor, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaragi 319-1195 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshiaki [Department of Medical Informatics, Post Graduated School, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue. However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells. We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years. Among 183 patients with brain tumors treated by our group using BSH-based intra-operative BNCT, 23 patients were under 15 years. They included 4 patients under 3 years. There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma. All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth. All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor. Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence. BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation. Although it can achieve the local control in the primary site, it cannot prevent CSF dissemination in patients with glioblastoma.

  15. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Tzung-Chi; Hsiao Chien-Yi; Chien Chun-Ru; Liang Ji-An; Shih Tzu-Ching; Zhang Geoffrey G

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generate...

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  17. Comparison of the radiobiological effects of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT is an experimental radiotherapeutic modality that uses the capacity of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons leading to the production of 4He and 7Li, particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The aim was to evaluate and compare in vitro the mechanisms of response to the radiation arising of BNCT and conventional gamma therapy. We measured the survival cell fraction as a function of the total physical dose and analyzed the expression of p27/Kip1 and p53 by Western blotting in cells of colon cancer (ARO81-1). Exponentially growing cells were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10B) + neutrons; 3) neutrons alone; 4) gamma-rays. A control group without irradiation for each treatment was added. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the RA-3 (flux= 7.5 109 n/cm2 sec) or with 60Co (1Gy/min) during different times in order to obtain total physical dose between 1-5 Gy (±10 %). A decrease in the survival fraction as a function of the physical dose was observed for all the treatments. We also observed that neutrons and neutrons + BOPP did not differ significantly and that BPA was the more effective compound. Protein extracts of irradiated cells (3Gy) were isolated to 24 h and 48 h post radiation exposure. The irradiation with neutrons in presence of 10BPA or 10BOPP produced an increase of p53 at 24 h maintain until 48 h. On the contrary, in the groups irradiated with neutrons alone or gamma the peak was observed at 48 hr. The level of expression of p27/Kip1 showed a reduction of this protein in all the groups irradiated with neutrons (neutrons alone or neutrons plus boron compound), being more marked at 24 h. These preliminary results suggest different radiobiological response for high and low let radiation. Future studies will permit establish the role of cell cycle in the tumor radio sensibility to BNCT. (author)

  18. Orthognathic Surgery: Planning and treatment with illustration on six cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all conferences for plastic and maxillofacial surgery discuss reports on several methods of orthognathic surgery, planning, success results, and complications of the different procedures carried out to correct patient's soft and hard tissues frontal profiles and occlusal discrepancies. Various principles are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of facial deformities. However, the most important consideration, after all, is the final accepted aesthetic and functional requirements and stability of the moved segments. The objective of this paper is to give the basic principles of treatment planning for correcting facial discrepancies, surgical approach to different cases, and the methods to increase stability of the moved segments. Six cases are included to illustrate the different aspects of treatment planning, surgical management, and stabilization methods. (author)

  19. SU-D-BRD-03: Improving Plan Quality with Automation of Treatment Plan Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, E; Younge, K; Chen, X; Lee, C; Matuszak, M; Kessler, M; Acosta, E; Orow, A; Filpansick, S; Moran, J [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of an automated plan check tool to improve first-time plan quality as well as standardize and document performance of physics plan checks. Methods: The Plan Checker Tool (PCT) uses the Eclipse Scripting API to check and compare data from the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment management system (TMS). PCT was created to improve first-time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase efficiency of our electronic workflow, and to standardize and partially automate plan checks in the TPS. A framework was developed which can be configured with different reference values and types of checks. One example is the prescribed dose check where PCT flags the user when the planned dose and the prescribed dose disagree. PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user. A PDF report is created and automatically uploaded into the TMS. Prior to and during PCT development, errors caught during plan checks and also patient delays were tracked in order to prioritize which checks should be automated. The most common and significant errors were determined. Results: Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated with data extracted with the PCT. These include checks for prescription, reference point and machine scheduling errors which are three of the top six causes of patient delays related to physics and dosimetry. Since the clinical roll-out, no delays have been due to errors that are automatically flagged by the PCT. Development continues to automate the remaining checks. Conclusion: With PCT, 57% of the physics plan checklist has been partially or fully automated. Treatment delays have declined since release of the PCT for clinical use. By tracking delays and errors, we have been able to measure the effectiveness of automating checks and are using this information to prioritize future development. This project was supported in part by P01CA059827.

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  1. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. Results For small targets in the first plans (PTV  Conclusion Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved

  2. Neuro-Dynamic Programming for Radiation Treatment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Michael C.; Voelker, Meta M.

    2002-01-01

    In many cases a radiotherapy treatment is delivered as a series of smaller dosages over a period of time. Currently, it is difficult to determine the actual dose that has been delivered at each stage, precluding the use of adaptive treatment plans. However, new generations of machines will give more accurate information of actual dose delivered, allowing a planner to compensate for errors in delivery. We formulate a model of the day-to-day planning problem as a stochastic linear program and e...

  3. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegner, Markus, E-mail: Markus.Ziegner.fl@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz DE-55128 (Germany); Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad PK-44000 (Pakistan); Blaickner, Matthias [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Palmans, Hugo [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, Peter [Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Böck, Helmuth [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  4. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state's input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only

  5. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amelio, J.

    1994-08-30

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state`s input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only.

  6. Novel tools for stepping source brachytherapy treatment planning: Enhanced geometrical optimization and interactive inverse planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkla, Anna M., E-mail: a.m.dinkla@amc.uva.nl; Laarse, Rob van der; Koedooder, Kees; Petra Kok, H.; Wieringen, Niek van; Pieters, Bradley R.; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Dose optimization for stepping source brachytherapy can nowadays be performed using automated inverse algorithms. Although much quicker than graphical optimization, an experienced treatment planner is required for both methods. With automated inverse algorithms, the procedure to achieve the desired dose distribution is often based on trial-and-error. Methods: A new approach for stepping source prostate brachytherapy treatment planning was developed as a quick and user-friendly alternative. This approach consists of the combined use of two novel tools: Enhanced geometrical optimization (EGO) and interactive inverse planning (IIP). EGO is an extended version of the common geometrical optimization method and is applied to create a dose distribution as homogeneous as possible. With the second tool, IIP, this dose distribution is tailored to a specific patient anatomy by interactively changing the highest and lowest dose on the contours. Results: The combined use of EGO–IIP was evaluated on 24 prostate cancer patients, by having an inexperienced user create treatment plans, compliant to clinical dose objectives. This user was able to create dose plans of 24 patients in an average time of 4.4 min/patient. An experienced treatment planner without extensive training in EGO–IIP also created 24 plans. The resulting dose-volume histogram parameters were comparable to the clinical plans and showed high conformance to clinical standards. Conclusions: Even for an inexperienced user, treatment planning with EGO–IIP for stepping source prostate brachytherapy is feasible as an alternative to current optimization algorithms, offering speed, simplicity for the user, and local control of the dose levels.

  7. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  8. Development and validation of a treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy: SmART-Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Image-guided equipment for precision irradiation of small animals for pre-clinical radiotherapy research became recently available. To enable downscaled radiotherapy studies that can be translated into human radiotherapy knowledge, a treatment planning system for pre-clinical studies is required. Material and methods: A dedicated treatment planning system (SmART-Plan) for small animal radiotherapy studies was developed. It is based on Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in an animal. The voxel geometry is derived from the onboard cone beam CT imaging panel. SmART-Plan was validated using radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry in various phantoms: uniform, multislab and a realistic plasticized mouse geometry. Results: Good agreement was obtained between SmART-Plan dose calculations and RCF dose measurements in all phantoms. For various delivered plans agreement was obtained within 10% for the majority of the targeted dose region, with larger differences between 10% and 20% near the penumbra regions and for the smallest 1 mm collimator. Absolute depth and lateral dose distributions showed better agreement for 5 and 15-mm collimators than for a 1-mm collimator, indicating that accurate dose prediction for the smallest field sizes is difficult. Conclusion: SmART-Plan offers a useful dose calculation tool for pre-clinical small animal irradiation studies

  9. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1999-03-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase 1/2 clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra, alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  10. ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATOR BASED NEUTRON SPECTRA FOR BNCT USING PROTON RECOIL SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI,L.; LUDEWIG,H.; POWELL,J.R.; RAPARIA,D.; ALESSI,J.G.; LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    1998-11-06

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by {sup 10}B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark

  11. A treatment planning study comparing Elekta VMAT and fixed field IMRT using the varian treatment planning system eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newest release of the Eclipse (Varian) treatment planning system (TPS) includes an optimizing engine for Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this new algorithm and to compare it to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for various disease sites by creating single- and double-arc VMAT plans. A total of 162 plans were evaluated in this study, including 38 endometrial, 57 head and neck, 12 brain, 10 breast and 45 prostate cancer cases. The real-life IMRT plans were developed during routine clinical cases using the TPS Eclipse. VMAT plans were generated using a preclinical version of Eclipse with tumor-region-specific optimizing templates without interference of the operator: with one full arc (1A) and with two full arcs (2A), and with partial arcs for breast and prostate with hip implant cases. All plans were evaluated based on target coverage, homogeneity and conformity. The organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed according to plan objectives, such as the mean and maximum doses. If one or more objectives were exceeded, the plan was considered clinically unacceptable, and a second VMAT plan was created by adapting the optimization penalties once. Compared to IMRT, single- and double-arc VMAT plans showed comparable or better results concerning the target coverage: the maximum dose in the target for 1A is the same as that for IMRT; for 2A, an average reduction of 1.3% over all plans was observed. The conformity showed a statistically significant improvement for both 1A (+3%) and 2A (+6%). The mean total body dose was statistically significant lower for the considered arc techniques (IMRT: 16.0 Gy, VMAT: 15.3 Gy, p < 0.001). However, the sparing of OARs shows individual behavior that depends strongly on the different tumor regions. A clear difference is found in the number of monitor units (MUs) per plan: VMAT shows a reduction of 31%. These findings demonstrate that based on optimizing templates with

  12. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  13. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references

  14. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  15. [Endodontically treated teeth. Success--failure. Endorestorative treatment plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B

    1990-01-01

    More and more often the general dentist is finding the presence of endodontically treated teeth during his treatment planning procedure. He has to ask himself if the endo-treated tooth functions and will continue to function function successfully, when deciding which final endo-restorative procedure to apply. For this reason the dentist or the endodontist with whom he works should clinically evaluate these teeth, establish a diagnostic criteria of their success or failure and a treatment plan according to the prognosis. The purpose of this article is to offer an organized clinical view of the steps to follow when evaluating an endodontically treated tooth and how to establish a final endo-restorative plan. PMID:2168732

  16. [Endodontically treated teeth. Success--failure. Endorestorative treatment plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B

    1990-01-01

    More and more often the general dentist is finding the presence of endodontically treated teeth during his treatment planning procedure. He has to ask himself if the endo-treated tooth functions and will continue to function function successfully, when deciding which final endo-restorative procedure to apply. For this reason the dentist or the endodontist with whom he works should clinically evaluate these teeth, establish a diagnostic criteria of their success or failure and a treatment plan according to the prognosis. The purpose of this article is to offer an organized clinical view of the steps to follow when evaluating an endodontically treated tooth and how to establish a final endo-restorative plan.

  17. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 1998 Annual Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    1999-04-20

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  18. The effect of dose calculation accuracy on inverse treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraj, Robert; Keall, Paul J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2002-02-01

    The effect of dose calculation accuracy during inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied in this work. Three dose calculation methods were compared: Monte Carlo, superposition and pencil beam. These algorithms were used to calculate beamlets, which were subsequently used by a simulated annealing algorithm to determine beamlet weights which comprised the optimal solution to the objective function. Three different cases (lung, prostate and head and neck) were investigated and several different objective functions were tested for their effect on inverse treatment planning. It is shown that the use of inaccurate dose calculation introduces two errors in a treatment plan, a systematic error and a convergence error. The systematic error is present because of the inaccuracy of the dose calculation algorithm. The convergence error appears because the optimal intensity distribution for inaccurate beamlets differs from the optimal solution for the accurate beamlets. While the systematic error for superposition was found to be ~1% of Dmax in the tumour and slightly larger outside, the error for the pencil beam method is typically ~5% of Dmax and is rather insensitive to the given objectives. On the other hand, the convergence error was found to be very sensitive to the objective function, is only slightly correlated to the systematic error and should be determined for each case individually. Our results suggest that because of the large systematic and convergence errors, inverse treatment planning systems based on pencil beam algorithms alone should be upgraded either to superposition or Monte Carlo based dose calculations.

  19. Including the Consumer and Environment in Occupational Therapy Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catana; Bowen, Robin E.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational therapists (n=29) completed treatment plans based on case study data. Analysis indicated they often identified goals not addressed by the consumer/client. They significantly selected more simulated than real activities and more activities designed to change the person rather than the environment. (SK)

  20. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 1998 Annual Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information

  1. Savannah River Site approved site treatment plan, 2000 annual update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume 1) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume 2) and is provided for information

  2. Savannah River Site approved site treatment plan, 2000 annual update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2000-04-20

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume 1) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume 2) and is provided for information.

  3. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  4. A simple planning technique of craniospinal irradiation in the eclipse treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Athiyaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new planning method for Craniospinal Irradiation by Eclipse treatment planning system using Field alignment, Field-in-Field technique was developed. Advantage of this planning method was also studied retrospectively for previously treated five patients of medulloblastoma with variable spine length. Plan consists of half beam blocked parallel opposed cranium, and a single posterior cervicospine field was created by sharing the same isocenter, which obviates divergence matching. Further, a single symmetrical field was created to treat remaining Lumbosacral spine. Matching between a inferior diverging edge of cervicospine field and superior diverging edge of a Lumbosacral field was done using the field alignment option. ′Field alignment′ is specific option in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, which automatically matches the field edge divergence as per field alignment rule. Multiple segments were applied in both the spine field to manage with hot and cold spots created by varying depth of spinal cord. Plan becomes fully computerized using this field alignment option and multiple segments. Plan evaluation and calculated mean modified Homogeneity Index (1.04 and 0.1 ensured that dose to target volume is homogeneous and critical organ doses were within tolerance. Dose variation at the spinal field junction was verified using ionization chamber array (I′MatriXX for matched, overlapped and gap junction spine fields; the delivered dose distribution confirmed the ideal clinical match, over exposure and under exposure at the junction, respectively. This method is simple to plan, executable in Record and Verify mode and can be adopted for various length of spinal cord with only two isocenter in shorter treatment time.

  5. Conformal three dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning in Lund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoos, T.; Nilsson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Anders, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-01

    The use of conformal therapy is based on 3-dimensional treatment planning as well as on methods and routines for 3-dimensional patient mapping, 3-dimensional virtual simulation and others. The management of patients at the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital in Lund (Sweden) is discussed. About 2100 new patients are annually treated with external radiotherapy using seven linear accelerators. Three of the accelerators have dual photon energies and electron treatment facilities. A multi-leaf collimator as well as an electronic portal imaging device are available on one machine. Two simulators and an in-house CT-scanner are used for treatment planning. From 1988 to 1992 Scandiplan (Umplan) was used. Since 1992, the treatment planning system is TMS (HELAX AB, Sweden), which is based on the pencil beam algorithm of Ahnesjo. The calculations use patient modulated accelerator specific energy fluence spectra which are compiled with pencil beams from Monte Carlo generated energy absorption kernels. Heterogeneity corrections are performed with results close to conventional algorithms. Irregular fields, either from standard or individual blocks and from multi-leaf collimators are handled by the treatment planning system. The field shape is determined conveniently using the beam`s eye view. The final field shape is exported electronically to either the block cutting machine or the multileaf collimator control computer. All patient fields are checked against the beam`s eye view during simulation using manual methods. Treatment verification is performed by portal films and in vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes or TL-dosimetry. Up to now, approximately 4400 patients have received a highly individualized 3-dimensional conformal treatment.

  6. [Treatment of removable partial dentures. 1. Legislation, rules of conduct, care plan and treatment plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Brands, W.G.; Barl, J.C.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive treatment, such as the treatment involving a removable partial denture, requires a well-structured approach. Regulations governing the communication between a healthcare professional and a patient in the Netherlands can be found in the Dutch Medical Treatment Act and the Rules of Conduct

  7. Computer calculations in interstitial seed therapy: I. Radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstitial seed therapy computers can be used for radiation treatment planning and for dose control after implantation. In interstitial therapy with radioactive seeds there are much greater differences between planning and carrying out radiation treatment than in teletherapy with cobalt-60 or X-rays. Because of the short distance between radioactive sources and tumour tissue, even slight deviations from the planned implantation geometry cause considerable dose deviations. Furthermore, the distribution of seeds in an actual implant is inhomogeneous. During implantation the spatial distribution of seeds cannot be examined exactly, though X-rays are used to control the operation. The afterloading technique of Henschke allows a more exact implantation geometry, but I have no experience of this method. In spite of the technical difficulty of achieving optimum geometry, interstitial therapy still has certain advantages when compared with teletherapy: the dose in the treated volume can be kept smaller than in teletherapy, the radiation can be better concentrated in the tumour volume, the treatment can be restricted to one or two operations, and localized inoperable tumours may be cured more easily. The latter may depend on an optimal treatment time, a relatively high tumour dose and a continuous exponentially decreasing dose rate during the treatment time. A disadvantage of interstitial therapy is the high personnel dose, which may be reduced by the afterloading technique of Henschke (1956). However, the afterloading method requires much greater personnel and instrumental expense than free implantation of radiogold seeds and causes greater trauma for the patient

  8. Dosimetric tests for treatment planning commissioning in 3DCRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotherapy evolution from 2D treatments to 3D conformal treatments was possible after the advent the treatment planning systems commercially available and tridimensional images techniques like computed tomography. These systems have tools that allow delineate anatomical structures from tomographic images. Calculations dose tools allow the planner evaluate the dose received in the anatomical structures. When these systems are acquired or an upgrade is made many dosimetric and non-dosimetric tests need to be performed to know the system limitations and correct functioning and to verify the correct dosimetric data insertion. This study was based in International Atomic Energy Agency protocols, Task Groups documents from American Association of Physics in Medicine, and other papers. A dosimetric test set was done to commissioning the Eclipse 10.0.28 (Varian Medical Systems) treatments planning system This version has two photon calculation algorithm (Pencil Beam Convolution and Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm – AAA) and Gaussian Pencil Beam algorithm for electron beams. However, tests for AAA it was not performed. In this study was possible to conclude that the dosimetric data was correctly added in the treatment planning system. Some results allowed to understand the algorithm limitations to calculate dose distributions in specifics situations, that was not clinically relevant in our routine. (author)

  9. Emergency assessment and treatment planning for traumatic dental injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, A; Cohenca, N

    2016-03-01

    Trauma involving the dentoalveolar region is a frequent occurrence which can result in the fracturing and displacement of teeth, crushing and/or fracturing of bone and soft tissue injuries including contusions, abrasions and lacerations. This review describes the assessment of patients with these injuries, not in a didactic sense by repeating excellent already published classifications and treatment options, but by addressing questions that arise during assessment. It covers trauma first aid, examination of the patient, factors that affect treatment planning decisions, and the importance of communicating treatment options and prognosis to traumatized patients. PMID:26923446

  10. Neutron field characterization in the installation for BNCT study in the IEA-R1 reactor; Caracterizacao do campo de neutrons na instalacao para estudo em BNCT no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Junior, Valdeci

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the mixed neutron and gamma field, in the sample irradiation position, in a research installation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), in the IPEN IEA-R1 reactor. The BNCT technique has been studied as a safe and selective option in the treatment of resistant cancerigenous tumors or considered non-curable by the conventional techniques, for example, the Glioblastoma Multiform - a brain cancerigenous tumor. Neutron flux measurements were carried out: thermal, resonance and fast, as well as neutron and gamma rays doses, in the sample position, using activation foils detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the determination of the neutron spectrum and intensity, a set of different threshold activation foils and gold foils covered and uncovered with cadmium irradiated in the installation was used, analyzed by a high Pure Germanium semiconductor detector, coupled to an electronic system suitable for gamma spectrometry. The results were processed with the SAND-BP code. The doses due to gamma and neutron rays were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 400 and TLD 700 sensitive to gamma and TLD 600, sensitive to neutrons. The TLDs were selected and used for obtaining the calibration curves - dosimeter answer versus dose - from each of the TLD three types, which were necessary to calculate the doses due to neutron and gamma, in the sample position. The radiation field, in the sample irradiation position, was characterized flux for thermal neutrons of 1.39.10{sup 8} {+-} 0,12.10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s the doses due to thermal neutrons are three times higher than those due to gamma radiation and confirm the reproducibility and consistency of the experimental findings obtained. Considering these results, the neutron field and gamma radiation showed to be appropriated for research in BNCT. (author)

  11. A 4D treatment planning tool for the evaluation of motion effects on lung cancer treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a 4D treatment planning tool using an analytical model accounting for breathing motion is investigated to evaluate the motion effect on delivered dose for lung cancer treatments with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The Monte Carlo EGS4/MCDOSE user code is used in the treatment planning dose calculation, and the patient CT data are converted into respective patient geometry files for Monte Carlo dose calculation. The model interpolates CT images at different phases of the breathing cycle from patient CT scans taken at end inspiration and end expiration phases and the chest wall position. Correlation between the voxels in a reference CT dataset and the voxels in the interpolated CT datasets at any breathing phases is established so that the dose to a voxel can be accumulated through the entire breathing cycle. Simulated lung tumors at different locations are used to demonstrate our model in 3DCRT for lung cancer treatments. We demonstrated the use of a 4D treatment planning tool in evaluating the breathing motion effect on delivered dose for different planning margins. Further studies are being conducted to use this tool to study the lung motion effect through large-scale analysis and to implement this useful tool for treatment planning dose calculation and plan evaluation for 4D radiotherapy

  12. Modeling treatment couches in the Pinnacle treatment planning system: Especially important for arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggar, William Neil; Nguyen, Alex; Stanford, Jason; Morris, Bart; Yang, Claus C

    2016-01-01

    This study is to demonstrate the importance and a method of properly modeling the treatment couch for dose calculation in patient treatment using arc therapy. The 2 treatment couch tops-Aktina AK550 and Elekta iBEAM evo-of Elekta LINACs were scanned using Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT Simulator. Various parts of the couch tops were contoured, and their densities were measured and recorded on the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) using the established computed tomography density table. These contours were saved as organ models to be placed beneath the patient during planning. Relative attenuation measurements were performed following procedures outlined by TG-176 as well as absolute dose comparison of static fields of 10 × 10 cm(2) that were delivered through the couch tops with that calculated in the TPS with the couch models. A total of 10 random arc therapy treatment plans (5 volumetric-modulated arc therapy [VMAT] and 5 stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]), using 24 beams, were selected for this study. All selected plans were calculated with and without couch modeling. Each beam was evaluated using the Delta(4) dosimetry system (Delta(4)). The Student t-test was used to determine statistical significance. Independent reviews were exploited as per the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core head and neck credentialing phantom. The selected plans were calculated on the actual patient anatomies with and without couch modeling to determine potential clinical effects. Large relative beam attenuations were noted dependent on which part of the couch top beams were passing through. Substantial improvements were also noted for static fields both calculated with the TPS and delivered physically when the couch models were included in the calculation. A statistically significant increase in agreement was noted for dose difference, distance to agreement, and γ-analysis with the Delta(4) on VMAT and SBRT plans. A credentialing review showed improvement in

  13. Cell death following BNCT: a theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, F; Bakeine, J; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Ferrari, C; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called "lethal aberrations" (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the (10)B(n,α) (7)Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the (14)N(n,p)(14)C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death. PMID:21481595

  14. Approved Site Treatment Plan, Volumes 1 and 2. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.H.; Molen, G.; Noller, D.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), has prepared the Site Treatment Plan (STP) for Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed wastes in accordance with RCRA Section 3021(b), and SCDHEC has approved the STP (except for certain offsite wastes) and issued an order enforcing the STP commitments in Volume 1. DOE-SR and SCDHEC agree that this STP fulfills the requirements contained in the FFCAct, RCRA Section 3021, and therefore, pursuant to Section 105(a) of the FFCAct (RCRA Section 3021(b)(5)), DOE`s requirements are to implement the plan for the development of treatment capacities and technologies pursuant to RCRA Section 3021. Emerging and new technologies not yet considered may be identified to manage waste more safely, effectively, and at lower cost than technologies currently identified in the plan. DOE will continue to evaluate and develop technologies that offer potential advantages in public acceptance, privatization, consolidation, risk abatement, performance, and life-cycle cost. Should technologies that offer such advantages be identified, DOE may request a revision/modification of the STP in accordance with the provisions of Consent Order 95-22-HW. The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume 1) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume 2) and is provided for information.

  15. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 1998 Annual Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Berry, M.

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office (DOE- SR),has prepared the Site Treatment Plan (STP) for Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed wastes in accordance with RCRA Section 3021(b), and SCDHEC has approved the STP (except for certain offsite wastes) and issued an order enforcing the STP commitments in Volume I. DOE-SR and SCDHEC agree that this STP fulfills the requirements contained in the FFCAct, RCRA Section 3021, and therefore,pursuant to Section 105(a) of the FFCAct (RCRA Section 3021(b)(5)), DOE`s requirements are to implement the plan for the development of treatment capacities and technologies pursuant to RCRA Section 3021.Emerging and new technologies not yet considered may be identified to manage waste more safely, effectively, and at lower cost than technologies currently identified in the plan. DOE will continue to evaluate and develop technologies that offer potential advantages in public acceptance, privatization, consolidation, risk abatement, performance, and life-cycle cost. Should technologies that offer such advantages be identified, DOE may request a revision/modification of the STP in accordance with the provisions of Consent Order 95-22-HW.The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  16. Approved Site Treatment Plan, Volumes 1 and 2. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), has prepared the Site Treatment Plan (STP) for Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed wastes in accordance with RCRA Section 3021(b), and SCDHEC has approved the STP (except for certain offsite wastes) and issued an order enforcing the STP commitments in Volume 1. DOE-SR and SCDHEC agree that this STP fulfills the requirements contained in the FFCAct, RCRA Section 3021, and therefore, pursuant to Section 105(a) of the FFCAct (RCRA Section 3021(b)(5)), DOE's requirements are to implement the plan for the development of treatment capacities and technologies pursuant to RCRA Section 3021. Emerging and new technologies not yet considered may be identified to manage waste more safely, effectively, and at lower cost than technologies currently identified in the plan. DOE will continue to evaluate and develop technologies that offer potential advantages in public acceptance, privatization, consolidation, risk abatement, performance, and life-cycle cost. Should technologies that offer such advantages be identified, DOE may request a revision/modification of the STP in accordance with the provisions of Consent Order 95-22-HW. The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume 1) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume 2) and is provided for information

  17. Monte Carlo conformal treatment planning as an independent assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Perucha, M.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Medrano, J.C. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica

    2001-07-01

    The wide range of possibilities available in Radiotherapy with conformal fields cannot be covered experimentally. For this reason, dosimetrical and planning procedures are based on approximate algorithms or systematic measurements. Dose distribution calculations based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be used to check results. In this work, two examples of conformal field treatments are shown: A prostate carcinoma and an ocular lymphoma. The dose distributions obtained with a conventional Planning System and with MC have been compared. Some significant differences have been found. (orig.)

  18. Continuity of Care: Sharing the Medication Treatment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahni, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The shared medication treatment plan is a key element for supporting the continuity of care. Indeed a substantial amount of emergency hospitalization is linked to medication - 5% to 10% according to some studies. Methods and tools helping all healthcare providers to have a better knowledge of the complete medication plan are therefore required in order to limit side effects linked to an insufficient knowledge of what the patient is taking. The workshop intends to present various initiatives and open the discussion about the limits, pros and cons of various initiatives. PMID:27332315

  19. Monte Carlo conformal treatment planning as an independent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide range of possibilities available in Radiotherapy with conformal fields cannot be covered experimentally. For this reason, dosimetrical and planning procedures are based on approximate algorithms or systematic measurements. Dose distribution calculations based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be used to check results. In this work, two examples of conformal field treatments are shown: A prostate carcinoma and an ocular lymphoma. The dose distributions obtained with a conventional Planning System and with MC have been compared. Some significant differences have been found. (orig.)

  20. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  1. Orthodontic treatment plan changed by 3D images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical application of CBCT is most often enforced in dental phenomenon of impacted teeth, hyperodontia, transposition, ankyloses or root resorption and other pathologies in the maxillofacial area. The goal, we put ourselves, is to show how the information from 3D images changes the protocol of the orthodontic treatment. The material, we presented six our clinical cases and the change in the plan of the treatment, which has used after analyzing the information carried on the three planes of CBCT. These cases are casuistic in the orthodontic practice and require individual approach to each of them during their analysis and decision taken. The discussion made by us is in line with reveal of the impacted teeth, where we need to evaluate their vertical depth and mediodistal ratios with the bond structures. At patients with hyperodontia, the assessment is of outmost importance to decide which of the teeth to be extracted and which one to be arranged into the dental arch. The conclusion we make is that diagnostic information is essential for decisions about treatment plan. The exact graphs will lead to better treatment plan and more predictable results. (authors) Key words: CBCT. IMPACTED CANINES. HYPERODONTIA. TRANSPOSITION

  2. Generalized Tumor Dose for Treatment Planning Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Areli A.

    Modern radiation therapy techniques allow for improved target conformity and normal tissue sparing. These highly conformal treatment plans have allowed dose escalation techniques increasing the probability of tumor control. At the same time this conformation has introduced inhomogeneous dose distributions, making delivered dose characterizations more difficult. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) characterizes a heterogeneous dose distribution within irradiated structures as a single value and has been used in biologically based treatment planning (BBTP); however, there are no substantial validation studies on clinical outcome data supporting EUD's use and therefore has not been widely adopted as decision-making support. These highly conformal treatment plans have also introduced the need for safety margins around the target volume. These margins are designed to minimize geometrical misses, and to compensate for dosimetric and treatment delivery uncertainties. The margin's purpose is to reduce the chance of tumor recurrence. This dissertation introduces a new EUD formulation designed especially for tumor volumes, called generalized Tumor Dose (gTD). It also investigates, as a second objective, margins extensions for potential improvements in local control while maintaining or minimizing toxicity. The suitability of gTD to rank LC was assessed by means of retrospective studies in a head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohorts. The formulation was optimized based on two datasets (one of each type) and then, model validation was assessed on independent cohorts. The second objective of this dissertation was investigated by ranking the probability of LC of the primary disease adding different margin sizes. In order to do so, an already published EUD formula was used retrospectively in a HN and a NSCLC datasets. Finally, recommendations for the viability to implement this new formulation into a routine treatment

  3. Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Computer Science, Research Group Parallel and Distributed Systems, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: p.ziegenhein@dkfz.de, E-mail: u.oelfke@dkfz.de

    2008-05-07

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods. (note)

  4. Treatment planning in radiosurgery: parallel Monte Carlo simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, G. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy). Dept. of Hospital Physics; Grillo Ruggieri, F. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy) Dept. for Radiation Therapy; Modesti, M.; Felici, R. [Electronic Data System, Rome (Italy); Surridge, M. [University of South Hampton (United Kingdom). Parallel Apllication Centre

    1995-12-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of direct Monte Carlo simulation for accurate dosimetry with short computation time. We made us of: graphics workstation, linear accelerator, water, PMMA and anthropomorphic phantoms, for validation purposes; ionometric, film and thermo-luminescent techniques, for dosimetry; treatment planning system for comparison. Benchmarking results suggest that short computing times can be obtained with use of the parallel version of EGS4 that was developed. Parallelism was obtained assigning simulation incident photons to separate processors, and the development of a parallel random number generator was necessary. Validation consisted in: phantom irradiation, comparison of predicted and measured values good agreement in PDD and dose profiles. Experiments on anthropomorphic phantoms (with inhomogeneities) were carried out, and these values are being compared with results obtained with the conventional treatment planning system.

  5. Backgrounds of computer-assisted treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of ionising radiation and living materials causes biological damage of tempory or permanent nature. In radiation therapy this phenomenon is used in a controlled fashion in order to stop the proliferation of malignant cells, while at the same time limiting the permanent damage to healthy tissues and organs to at least tolerable levels. Because of the often relatively small differences in response of malignant growths and normal tissues, the margins between tolerable and intolerable are so small that the greatest precision in treatment planning and execution is required. The nature of this treatment agent implies that the radiation therapist has to rely very much on instrumentally obtained and processed information, in all phases of this medical activities around the patient. In this paper a description is given of the backgrounds of computer-assisted methods which have enabled modern individualised and optimised planning for therapy with high energy X- and gamma beams. (orig.)

  6. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  7. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  8. Generating Treatment Plan in Medicine: A Data Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Razali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on a research effort on generating treatment plan to handle the error and complexity of treatment process for healthcare providers. Focus has been given for outpatient and was based on data collected from various health centers throughout Malaysia. These clinical data were recorded using SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan format approach as being practiced in medicine and were recorded electronically via Percuro Clinical Information System (Percuro. Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM model has been utilized for the entire research. We used data mining analysis through decision trees technique with C5 algorithm. The scopes that have been set are patients complaint, gender, age, race, type of plan and detailed item given to patient. Acute upper respiratory infection disease or identified as J06.9 in International Classification of Diseases 10 by World Health Organization has been selected as it was the most common problem encountered. The model created for J06.9 disease is that type of plan recommended through giving drug to patients without the need to consider patients complaint, gender, age and race, with accuracy obtained for the model is 94.73%. Inspite of that, we also identified detailed items that have been given to J06.9 patients and the occurancy of them. This can be as a guideline for future treatment with item recommendation is less than 0.078% compared to item inventory in Percuro database. The research is expected to aid healthcare provider as well as to minimize error during treatment process while benefited from technology information to increase the health care delivery.

  9. Patients with hip prosthesis: radiotherapy treatment planning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of patients with hip prosthesis undergoing radiotherapy for pelvic cancer worldwide is increasing. This might be of importance depending on the materials in the prosthesis and whether any of the treatment fields are involved in the prosthesis. Radiotherapy planning involving the pelvic region of patients having total hip prosthesis has been found to be difficult due to the effect of the prosthesis on the dose distribution. This review is intended to project dosimetric considerations and possible solutions to this uncommon problem

  10. Dosimetric verification of a commercial inverse treatment planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Curran, Bruce; Hill, Robert; Holmes, Tim; Ma, Lijun; Forster, Kenneth M.; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1999-02-01

    A commercial three-dimensional (3D) inverse treatment planning system, Corvusimages/0031-9155/44/2/013/img10.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> (Nomos Corporation, Sewickley, PA), was recently made available. This paper reports our preliminary results and experience with commissioning this system for clinical implementation. This system uses a simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm to calculate intensity-modulated fields. The intensity-modulated fields are divided into beam profiles that can be delivered by means of a sequence of leaf settings by a multileaf collimator (MLC). The treatments are delivered using a computer-controlled MLC. To test the dose calculation algorithm used by the Corvus software, the dose distributions for single rectangularly shaped fields were compared with water phantom scan data. The dose distributions predicted to be delivered by multiple fields were measured using an ion chamber that could be positioned in a rotatable cylindrical water phantom. Integrated charge collected by the ion chamber was used to check the absolute dose of single- and multifield intensity modulated treatments at various spatial points. The measured and predicted doses were found to agree to within 4% at all measurement points. Another set of measurements used a cubic polystyrene phantom with radiographic film to record the radiation dose distribution. The films were calibrated and scanned to yield two-dimensional isodose distributions. Finally, a beam imaging system (BIS) was used to measure the intensity-modulated x-ray beam patterns in the beam's-eye view. The BIS-measured images were then compared with a theoretical calculation based on the MLC leaf sequence files to verify that the treatment would be executed accurately and without machine faults. Excellent correlation (correlation coefficients images/0031-9155/44/2/013/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/>) was found for all cases. Treatment plans generated using intensity-modulated beams appear to be suitable for treatment of

  11. Monte Carlo treatment planning for photon and electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, N.; van der Marck, S. C.; Schaart, D. R.; Van der Zee, W.; Van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C.; Tomsej, M.; Jansen, J.; Heijmen, B.; Coghe, M.; De Wagter, C.

    2007-04-01

    During the last few decades, accuracy in photon and electron radiotherapy has increased substantially. This is partly due to enhanced linear accelerator technology, providing more flexibility in field definition (e.g. the usage of computer-controlled dynamic multileaf collimators), which led to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Important improvements have also been made in the treatment planning process, more specifically in the dose calculations. Originally, dose calculations relied heavily on analytic, semi-analytic and empirical algorithms. The more accurate convolution/superposition codes use pre-calculated Monte Carlo dose "kernels" partly accounting for tissue density heterogeneities. It is generally recognized that the Monte Carlo method is able to increase accuracy even further. Since the second half of the 1990s, several Monte Carlo dose engines for radiotherapy treatment planning have been introduced. To enable the use of a Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP) dose engine in clinical circumstances, approximations have been introduced to limit the calculation time. In this paper, the literature on MCTP is reviewed, focussing on patient modeling, approximations in linear accelerator modeling and variance reduction techniques. An overview of published comparisons between MC dose engines and conventional dose calculations is provided for phantom studies and clinical examples, evaluating the added value of MCTP in the clinic. An overview of existing Monte Carlo dose engines and commercial MCTP systems is presented and some specific issues concerning the commissioning of a MCTP system are discussed.

  12. In-house quality check of external beam plans using 3D treatment planning systems - a DVH comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ayyalasomayajula Anil; Akula, Roopa Rani; Ayyangar, Komanduri; P, Krishna Reddy; Vuppu, Srinivas; Narayana, P V Lakshmi; Rao, A Durga Prasada

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach towards the quality assurance of external beam plans using in-house-developed DICOM import and export software in a clinical setup. The new approach is different from what is currently used in most clinics, viz., only MU and point dose are verified. The DICOM-RT software generates ASCII files to import/export structure sets, treatment beam data, and dose-volume histo-grams (DVH) from one treatment planning system (TPS) to the other. An efficient and reliable 3D planning system, ROPS, was used for verifying the accuracy of treatment plans and treatment plan parameters. With the use of this new approach, treatment plans planned using Varian Eclipse planning system were exported to ROPS planning system. Important treatment and dosimetrical data, such as the beam setup accuracy, target dose coverage, and dose to critical structures, were also quantitatively verified using DVH comparisons. Two external beam plans with diverse photon energies were selected to test the new approach. The satisfactory results show that the new approach is feasible, easy to use, and can be used as an adjunct test for patient treatment quality check. PMID:27167271

  13. MO-C-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning I: Overview of Planning Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hua, C [St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child's brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. This fact has important implications for the choice of delivery techniques, especially when considering IMRT. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 50% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa, neuroblastoma, requiring focal

  14. MO-C-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning I: Overview of Planning Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child's brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. This fact has important implications for the choice of delivery techniques, especially when considering IMRT. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 50% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa, neuroblastoma, requiring focal

  15. Hemangiopericytoma - The need for a protocol-based treatment plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is a vascular tumor which comprises only 1% of all vascular tumors. The frequency of occurrence in the head and neck accounts for about 16-33% of all hemangiopericytomas. In this paper we discuss the surgical management, the difficulties in decision-making and treatment-planning in a case of a maxillary tumor in a five-year-old boy with a two-year follow-up. A five-year-old boy presented with a large unilateral maxillary tumor with nasal obstruction. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous mass completely occupying the right maxillary sinus and displacing the lateral wall of the nose and nasal septum. The lesion was diagnosed as hemangiopericytoma after histopathological confirmation. The option of surgical resection (total maxillectomy was carried out after evaluating the available literature. Various treatment modalities like surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were taken into consideration as the tumor has an aggressive nature. Due to the inadequate literature on definitive treatment options for these types of tumors, there was difficulty in arriving at a protocol-based treatment plan.

  16. Investigating VMAT planning technique to reduce rectal and bladder dose in prostate cancer treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: RapidArc is a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique that can deliver conformal dose distribution to the target while minimizing dose to critical structures. The main purpose of this study was to compare dosimetric quality of full double arc (full DA, full single arc (full SA, and partial double arc (partial DA techniques in RapidArc planning of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles were selected for this retrospective study. For each case, RapidArc plans were created using full DA (two full arcs, full SA (one full arc, and partial DA (two partial arcs with anterior and posterior avoidance sectors techniques. For planning target volume (PTV, the maximum and mean doses, conformity, and inhomogeneity indices were evaluated. For bladder and rectum, volumes that received 70, 50, 40, and 20 Gy (V 70Gy , V 50Gy , V 40Gy and V 20Gy , respectively, and mean dose were compared. For femoral heads, V 40Gy , V 20Gy , and mean dose were evaluated. Additionally, an integral dose and monitor units (MUs were compared for each treatment plan. Results: In comparison to full DA and full SA techniques, the partial DA technique was better in sparing of rectum and bladder but delivered higher femoral head dose, which was nonetheless within the planning criteria. No clear dosimetric differences were found between full DA and partial DA plans for dose conformity and target homogeneity. The number of MUs and integral dose were largest with the partial DA technique and lowest with the full SA technique. Conclusion: The partial DA technique provides an alternative RapidArc planning approach for low risk prostate cancer.

  17. Gene transfer-applied BNCT (g-BNCT) for amelanotic melanoma in brain. Further upregulation of 10B uptake by cell modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our success in eradicating melanoma by single BNCT with BPA led to the next urgent theme, i.e. application of such BNCT for currently uncurable melanoma metastasis in brain. In order to establish 10B-BPA-BNCT for melanoma in brain, we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of BPA which is most critical factor for successful BNCT, in melanotic and amelanotic and further tyrosinase gene-transfected amelanotic melanoma proliferating in brain having blood-brain-barrier, as compared to melanoma proliferating in skin. We have established three implanted models for melanoma in brain: 1) A1059 cells, amelanotic melanoma, 2) B16B15b cells, melanotic melanoma cells, highly metastatic to brain, and 3) TA1059 cells, with active melanogenesis induced by tyrosinase gene transfection. We would like to report the results of comparative analysis of the BPA uptake ability in these melanoma cells in both brain and skin. Based on these findings, we are further investigating to enhance 10B-BPA uptake by not only g-BNCT but also by additional melanogenesis upregulating cell modulation. (author)

  18. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  19. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  20. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  1. SU-E-J-100: Reconstruction of Prompt Gamma Ray Three Dimensional SPECT Image From Boron Neutron Capture Therapy(BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research

  2. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  3. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. For small targets in the first plans (PTV < 400 cc, 6 cases), all V5, V20 and the mean lung dose values for the highly-functional regions were lower than that of the total lung. For large targets, two out of five cases had higher V5 and V20 values for the highly-functional regions. All the second plans were within constraints. Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved

  4. Towards treatment planning and treatment of deep-seated solid tumors by electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracko Matej

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrochemotherapy treats tumors by combining specific chemotherapeutic drugs with an intracellular target and electric pulses, which increases drug uptake into the tumor cells. Electrochemotherapy has been successfully used for treatment of easily accessible superficial tumor nodules. In this paper, we present the first case of deep-seated tumor electrochemotherapy based on numerical treatment planning. Methods The aim of our study was to treat a melanoma metastasis in the thigh of a patient. Treatment planning for electrode positioning and electrical pulse parameters was performed for two different electrode configurations: one with four and another with five long needle electrodes. During the procedure, the four electrode treatment plan was adopted and the patient was treated accordingly by electrochemotherapy with bleomycin. The response to treatment was clinically and radiographically evaluated. Due to a partial response of the treated tumor, the metastasis was surgically removed after 2 months and pathological analysis was performed. Results A partial response of the tumor to electrochemotherapy was obtained. Histologically, the metastasis showed partial necrosis due to electrochemotherapy, estimated to represent 40-50% of the tumor. Based on the data obtained, we re-evaluated the electrical treatment parameters in order to correlate the treatment plan with the clinical response. Electrode positions in the numerical model were updated according to the actual positions during treatment. We compared the maximum value of the measured electric current with the current predicted by the model and good agreement was obtained. Finally, tumor coverage with an electric field above the reversible threshold was recalculated and determined to be approximately 94%. Therefore, according to the calculations, a small volume of tumor cells remained viable after electrochemotherapy, and these were sufficient for tumor regrowth

  5. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Staub, David; Chen, Mingli; Lu, Weiguo; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Li, Yongbao; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B.; Gu, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control.

  6. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control. (paper)

  7. A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC. We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified. It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3 mm distance

  8. Nevada Test Site Site Treatment Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment Plans (STPS) are required for facilities at which the US Department of Energy (DOE) or stores mixed waste, defined by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) as waste containing both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and a radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act. On April 6, 1993, DOE published a Federal Register notice (58 FR 17875) describing its proposed process for developing the STPs in three phases including a Conceptual, a Draft, and a Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). All of the DOE Nevada Operations Office STP iterations have been developed with the state of Nevada's input. The options and schedules reflect a ''bottoms-up'' approach and have been evaluated for impacts on other DOE sites, as well as impacts to the overall DOE program. Changes may have occurred in the preferred option and associated schedules between the PSTP, which was submitted to the state of Nevada and US Environmental Protection Agency April 1995, and the Final STP (hereafter referred to as the STP) as treatment evaluations progressed. The STP includes changes that have occurred since the submittal of the PSTP as a result of state-to-state and DOE-to-state discussions

  9. 3D volume visualization in remote radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, David Y.; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Mun, Seong K.; Rogers, James E.; Tohme, Walid G.; Carlson, Wayne E.; May, Stephen; Yagel, Roni

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports a novel applications of 3D visualization in an ARPA-funded remote radiation treatment planning (RTP) experiment, utilizing supercomputer 3D volumetric modeling power and NASA ACTS (Advanced Communication Technology Satellite) communication bandwidths at the Ka-band range. The objective of radiation treatment is to deliver a tumorcidal dose of radiation to a tumor volume while minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. High performance graphics computers are required to allow physicians to view a 3D anatomy, specify proposed radiation beams, and evaluate the dose distribution around the tumor. Supercomputing power is needed to compute and even optimize dose distribution according to pre-specified requirements. High speed communications offer possibilities for sharing scarce and expensive computing resources (e.g., hardware, software, personnel, etc.) as well as medical expertise for 3D treatment planning among hospitals. This paper provides initial technical insights into the feasibility of such resource sharing. The overall deployment of the RTP experiment, visualization procedures, and parallel volume rendering in support of remote interactive 3D volume visualization will be described.

  10. A Monte Carlo dose calculation tool for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Pawlicki, T.; Jiang, S. B.; Deng, J.; Lee, M. C.; Koumrian, T.; Luxton, M.; Brain, S.

    2002-05-01

    A Monte Carlo user code, MCDOSE, has been developed for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) dose calculations. MCDOSE is designed as a dose calculation module suitable for adaptation to host RTP systems. MCDOSE can be used for both conventional photon/electron beam calculation and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. MCDOSE uses a multiple-source model to reconstruct the treatment beam phase space. Based on Monte Carlo simulated or measured beam data acquired during commissioning, source-model parameters are adjusted through an automated procedure. Beam modifiers such as jaws, physical and dynamic wedges, compensators, blocks, electron cut-outs and bolus are simulated by MCDOSE together with a 3D rectilinear patient geometry model built from CT data. Dose distributions calculated using MCDOSE agreed well with those calculated by the EGS4/DOSXYZ code using different beam set-ups and beam modifiers. Heterogeneity correction factors for layered-lung or layered-bone phantoms as calculated by both codes were consistent with measured data to within 1%. The effect of energy cut-offs for particle transport was investigated. Variance reduction techniques were implemented in MCDOSE to achieve a speedup factor of 10-30 compared to DOSXYZ.

  11. DVHs evaluation in brain metastases stereotactic radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to report a retrospective study of radiobiological indicators based on Dose-Volume Histograms analysis obtained by stereotactic radiotherapy treatments. Methods and materials: Fifty-five patients for a total of sixty-seven brain metastases with a mean target volume of 8.49 cc were treated by Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy (DCAT) and Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (IMRST). The Delivered prescription dose was chosen on the basis of tumor size and location so as to ensure a 100% isodose coverage to the target volume. Results: The treatment plans reported a mean value of 10% and 2.19% for the inhomogeneity and conformal index, respectively. The F factor showed we overdosed sixty-three patients delivering an additional 7% dose more than calculated values. The radiobiological parameters: TCP and NTCP showed a complete tumor control limiting the organs at risk damage. Conclusion: One goal of stereotactic radiotherapy is to design a treatment plan in which the steep dose gradient achievable minimizes the amount of radiation delivered outside the tumor region. This technique allows to deliver a much larger dose to the target without exceeding the radiation-related tolerance of normal tissues and improving patients' quality of life

  12. Dose calculation and treatment planning for the Brookhaven NCT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.B.; Brugger, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Consistency of the calculated to measured fluxes and doses in phantoms is important for confidence in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Two phantoms have been used to measure the thermal and epithermal flux and gamma dose distributions for irradiations at the BMRR and these are compared to MCNP calculations. Since MCNP calculations in phantoms or models would be lengthy if the calculations started each time with fission neutrons from the reactor core, a neutron source plane, which was verified by spectrum and flux measurements at the irradiation port, was designed. Measured doses in phantoms are especially important to verify the simulated neutron source plane. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values has been achieved and this neutron source plane is now used to predict flux and dose information for oncologists to form treatment plans as well as designing collimator and room shielding. In addition, a program using MCNP calculated results as input has been developed to predict reliable flux and dose distributions in the central coronal section of a head model for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Dosimetric comparisons and treatment examples are presented.

  13. Dose calculation and treatment planning for the Brookhaven NCT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.B.; Brugger, R.M.

    1992-12-31

    Consistency of the calculated to measured fluxes and doses in phantoms is important for confidence in treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Two phantoms have been used to measure the thermal and epithermal flux and gamma dose distributions for irradiations at the BMRR and these are compared to MCNP calculations. Since MCNP calculations in phantoms or models would be lengthy if the calculations started each time with fission neutrons from the reactor core, a neutron source plane, which was verified by spectrum and flux measurements at the irradiation port, was designed. Measured doses in phantoms are especially important to verify the simulated neutron source plane. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values has been achieved and this neutron source plane is now used to predict flux and dose information for oncologists to form treatment plans as well as designing collimator and room shielding. In addition, a program using MCNP calculated results as input has been developed to predict reliable flux and dose distributions in the central coronal section of a head model for irradiation by the BMRR beam. Dosimetric comparisons and treatment examples are presented.

  14. 3-Dimentional radiotherapy versus conventional treatment plans for gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghili M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The current standard of adjuvant management for gastric cancer after curative resection based on the results of intergroup 0116 is concurrent chemoradiation. Current guidelines for designing these challenging fields still include two-dimensional simulation with simple AP-PA parallel opposed design. However, the implementation of radiotherapy (RT remains a concern. Our objective was to compare three-dimensional (3D techniques to the more commonly used AP-PA technique."n"nMethods: A total of 24 patients with stages II-IV adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation with simple AP-PA technique, using Cobalt-60. Total radiation dose was 50.4Gy. Landmark-based fields were simulated to assess PTV coverage. For each patient, three additional radiotherapy treatment plans were generated using three-dimensional (3D technique. The four treatment plans were then compared for target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues (liver, spinal cord, kidneys using dose volume histogram (DVH analysis."n"nResults: The three-dimensional planning techniques provided 10% superior PTV coverage compared to conventional AP-PA fields (p<0.001. Comparative DVHs for the right kidney, left kidney

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located within the 234-52 Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based upon Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit manages transuranic mixed (TRUM) waste, there are many controls placed on management of the waste. Based on the many controls placed on management of TRUM waste, releases of TRUM waste are not anticipated to occur in the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will be operated to immobilize and/or repackage plutonium-bearing waste in a glovebox process. The waste to be processed is in a solid physical state (chunks and coarse powder) and will be sealed into and out of the glovebox in closed containers. The containers of immobilized waste will be stored in the glovebox and in additional permitted storage locations at PFP. The waste will be managed to minimize the potential for spills outside the glovebox, and to preclude spills from reaching soil. Containment surfaces will be maintained to ensure

  16. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Brinkman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which

  17. Conformal Radiotherapy: Physics, Treatment Planning and Verification. Proceedings book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wagter, C. [ed.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of conformal radiotherapy is to establish radiation dose distributions that conform tightly to the target volume in view of limiting radiation to normal tissues. Conformal radiotherapy significantly improves both local control and palliation and thus contributes to increase survival and to improve the quality of life. The subjects covered by the symposium include : (1) conformal radiotherapy and multi-leaf collimation; (2) three dimensional imaging; (3) treatment simulation, planning and optimization; (4) quality assurance; and (5) dosimetry. The book of proceedings contains the abstracts of the invited lectures, papers and poster presentations as well as the full papers of these contributions.

  18. Computer assisted treatment planning for 125I ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a computer program for planning the treatment of ocular tumors with 125I plaques. The program permits the input of the tumor configuration into a model eye and facilitates the viewing of the relative geometry of the tumor and various eye structures in different perspectives. Custom-designed 125I plaques can be localized onto the globe, and dose distributions can be calculated and superimposed on the eye structures in any plane or on the inner eye surface. The program allows efficient evaluation of the plaque design in terms of radiation dose distribution relative to the tumor and critical structures

  19. Conformal Radiotherapy: Physics, Treatment Planning and Verification. Proceedings book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of conformal radiotherapy is to establish radiation dose distributions that conform tightly to the target volume in view of limiting radiation to normal tissues. Conformal radiotherapy significantly improves both local control and palliation and thus contributes to increase survival and to improve the quality of life. The subjects covered by the symposium include : (1) conformal radiotherapy and multi-leaf collimation; (2) three dimensional imaging; (3) treatment simulation, planning and optimization; (4) quality assurance; and (5) dosimetry. The book of proceedings contains the abstracts of the invited lectures, papers and poster presentations as well as the full papers of these contributions

  20. The BNCT facility at the HFR Petten: Quality assurance for reactor facilities in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first clinical trial in Europe of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of glioblastoma was opened in July 1997. The trial is a Phase I study with the principal aim to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose and the dose limiting toxicity under defined conditions. It is the first time that a clinical application could be realised on a completely multi-national scale. The treatment takes place at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, is operated by an international team of experts under the leadership of a German radiotherapist, and treats patients coming from different European countries. It has therefore been necessary to create a very specialised organisation and contractual structure with the support of administrations from different countries, who had to find and adapt solutions within existing laws that had never foreseen such a situation. Furthermore, the treatment does not take place in an hospital environment and even more so, the facility is at a nuclear research reactor. Hence, special efforts were made on quality assurance, in order that the set-up at the facility and the personnel involved complied, as closely as possible, with similar practices in conventional radiotherapy departments. (author)

  1. Dose calculation accuracy of lung planning with a commercial IMRT treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Patrick N; He, Tongming; DeYoung, A

    2003-01-01

    The dose calculation accuracy of a commercial pencil beam IMRT planning system is evaluated by comparison with Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom. The target volume is in the right lung and mediastinum and thus significant tissue inhomogeneities are present. The Monte Carlo code is an adaptation of the MCNP code and the measurements were made with TLD and film. Both the Monte Carlo code and the measurements show very good agreement with the treatment planning system except in regions where the dose is high and the electron density is low. In these regions the commercial system shows doses up to 10% higher than Monte Carlo and film. The average calculated dose for the CTV is 5% higher with the commercial system as compared to Monte Carlo. PMID:14604424

  2. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  3. Antiproliferative effect and apoptosis induction in melanoma treatment by boron neutron capture therapy (BCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo; Arruda-Neto, Joao; Maria, Durvanei [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy where a compound having {sup 10}B is administered to cancer patients and is accumulated in tumor tissues. Thus, the tumor is irradiated with thermal neutrons, {sup 10}B absorbs and destroys them, producing alpha radiation. Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is the agent responsible for delivering boron to the tumor tissue. After BPA administration, BNCT is used as a localized radiotherapy for many tumors treatment, mainly melanoma, which has a high mortality rate among all types of tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and antitumor effects of BNCT application in human melanoma treatment. Materials and Methods: MEWO cells (human melanoma) were cultured and treated with different concentrations of BPA (8.36 to 0.52 mg/ml). After 90 minutes, they were irradiated with thermal neutron flux up to a dose of 8.4 Gy. The parameters analyzed were free radical production, cell cycle progression, cell death signaling pathways, cycling D1, caspase-3 and extracellular matrix synthesis produced, beyond the mitochondrial electric potential analysis. Results: After BNCT treatment, MEWO cells showed an amount of free radical increase about 10 times. Still, there was a significant decrease of cyclin D1, G0/G1 proliferation, synthesis and G2/M cell cycle phases. BNCT induced a mitochondrial electrical potential decrease, as well as fibrillar proteins of extracellular matrix. BNCT had a significant number of dead cell increase, mainly by necrosis. However, BNCT induced phosphorylated caspase 3 increase. Discussion/Conclusion: BNCT induced cell death increase by necrosis, mitochondrial electric potential decrease and free radical production increase. BNCT is cytotoxic to melanoma cells. Besides necrosis, phosphorylated caspase 3 increase was observed, accompanied by a proliferative response decrease regulated by the G1/S checkpoint and matrix extracellular synthesis

  4. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP)

  5. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  6. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F.

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted-achieved) were only  -0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,-1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  -0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly accurate

  7. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F.

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted–achieved) were only  ‑0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,‑1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  ‑0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly

  8. Registration and planning of radiotherapy and proton therapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of an update and renewal project, the Orsay Proton Therapy Centre of the Curie Institute (IPCO) renews its software used for the treatment of patients by proton therapy, a radiotherapy technique which uses proton beams. High energies used in these treatments and the precision provided by proton particle characteristics require a more precise patient positioning than conventional radiotherapy: proton therapy requires a precision of about a millimetre. Thus, markers are placed on the skull which are generally well accepted by patients, but are a problem in the case of paediatric treatment, notably for the youngest children whose skull is still growing. The first objective of this research is thus to use only intrinsic information from X-ray images used when positioning the patient. A second objective is to make the new software (TPS Isogray) perfectly compatible with IPCO requirements by maintaining the strengths of the previous TPS (Treatment Planning System) and being prepared to the implementation of a new installation. After a presentation of the context and state of the art in radiotherapy and patient positioning, the author proposes an overview of 2D registration methods, presents a new method for 2x2D registration, and addresses the problem of 3D registration. Then, after a presentation of proton therapy, the author addresses different specific issues and aspects: the compensator (simulation, calculation, and tests), dose calculation, the 'Pencil-Beam' algorithm, tests, and introduced improvements

  9. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm SE-103 65 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron (VHEE) scanning pencil beams of 60–120 MeV and to study VHEE plans as a function of VHEE treatment parameters. Additionally, VHEE plans were compared to clinical state-of-the-art volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans for three cases. Methods: VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse treatment planning in a research version of RayStation. In order to study the effect of VHEE treatment parameters on VHEE dose distributions, a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE MC pencil beam doses was developed. Through the GUI, pediatric case MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies (60, 80, 100, and 120 MeV), number of beams (13, 17, and 36), pencil beam spot (0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) and grid (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm) sizes, and source-to-axis distance, SAD (40 and 50 cm). VHEE plans for the pediatric case calculated with the different treatment parameters were optimized and compared. Furthermore, 100 MeV VHEE plans for the pediatric case, a lung, and a prostate case were calculated and compared to the clinically delivered VMAT plans. All plans were normalized such that the 100% isodose line covered 95% of the target volume. Results: VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions of the pediatric case. For the same target dose, the mean doses to organs at risk (OARs) decreased by 5%–16% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV, but there was no further improvement in the 120 MeV plan. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams, but to a more modest degree (<8%). While pencil beam spacing and SAD had a small effect on VHEE dose distributions, 0.1–3 mm pencil beam sizes resulted in identical dose distributions. For the 100 MeV VHEE pediatric

  10. SU-D-BRD-01: Cloud-Based Radiation Treatment Planning: Performance Evaluation of Dose Calculation and Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y; Kapp, D; Kim, Y; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Suh, T [Catholic UniversityMedical College, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To report the first experience on the development of a cloud-based treatment planning system and investigate the performance improvement of dose calculation and treatment plan optimization of the cloud computing platform. Methods: A cloud computing-based radiation treatment planning system (cc-TPS) was developed for clinical treatment planning. Three de-identified clinical head and neck, lung, and prostate cases were used to evaluate the cloud computing platform. The de-identified clinical data were encrypted with 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. VMAT and IMRT plans were generated for the three de-identified clinical cases to determine the quality of the treatment plans and computational efficiency. All plans generated from the cc-TPS were compared to those obtained with the PC-based TPS (pc-TPS). The performance evaluation of the cc-TPS was quantified as the speedup factors for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations and large-scale plan optimizations, as well as the performance ratios (PRs) of the amount of performance improvement compared to the pc-TPS. Results: Speedup factors were improved up to 14.0-fold dependent on the clinical cases and plan types. The computation times for VMAT and IMRT plans with the cc-TPS were reduced by 91.1% and 89.4%, respectively, on average of the clinical cases compared to those with pc-TPS. The PRs were mostly better for VMAT plans (1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.6 for the head and neck case, 1.2 ≤ PRs ≤ 13.3 for lung case, and 1.0 ≤ PRs ≤ 10.3 for prostate cancer cases) than for IMRT plans. The isodose curves of plans on both cc-TPS and pc-TPS were identical for each of the clinical cases. Conclusion: A cloud-based treatment planning has been setup and our results demonstrate the computation efficiency of treatment planning with the cc-TPS can be dramatically improved while maintaining the same plan quality to that obtained with the pc-TPS. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute (1

  11. A new method for commissioning Monte Carlo treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarrah, Khaled Mohammed

    2005-11-01

    The Monte Carlo method is an accurate method for solving numerical problems in different fields. It has been used for accurate radiation dose calculation for radiation treatment of cancer. However, the modeling of an individual radiation beam produced by a medical linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation, i.e., the commissioning of a Monte Carlo treatment planning system, has been the bottleneck for the clinical implementation of Monte Carlo treatment planning. In this study a new method has been developed to determine the parameters of the initial electron beam incident on the target for a clinical linear accelerator. The interaction of the initial electron beam with the accelerator target produces x-ray and secondary charge particles. After successive interactions in the linac head components, the x-ray photons and the secondary charge particles interact with the patient's anatomy and deliver dose to the region of interest. The determination of the initial electron beam parameters is important for estimating the delivered dose to the patients. These parameters, such as beam energy and radial intensity distribution, are usually estimated through a trial and error process. In this work an easy and efficient method was developed to determine these parameters. This was accomplished by comparing calculated 3D dose distributions for a grid of assumed beam energies and radii in a water phantom with measurements data. Different cost functions were studied to choose the appropriate function for the data comparison. The beam parameters were determined on the light of this method. Due to the assumption that same type of linacs are exactly the same in their geometries and only differ by the initial phase space parameters, the results of this method were considered as a source data to commission other machines of the same type.

  12. A DVH-guided IMRT optimization algorithm for automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy replanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm that incorporates prior treatment knowledge into intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization to facilitate automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) replanning. Methods: The algorithm automatically creates a treatment plan guided by the DVH curves of a reference plan that contains information on the clinician-approved dose-volume trade-offs among different targets/organs and among different portions of a DVH curve for an organ. In ART, the reference plan is the initial plan for the same patient, while for automatic treatment planning the reference plan is selected from a library of clinically approved and delivered plans of previously treated patients with similar medical conditions and geometry. The proposed algorithm employs a voxel-based optimization model and navigates the large voxel-based Pareto surface. The voxel weights are iteratively adjusted to approach a plan that is similar to the reference plan in terms of the DVHs. If the reference plan is feasible but not Pareto optimal, the algorithm generates a Pareto optimal plan with the DVHs better than the reference ones. If the reference plan is too restricting for the new geometry, the algorithm generates a Pareto plan with DVHs close to the reference ones. In both cases, the new plans have similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plans. Results: The algorithm was tested using three patient cases and found to be able to automatically adjust the voxel-weighting factors in order to generate a Pareto plan with similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plan. The algorithm has also been implemented on a GPU for high efficiency. Conclusions: A novel prior-knowledge-based optimization algorithm has been developed that automatically adjust the voxel weights and generate a clinical optimal plan at high efficiency. It is found that the new algorithm can significantly improve the plan quality and planning efficiency in ART replanning and automatic treatment

  13. Specification and acceptance testing of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance (QA) in the radiation therapy treatment planning process is essential to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient and to minimize the possibility of accidental exposure. The computerized radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPSs) are now widely available in industrialized and developing countries and it is of special importance to support hospitals in Member States in developing procedures for acceptance testing, commissioning and QA of their RTPSs. Responding to these needs, a group of experts developed an IAEA publication with such recommendations, which was published in 2004 as IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 430. This report provides a general framework and describes a large number of tests and procedures that should be considered by the users of new RTPSs. However, small hospitals with limited resources or large hospitals with high patient load and limited staff are not always able to perform complete characterization, validation and software testing of algorithms used in RTPSs. Therefore, the IAEA proposed more specific guidelines that provide a step-by-step recommendation for users at hospitals or cancer centres how to implement acceptance and commissioning procedures for newly purchased RTPSs. The current publication was developed in the framework of the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Procedures for Quality Assurance for Dosimetry Calculations in Radiotherapy and uses the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 62083, Requirements for the Safety of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems as its basis. The report addresses the procedures for specification and acceptance testing of RTPSs to be used by both manufacturers and users at the hospitals. Recommendations are provided for specific tests to be performed at the manufacturing facility known as type tests, and for acceptance tests to be performed at the hospital known as site tests. The purpose of acceptance testing is to demonstrate to the

  14. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  15. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  16. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility (3718-F Facility), located in the 300 Area, was used to store and treat alkali metal wastes. Therefore, it is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989) and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy the thermal treatment facility closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the 3718-F Facility, the history of wastes managed, and the approach that will be followed to close the facility. Only hazardous constituents derived from 3718-F Facility operations will be addressed

  17. A comparison of neutron beams for BNCT based on in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper our in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters, T and DTumor, were used to evaluate several neutron sources for use in BNCT. Specifically, neutron fields from The Ohio State University (OSU) Accelerator-Based Neutron Source (ABNS) design, two alternative ABNS designs from the literature (the Al/AlF3-Al2O3 ABNS and the 7LiF-Al2O3 ABNS), a fission-convertor plate concept based on the 500-kW OSU Research Reactor (OSURR), and the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) facility were evaluated. In order to facilitate a comparison of the various neutron fields, values of T and DTumor were calculated in a 14 cmx14 cmx14 cm lucite cube phantom located in the treatment port of each neutron source. All of the other relevant factors, such as phantom materials, kerma factors, and treatment parameters, were kept the same. The treatment times for the OSURR, the 7LiF-Al2O3 ABNS operating at a beam current of 10 mA, and the BMRR were calculated to be comparable and acceptable, with a treatment time per fraction of approximately 25 min for a four fraction treatment scheme. The treatment time per fraction for the OSU ABNS and the Al/AlF3-Al2O3 ABNS can be reduced to below 30 min per fraction for four fractions, if the proton beam current is made greater than approximately 20 mA. DTumor was calculated along the beam centerline for tumor depths in the phantom ranging from 0 to 14 cm. For tumor depths ranging from 0 to approximately 1.5 cm, the value of DTumor for the OSURR is largest, while for tumor depths ranging from 1.5 to approximately 14 cm, the value of DTumor for the OSU-ABNS is the largest

  18. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  19. CBCT analysis of three implant cases for treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Kwang Won; Lim, Sung Hoon [Chosun Univ. School of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The role of radiographic imaging in determining the size, numbers and the position of implants is very important. To perform the implant procedure, the dentist needs to evaluate the bone pathology and bone density, and to know the precise height, width, and contour of the alveolar process, as well as its relationship to the maxillary sinus and mandibular canal. The author analyzed 3 implant cases for treatment planning with the cone beam CT. All axial, panoramic, serial and buccolingual-sectioned images of 3 cases with stent including vertical marker were taken by using Mercury (Hitachi, Japan). When the curved line drawn intentionally did nor include dot image of a vertical marker on the axial image of CBCT, the image of the vertical marker was deformed on its buccolingually sectioned image. There was wide discrepancy in inclination between the alveolar bone and tooth on buccolingually sectioned image.

  20. Inverse treatment planning for spinal robotic radiosurgery: an international multi-institutional benchmark trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Oliver; Wang, Lei; Baus, Wolfgang; Grimm, Jimm; Lacornerie, Thomas; Nilsson, Joakim; Luchkovskyi, Sergii; Palazon Cano, Isabel; Shou, Zhenyu; Ayadi, Myriam; Treuer, Harald; Viard, Romain; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Chan, Mark K H; Hildebrandt, Guido; Dunst, Jürgen; Imhoff, Detlef; Wurster, Stefan; Wolff, Robert; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Lartigau, Eric; Semrau, Robert; Soltys, Scott G; Schweikard, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the accurate, conformal delivery of high-dose radiation to well-defined targets while minimizing normal structure doses via steep dose gradients. While inverse treatment planning (ITP) with computerized optimization algorithms are routine, many aspects of the planning process remain user-dependent. We performed an international, multi-institutional benchmark trial to study planning variability and to analyze preferable ITP practice for spinal robotic radiosurgery. 10 SRS treatment plans were generated for a complex-shaped spinal metastasis with 21 Gy in 3 fractions and tight constraints for spinal cord (V14Gy 95%). The resulting plans were rated on a scale from 1 to 4 (excellent-poor) in five categories (constraint compliance, optimization goals, low-dose regions, ITP complexity, and clinical acceptability) by a blinded review panel. Additionally, the plans were mathemati-cally rated based on plan indices (critical structure and target doses, conformity, monitor units, normal tissue complication probability, and treatment time) and compared to the human rankings. The treatment plans and the reviewers' rankings varied substantially among the participating centers. The average mean overall rank was 2.4 (1.2-4.0) and 8/10 plans were rated excellent in at least one category by at least one reviewer. The mathematical rankings agreed with the mean overall human rankings in 9/10 cases pointing toward the possibility for sole mathematical plan quality comparison. The final rankings revealed that a plan with a well-balanced trade-off among all planning objectives was preferred for treatment by most par-ticipants, reviewers, and the mathematical ranking system. Furthermore, this plan was generated with simple planning techniques. Our multi-institutional planning study found wide variability in ITP approaches for spinal robotic radiosurgery. The participants', reviewers', and mathematical match on preferable treatment plans and ITP

  1. Inverse treatment planning for spinal robotic radiosurgery: an international multi-institutional benchmark trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Oliver; Wang, Lei; Baus, Wolfgang; Grimm, Jimm; Lacornerie, Thomas; Nilsson, Joakim; Luchkovskyi, Sergii; Palazon Cano, Isabel; Shou, Zhenyu; Ayadi, Myriam; Treuer, Harald; Viard, Romain; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Chan, Mark K H; Hildebrandt, Guido; Dunst, Jürgen; Imhoff, Detlef; Wurster, Stefan; Wolff, Robert; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Lartigau, Eric; Semrau, Robert; Soltys, Scott G; Schweikard, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the accurate, conformal delivery of high-dose radiation to well-defined targets while minimizing normal structure doses via steep dose gradients. While inverse treatment planning (ITP) with computerized optimization algorithms are routine, many aspects of the planning process remain user-dependent. We performed an international, multi-institutional benchmark trial to study planning variability and to analyze preferable ITP practice for spinal robotic radiosurgery. 10 SRS treatment plans were generated for a complex-shaped spinal metastasis with 21 Gy in 3 fractions and tight constraints for spinal cord (V14Gy 95%). The resulting plans were rated on a scale from 1 to 4 (excellent-poor) in five categories (constraint compliance, optimization goals, low-dose regions, ITP complexity, and clinical acceptability) by a blinded review panel. Additionally, the plans were mathemati-cally rated based on plan indices (critical structure and target doses, conformity, monitor units, normal tissue complication probability, and treatment time) and compared to the human rankings. The treatment plans and the reviewers' rankings varied substantially among the participating centers. The average mean overall rank was 2.4 (1.2-4.0) and 8/10 plans were rated excellent in at least one category by at least one reviewer. The mathematical rankings agreed with the mean overall human rankings in 9/10 cases pointing toward the possibility for sole mathematical plan quality comparison. The final rankings revealed that a plan with a well-balanced trade-off among all planning objectives was preferred for treatment by most par-ticipants, reviewers, and the mathematical ranking system. Furthermore, this plan was generated with simple planning techniques. Our multi-institutional planning study found wide variability in ITP approaches for spinal robotic radiosurgery. The participants', reviewers', and mathematical match on preferable treatment plans and ITP

  2. The effect of bruxism on treatment planning for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Carl E

    2002-09-01

    Bruxism is a potential risk factor for implant failure. Excessive force is the primary cause of late implant complications. An appreciation of the etiology of crestal bone loss, failure of implants, failure to retain implant restorations, and fracture of components will lead the practitioner to develop a treatment plan that reduces force on implants and their restorations. The forces are considered in terms of magnitude, duration, direction, type, and magnification. Once the dentist has identified the source(s) of additional force on the implant system, the treatment plan is altered to contend with and reduce the negative sequelae on the bone, implant, and final restoration. One viable approach is to increase the implant-bone surface area. Additional implants can be placed to decrease stress on any one implant, and implants in molar regions should have an increased width. Use of more and wider implants decreases the strain on the prosthesis and also dissipates stress to the bone, especially at the crest. The additional implants should be positioned with intent to eliminate cantilevers when possible. Greater surface area implant designs made of titanium alloy and with an external hex design can also prove advantageous. Anterior guidance in mandibular excursions further decreases force and eliminates or reduces lateral posterior force. Metal occlusal surfaces decrease the risk of porcelain fracture and do not require as much abutment reduction, which in turn enhances prosthesis retention. The retention of the final prosthesis or super-structure is also improved with additional implant abutments. Night guards designed with specific features also are a benefit to initially diagnose the influence of occlusal factors for the patient, and as importantly, to reduce the influence of extraneous stress on implants and implant-retained restorations. PMID:12271847

  3. Investigating the robustness of ion beam therapy treatment plans to uncertainties in biological treatment parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Fossati, P; Haberer, T; Mairani, A; Patera, V

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in determining clinically used relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for ion beam therapy carry the risk of absolute and relative misestimations of RBE-weighted doses for clinical scenarios. This study assesses the consequences of hypothetical misestimations of input parameters to the RBE modelling for carbon ion treatment plans by a variational approach. The impact of the variations on resulting cell survival and RBE values is evaluated as a function of the remaining ion range. In addition, the sensitivity to misestimations in RBE modelling is compared for single fields and two opposed fields using differing optimization criteria. It is demonstrated for single treatment fields that moderate variations (up to +/-50\\%) of representative nominal input parameters for four tumours result mainly in a misestimation of the RBE-weighted dose in the planning target volume (PTV) by a constant factor and only smaller RBE-weighted dose gradients. Ensuring a more uniform radiation quality in the PTV...

  4. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 02: Treatment planning workflow for very high-energy electron beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Maxim, Peter; Loo, Billy [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hårdemark, Bjorn; Hynning, Elin [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very-high energy electron (VHEE) scanning beam. Methods: VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse optimization in a research version of RayStation. In order to study a number of treatment parameters, a Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE beamlet dose was developed. Through the GUI, EGSnrc MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies, number of beams, beamlet spot and grid sizes, and machine bore sizes. VHEE plans for a pediatric patient with a 4.3 cm{sup 3} brain target optimized with spot-scanning algorithm in RayStation were compared to the clinically delivered 6 MV VMAT plan. Results and Discussion: VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions. For the same target dose, the mean doses to critical organs decreased by 10–15% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams. While beamlet spacing and bore size had a small effect on VHEE dose distributions, 0.1-3mm beamlet sizes resulted in identical dose distributions. Critical organ doses were by up to 70% lower in the best VHEE plan compared to the clinical 6 MV VMAT plan. Conclusions: We have developed a GUI for MC beamlet generation for treatment planning of VHEE radiotherapy. We have demonstrated that pediatric VHEE plans resulted in significant critical organ dose sparing compared to the clinical VMAT plan.

  5. Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia M Mira

    Full Text Available The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype "TEM-1" through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM and the Equal Probability Model (EPM. We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans.

  6. Rational Design of Antibiotic Treatment Plans: A Treatment Strategy for Managing Evolution and Reversing Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M.; Crona, Kristina; Greene, Devin; Meza, Juan C.; Sturmfels, Bernd; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM) and the Equal Probability Model (EPM). We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans. PMID:25946134

  7. Organisation and management of the first clinical trial of BNCT in Europe (EORTC Protocol 11961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is based on the ability of the isotope 10B to capture thermal neutrons and to disintegrate instantaneously producing high LET particles. The only neutron beam available in Europe for such a treatment is based at the European High Flux Reactor HFR at Petten (The Netherlands). The European Commission, owners of the reactor, decided that the potential benefit of the facility should be opened to all European citizens and therefore insisted on a multinational approach to perform the first clinical trial in Europe on BNCT. This precondition had to be respected as well as the national laws and regulations. Together with the Dutch authorities actions were undertaken to overcome the obvious legal problems. Furthermore, the clinical trial at Petten takes place in a nuclear research reactor, which apart from being conducted in a non-hospital environment, is per se known to be dangerous. It was therefore of the utmost importance that special attention is given to safety, beyond normal rules, and to the training of staff. In itself, the trial is an unusual Phase I study, introducing a new drug with a new irradiation modality, with really an unknown dose-effect relationship. This trial must follow optimal procedures, which underscore the quality and qualified manner of performance. (orig.)

  8. A feasibility study of the Tehran research reactor as a neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Monshizadeh, Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    Investigation on the use of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) as a neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been performed by calculating and measuring energy spectrum and the spatial distribution of neutrons in all external irradiation facilities, including six beam tubes, thermal column, and the medical room. Activation methods with multiple foils and a copper wire have been used for the mentioned measurements. The results show that (1) the small diameter and long length beam tubes cannot provide sufficient neutron flux for BNCT; (2) in order to use the medical room, the TRR core should be placed in the open pool position, in this situation the distance between the core and patient position is about 400 cm, so neutron flux cannot be sufficient for BNCT; and (3) the best facility which can be adapted for BNCT application is the thermal column, if all graphite blocks can be removed. The epithermal and fast neutron flux at the beginning of this empty column are 4.12×10(9) and 1.21×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, respectively, which can provide an appropriate neutron beam for BNCT by designing and constructing a proper Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) structure.

  9. SU-E-T-575: Isocenter Shifts in Treatment Planning and Its Clinical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Y; Damiani, S; Cao, Y; Jamshidi, A [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate causes of isocenter shifts in treatment planning and its clinical impact on patient treatment efficiency and safety. Methods/Materials: Treatment planning data of 340 patients under treatment over 8 weeks period were gathered to identify isocenter shifts according to site of the treatment, types of treatment plan or types of the machine used. Treatment plans included inversed and forward IMRT, as well as 3D plans. Treatment sites included pelvis, chest, abdomen, breasts, head and necks and extremities. Re-planning were performed without the isocenter shift for pelvis and chest plans, the dosimetric parameters such as PTV coverage, and dose sparing of OARs of these plans were analyzed and compared. Results/Discussions: Results showed that the isocenter shift was always necessary for some of sites such as breasts, two or more distinctive PTVs, or special cases such as large PTV treated with enhanced dynamic wedge. Many other cases, the re-planning results indicated 53% of the plans that the same quality of the plan can be achieved without the shift of the isocenter. Repositioning patients on a daily basis demanded unambiguous instructions for therapists for patient setups, and additional time to perform the shifts before treatment. Opportunities for error propagation exist during the communication and hand-over of such plans. Conclusion: Isocenter shifts demanded unambiguous instructions and times for therapists for daily patient setups, therefore it impacted both safety and efficiency of the patient treatment. Based on the analysis, the isocenter shifts were unavoidable for cases such as treatment of multiple sites, overcoming limitations of treatment machines, and/or sometime better dosimetry. However, we found many initially proposed shifts may have been eliminated either by careful planning or by improved CT simulation process such as detailed review of the images and localization of the PTV during simulation.

  10. Functional and molecular image guidance in radiotherapy treatment planning optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shiva K; Ten Haken, Randall K

    2011-04-01

    Functional and molecular imaging techniques are increasingly being developed and used to quantitatively map the spatial distribution of parameters, such as metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, perfusion, and ventilation, onto anatomically imaged normal organs and tumor. In radiotherapy optimization, these imaging modalities offer the promise of increased dose sparing to high-functioning subregions of normal organs or dose escalation to selected subregions of the tumor as well as the potential to adapt radiotherapy to functional changes that occur during the course of treatment. The practical use of functional/molecular imaging in radiotherapy optimization must take into cautious consideration several factors whose influences are still not clearly quantified or well understood including patient positioning differences between the planning computed tomography and functional/molecular imaging sessions, image reconstruction parameters and techniques, image registration, target/normal organ functional segmentation, the relationship governing the dose escalation/sparing warranted by the functional/molecular image intensity map, and radiotherapy-induced changes in the image intensity map over the course of treatment. The clinical benefit of functional/molecular image guidance in the form of improved local control or decreased normal organ toxicity has yet to be shown and awaits prospective clinical trials addressing this issue. PMID:21356479

  11. PyCMSXiO: an external interface to script treatment plans for the Elekta® CMS XiO treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripting in radiotherapy treatment planning systems not only simplifies routine planning tasks but can also be used for clinical research. Treatment planning scripting can only be utilized in a system that has a built-in scripting interface. Among the commercially available treatment planning systems, Pinnacle (Philips) and Raystation (Raysearch Lab.) have inherent scripting functionality. CMS XiO (Elekta) is a widely used treatment planning system in radiotherapy centres around the world, but it does not have an interface that allows the user to script radiotherapy plans. In this study an external scripting interface, PyCMSXiO, was developed for XiO using the Python programming language. The interface was implemented as a python package/library using a modern object-oriented programming methodology. The package was organized as a hierarchy of different classes (objects). Each class (object) corresponds to a plan object such as the beam of a clinical radiotherapy plan. The interface of classes was implemented as object functions. Scripting in XiO using PyCMSXiO is comparable with Pinnacle scripting. This scripting package has been used in several research projects including commissioning of a beam model, independent three-dimensional dose verification for IMRT plans and a setup-uncertainty study. Ease of use and high-level functions provided in the package achieve a useful research tool. It was released as an open-source tool that may benefit the medical physics community.

  12. PyCMSXiO: an external interface to script treatment plans for the Elekta® CMS XiO treatment planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Aitang; Arumugam, Sankar; Holloway, Lois; Goozee, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Scripting in radiotherapy treatment planning systems not only simplifies routine planning tasks but can also be used for clinical research. Treatment planning scripting can only be utilized in a system that has a built-in scripting interface. Among the commercially available treatment planning systems, Pinnacle (Philips) and Raystation (Raysearch Lab.) have inherent scripting functionality. CMS XiO (Elekta) is a widely used treatment planning system in radiotherapy centres around the world, but it does not have an interface that allows the user to script radiotherapy plans. In this study an external scripting interface, PyCMSXiO, was developed for XiO using the Python programming language. The interface was implemented as a python package/library using a modern object-oriented programming methodology. The package was organized as a hierarchy of different classes (objects). Each class (object) corresponds to a plan object such as the beam of a clinical radiotherapy plan. The interface of classes was implemented as object functions. Scripting in XiO using PyCMSXiO is comparable with Pinnacle scripting. This scripting package has been used in several research projects including commissioning of a beam model, independent three-dimensional dose verification for IMRT plans and a setup-uncertainty study. Ease of use and high-level functions provided in the package achieve a useful research tool. It was released as an open-source tool that may benefit the medical physics community.

  13. Treatment planning with functional MRI; Strahlentherapieplanung mit der funktionellen MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P. [EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Christian Doppler Labor fuer die Medizinische Strahlenforschung, Wien (Austria); Andrzejewski, P.; Georg, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Christian Doppler Labor fuer die Medizinische Strahlenforschung, Wien (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer medizinische Strahlenphysik, Univ. Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wien (Austria); Pinker, K. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Christian Doppler Labor fuer die Medizinische Strahlenforschung, Wien (Austria); Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer molekulare Bildgebung, Univ. Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiotherapy is high precision in treatment delivery. With new developments it is possible to focus the high dose irradiation on the tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue. The achievements in precision of the treatment planning and delivery warrant equally precise tumor definition. In conventional radiation therapy it is necessary to carry out a planning computed tomography (CT). For many tumors there is also need for an additional morphological MRI because of more accurate tumor definition. In standard radiotherapy the tumor volume is irradiated with a homogeneous dose. The aim of functional multiparametric MRI is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. Based on this information it is possible to elucidate tumor biology and identify subvolumes of more aggressive behavior. They are often radiotherapy-resistant, leading to tumor recurrence thus requiring further dose escalation. The concept of inhomogeneous tumor irradiation according to its biological behavior is called dose painting. Dose painting is technically feasible. The expected clinical benefit is motivated by selective treatment adaptations based on biological tumor characteristics. Tumors show variable response to therapy underlining the need for individual treatment plans. This approach may lead not only to higher local control but also to better sparing of normal surrounding tissue. With the clinical implementation of dose painting, improvements in the therapeutic outcome can be expected. Due to the existing technical challenges, extensive collaboration between radiation oncologists, radiologists, medical physicists and radiation biologists is needed. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlentherapieplanung mit der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) zielt auf eine Hochpraezisionsradiotherapie ab. Mit den modernen Technologien ist es moeglich, die Strahlentherapie nahezu

  14. Automated planning of ablation targets in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keustermans, Johannes; De Buck, Stijn; Heidbüchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Catheter based radio-frequency ablation is used as an invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation. This procedure is often guided by the use of 3D anatomical models obtained from CT, MRI or rotational angiography. During the intervention the operator accurately guides the catheter to prespecified target ablation lines. The planning stage, however, can be time consuming and operator dependent which is suboptimal both from a cost and health perspective. Therefore, we present a novel statistical model-based algorithm for locating ablation targets from 3D rotational angiography images. Based on a training data set of 20 patients, consisting of 3D rotational angiography images with 30 manually indicated ablation points, a statistical local appearance and shape model is built. The local appearance model is based on local image descriptors to capture the intensity patterns around each ablation point. The local shape model is constructed by embedding the ablation points in an undirected graph and imposing that each ablation point only interacts with its neighbors. Identifying the ablation points on a new 3D rotational angiography image is performed by proposing a set of possible candidate locations for each ablation point, as such, converting the problem into a labeling problem. The algorithm is validated using a leave-one-out-approach on the training data set, by computing the distance between the ablation lines obtained by the algorithm and the manually identified ablation points. The distance error is equal to 3.8+/-2.9 mm. As ablation lesion size is around 5-7 mm, automated planning of ablation targets by the presented approach is sufficiently accurate.

  15. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  16. BNCT of 3 cases of spontaneous head and neck cancer in feline patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Trivillin, V.A.; Heber, E.M.; Angeles Cantarelli, Maria de los; Itoiz, M.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Rebagliati, R.J.; Batistoni, Daniel; Schwint, A.E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    Having demonstrated BPA-BNCT induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of the RA-1 Reactor within a preclinical context. The biodistribution studies showed that, in all three cases evaluated, BPA delivered absolute boron values to tumor in the range that proved therapeutically useful in the experimental model of SCC. BPA-BNCT studies showed no radiotoxic effects, partial tumor control in terms of impaired growth and partial necrosis, an improvement in clinical condition and prolonged survival beyond the terminal condition of the feline patients at the time of recruitment.

  17. INEL BNCT Program: Bulletin, Volume 5, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.)

    1991-07-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for June, 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and animal data charts. Specific highlights include: final-dosage-form BSH samples were analyzed for purity, with the sample from Centronic Ltd the most free from contamination and oxidation products; MRI spectroscopy will be upgraded to provide a potential for boron resolution of 0.75 cm/pixel; neutron and gamma measurements were made for the HFR epithermal neutron beam; the current status of six spontaneous brain-tumor dogs; production of MoAbs against the pituitary CRF receptor; growth of BL6 in low Phe/Tyr medium; an altered synthetic pathway for carboranyl alanine; and encapsulation of {ital i}-B{sub 20}H{sub 18}{sup 2-} into liposomes for baseline murine studies. 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  18. Current clinical results of the Tsukuba BNCT trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A. E-mail: matsumur@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nakai, K.; Shibata, Y.; Endo, K.; Sakurai, F.; Kishi, T.; Kumada, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Torii, Y

    2004-11-01

    Nine high grade gliomas (5 glioblastomas and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas) were treated with BSH-based intaoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). BSH (100 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected, followed by single fraction irradiation using the mixed thermal/epithermal beam of Japan Research Reactor 4. The blood boron level at the time of irradiation averaged 29.9 (18.8-39.5) {mu}g/g. The peak thermal neutron flux as determined by post-irradiation measurements varied from 1.99 to 2.77x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No serious BSH-related toxicity was observed in this series. The interim survival data in this study showed median survival times of 23.2 months for glioblastoma and 25.9 months for anaplastic astrocytoma, results which are consistent with the current conventional radiotherapy with/without boost radiation. Of the 4 residual tumors, 2 showed complete response (CR) and 2 showed partial response (PR) within 6 months following BNCT. No linear correlation was proved between the dose and the occurrence of early neurological events. The maximum boron dose of 11.7-12.2 Gy in the brain related to the occurrence of radiation necrosis. The clinical application of a mixed thermal/epithermal beam and JRR-4 facilities on BSH-based IOBNCT proved to be safe and effective in this series.

  19. Four-dimensional IMRT treatment planning using a DMLC motion-tracking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yelin; Sawant, Amit; Venkat, Raghu; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a four-dimensional (4D) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment-planning method by modifying and applying a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) motion-tracking algorithm. The 4D radiotherapy treatment scenario investigated is to obtain a 4D treatment plan based on a 4D computed tomography (CT) planning scan and to have the delivery flexible enough to account for changes in tumor position during treatment delivery. For each of 4D CT planning scans from 12 lung cancer patients, a reference phase plan was created; with its MLC leaf positions and three-dimensional (3D) tumor motion, the DMLC motion-tracking algorithm generated MLC leaf sequences for the plans of other respiratory phases. Then, a deformable dose-summed 4D plan was created by merging the leaf sequences of individual phase plans. Individual phase plans, as well as the deformable dose-summed 4D plan, are similar for each patient, indicating that this method is dosimetrically robust to the variations of fractional time spent in respiratory phases on a given 4D CT planning scan. The 4D IMRT treatment-planning method utilizing the DMLC motion-tracking algorithm explicitly accounts for 3D tumor motion and thus hysteresis and nonlinear motion, and is deliverable on a linear accelerator.

  20. An interactive treatment planning system for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy using removable episcleral plaques containing sealed radioisotope sources is being studied as an alternative to enucleation in the treatment of choroidal melanoma and other tumors of the eye. Encouraging early results have been reported, but late complications which lead to loss of vision continue to be a problem. A randomized national study, the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is currently in progress to evaluate the procedure. The COMS specified isotope is 125I. Precise dosimetric calculations near the plaque may correlate strongly with complications and could also be used to optimize isotope loading patterns in the plaques. A microcomputer based treatment planning system has been developed for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. The program incorporates an interactive, 3-dimensional, solid-surface, color-graphic interface. The program currently supports 125I and 192Ir seeds which are treated as anisotropic line sources. Collimation effects related to plaque structure are accounted for, permitting detailed study of shielding effectiveness near the lip of a plaque. A dose distribution matrix may be calculated in any subregion of a transverse, sagittal, or coronal planar cross section of the eye, in any plane transecting the plaque and crossing the eye diametrically, or on a spherical surface within or surrounding the eye. Spherical surfaces may be displayed as 3-dimensional perspective projections or as funduscopic diagrams. Isodose contours are interpolated from the dose matrix. A pointer is also available to explicitly calculate and display dose at any location on the dosimetry surface. An interactive editing capability allows new plaque designs to be rapidly added to the system

  1. A semiautomatic tool for prostate segmentation in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delineation of the target volume is a time-consuming task in radiotherapy treatment planning, yet essential for a successful treatment of cancers such as prostate cancer. To facilitate the delineation procedure, the paper proposes an intuitive approach for 3D modeling of the prostate by slice-wise best fitting ellipses. The proposed estimate is initialized by the definition of a few control points in a new patient. The method is not restricted to particular image modalities but assumes a smooth shape with elliptic cross sections of the object. A training data set of 23 patients was used to calculate a prior shape model. The mean shape model was evaluated based on the manual contour of 10 test patients. The patient records of training and test data are based on axial T1-weighted 3D fast-field echo (FFE) sequences. The manual contours were considered as the reference model. Volume overlap (Vo), accuracy (Ac) (both ratio, range 0-1, optimal value 1) and Hausdorff distance (HD) (mm, optimal value 0) were calculated as evaluation parameters. The median and median absolute deviation (MAD) between manual delineation and deformed mean best fitting ellipses (MBFE) was Vo (0.9 ± 0.02), Ac (0.81 ± 0.03) and HD (4.05 ± 1.3)mm and between manual delineation and best fitting ellipses (BFE) was Vo (0.96 ± 0.01), Ac (0.92 ± 0.01) and HD (1.6 ± 0.27)mm. Additional results show a moderate improvement of the MBFE results after Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. The results emphasize the potential of the proposed method of modeling the prostate by best fitting ellipses. It shows the robustness and reproducibility of the model. A small sample test on 8 patients suggest possible time saving using the model

  2. Planning and execution of Raft River stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, R.V.; Crichlow, H.B. (ed.)

    1980-02-07

    The following topics are discussed for two Raft River Valley wells: well characteristics and treatment objectives, treatment selection and design, treatment history, mechanical arrangements and job costs. (MHR)

  3. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David; Richter, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  4. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  5. MMCTP: a radiotherapy research environment for Monte Carlo and patient-specific treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy research lacks a flexible computational research environment for Monte Carlo (MC) and patient-specific treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible software package on low-cost hardware with the aim of integrating new patient-specific treatment planning with MC dose calculations suitable for large-scale prospective and retrospective treatment planning studies. We designed the software package 'McGill Monte Carlo treatment planning' (MMCTP) for the research development of MC and patient-specific treatment planning. The MMCTP design consists of a graphical user interface (GUI), which runs on a simple workstation connected through standard secure-shell protocol to a cluster for lengthy MC calculations. Treatment planning information (e.g., images, structures, beam geometry properties and dose distributions) is converted into a convenient MMCTP local file storage format designated, the McGill RT format. MMCTP features include (a) DICOMRT, RTOG and CADPlan CART format imports; (b) 2D and 3D visualization views for images, structure contours, and dose distributions; (c) contouring tools; (d) DVH analysis, and dose matrix comparison tools; (e) external beam editing; (f) MC transport calculation from beam source to patient geometry for photon and electron beams. The MC input files, which are prepared from the beam geometry properties and patient information (e.g., images and structure contours), are uploaded and run on a cluster using shell commands controlled from the MMCTP GUI. The visualization, dose matrix operation and DVH tools offer extensive options for plan analysis and comparison between MC plans and plans imported from commercial treatment planning systems. The MMCTP GUI provides a flexible research platform for the development of patient-specific MC treatment planning for photon and electron external beam radiation therapy. The impact of this tool lies in the fact that it allows for systematic, platform-independent, large

  6. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  7. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  8. Treatment planning in severe scoliosis: the role of MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Haehnel, S.; Sartor, K. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany); Thomsen, M. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Medical School (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative investigation of children with idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Syringomyelia and other intraspinal lesions may be risk factors for neurological injury during surgical correction. Our purpose was to investigate whether pathology of the neuraxis is associated with scoliosis and to detect lesions which may threaten neurological sequelae during distraction and instrumented correction. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images of 40 children (28 girls, 12 boys), mean age 12.7 years with severe idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle 50-70 ) obtained in coronal, sagittal and axial planes from the posterior cranial fossa to the sacrum, and these were assessed by two neuroradiologists and an orthopaedic surgeon prior to further treatment planning. Abnormalities of the neuraxis were found in 24 patients (60 %); five (12 %) had two or more lesions. No abnormalities of the neuraxis were found in 16 patients (40 %). There were 15 patients (38 %) with intraspinal abnormalities who deteriorated clinically and nine (22 %) who showed no clinical changes. We transferred 16 patients (40 %) from the orthopaedic to the neurosurgical department for further assessment. Our results suggest that one should investigate the neuraxis with MRI before contemplating orthopaedic surgical correction of severe idiopathic scoliosis, because the findings may lead to a change of procedure. (orig.)

  9. Partial differential equations-based segmentation for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibou, Frederic; Levy, Doron; Cardenas, Carlos; Liu, Pingyu; Boyer, Arthur

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop automatic algorithms for the segmentation phase of radiotherapy treatment planning. We develop new image processing techniques that are based on solving a partial diferential equation for the evolution of the curve that identifies the segmented organ. The velocity function is based on the piecewise Mumford-Shah functional. Our method incorporates information about the target organ into classical segmentation algorithms. This information, which is given in terms of a three- dimensional wireframe representation of the organ, serves as an initial guess for the segmentation algorithm. We check the performance of the new algorithm on eight data sets of three diferent organs: rectum, bladder, and kidney. The results of the automatic segmentation were compared with a manual seg- mentation of each data set by radiation oncology faculty and residents. The quality of the automatic segmentation was measured with the k-statistics", and with a count of over- and undersegmented frames, and was shown in most cases to be very close to the manual segmentation of the same data. A typical segmentation of an organ with sixty slices takes less than ten seconds on a Pentium IV laptop.

  10. A dosimetric comparison of four treatment planning methods for high grade glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert W

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade gliomas (HGG are typically treated with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Three dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning is still the main stay of treatment for these patients. New treatment planning methods suggest better dose distributions and organ sparing but their clinical benefit is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to compare normal tissue sparing and tumor coverage using four different radiotherapy planning methods in patients with high grade glioma. Methods Three dimensional conformal (3D, sequential boost IMRT, integrated boost (IB IMRT and Tomotherapy (TOMO treatment plans were generated for 20 high grade glioma patients. T1 and T2 MRI abnormalities were used to define GTV and CTV with 2 and 2.5 cm margins to define PTV1 and PTV2 respectively. Results The mean dose to PTV2 but not to PTV1 was less then 95% of the prescribed dose with IB and IMRT plans. The mean doses to the optic chiasm and the ipsilateral globe were highest with 3D plans and least with IB plans. The mean dose to the contralateral globe was highest with TOMO plans. The mean of the integral dose (ID to the brain was least with the IB plan and was lower with IMRT compared to 3D plans. The TOMO plans had the least mean D10 to the normal brain but higher mean D50 and D90 compared to IB and IMRT plans. The mean D10 and D50 but not D90 were significantly lower with the IMRT plans compared to the 3D plans. Conclusion No single treatment planning method was found to be superior to all others and a personalized approach is advised for planning and treating high-grade glioma patients with radiotherapy. Integral dose did not reflect accurately the dose volume histogram (DVH of the normal brain and may not be a good indicator of delayed radiation toxicity.

  11. A methodology for automatic intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Pan, Xiaoning; Li, Yupeng

    2011-07-01

    In intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the quality of the treatment plan, which is highly dependent upon the treatment planner's level of experience, greatly affects the potential benefits of the radiotherapy (RT). Furthermore, the planning process is complicated and requires a great deal of iteration, and is often the most time-consuming aspect of the RT process. In this paper, we describe a methodology to automate the IMRT planning process in lung cancer cases, the goal being to improve the quality and consistency of treatment planning. This methodology (1) automatically sets beam angles based on a beam angle automation algorithm, (2) judiciously designs the planning structures, which were shown to be effective for all the lung cancer cases we studied, and (3) automatically adjusts the objectives of the objective function based on a parameter automation algorithm. We compared treatment plans created in this system (mdaccAutoPlan) based on the overall methodology with plans from a clinical trial of IMRT for lung cancer run at our institution. The 'autoplans' were consistently better, or no worse, than the plans produced by experienced medical dosimetrists in terms of tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing. We conclude that the mdaccAutoPlan system can potentially improve the quality and consistency of treatment planning for lung cancer.

  12. Realizing a new paradigm in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter

    2013-07-24

    This thesis investigates the feasibility of a new IMRT planning paradigm called Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS). The IDS paradigm enables the therapist to directly impose local dose features into the therapy plan. In contrast to the conventional IMRT planning approach, IDS does not employ an objective function to drive an iterative optimization procedure. In the first part of this work, the conventional IMRT plan optimization method is investigated. Concepts for a near-optimal implementation of the planning problem are provided. The second part of this work introduces the IDS concept. It is designed to overcome clinical drawbacks of the conventional method on the one hand and to provide interactive planning strategies which exploit the full potential of modern high-performance computer hardware on the other hand. The realization of the IDS concept consists of three main parts. (1)A two-step Dose Variation and Recovery (DVR) strategy which imposes localized plan features and recovers for unintentional plan modifications elsewhere. (2)A new dose calculation method (3)The design of an IDS planning framework which provides a powerful graphical user interface. It could be shown that the IDS paradigm is able to reproduce conventionally optimized therapy plans and that the IDS concepts can be realized in real-time.

  13. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  14. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts

  15. 78 FR 65675 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Multidisciplinary Treatment Planning (MTP) Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... will gather data on sites' definitions and terms for multidisciplinary treatment planning, composition...; Multidisciplinary Treatment Planning (MTP) Within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers... projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval....

  16. Brain tumor delineation based on CT and MR imaging. Implications for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Wijrdeman, H K; Struikmans, H; Witkamp, T; Moerland, M A

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact MRI may have on radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumors. The authors analyzed differences in size and position of treatment fields as indicated by three observers (two radiotherapists and one neuroradiologist) using CT or MR based radiotherapy planning proced

  17. Treatment planning in dentistry using an electronic health record: implications for undergraduate education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Tokede; M. Walji; R. Ramoni; J.M. White; M. Schoonheim-Klein; N.S. Kimmes; R. Vaderhobli; P.C. Stark; V.L. Patel; E. Kalenderian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Treatment planning, an essential component of clinical practice, has received little attention in the dental literature and there appears to be no consistent format being followed in the teaching and development of treatment plans within dental school curricula. No investigation, to our kn

  18. Clinical implications of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for IMRT treatment planning and verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bragg, C.M.; Wingate, K.; Conway, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the implications of the use of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm(AAA) for the production and dosimetric verification of IMRT plans for treatments of the prostate, parotid, nasopharynx and lung. METHODS: 72 IMRT treatment plans produced using the Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC)algorithm were recalculated using the AAA and the dose distributions compared. 24 of the plans were delivered to inhomogeneous phantoms and verification measurements made using a ...

  19. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  20. A Monte Carlo investigation of lung brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-125 (125I) and Caesium-131 (131Cs) brachytherapy have been used in conjunction with sublobar resection to reduce the local recurrence of stage I non-small cell lung cancer compared with resection alone. Treatment planning for this procedure is typically performed using only a seed activity nomogram or look-up table to determine seed strand spacing for the implanted mesh. Since the post-implant seed geometry is difficult to predict, the nomogram is calculated using the TG-43 formalism for seeds in a planar geometry. In this work, the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to recalculate nomograms using a variety of tissue models for 125I and 131Cs seeds. Calculated prescription doses are compared to those calculated using TG-43. Additionally, patient CT and contour data are used to generate virtual implants to study the effects that post-implant deformation and patient-specific tissue heterogeneity have on perturbing nomogram-derived dose distributions. Differences of up to 25% in calculated prescription dose are found between TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations with the TG-43 formalism underestimating prescription doses in general. Differences between the TG-43 formalism and Monte Carlo calculated prescription doses are greater for 125I than for 131Cs seeds. Dose distributions are found to change significantly based on implant deformation and tissues surrounding implants for patient-specific virtual implants. Results suggest that accounting for seed grid deformation and the effects of non-water media, at least approximately, are likely required to reliably predict dose distributions in lung brachytherapy patients. (paper)

  1. Scanned ion beam therapy for prostate carcinoma. Comparison of single plan treatment and daily plan-adapted treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, Sebastian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich- Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Graeff, Christian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Rucinski, Antoni [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Sapienza Universit' a di Roma, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Roma (Italy); INFN, Roma (Italy); Zink, Klemens [University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Medical Center Giessen-Marburg, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marburg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Faculty of Physics, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bert, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); University Clinic Erlangen and Friedrich- Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital Erlangen, Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Intensity-modulated particle therapy (IMPT) for tumors showing interfraction motion is a topic of current research. The purpose of this work is to compare three treatment strategies for IMPT to determine potential advantages and disadvantages of ion prostate cancer therapy. Simulations for three treatment strategies, conventional one-plan radiotherapy (ConvRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), and online adaptive radiotherapy (ART) were performed employing a dataset of 10 prostate cancer patients with six CT scans taken at one week intervals. The simulation results, using a geometric margin concept (7-2 mm) as well as patient-specific internal target volume definitions for IMPT were analyzed by target coverage and exposure of critical structures on single fraction dose distributions. All strategies led to clinically acceptable target coverage in patients exhibiting small prostate motion (mean displacement < 4 mm), but IGRT and especially ART led to significant sparing of the rectum. In 20 % of the patients, prostate motion exceeded 4 mm causing insufficient target coverage for ConvRT (V95{sub mean} = 0.86, range 0.63-0.99) and IGRT (V95{sub mean} = 0.91, range 0.68-1.00), while ART maintained acceptable target coverage. IMPT of prostate cancer demands consideration of rectal sparing and adaptive treatment replanning for patients exhibiting large prostate motion. (orig.) [German] Adaptive Therapieansaetze fuer sich interfraktionell bewegende Zielvolumina in der intensitaetsmodulierten Partikeltherapie (IMPT) befinden sich zurzeit in der Entwicklung. In dieser Arbeit werden drei Behandlungsstrategien auf moegliche Vor- und Nachteile in der IMPT des Prostatakarzinoms hin untersucht. Auf Basis eines anonymisierten Datensatzes aus 10 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom wurden die drei Bestrahlungsstrategien, konventionelle Ein-Plan-Strahlentherapie (ConvRT), bildunterstuetzte Strahlentherapie (IGRT) und tagesaktuelle Strahlentherapie (adaptive radiotherapy,ART), simuliert

  2. Treatment planning for heavy ion irradiation. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, O. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). FS Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie; Kraemer, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Biophysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In this contribution we will outline briefly the GSI beam delivery system and the qualitative differences in the methods used for inverse planning arising from it. We will describe the planning package, consisting of VOXELPLAN and TRiP and show some results for first test cases. (orig./MG)

  3. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  4. The role of PET/CT in radiation treatment planning for cancer patient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and, more recently, integrated positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) have appeared as significant diagnostic imaging systems in clinical medicine. Accurate recognition of cancers in patients by means of PET scanning with Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has illustrated a need to determine a mode of therapy to achieve better prognoses. The clinical management of cancer patients has improved dramatically with the introduction of clinical PET. For treatment of cancer patients, on the other hand, radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role as a non-invasive therapy. It is crucial that cancers are encompassed by high dose irradiation, particularly in cases of curative RT. Irradiation should precisely target the entire tumour and aim to minimise the size of microscopic extensions of the cancer, as well as minimize radiation damage to normal tissues. A new imaging technique has therefore been sought to allow precise delineation of the cancer target to be irradiated. Clinical PET, combined with utilization of 18F-FDG, may have an important role in radiation treatment planning (RTP) in lung cancer. In addition to determining if RT is appropriate and whether therapy will be given with curative or palliative intent, 18F-FDG-PET is useful for determining therapy ports. It can be used both to limit ports to spare normal tissue and to include additional involved regions. Several studies have shown that PET has an impact on RTP in an important proportion of patients. It is to be hoped that treatment plans that include all the 18F-FDG-avid lesions or the 18F-FDG-avid portions of a complex mass will result in more effective local control with less unnecessary tissue being treated. The IAEA has placed emphasis on the issue of application of clinical PET for radiation treatment planning in various cancer patients. Two consultants meetings were held in 2006 and their results are summarized into this IAEA

  5. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  6. Multiphysics Analysis of the 2.5 MeV BNCT RFQ Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowen, Zhu; Kun, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), is an advanced cancer therapy that destroys the cancer tumors using the well-known Li(p,n)Be . Because of the highly selectively reaction between a boron and a neutron, BNCT is effective for rapidly spreading cancer, invasive carcinoma, such as head and neck cancer, melanoma, malignant brain tumors and so on. The PKU RFQ group proposes an RFQ based neutron source for BNCT application. The 162.5 MHz four-vane RFQ will accelerate 20-mA H+ from 35.0 keV to 2.50 MeV in CW mode, and delivers a neutron yield of 1.73*10^13 n/sec/cm^2. The thermal management will become the most important issues. The detailed multiphysics analysis of the BNCT RFQ will be studied, and the RFQ frequency shift during nominal operating condition is also predicted. The multiphysics analysis is performed by using the CST Multiphysics Model and verified with ANSYS Multiphysics.

  7. BNCT dosimetry performed with a mini twin tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, D; Colautti, P; Lollo, M; Esposito, J; Conte, V; De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Ceballos, C

    2009-07-01

    The BNCT radiation field is complex because different beam components are mixed, each one having different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Microdosimetry with tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) has proven to be an ideal dosimetric technique for mixed radiation fields, because it is able both to measure the absorbed dose and to assess the radiation field relative biological effectiveness with good accuracy. An ideal detector for BNCT should contain two TEPCs, one detector loaded with, while the other one without (10)B in order to record all beam components with a unique measurement. Moreover, such a detector should be of tiny size in order to be able to measure in the intense BNCT radiation fields without significant pile-up effects. TEPCs have been shown to be pretty good dosimeters for mixed radiation fields. In this paper the first mini twin TEPC counter for BNCT is presented, as well as first measurement at the new HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at TAPIRO nuclear reactor and comparison with related Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  9. VMAT to arclet plan conversion in a treatment planning system. Feasibility and dosimetric relationship between VMAT, arclet, and stationary fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Licht, Norbert; Nuesken, Frank; Ruebe, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jochen [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Norton, Ian [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to make dynamic rotation treatment with mARC available for the non-dedicated Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system by converting SmartArc plans, offering insight into the relationship between SmartArc, mARC, and stationary field irradiation. A scripting solution is presented that can be run in the Pinnacle system. This allows for the conversion of SmartArc plans into mARC format. The dose distribution of the converted mARC plan can be evaluated both in the form of a ''real'' mARC plan with arclets and - as is generally done in treatment planning systems certified for mARC planning - by approximating the arclets as stationary fields. We present the proof of principle and dosimetric comparisons. The converted plans were irradiated without problems. For the measured 3D dose distributions, on average over 90 % points agreed with the calculated dose distributions (mARC and stationary field plans) within the gamma criteria of 3 % deviation in the local dose, 3-mm distance to agreement, for all dose values above 10 % of the maximum. The agreement between the three calculated dose distributions (SmartArc with both converted plans) was above 87 % (above 92 % when comparing mARC with stationary fields). Our solution offers the possibility of mARC planning in Pinnacle. The dose comparisons furthermore prove that the dosimetric differences between SmartArc and mARC, when appropriately translated, are minor. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie praesentiert die Konversion von SmartArc-Plaenen in mARC-Format innerhalb des Philips Pinnacle Bestrahlungsplanungssystems und vergleicht SmartArc, mARC und Stehfeldbestrahlungstechniken. Innerhalb des Pinnacle-Systems wird die Konversion von SmartArc- zu mARC-Plaenen skriptbasiert durchgefuehrt. Die resultierenden Dosisverteilungen werden sowohl mit einem Plan mit Arclet-Abstrahlung als auch mit angenaeherten Stehfelder-Plaenen verglichen. Die konvertierten Plaene koennen problemlos

  10. Dosimetric and Biologic Differences in Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Treatment Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yue; Bassetti, Michael; Du, Kaifang; Saenz, Daniel; Harari, Paul; Paliwal, Bhudatt R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the dosimetric and biologic differences in treatment plans from flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam for three anatomic cancer sites. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams and volumetric modulated arc therapy beams were generated for 13 patients for both the flattened beam and the FFF beam of the TrueBeam system. Beam energies of 6 MV and 10 MV were chosen for planning. A total of 104 treatment plans were generated in 13 patients. In order to analyze the biological effectiveness of treatment plans, dose volume histograms (DVH) were utilized. Flattened and FFF beam plans are quantitatively compared. Results: In head and neck cases, for VMAT plans, dose reduction in the FFF beam plans compared to the flattened beam in left cochlea, right submandibular gland and right parotid gland reached up to 2.36 Gy, 1.21 Gy and 1.45 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for static IMRT plans, the dose reduction of the FFF beam plans com...

  11. Maximizing dosimetric benefits of IMRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer through multicriteria optimization planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Paly, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason, E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We examine the quality of plans created using multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treatment of localized prostate cancer. Nine random cases of patients receiving IMRT to the prostate were selected. Each case was associated with a clinically approved plan created using Corvus. The cases were replanned using MCO-based planning in RayStation. Dose-volume histogram data from both planning systems were presented to 2 radiation oncologists in a blinded evaluation, and were compared at a number of dose-volume points. Both physicians rated all 9 MCO plans as superior to the clinically approved plans (p<10{sup −5}). Target coverage was equivalent (p = 0.81). Maximum doses to the prostate and bladder and the V50 and V70 to the anterior rectum were reduced in all MCO plans (p<0.05). Treatment planning time with MCO took approximately 60 minutes per case. MCO-based planning for prostate IMRT is efficient and produces high-quality plans with good target homogeneity and sparing of the anterior rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, without sacrificing target coverage.

  12. Treatment plan comparison between helical tomotherapy and MLC-based IMRT using radiobiological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Shi, Chengyu; Lind, Bengt K.; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2007-07-01

    The rapid implementation of advanced treatment planning and delivery technologies for radiation therapy has brought new challenges in evaluating the most effective treatment modality. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and helical tomotherapy (HT) are becoming popular modes of treatment delivery and their application and effectiveness continues to be investigated. Presently, there are several treatment planning systems (TPS) that can generate and optimize IMRT plans based on user-defined objective functions for the internal target volume (ITV) and organs at risk (OAR). However, the radiobiological parameters of the different tumours and normal tissues are typically not taken into account during dose prescription and optimization of a treatment plan or during plan evaluation. The suitability of a treatment plan is typically decided based on dosimetric criteria such as dose-volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation of the dose distribution. For a more comprehensive treatment plan evaluation, the biologically effective uniform dose ({\\bar{\\bar{D}}}) is applied together with the complication-free tumour control probability (P+). Its utilization is demonstrated using three clinical cases that were planned with two different forms of IMRT. In this study, three different cancer types at different anatomical sites were investigated: head and neck, lung and prostate cancers. For each cancer type, a linac MLC-based step-and-shoot IMRT plan and a HT plan were developed. The MLC-based IMRT treatment plans were developed on the Philips treatment-planning platform, using the Pinnacle 7.6 software release. For the tomotherapy HiArt plans, the dedicated tomotherapy treatment planning station was used, running version 2.1.2. By using {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} as the common prescription point of the treatment plans and plotting the tissue response probabilities versus {\\bar{\\bar{D}}} for a range of prescription doses

  13. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  14. The NUKDOS software for treatment planning in molecular radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kletting, Peter; Schimmel, Sebastian [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Haenscheid, Heribert; Fernandez, Maria; Lassmann, Michael [Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Luster, Markus [Univ. Marburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Nosske, Dietmar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was the development of a software tool for treatment planning prior to molecular radiotherapy, which comprises all functionality to objectively determine the activity to administer and the pertaining absorbed doses (including the corresponding error) based on a series of gamma camera images and one SPECT/CT or probe data. NUKDOS was developed in MATLAB. The workflow is based on the MIRD formalism For determination of the tissue or organ pharmacokinetics, gamma camera images as well as probe, urine, serum and blood activity data can be processed. To estimate the time-integrated activity coefficients (TIAC), sums of exponentials are fitted to the time activity data and integrated analytically. To obtain the TIAC on the voxel level, the voxel activity distribution from the quantitative 3D SPECT/CT (or PET/CT) is used for scaling and weighting the TIAC derived from the 2D organ data. The voxel S-values are automatically calculated based on the voxel-size of the image and the therapeutic nuclide ({sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I or {sup 177}Lu). The absorbed dose coefficients are computed by convolution of the voxel TIAC and the voxel S-values. The activity to administer and the pertaining absorbed doses are determined by entering the absorbed dose for the organ at risk. The overall error of the calculated absorbed doses is determined by Gaussian error propagation. NUKDOS was tested for the operation systems Windows {sup registered} 7 (64 Bit) and 8 (64 Bit). The results of each working step were compared to commercially available (SAAMII, OLINDA/EXM) and in-house (UlmDOS) software. The application of the software is demonstrated using examples form peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and from radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases. For the example from PRRT, the calculated activity to administer differed by 4% comparing NUKDOS and the final result using UlmDos, SAAMII and OLINDA/EXM sequentially. The absorbed dose for the spleen and tumour

  15. Evaluation and scoring of radiotherapy treatment plans using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an artificial neural network to predict the clinical evaluation of radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Approximately 150 treatment plans were developed for 16 patients who received external-beam radiotherapy for soft-tissue sarcomas of the lower extremity. Plans were assigned a figure of merit by a radiation oncologist using a five-point rating scale. Plan scoring was performed by a single physician to ensure consistency in rating. Dose-volume information extracted from a training set of 511 treatment plans on 14 patients was correlated to the physician-generated figure of merit using an artificial neural network. The neural network was tested with a test set of 19 treatment plans on two patients whose plans were not used in the training of the neural net. Results: Physician scoring of treatment plans was consistent to within one point on the rating scale 88% of the time. The neural net reproduced the physician scores in the training set to within one point approximately 90% of the time. It reproduced the physician scores in the test set to within one point approximately 83% of the time. Conclusions: An artificial neural network can be trained to generate a score for a treatment plan that can be correlated to a clinically-based figure of merit. The accuracy of the neural net in scoring plans compares well with the reproducibility of the clinical scoring. The system of radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation using an artificial neural network demonstrates promise as a method for generating a clinically relevant figure of merit

  16. Treatment planning for SBRT using automated field delivery: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Timothy A., E-mail: timritte@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Owen, Dawn [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Brooks, Cassandra M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Stenmark, Matthew H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning and delivery can be accomplished using a variety of techniques that achieve highly conformal dose distributions. Herein, we describe a template-based automated treatment field approach that enables rapid delivery of more than 20 coplanar fields. A case study is presented to demonstrate how modest adaptations to traditional SBRT planning can be implemented to take clinical advantage of this technology. Treatment was planned for a left-sided lung lesion adjacent to the chest wall using 25 coplanar treatment fields spaced at 11° intervals. The plan spares the contralateral lung and is in compliance with the conformality standards set forth in Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group protocol 0915, and the dose tolerances found in the report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 101. Using a standard template, treatment planning was accomplished in less than 20 minutes, and each 10 Gy fraction was delivered in approximately 5.4 minutes. For those centers equipped with linear accelerators capable of automated treatment field delivery, the use of more than 20 coplanar fields is a viable SBRT planning approach and yields excellent conformality and quality combined with rapid planning and treatment delivery. Although the case study discusses a laterally located lung lesion, this technique can be applied to centrally located tumors with similar results.

  17. Treatment planning for SBRT using automated field delivery: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning and delivery can be accomplished using a variety of techniques that achieve highly conformal dose distributions. Herein, we describe a template-based automated treatment field approach that enables rapid delivery of more than 20 coplanar fields. A case study is presented to demonstrate how modest adaptations to traditional SBRT planning can be implemented to take clinical advantage of this technology. Treatment was planned for a left-sided lung lesion adjacent to the chest wall using 25 coplanar treatment fields spaced at 11° intervals. The plan spares the contralateral lung and is in compliance with the conformality standards set forth in Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group protocol 0915, and the dose tolerances found in the report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 101. Using a standard template, treatment planning was accomplished in less than 20 minutes, and each 10 Gy fraction was delivered in approximately 5.4 minutes. For those centers equipped with linear accelerators capable of automated treatment field delivery, the use of more than 20 coplanar fields is a viable SBRT planning approach and yields excellent conformality and quality combined with rapid planning and treatment delivery. Although the case study discusses a laterally located lung lesion, this technique can be applied to centrally located tumors with similar results

  18. Language Treatment and Language Planning in Canada. Part 2: The Provinces. Language Planning Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Grant

    As stated in Part 1 of this discussion, Canada is a hybrid, making use of both the macro, or policy, model and the micro, or cultivation, model of language treatment. Some concrete measures are taking place in language status and corpus planning on the inter-federal-provincial level and the provincial level, particularly in Quebec. One such…

  19. Correlation between radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with gliblastoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the radiation dose and histopathological findings in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Histopathological studies were performed on specimens from 8 patients, 3 had undergone salvage surgery and 5 were autopsied. For histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively. - Highlights: • It is very important to determine the curable BNCT radiation dose on histopathological aspect in BNCT. • Of 23 patients with GBM treated with BNCT, autopsy was performed in 5, salvage surgery in 3, and histopathological study in 8. • To achieve the histopathological cure of GBM at the primary site, the optimal minimal dose to the GTV and CTV was 68 Gy(w) and 44 Gy(w), respectively

  20. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • We study the biodistribution of BPA+BSH for BNCT in experimental oral cancer. • The 3 BPA+BSH protocols assayed are potentially therapeutic. • Different proportions of B compounds with different CBE factors will affect response

  1. Automatic treatment planning implementation using a database of previously treated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.; Evans, K.; Yang, W.; Herman, J.; McNutt, T.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Using a database of prior treated patients, it is possible to predict the dose to critical structures for future patients. Automatic treatment planning speeds the planning process by generating a good initial plan from predicted dose values. Methods: A SQL relational database of previously approved treatment plans is populated via an automated export from Pinnacle3. This script outputs dose and machine information and selected Regions of Interests as well as its associated Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) and Overlap Volume Histograms (OVHs) with respect to the target structures. Toxicity information is exported from Mosaiq and added to the database for each patient. The SQL query is designed to ask the system for the lowest achievable dose for a specified region of interest (ROI) for each patient with a given volume of that ROI being as close or closer to the target than the current patient. Results: The additional time needed to calculate OVHs is approximately 1.5 minutes for a typical patient. Database lookup of planning objectives takes approximately 4 seconds. The combined additional time is less than that of a typical single plan optimization (2.5 mins). Conclusions: An automatic treatment planning interface has been successfully used by dosimetrists to quickly produce a number of SBRT pancreas treatment plans. The database can be used to compare dose to individual structures with the toxicity experienced and predict toxicities before planning for future patients.

  2. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  3. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  4. A FORTRAN program for the optimization of radiotherapy treatment planning using the complication probability factor (CPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarst, A B; Sternick, E S; Curran, B H; Kosinski, R J; Dritschilo, A

    1980-04-01

    The complication probability factor (CPF) is an objective function, based directly on radiobiological principles and clinical data, for the optimization of radiotherapy treatment planning; it measures the likelihood that a given radiation dose distribution will lead to serious complications in the patient as a result of damage to healthy tissue. A computerized search can be made for that treatment plan which delivers an acceptable tumoricidal dose, yet minimizes the CPF as averaged over the total volume of healthy tissue irradiated. The CPF FORTRAN program, run on a PDP 11/55 in conjunction with a commercially available radiotherapy treatment planning package, is described in detail.

  5. Concept for individualized patient allocation: ReCompare—remote comparison of particle and photon treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identifying those patients who have a higher chance to be cured with fewer side effects by particle beam therapy than by state-of-the-art photon therapy is essential to guarantee a fair and sufficient access to specialized radiotherapy. The individualized identification requires initiatives by particle as well as non-particle radiotherapy centers to form networks, to establish procedures for the decision process, and to implement means for the remote exchange of relevant patient information. In this work, we want to contribute a practical concept that addresses these requirements. We proposed a concept for individualized patient allocation to photon or particle beam therapy at a non-particle radiotherapy institution that bases on remote treatment plan comparison. We translated this concept into the web-based software tool ReCompare (REmote COMparison of PARticlE and photon treatment plans). We substantiated the feasibility of the proposed concept by demonstrating remote exchange of treatment plans between radiotherapy institutions and the direct comparison of photon and particle treatment plans in photon treatment planning systems. ReCompare worked with several tested standard treatment planning systems, ensured patient data protection, and integrated in the clinical workflow. Our concept supports non-particle radiotherapy institutions with the patient-specific treatment decision on the optimal irradiation modality by providing expertise from a particle therapy center. The software tool ReCompare may help to improve and standardize this personalized treatment decision. It will be available from our website when proton therapy is operational at our facility

  6. A medical expert system approach using artificial neural networks for standardized treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Many radiotherapy treatment plans involve some level of standardization (e.g., in terms of beam ballistics, collimator settings, and wedge angles), which is determined primarily by tumor site and stage. If patient-to-patient variations in the size and shape of relevant anatomical structures for a given treatment site are adequately sampled, then it would seem possible to develop a general method for automatically mapping individual patient anatomy to a corresponding set of treatment variables. A medical expert system approach to standardized treatment planning was developed that should lead to improved planning efficiency and consistency. Methods and Materials: The expert system was designed to specify treatment variables for new patients based upon a set of templates (a database of treatment plans for previous patients) and a similarity metric for determining the goodness of fit between the relevant anatomy of new patients and patients in the database. A set of artificial neural networks was used to optimize the treatment variables to the individual patient. A simplified example, a four-field box technique for prostate treatments based upon a single external contour, was used to test the viability of the approach. Results: For a group of new prostate patients, treatment variables specified by the expert system were compared to treatment variables chosen by the dosimetrists. Performance criteria included dose uniformity within the target region and dose to surrounding critical organs. For this standardized prostate technique, a database consisting of approximately 75 patient records was required for the expert system performance to approach that of the dosimetrists. Conclusions: An expert system approach to standardized treatment planning has the potential of improving the overall efficiency of the planning process by reducing the number of iterations required to generate an optimized dose distribution, and to function most effectively, should be closely

  7. Challenges of radiotherapy: Report on the 4D treatment planning workshop 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knopf, Antje; Nill, Simeon; Yohannes, Indra; Graeff, Christian; Dowdell, Stephen; Kurz, Christopher; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Biegun, Aleksandra K.; Lang, Stephanie; McCelland, Jamie; Champion, Benjamin; Fast, Martin; Wölfelschneider, Jens; Gianoli, Chiara; Rucinscki, Antoni; Baroni, Guido; Richter, Christian; van de Water, Steven; Grassberger, Clemens; Weber, Damien; Poulsen, Per; Shimizu, Shinichi; Bert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This report, compiled by experts on the treatment of mobile targets with advanced radiotherapy, summarizes the main conclusions and innovations achieved during the 4D treatment planning workshop 2013. This annual workshop focuses on research aiming to advance 4D radiotherapy treatments, including al

  8. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  9. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document

  10. Federal Facility Compliance Act: Conceptual Site Treatment Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (the Act), to prepare plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. The Act requires site treatment plans (STPs or plans) to be developed for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste and submitted to the State or EPA for approval, approval with modification, or disapproval. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) is the preliminary version of the plan required by the Act and is being provided to California, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and others for review. A list of the other DOE sites preparing CSTPs is included in Appendix 1.1 of this document. Please note that Appendix 1.1 appears as Appendix A, pages A-1 and A-2 in this document.

  11. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  12. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-03-21

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  13. ET-14OPTIMISATION OF BORONOPHENYLALANINE (BPA) DELIVERY AND LAT1 EXPRESSION FOR THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Garth; Detta, Allah; Green, Stuart; Lockyer, Nick; Ngoga, Desire; Ghani, Zahir; Phoenix, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted radiotherapy where preferential boron uptake interacts with a neutron beam in cancerous cells causing irreparable alpha DNA damage. This requires the delivery of at least 30 parts per million (ppm) of 10B into tumour tissue and 30ppm boron) indicates potential BNCT targeting after surgery. Tumour boron uptake is governed by LAT-1 behaviour rather than BBB penetration and explains previous variable clinical results, whilst supporting the LAT1 determined selection of patients for BNCT

  14. Optimization in radiotherapy treatment planning thanks to a fast dose calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the radiotherapy treatments planning issue which need a fast and reliable treatment planning system (TPS). The TPS is composed of a dose calculation algorithm and an optimization method. The objective is to design a plan to deliver the dose to the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy and sensitive tissues. The treatment planning aims to determine the best suited radiation parameters for each patient's treatment. In this thesis, the parameters of treatment with IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy) are the beam angle and the beam intensity. The objective function is multi-criteria with linear constraints. The main objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the feasibility of a treatment planning optimization method based on a fast dose-calculation technique developed by (Blanpain, 2009). This technique proposes to compute the dose by segmenting the patient's phantom into homogeneous meshes. The dose computation is divided into two steps. The first step impacts the meshes: projections and weights are set according to physical and geometrical criteria. The second step impacts the voxels: the dose is computed by evaluating the functions previously associated to their mesh. A reformulation of this technique makes possible to solve the optimization problem by the gradient descent algorithm. The main advantage of this method is that the beam angle parameters could be optimized continuously in 3 dimensions. The obtained results in this thesis offer many opportunities in the field of radiotherapy treatment planning optimization. (author)

  15. Automated VMAT treatment planning for stage III lung cancer: how does it compare with IMRT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Enzhuo M.; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Zhongxing; Xia, Tingyi; Yuan, Zhiyong; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wages, Cody A.; Mohan, Radhe; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials Two groups of eight patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group I, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group II, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient, a rank of “1” being the best and “3” the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group I, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual-IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group I had 10% higher PTV conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 than the manual-IMRT plans; they also resulted in over 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (p+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual-IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group II, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual-IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual-IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and the auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher p+. Conclusions mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual-IMRT plans could achieve quality similar to auto-IMRT plans if best effort were spent

  16. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria IMRT treatment planning by combining shared and individual apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2013-11-01

    We consider the problem of deliverable Pareto surface navigation for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy. This problem amounts to calculation of a collection of treatment plans with the property that convex combinations of plans are directly deliverable. Previous methods for deliverable navigation impose restrictions on the number of apertures of the individual plans, or require that all treatment plans have identical apertures. We introduce simultaneous direct step-and-shoot optimization of multiple plans subject to constraints that some of the apertures must be identical across all plans. This method generalizes previous methods for deliverable navigation to allow for treatment plans with some apertures from a collective pool and some apertures that are individual. The method can also be used as a post-processing step to previous methods for deliverable navigation in order to improve upon their plans. By applying the method to subsets of plans in the collection representing the Pareto set, we show how it can enable convergence toward the unrestricted (non-navigable) Pareto set where all apertures are individual.

  17. A Simulation Study of Automated Treatment Planning in a Mental Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, T. J.; Richardson, M. A.; Pass, R.; Simpson, F.; Summers, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study of automated treatment planning in a state mental hospital revealed that automation, per se, was of little direct benefit to clinicians and had virtually no impact on the clinical process. However, supervisory and quality assurance staff found considerable utility in the ability to generate reports previously unavailable. The implications for planning automated clinical systems are discussed.

  18. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    OAR sparing. Noncoplanar beam arrangements and, to a larger extent, increasing the number of treatment beams further improved plan quality.

  19. SU-E-T-527: Prior Knowledge Guided TomoTherapy Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, J [UniversityNorth Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Yuan, L; Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Zhu, X [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chera, B [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chang, S [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality and efficiency of radiotherapy treatment planning are highly planer dependent. Previously we have developed a statistical model to correlate anatomical features with dosimetry features of head and neck Tomotherapy treatment. The model enables us to predict the best achievable dosimetry for individual patient prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to study if the prediction model can facilitate the treatment planning in both the efficiency and dosimetric quality. Methods: The anatomy-dosimetry correlation model was used to calculate the expected DVH for nine patients formerly treated. In Group A (3 patients), the model prediction agreed with the clinic plan; in Group B (3 patients), the model predicted lower larynx mean dose than the clinic plan; in Group C (3 patients), the model suggested the brainstem could be further spared. Guided by the prior knowledge, we re-planned all 9 cases. The number of interactions during the optimization process and dosimetric endpoints between the original clinical plan and model-guided re-plan were compared. Results: For Group A, the difference of target coverage and organs-at-risk sparing is insignificant (p>0.05) between the replan and the clinical plan. For Group B, the clinical plan larynx median dose is 49.4±4.7 Gy, while the prediction suggesting 40.0±6.2 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plan achieved 41.5±6.6 Gy, with similar dose on other structures as clinical plan. For Group C, the clinical plan brainstem maximum dose is 44.7±5.5 Gy. The model predicted lower value 32.2±3.8 Gy (p<0.05). The re-plans reduced brainstem maximum dose to 31.8±4.1 Gy without affecting the dosimetry of other structures. In the replanning of the 9 cases, the times operator interacted with TPS are reduced on average about 50% compared to the clinical plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the prior expert knowledge embedded model improved the efficiency and quality of Tomotherapy treatment planning.

  20. Computed tomography imaging parameters for inhomogeneity correction in radiation treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Indra J; Chee-Wai Cheng; Minsong Cao; Johnstone, Peter A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate dosimetry in heterogeneous media (such as a patient' body) with the help of tissue characterization based on computed tomography (CT) number. However, CT number depends on the type of scanner, tube voltage, field of view (FOV), reconstruction algorithm including artifact reduction and processing filters. The impact of these parameters on CT to electron density (ED) conversion had been subject of investigation for treatment planning in various...

  1. Development of a computed tomographic scanner for radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V; Parker, D L; Stanley, J H; Phillips, T L; Boyd, D P; Kan, P T

    1980-08-01

    The authors describe a low-cost CT scanner integrated with a radiotherapy simulator and designed for treatment planning. The standard rotational gantry and x-ray tube of the simulator are used with a multiwire xenon lonization chamber and simple current-proportional readout system to measure patient attenuation, avoiding problems associated with diagnostic CT scanners in treatment planning. Although design constraints limit performance, software compensation techniques have reduced artifacts and given satisfactory images.

  2. Coverage-based treatment planning: Optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, J. J.; Siebers, J. V.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach—referred to as coverage-based treatment planning—designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin th...

  3. A self management plan in the treatment of adult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, R; Cushley, M; Holgate, S T

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether routine assessment of peak expiratory flow (PEF) in association with a self management plan based on inhaled corticosteroid use is effective in the management of chronic asthma, 36 consecutive adult patients with asthma attending an outpatient chest clinic were admitted to an open prospective study. Patients were treated with inhaled salbutamol and beclomethasone dipropionate in an attempt to achieve normal lung function. Each patient had a "potential normal value," which...

  4. Clinical Realization of Sector Beam Intensity Modulation for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: A Pilot Treatment Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lijun, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Mason, Erica; Sneed, Penny K.; McDermott, Michael; Polishchuk, Alexei; Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical feasibility and potential benefits of sector beam intensity modulation (SBIM) specific to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Methods and Materials: SBIM is based on modulating the confocal beam intensities from individual sectors surrounding an isocenter in a nearly 2π geometry. This is in contrast to conventional GKSRS delivery, in which the beam intensities from each sector are restricted to be either 0% or 100% and must be identical for any given isocenter. We developed a SBIM solution based on available clinical planning tools, and we tested it on a cohort of 12 clinical cases as a proof of concept study. The SBIM treatment plans were compared with the original clinically delivered treatment plans to determine dosimetric differences. The goal was to investigate whether SBIM would improve the dose conformity for these treatment plans without prohibitively lengthening the treatment time. Results: A SBIM technique was developed. On average, SBIM improved the Paddick conformity index (PCI) versus the clinically delivered plans (clinical plan PCI = 0.68 ± 0.11 vs SBIM plan PCI = 0.74 ± 0.10, P=.002; 2-tailed paired t test). The SBIM plans also resulted in nearly identical target volume coverage (mean, 97 ± 2%), total beam-on times (clinical plan 58.4 ± 38.9 minutes vs SBIM 63.5 ± 44.7 minutes, P=.057), and gradient indices (clinical plan 3.03 ± 0.27 vs SBIM 3.06 ± 0.29, P=.44) versus the original clinical plans. Conclusion: The SBIM method is clinically feasible with potential dosimetric gains when compared with conventional GKSRS.

  5. Role of nutrition planning in the treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L

    1996-12-01

    The most sensible eating plans are those that involve a wide selection of foods with a modest percentage of kilocalories as fat. The dietary pyramid developed by the US Government is an excellent basis for the construction of an eating plan for life. Patients should be encouraged to develop healthy eating habits that they can maintain indefinitely, as the early inevitable consequence of finishing a diet is regain of any weight that has been lost when the patient goes back to their old eating habits. The unfortunate fact is that individuals with the disease of obesity must behave differently than those who do not. This usually means that obese persons must eat differently than lean persons, and they must do this for their entire lives. Food is a critical part of the social fabric of our society. The physician, usually in combination with a knowledgeable and empathetic dietitian or other nutritional education resource, can help obese patients choose the series of compromises in eating plans and activity levels that can be maintained for life but still allow a reasonable quality of life.

  6. Role of nutrition planning in the treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L

    1996-12-01

    The most sensible eating plans are those that involve a wide selection of foods with a modest percentage of kilocalories as fat. The dietary pyramid developed by the US Government is an excellent basis for the construction of an eating plan for life. Patients should be encouraged to develop healthy eating habits that they can maintain indefinitely, as the early inevitable consequence of finishing a diet is regain of any weight that has been lost when the patient goes back to their old eating habits. The unfortunate fact is that individuals with the disease of obesity must behave differently than those who do not. This usually means that obese persons must eat differently than lean persons, and they must do this for their entire lives. Food is a critical part of the social fabric of our society. The physician, usually in combination with a knowledgeable and empathetic dietitian or other nutritional education resource, can help obese patients choose the series of compromises in eating plans and activity levels that can be maintained for life but still allow a reasonable quality of life. PMID:8977055

  7. Optimization of tomotherapy treatment planning for patients with bilateral hip prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, David; Smith, Shaun; Barnett, Rob; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of different imaging options and the most efficient imaging strategy for treatment planning of patients with hip prostheses. Methods The planning kilovoltage CT (kVCT) and daily megavoltage CT (MVCT) studies for three prostate cancer patients with bilateral hip prostheses were used for creating hybrid kVCT/MVCT image sets. Treatment plans were created for kVCT images alone, hybrid kVCT/MVCT images, and MVCT images alone using the same dose prescription and p...

  8. Re-envisioning Addiction Treatment: A Six-Point Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Tatarsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on improving the quality of addiction treatment. Based on observations that patients are leaving treatment too early and/or are continuing to use substances during their care, the authors propose six actions that could help reorient and revitalize this kind of clinical work: (1) conceptualize and treat addictive disorders within a psychiatric/mental health framework; (2) make the creation of a strong therapeutic alliance a core part of the healing process; (3) understand patients' addictions and other problems using models based on multiple internal parts, voices, or modes; (4) make contingency management and the use of positive reinforcement systems a standard and central practice in all treatment settings; (5) envision long-term change and healing through the lens of identity theory; and (6) integrate the growing developments in recovery culture with formal treatment. PMID:22754086

  9. Evaluation of isocenter reproducibility in telemedicine of 3D-radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Kimura, Kouji; Takada, Yoshiki; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Kono, Michio [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Kodama, Akihisa

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the utility in telemedicine of Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Treatment Planning (tele-3D-RTP) and to examine the accuracy of isocenter reproducibility in its offline trial. CT data of phantoms and patients in the satellite hospital were transferred to our hospital via floppy-disk and 3D-radiotherapy plans were generated by 3D-RTP computer in our hospital. Profile data of CT and treatment beams in the satellite hospital were pre-installed into the computer. Tele-3D-RTPs were performed in 3 phantom plans and 14 clinical plans for 13 patients. Planned isocenters were well reproduced, especially in the immobilized head and neck/brain tumor cases, whose 3D-vector of aberration was 1.96{+-}1.38 (SD) mm. This teletherapy system is well applicable for practical use and can provides cost-reduction through sharing the resources of expensive equipment and radiation oncologists. (author)

  10. A Multi-Criteria Framework with Voxel-Dependent Parameters for Radiotherapy Treatment Plan Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Nan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-01-01

    In a treatment plan optimization problem for radiotherapy, a clinically acceptable plan is usually generated by an optimization process with weighting factors or reference doses adjusted for organs. Recent discoveries indicate that adjusting parameters associated with each voxel may lead to better plan quality. However, it is still unclear regarding the mathematical reasons behind it. To answer questions related to this problem, we establish in this work a new mathematical framework equipped with two theorems. The new framework clarifies the different consequences of adjusting organ-dependent and voxel-dependent parameters for the treatment plan optimization of radiation therapy, as well as the different effects of adjusting weighting factors versus reference doses in the optimization process. The main discoveries are threefold: 1) While in the organ-based model the selection of the objective function has an impact on the quality of the optimized plans, this is no longer an issue for the voxel-based model sin...

  11. Prior-knowledge treatment planning for volumetric arc therapy using feature-based database mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Fox, Tim

    2014-03-06

    Treatment planning for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) is a lengthy process that requires many rounds of optimizations to obtain the best treatment settings and optimization constraints for a given patient's geometry. We propose a feature-selection search engine that explores previously treated cases of similar anatomy, returning the optimal plan configurations and attainable DVH constraints. Using an institutional database of 83 previously treated cases of prostate carcinoma treated with volumetric-modulated arc therapy, the search procedure first finds the optimal isocenter position with an optimization procedure, then ranks the anatomical similarity as the mean distance between targets. For the best matching plan, the planning information is reformatted to the DICOM format and imported into the treatment planning system to suggest isocenter, arc directions, MLC patterns, and optimization constraints that can be used as starting points in the optimization process. The approach was tested to create prospective treatment plans based on anatomical features that match previously treated cases from the institution database. By starting from a near-optimal solution and using previous optimization constraints, the best matching test only required simple optimization steps to further decrease target inhomogeneity, ultimately reducing time spend by the therapist in planning arcs' directions and lengths.

  12. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo Jr., Billy W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. Methods The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2TM multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeamTM STx with HD 120TM MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Results Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeamTM STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Conclusion Clinically acceptable plans were

  13. Near threshold ⁷Li(p,n) ⁷Be reaction as neutron source for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2015-12-01

    (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be is an endothermic reaction and working near its threshold (1.88 MeV) has the advantage of neutron spectra with maximum energies of about 100 keV, considerably lower than at higher beam energies, or than using other neutron-producing reactions or as for the uranium fission spectrum, relevant for BNCT based on nuclear reactors. With this primary energy it is much easier to obtain the energies needed for treating deep seated tumors by BNCT (about 10 keV). This work studies bombarding energies up to 2.05 MeV, different beam incidence angles and the effect of the undesirable gamma production via the (7)Li(p,γp') (7)Li reaction.

  14. Combined TL and 10B-alanine ESR dosimetry for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, A; D'Oca, M C; Lo Giudice, B; Brai, M; Borio, R; Forini, N; Salvadori, P; Manera, S

    2004-01-01

    The dosimetric technique described in this paper is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors using an alanine-boric compound acid enriched with (10)B, and beryllium oxide thermoluminescent (TL) detectors; with this combined dosimetry, it is possible to discriminate the doses due to thermal neutrons and gamma radiation in a mixed field. Irradiations were carried out inside the thermal column of a TRIGA MARK II water-pool-type research nuclear reactor, also used for Boron Neutron Capture therapy (BNCT) applications, with thermal neutron fluence from 10(9) to 10(14) nth cm(-2). The ESR dosemeters using the alanine-boron compound indicated ESR signals about 30-fold stronger than those using only alanine. Moreover, a negligible correction for the gamma contribution, measured with TL detectors, almost insensitive to thermal neutrons, was necessary. Therefore, a simultaneous analysis of our TL and ESR detectors allows discrimination between thermal neutron and gamma doses, as required in BNCT. PMID:15353720

  15. The Phase I/II BNCT Trials at the Brookhaven medical research reactor: Critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phase I/II clinical trial of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1994. Many critical issues were considered during the design of the first of many sequential dose escalation protocols. These critical issues included patient selection criteria, boron delivery agent, dose limits to the normal brain, dose escalation schemes for both neutron exposure and boron dose, and fractionation. As the clinical protocols progressed and evaluation of the tolerance of the central nervous system (CNS) to BPA-mediated BNCT at the BMRR continued new specifications were adopted. Clinical data reflecting the progression of the protocols will be presented to illustrate the steps taken and the reasons behind their adoption. (author)

  16. The Argonne ACWL, a potential accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. Most of the hardware for the first 2 MeV was installed at Argonne and major subsystems had been commissioned when program funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization ended in October 1993. Renamed the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL), we are proposing to complete it to accelerate either deuterons to 2 MeV or protons to 3-3.5 MeV. Equipped with a beryllium or other light-element target, it would make a potent source of neutrons (on the order of 1013 n/s) for BNCT and/or neutron radiography. Project status and proposals for turning ACWL into a neutron source are reviewed, including the results of a computational study that was carried out to design a target/moderator to produce an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. (orig.)

  17. Vega library for processing DICOM data required in Monte Carlo verification of radiotherapy treatment plans

    CERN Document Server

    Locke, C

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the most accurate to-date dose calculations in heterogeneous media and complex geometries, and this spawns increasing interest in incorporating MC calculations to treatment planning quality assurance process. This process involves MC dose calculations for the treatment plans produced clinically. To perform these calculations a number of treatment plan parameters specifying radiation beam and patient geometries needs to be transferred to MC codes such as BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. Extracting these parameters from DICOM files is not a trivial task that has previously been performed mostly using Matlab-based software. This paper describes DICOM tags that contain information required for MC modeling of conformal and IMRT plans, and reports development of an in-house DICOM interface through a library (named Vega) of platform-independent, object-oriented C++ codes. Vega library is small and succinct, offering just the fundamental functions for reading/modifying/writing DICOM files in a ...

  18. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software for Neutron Radiotherapy and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D; Wessol, D; Wemple, C; Harkin, G; Hartmann-Siantar, C

    2002-08-20

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. As a logical next step in the development of modern radiotherapy planning tools to support the most advanced research, INEEL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the developers of the PEREGRTNE computational engine for radiotherapy treatment planning applications, have recently launched a new project to collaborate in the development of a ''next-generation'' multi-modality treatment planning software system that will be useful for all modern forms of radiotherapy.

  19. The epithermal neutron beam for BNCT under construction at TAPIRO: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, K W [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Casalini, L [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mondini, D [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP), Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Nava, E [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Rosi, G [ENEA - Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-ION, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Tinti, R [ENEA- Ente Nuove Tecnologie Energia e Ambiente, FIS-NUC, Via M.M. Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    A column to provide an epithermal neutron beam suitable for experimental and clinical BNCT is nearing completion at the TAPIRO reactor (ENEA Casaccia, Rome). TAPIRO is a compact, low power (5 kW), helium-cooled, fast reactor. It has a hard neutron spectrum relative even to other fast reactors. In this paper some of the basic physics aspects of designing an epithermal neutron beam are considered, with reference to the TAPIRO beam.

  20. A feasibility design study on a neutron spectrometer for BNCT with liquid moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sato, F; Murata, I

    2015-12-01

    Neutrons generated by accelerators have various energy spectra. However, only limited methods are available to measure the whole neutron energy spectrum, especially when including the epithermal region that is normally used in BNCT. In the present study, we carried out the design study on a new neutron spectrometer that can measure such a neutron spectrum more accurately, precisely and with higher energy resolution, using an unfolding technique and a liquid moderator.

  1. Neutron collimator design of neutron radiography based on the BNCT facility

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, XP.; Yu, BX; Li, YG; Peng, D; Lu, J.; Zhang, GL.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, AW.; Li, CY.; Liu, WJ; Hu, T.; Lv, JG.

    2013-01-01

    For the research of CCD neutron radiography, a neutron collimator was designed based on the exit of thermal neutron of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) reactor. Based on the Geant4 simulations, the preliminary choice of the size of the collimator was determined. The materials were selected according to the literature data. Then, a collimator was constructed and tested on site. The results of experiment and simulation show that the thermal neutron flux at the end of theneutron collimat...

  2. Dosimetric verification of radiotherapy treatment planning systems: Results of IAEA pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The methodology developed by IAEA for dosimetric quality control of treatment planning systems has been tested in different hospitals through a pilot study. The aim was to verify the methodology and observe the range of deviations between planned and delivered doses in 3D conformal radiotherapy in situations close to a clinical setting. Material and methods: The methodology was based on an anthropomorphic phantom representing the human thorax, and simulates the whole chain of external beam radiotherapy treatment planning activities. The phantom was scanned using computed tomography and eight test cases were planned on treatment planning systems which imitate different irradiation geometries found in conformal radiotherapy. The doses were measured with ion chambers, and the deviation between measured and treatment planning system calculated doses was reported. This methodology, which employs the same phantom and the same set of test cases, was tested in 17 different hospitals which were using 14 different algorithms/inhomogeneity correction methods implemented in different treatment planning systems. Results: A total of 53 clinical test case datasets for different energies and calculation algorithms were produced. Most of the systems with advanced algorithms complied with predefined agreement criteria. Dose differences more than 20% were discovered for some of the simple algorithms and high energy X-ray beams. The number of deviations outside agreement criteria increases with the beam energy and decreases with advancement of the treatment planning system calculation algorithm. Conclusions: Large deviations exist in some simple dose calculation algorithms, therefore more advanced algorithms would be preferable and therefore should be implemented in clinical practice. The test cases that could be performed in reasonable time would help the users to appreciate the possibilities of their system and understand its limitations

  3. Coverage-based treatment planning: optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

    2009-03-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach-referred to as coverage-based treatment planning-designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin that is created when the dose distribution extends beyond the PTV. When applied to 27 prostate plans, this approach reduced the average CTV-to-PTV margin from 5 to 2.8 mm. This reduction in PTV size produced a corresponding decrease in the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. The total volume of tissue receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 19.3% or about 48 cc. Individual reductions varied from 8.7% to 28.6%. The volume of bladder receiving > or =60 Gy was reduced on average by 5.6% (reductions for individuals varied from 1.7% to 10.6%), and the volume of periprostatic rectum receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 4.9% (reductions for individuals varied from 0.9% to 12.3%). The iterative method proposed here represents a step toward a probabilistic treatment planning algorithm which can generate dose distributions (i.e., treated volumes) that closely approximate a specified level of coverage in the presence of geometric uncertainties. The general principles of coverage-based treatment planning are applicable to arbitrary treatment sites and delivery techniques. Importantly, observed deviations between coverage implied by specified CTV-to-PTV margins and coverage achieved by a given treatment plan imply a generic need to perform coverage probability analysis on a per-plan basis to ensure that the desired level of coverage is achieved. PMID:19378757

  4. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. Material and methods This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. Results The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. Conclusions The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected. PMID:27504129

  5. Uncertainty in hyperthermia treatment planning: the need for robust system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Greef; H.P. Kok; D. Correia; P.P. Borsboom; A. Bel; J. Crezee

    2011-01-01

    Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is an important tool to improve the quality of hyperthermia treatment. It is a practical way of designing new hyperthermia systems and can be used to optimize the phase and amplitude settings to achieve optimal heating. One of the main challenges to be dealt wit

  6. Treatment planning of electroporation-based medical interventions: electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer and irreversible electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, cancer electrochemotherapy (ECT), gene electrotransfer for gene therapy and DNA vaccination (GET) and tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) have all entered clinical practice. We present a method for a personalized treatment planning procedure for ECT, GET and IRE, based on medical image analysis, numerical modelling of electroporation and optimization with the genetic algorithm, and several visualization tools for treatment plan assessment. Each treatment plan provides the attending physician with optimal positions of electrodes in the body and electric pulse parameters for optimal electroporation of the target tissues. For the studied case of a deep-seated tumour, the optimal treatment plans for ECT and IRE require at least two electrodes to be inserted into the target tissue, thus lowering the necessary voltage for electroporation and limiting damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. In GET, it is necessary to place the electrodes outside the target tissue to prevent damage to target cells intended to express the transfected genes. The presented treatment planning procedure is a valuable tool for clinical and experimental use and evaluation of electroporation-based treatments. (paper)

  7. Treatment planning of electroporation-based medical interventions: electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer and irreversible electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanic, Anze; Kos, Bor; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, cancer electrochemotherapy (ECT), gene electrotransfer for gene therapy and DNA vaccination (GET) and tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation (IRE) have all entered clinical practice. We present a method for a personalized treatment planning procedure for ECT, GET and IRE, based on medical image analysis, numerical modelling of electroporation and optimization with the genetic algorithm, and several visualization tools for treatment plan assessment. Each treatment plan provides the attending physician with optimal positions of electrodes in the body and electric pulse parameters for optimal electroporation of the target tissues. For the studied case of a deep-seated tumour, the optimal treatment plans for ECT and IRE require at least two electrodes to be inserted into the target tissue, thus lowering the necessary voltage for electroporation and limiting damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. In GET, it is necessary to place the electrodes outside the target tissue to prevent damage to target cells intended to express the transfected genes. The presented treatment planning procedure is a valuable tool for clinical and experimental use and evaluation of electroporation-based treatments.

  8. Retrospective review of the clinical BNCT trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Ma, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The primary objective of the phase I/II dose escalation studies was to evaluate the safety of the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) mediated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A secondary objective was to retrospectively assess the palliation of GBM by BNCT. Fifty-three subjects with GBM were treated under multiple dose escalation protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Twenty-six subjects were treated using one field, 17 subjects were treated using 2 fields and 10 subjects were treated using 3 fields. BPA-F related toxicity was not observed. The maximum radiation dose to a volume of approximately 1 cc of the normal brain varied from 8.9 to 15.9 gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq). The volume-weighted average radiation dose to normal brain varied from 1.9 to 9.5 Gy-Eq. Six RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 or 4 toxicities were attributed to BNCT. Four of the 53 subjects are still alive with 3 of them free of recurrent disease with over two years follow-up. The median times to progression and median survival time from diagnosis were 28.4 weeks and 12.8 months respectively. (author)

  9. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  10. FoCa: a modular treatment planning system for proton radiotherapy with research and educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D.; Kondrla, M.; Shaindlin, A.; Carabe, A.

    2014-12-01

    FoCa is an in-house modular treatment planning system, developed entirely in MATLAB, which includes forward dose calculation of proton radiotherapy plans in both active and passive modalities as well as a generic optimization suite for inverse treatment planning. The software has a dual education and research purpose. From the educational point of view, it can be an invaluable teaching tool for educating medical physicists, showing the insights of a treatment planning system from a well-known and widely accessible software platform. From the research point of view, its current and potential uses range from the fast calculation of any physical, radiobiological or clinical quantity in a patient CT geometry, to the development of new treatment modalities not yet available in commercial treatment planning systems. The physical models in FoCa were compared with the commissioning data from our institution and show an excellent agreement in depth dose distributions and longitudinal and transversal fluence profiles for both passive scattering and active scanning modalities. 3D dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries were compared with a commercial treatment planning system, yielding a gamma-index pass rate of above 94% (using FoCa’s most accurate algorithm) for all cases considered. Finally, the inverse treatment planning suite was used to produce the first prototype of intensity-modulated, passive-scattered proton therapy, using 13 passive scattering proton fields and multi-leaf modulation to produce a concave dose distribution on a cylindrical solid water phantom without any field-specific compensator.

  11. FoCa: a modular treatment planning system for proton radiotherapy with research and educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FoCa is an in-house modular treatment planning system, developed entirely in MATLAB, which includes forward dose calculation of proton radiotherapy plans in both active and passive modalities as well as a generic optimization suite for inverse treatment planning. The software has a dual education and research purpose. From the educational point of view, it can be an invaluable teaching tool for educating medical physicists, showing the insights of a treatment planning system from a well-known and widely accessible software platform. From the research point of view, its current and potential uses range from the fast calculation of any physical, radiobiological or clinical quantity in a patient CT geometry, to the development of new treatment modalities not yet available in commercial treatment planning systems. The physical models in FoCa were compared with the commissioning data from our institution and show an excellent agreement in depth dose distributions and longitudinal and transversal fluence profiles for both passive scattering and active scanning modalities. 3D dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries were compared with a commercial treatment planning system, yielding a gamma-index pass rate of above 94% (using FoCa’s most accurate algorithm) for all cases considered. Finally, the inverse treatment planning suite was used to produce the first prototype of intensity-modulated, passive-scattered proton therapy, using 13 passive scattering proton fields and multi-leaf modulation to produce a concave dose distribution on a cylindrical solid water phantom without any field-specific compensator. (paper)

  12. IMRT, IGRT, SBRT - Advances in the Treatment Planning and Delivery of Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, JL

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 4 years, IMRT, IGRT, SBRT: Advances in the Treatment Planning and Delivery of Radiotherapy has become a standard reference in the field. During this time, however, significant progress in high-precision technologies for the planning and delivery of radiotherapy in cancer treatment has called for a second edition to include these new developments. Thoroughly updated and extended, this new edition offers a comprehensive guide and overview of these new technologies and the many clinical treatment programs that bring them into practical use. Advances in intensity-modulated radiothera

  13. Tridimensional Treatment Planning and Rapid Prototyping for Maxillofacial Prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWen-qiang; YUANJian-bing; YEMing; HUANGXue-mei; WANGCheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    The currert stmulation planing systmes for maxillofacial prosthesis surgery were used to extrapolate 3D surgical movements and outcomes based on the 2D radiographs,which were inadequate for complex surgical movements A 3D treatmenl planning system based on the computerized tomography(CT)data was presented A 3D data field was costructed out of the sectional image stack through linear interpolation after objectire tissue segmentation and using the marching cubes algorithm method,the triangular mesh model and 3D geometric model of diseased facial skeleton were reconstructed then the model was cut,the segments were moved or totated to their predicted positions,and angles and distances were measured after triangular mesh model was decimaled a RP model was manufactured for surgical simulation and prosthesis design The system was used in clinic with more than fifty cases and technically wilidated with success.

  14. Human applications of the INEL patient treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, F.; Wessol, D.; Atkinson, C.; Nigg, D. [Idaho National Accelerator Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    During the past few years, murine and large animal research, as well as human studies have provided data to the point where human clinical trials have been initiated at the BMRR using BPA-F for gliomas and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) using BPA for melanomas of the extremeties. It is expected that glioma trials using BSH will proceed soon at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) in the Netherlands. The first human glioma epithermal boron neutron capture therapy application was performed at the BMRR in the fall of 1994. This was a collaborative effort by BNL, Beth Israel Manhattan hospital, and INEL. The INEL planning system was chosen to perform dose predictions for this application.

  15. A planning study investigating dual-gated volumetric arc stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a planning study investigating the dosimetric advantages of gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the end-exhale and end-inhale breathing phases for patients undergoing stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma. VMAT plans were developed from the end-inhale (VMATinh) and the end-exhale (VMATexh) phases of the breathing cycle as well as a VMAT plan and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plan based on an internal target volume (ITV) (VMATitv). An additional VMAT plan was created by giving the respective gated VMAT plan a 50% weighting and summing the inhale and exhale plans together to create a summed gated plan. Dose to organs at risk (OARs) as well as comparison of intermediate and low-dose conformity was evaluated. There was no difference in the volume of healthy tissue receiving the prescribed dose for the planned target volume (PTV) (CI100%) for all the VMAT plans; however, the mean volume of healthy tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose for the PTV (CI50%) values were 4.7 (± 0.2), 4.6 (± 0.2), and 4.7 (± 0.6) for the VMATitv, VMATinh, and VMATexh plans, respectively. The VMAT plans based on the exhale and inhale breathing phases showed a 4.8% and 2.4% reduction in dose to 30 cm3 of the small bowel, respectively, compared with that of the ITV-based VMAT plan. The summed gated VMAT plans showed a 6.2% reduction in dose to 30 cm3 of the small bowel compared with that of the VMAT plans based on the ITV. Additionally, when compared with the inhale and the exhale VMAT plans, a 4% and 1.5%, respectively, reduction was observed. Gating VMAT was able to reduce the amount of prescribed, intermediate, and integral dose to healthy tissue when compared with VMAT plans based on an ITV. When summing the inhale and exhale plans together, dose to healthy tissue and OARs was optimized. However, gating VMAT plans would take longer to treat and is a factor that needs to be considered

  16. A planning study investigating dual-gated volumetric arc stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.devereux@petermac.org [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne (Australia); Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Supple, Jeremy [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Siva, Shankar [Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne (Australia); Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-04-01

    This is a planning study investigating the dosimetric advantages of gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the end-exhale and end-inhale breathing phases for patients undergoing stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma. VMAT plans were developed from the end-inhale (VMATinh) and the end-exhale (VMATexh) phases of the breathing cycle as well as a VMAT plan and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plan based on an internal target volume (ITV) (VMATitv). An additional VMAT plan was created by giving the respective gated VMAT plan a 50% weighting and summing the inhale and exhale plans together to create a summed gated plan. Dose to organs at risk (OARs) as well as comparison of intermediate and low-dose conformity was evaluated. There was no difference in the volume of healthy tissue receiving the prescribed dose for the planned target volume (PTV) (CI100%) for all the VMAT plans; however, the mean volume of healthy tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose for the PTV (CI50%) values were 4.7 (± 0.2), 4.6 (± 0.2), and 4.7 (± 0.6) for the VMATitv, VMATinh, and VMATexh plans, respectively. The VMAT plans based on the exhale and inhale breathing phases showed a 4.8% and 2.4% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel, respectively, compared with that of the ITV-based VMAT plan. The summed gated VMAT plans showed a 6.2% reduction in dose to 30 cm{sup 3} of the small bowel compared with that of the VMAT plans based on the ITV. Additionally, when compared with the inhale and the exhale VMAT plans, a 4% and 1.5%, respectively, reduction was observed. Gating VMAT was able to reduce the amount of prescribed, intermediate, and integral dose to healthy tissue when compared with VMAT plans based on an ITV. When summing the inhale and exhale plans together, dose to healthy tissue and OARs was optimized. However, gating VMAT plans would take longer to treat and is a factor that needs to be considered.

  17. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klüter, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.klueter@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  18. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  19. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS......: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create (60)Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup...... plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The (60)Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses...

  20. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and i...

  1. Towards the development of an error checker for radiotherapy treatment plans: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major accidents can happen during radiotherapy, with an extremely severe consequence to both patients and clinical professionals. We propose to use machine learning and data mining techniques to help detect large human errors in a radiotherapy treatment plan, as a complement to human inspection. One such technique is computer clustering. The basic idea of using clustering algorithms for outlier detection is to first cluster (based on the treatment parameters) a large number of patient treatment plans. Then, when checking a new treatment plan, the parameters of the plan will be tested to see whether or not they belong to the established clusters. If not, they will be considered as 'outliers' and therefore highlighted to catch the attention of the human chart checkers. As a preliminary study, we applied the K-means clustering algorithm to a simple patient model, i.e., 'four-field' box prostate treatment. One thousand plans were used to build the clusters while another 650 plans were used to test the proposed method. It was found that there are eight distinct clusters. At the error levels of ±100% of the original values of the monitor unit, the detection rate is about 100%. At ±50% error level, the detection rate is about 80%. The false positive rate is about 10%. When purposely changing the beam energy to a value different from that in the treatment plan, the detection rate is 100% for posterior, right-lateral and left-lateral fields, and about 77% for the anterior field. This preliminary work has shown promise for developing the proposed automatic outlier detection software, although more efforts will still be required

  2. Towards the development of an error checker for radiotherapy treatment plans: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmandian, Fatemeh [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kaeli, David [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dy, Jennifer G [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hutchinson, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Major accidents can happen during radiotherapy, with an extremely severe consequence to both patients and clinical professionals. We propose to use machine learning and data mining techniques to help detect large human errors in a radiotherapy treatment plan, as a complement to human inspection. One such technique is computer clustering. The basic idea of using clustering algorithms for outlier detection is to first cluster (based on the treatment parameters) a large number of patient treatment plans. Then, when checking a new treatment plan, the parameters of the plan will be tested to see whether or not they belong to the established clusters. If not, they will be considered as 'outliers' and therefore highlighted to catch the attention of the human chart checkers. As a preliminary study, we applied the K-means clustering algorithm to a simple patient model, i.e., 'four-field' box prostate treatment. One thousand plans were used to build the clusters while another 650 plans were used to test the proposed method. It was found that there are eight distinct clusters. At the error levels of {+-}100% of the original values of the monitor unit, the detection rate is about 100%. At {+-}50% error level, the detection rate is about 80%. The false positive rate is about 10%. When purposely changing the beam energy to a value different from that in the treatment plan, the detection rate is 100% for posterior, right-lateral and left-lateral fields, and about 77% for the anterior field. This preliminary work has shown promise for developing the proposed automatic outlier detection software, although more efforts will still be required.

  3. Comparative study of old and new versions of treatment planning system using dose volume histogram indices of clinical plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gangarapu Sri; Srinivas, Vuppu; Ayyangar, K M; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) version 8.8 was upgraded to the latest version 13.6. It is customary that the vendor gives training on how to upgrade the existing software to the new version. However, the customer is provided less inner details about changes in the new software version. According to manufacturer, accuracy of point dose calculations and irregular treatment planning is better in the new version (13.6) compared to the old version (8.8). Furthermore, the new version uses voxel-based calculations while the earlier version used point dose calculations. Major difference in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans was observed between the two versions after re-optimization and re-calculations. However, minor difference was observed for IMRT cases after performing only re-calculations. It is recommended TPS quality assurance to be performed after any major upgrade of software. This can be done by performing dose calculation comparisons in TPS. To assess the difference between the versions, 25 clinical cases from the old version were compared keeping all the patient data intact including the monitor units and comparing the differences in dose calculations using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Along with DVH analysis, uniformity index, conformity index, homogeneity index, and dose spillage index were also compared for both versions. The results of comparative study are presented in this paper. PMID:27651566

  4. Comparative study of old and new versions of treatment planning system using dose volume histogram indices of clinical plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gangarapu Sri; Srinivas, Vuppu; Ayyangar, K. M.; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) version 8.8 was upgraded to the latest version 13.6. It is customary that the vendor gives training on how to upgrade the existing software to the new version. However, the customer is provided less inner details about changes in the new software version. According to manufacturer, accuracy of point dose calculations and irregular treatment planning is better in the new version (13.6) compared to the old version (8.8). Furthermore, the new version uses voxel-based calculations while the earlier version used point dose calculations. Major difference in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans was observed between the two versions after re-optimization and re-calculations. However, minor difference was observed for IMRT cases after performing only re-calculations. It is recommended TPS quality assurance to be performed after any major upgrade of software. This can be done by performing dose calculation comparisons in TPS. To assess the difference between the versions, 25 clinical cases from the old version were compared keeping all the patient data intact including the monitor units and comparing the differences in dose calculations using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Along with DVH analysis, uniformity index, conformity index, homogeneity index, and dose spillage index were also compared for both versions. The results of comparative study are presented in this paper. PMID:27651566

  5. Amelogenesis imperfecta and the treatment plan - interdisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchancova, B; Holly, D; Janska, M; Stebel, J; Lysy, J; Thurzo, A; Sasinek, S

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a set of hereditary defects representing mainly the development defects of enamel without the presence of whole-body symptoms. Developmental disorders can manifest a complete absence of enamel, which is caused by improper differentiation of ameloblasts. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta, as well as the need for interdisciplinary cooperation to achieve the best possible morphological, skeletal, functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the patients with this diagnosis. Furthermore, the article reviews literature dealing with other anomalies occurring in association with amelogenesis imperfect (Fig. 12, Ref. 20).

  6. A simple DVH generation technique from various radiotherapy treatment planning systems for independent information system

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byung Jun; Jeong, Il Sun; Lee, Hyebin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of PACS for radiation therapy has become the norm in hospital environment and has suggested for collecting data and management from different TPSs with DICOM objects. However, some TPS does not provide the DVH exportation with text or other format. In addition, plan review systems for various TPSs often allow DVH recalculation with different algorithms. These algorithms result in the inevitable discrepancy between the values obtained with the recalculation and those obtained with TPS itself. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method for generating reproducible DVH values obtained from the TPSs. Treatment planning information including structures and delivered dose was exported by the DICOM format from planning systems. The supersampling and trilinear interpolation methods were employed to calculate DVH data from 35 treatment plans. The discrepancies between DVHs extracted from each TPS and the proposed calculation method were evaluated with respect to the supersampling ...

  7. Records needed for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robine J Rischen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditionally, dental models, facial and intra-oral photographs and a set of two-dimensional radiographs are used for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. As evidence is lacking, the discussion is ongoing which specific records are needed for the process of making an orthodontic treatment plan. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution and importance of different diagnostic records for making an orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. DATA SOURCES: An electronic search in PubMed (1948-July 2012, EMBASE Excerpta Medica (1980-July 2012, CINAHL (1982-July 2012, Web of Science (1945-July 2012, Scopus (1996-July 2012, and Cochrane Library (1993-July 2012 was performed. Additionally, a hand search of the reference lists of included studies was performed to identify potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. STUDY SELECTION: The patient, intervention, comparator, outcome (pico question formulated for this study was as follows: for patients who need orthodontic treatment (P, will the use of record set X (I compared with record set Y (C change the treatment plan (O? Only primary publications were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction of data and quality assessment was performed by two observers. RESULTS: Of the 1041 publications retrieved, 17 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 4 studies were of high quality. Because of the limited number of high quality studies and the differences in study designs, patient characteristics, and reference standard or index test, a meta-analysis was not possible. CONCLUSION: Cephalograms are not routinely needed for orthodontic treatment planning in Class II malocclusions, digital models can be used to replace plaster casts, and cone-beam computed tomography radiographs can be indicated for impacted canines. Based on the findings of this review, the minimum record set required for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning could not be defined. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

  8. The adaptation of megavoltage cone beam CT for use in standard radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T. Hannah Mary; Devakumar, D.; Purnima, S.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2009-04-01

    Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm × 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0° and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between ±6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.

  9. The adaptation of megavoltage cone beam CT for use in standard radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T Hannah Mary; Purnima, S; Ravindran, B Paul [Department of Radiotherapy, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India); Devakumar, D [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)], E-mail: paul@cmcvellore.ac.in

    2009-04-07

    Potential areas where megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) could be used are second- and third-phase treatment planning in 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, adaptive radiation therapy, single fraction palliative treatment and for the treatment of patients with metal prostheses. A feasibility study was done on using MV cone beam CT (CBCT) images generated by proprietary 3D reconstruction software based on the FDK algorithm for megavoltage treatment planning. The reconstructed images were converted to a DICOM file set. The pixel values of megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) were rescaled to those of kV CT for use with a treatment planning system. A calibration phantom was designed and developed for verification of geometric accuracy and CT number calibration. The distance measured between two marker points on the CBCT image and the physical dimension on the phantom were in good agreement. Point dose verification for a 10 cm x 10 cm beam at a gantry angle of 0{sup 0} and SAD of 100 cm were performed for a 6 MV beam for both kV and MV CBCT images. The point doses were found to vary between {+-}6.1% of the dose calculated from the kV CT image. The isodose curves for 6 MV for both kV CT and MV CBCT images were within 2% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement. A plan with three beams was performed on MV CBCT, simulating a treatment plan for cancer of the pituitary. The distribution obtained was compared with those corresponding to that obtained using the kV CT. This study has shown that treatment planning with MV cone beam CT images is feasible.

  10. A practical approach to assess clinical planning tradeoffs in the design of individualized IMRT treatment plans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, R.; Hoffmann, A.L.; Kunze-Busch, M.C.; Bussink, J.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Huizenga, H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the tradeoffs between organ at risk sparing and tumour coverage for IMRT treatment of lung tumours, and to develop a tool for clinical use to graphically represent these tradeoffs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 5 patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

  11. Use of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Radiation Treatment Planning for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kezban Berberoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the treatment of lung cancer. Accurate diagnosis and staging are crucial in the delivery of RT with curative intent. Target miss can be prevented by accurate determination of tumor contours during RT planning. Currently, tumor contours are determined manually by computed tomography (CT) during RT planning. This method leads to differences in delineation of tumor volume between users. Given the change in RT tools and methods due to rapidly ...

  12. An optimisation approach for fuel treatment planning to break the connectivity of high-risk regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmawati, Ramya; Ozlen, Melih; Karin J. Reinke; Hearne, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled wildfires can lead to loss of life and property and destruction of natural resources. At the same time, fire plays a vital role in restoring ecological balance in many ecosystems. Fuel management, or treatment planning by way of planned burning, is an important tool used in many countries where fire is a major ecosystem process. In this paper, we propose an approach to reduce the spatial connectivity of fuel hazards while still considering the ecological fire requirements of the ...

  13. Evaluation of the material assignment method used by a Monte Carlo treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, A; Brualla, L; Lefkopoulos, D

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of the conversion process from Hounsfield units (HU) to material composition in computerised tomography (CT) images, employed by the Monte Carlo based treatment planning system ISOgray (DOSIsoft), is presented. A boundary in the HU for the material conversion between "air" and "lung" materials was determined based on a study using 22 patients. The dosimetric consequence of the new boundary was quantitatively evaluated for a lung patient plan.

  14. The use of proton radiography to reduce uncertainties in proton treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Doolan, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The availability and demand for proton therapy is rapidly expanding across the globe. One of the key decisions that must be made in the procurement process by all new centres is which proton treatment planning system (TPS) to purchase. The first topic of this thesis is therefore to evaluate the performance of three different proton TPSs in the planning of ten meningioma patients. The comparison is built upwards from the beam commissioning and attempts are made to make as many variables as pos...

  15. TH-A-9A-04: Incorporating Liver Functionality in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, V; Epelman, M; Feng, M; Cao, Y; Wang, H; Romeijn, E; Matuszak, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Liver SBRT patients have both variable pretreatment liver function (e.g., due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatments) and sensitivity to radiation, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work aims to explicitly incorporate liver perfusion into treatment planning to redistribute dose to preserve well-functioning areas without compromising target coverage. Methods: Voxel-based liver perfusion, a measure of functionality, was computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Two optimization models with different cost functions subject to the same dose constraints (e.g., minimum target EUD and maximum critical structure EUDs) were compared. The cost functions minimized were EUD (standard model) and functionality-weighted EUD (functional model) to the liver. The resulting treatment plans delivering the same target EUD were compared with respect to their DVHs, their dose wash difference, the average dose delivered to voxels of a particular perfusion level, and change in number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving a particular dose. Two-dimensional synthetic and three-dimensional clinical examples were studied. Results: The DVHs of all structures of plans from each model were comparable. In contrast, in plans obtained with the functional model, the average dose delivered to high-/low-functioning voxels was lower/higher than in plans obtained with its standard counterpart. The number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving high/low dose was lower in the plans that considered perfusion in the cost function than in the plans that did not. Redistribution of dose can be observed in the dose wash differences. Conclusion: Liver perfusion can be used during treatment planning potentially to minimize the risk of toxicity during liver SBRT, resulting in better global liver function. The functional model redistributes dose in the standard model from higher to lower functioning voxels, while achieving the same target EUD

  16. A dose homogeneity and conformity evaluation between ViewRay and pinnacle-based linear accelerator IMRT treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Daniel L; Paliwal, Bhudatt R; Bayouth, John E

    2014-04-01

    ViewRay, a novel technology providing soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy is investigated for treatment planning capabilities assessing treatment plan dose homogeneity and conformity compared with linear accelerator plans. ViewRay offers both adaptive radiotherapy and image guidance. The combination of cobalt-60 (Co-60) with 0.35 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery with multiple beams. This study investigated head and neck, lung, and prostate treatment plans to understand what is possible on ViewRay to narrow focus toward sites with optimal dosimetry. The goal is not to provide a rigorous assessment of planning capabilities, but rather a first order demonstration of ViewRay planning abilities. Images, structure sets, points, and dose from treatment plans created in Pinnacle for patients in our clinic were imported into ViewRay. The same objectives were used to assess plan quality and all critical structures were treated as similarly as possible. Homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and volume receiving conformity increase for lung. The volume receiving 20% of the prescription dose increased 2-8% for head and neck and up to 4% for lung and prostate. Overall, for head and neck Co-60 ViewRay treatments planned with its Monte Carlo treatment planning software were comparable with 6 MV plans computed with convolution superposition algorithm on Pinnacle treatment planning system.

  17. Three-dimensional treatment planning and conformal radiation therapy: preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary clinical results are presented for 209 patients with cancer who had treatment planned on our three-dimensional radiation treatment planning (3-D RTP) system and were treated with external beam conformal radiation therapy. Average times (min) for CT volumetric simulation were: 74 without or 84 with contrast material; 36 for contouring of tumor/target volume and 44 for normal anatomy; 78 for treatment planning; 53 for plan evaluation/optimization; and 58 for verification simulation. Average time of daily treatment sessions with 3-D conformal therapy or standard techniques was comparable for brain, head and neck, thoracic, and hepatobiliary tumors (11.8-14 min and 11.5-12.1, respectively). For prostate cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal technique and Cerrobend blocks, mean treatment time was 19 min; with multileaf collimation it was 14 min and with bilateral arc rotation, 9.8 min. Acute toxicity was comparable to or lower than with standard techniques. Sophisticated 3-D RTP and conformal irradiation can be performed in a significant number of patients at a reasonable cost. Further efforts, including dose-escalation studies, are necessary to develop more versatile and efficient 3-D RTP systems and to enhance the cost benefit of this technology in treatment of patients with cancer

  18. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as "apertures". Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan since the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined m...

  19. Review of 3D image data calibration for heterogeneity correction in proton therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Penfold, Scott N

    2016-06-01

    Correct modelling of the interaction parameters of patient tissues is of vital importance in proton therapy treatment planning because of the large dose gradients associated with the Bragg peak. Different 3D imaging techniques yield different information regarding these interaction parameters. Given the rapidly expanding interest in proton therapy, this review is written to make readers aware of the current challenges in accounting for tissue heterogeneities and the imaging systems that are proposed to tackle these challenges. A summary of the interaction parameters of interest in proton therapy and the current and developmental 3D imaging techniques used in proton therapy treatment planning is given. The different methods to translate the imaging data to the interaction parameters of interest are reviewed and a summary of the implementations in several commercial treatment planning systems is presented. PMID:27115163

  20. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to receive planned cesarean deliveries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Li-Yin; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Hung; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of conception with infertility treatment on planned cesarean delivery. The participants were from a panel of primiparous pregnant women in northern Taiwan. The data analysis included 771 women with a singleton pregnancy, of whom 160 had a planned cesarean delivery and 611 who had a vaginal delivery. The study women answered structured questionnaires during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and at one-month postpartum. Women who conceived with infertility treatment were more likely to have planned cesarean deliveries than women who conceived without it (44.7% versus 18.1%, p maternal age over 35 years, whether they were currently unmarried, selection of time for birth in advance, gestational hypertension, and birthweight maternal age or higher number of morbidities during pregnancy. Counseling for women who conceive with infertility treatments may be needed to decrease unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25581216

  1. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  2. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  3. An integrated Monte Carlo dosimetric verification system for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Mizowaki, T.; Miyabe, Y.; Takegawa, H.; Narita, Y.; Yano, S.; Nagata, Y.; Teshima, T.; Hiraoka, M.

    2007-04-01

    An integrated Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation system, MCRTV (Monte Carlo for radiotherapy treatment plan verification), has been developed for clinical treatment plan verification, especially for routine quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The MCRTV system consists of the EGS4/PRESTA MC codes originally written for particle transport through the accelerator, the multileaf collimator (MLC), and the patient/phantom, which run on a 28-CPU Linux cluster, and the associated software developed for the clinical implementation. MCRTV has an interface with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and reads the information needed for MC computation transferred in DICOM-RT format. The key features of MCRTV have been presented in detail in this paper. The phase-space data of our 15 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 2300C/D have been developed and several benchmarks have been performed under homogeneous and several inhomogeneous conditions (including water, aluminium, lung and bone media). The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1% and 2% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions, respectively. The MC calculation for a clinical prostate IMRT treatment plan validated the implementation of the beams and the patient/phantom configuration in MCRTV.

  4. The significance of the choice of radiobiological (NTCP) models in treatment plan objective functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A Clinician's discrimination between radiation therapy treatment plans is traditionally a subjective process, based on experience and existing protocols. A more objective and quantitative approach to distinguish between treatment plans is to use radiobiological or dosimetric objective functions, based on radiobiological or dosimetric models. The efficacy of models is not well understood, nor is the correlation of the rank of plans resulting from the use of models compared to the traditional subjective approach. One such radiobiological model is the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). Dosimetric models or indicators are more accepted in clinical practice. In this study, three radiobiological models, Lyman NTCP, critical volume NTCP and relative seriality NTCP, and three dosimetric models, Mean Lung Dose (MLD) and the Lung volumes irradiated at lOGy (V|0) and 20Gy (V20), were used to rank a series of treatment plans using, harm to normal (Lung) tissue as the objective criterion. None of the models considered in this study showed consistent correlation with the Radiation Oncologists plan ranking. If radiobiological or dosimetric models are to be used in objective functions for lung treatments, based on this study it is recommended that the Lyman NTCP model be used because it will provide most consistency with traditional clinician ranking.

  5. Dose distribution transfer from CyberKnife to Varian treatment planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osewski, W.; Ślosarek, K.; Karaszewska, B.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to introduce one of the options of the locally developed DDcon.exe which gives the possibility to transfer the dose distribution from CyberKnife (Accuray) treatment planning system (CK TPS) to Varian treatment planning system (Eclipse TPS, Varian). DICOM format is known as a universal format for medical data. The dose distribution is stored as RTdose file in DICOM format, so there should be a possibility to transfer it between different treatment planning systems. Trying to transfer RTdose file from CK TPS to Eclipse TPS the error message occurs. That's because the RTdose file in CK TPS is connected with Structure_Set_Sequence against Eclipse TPS where it's connected with RT_Plan_Sequence. To make it transferable RTdose file from CK TPS have to be 'disconnected' from Structure_Set_Sequence and 'connected' with RT_Plan_Sequence. This is possible thanks DDcon software which creates new RTdose file by changing proper DICOM tags in original RTdose file. New homemade software gives us an opportunity to transfer dose distribution from CyberKnife TPS to TPS Eclipse. This method opens new possibilities to combine or compare different treatment techniques in Varian TPS.

  6. Comparison of the dose to lung volume between supine and prone position during treatment planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Li; Huijun Xu ; Sujing Zhang; Xiaoliang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare the dose to lung volume in the supine and prone posi-tion while designing CyberKnife treatment plans to treat metastatic tumors in the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae, and of er a reference for reducing damage to normal tissues. Methods Nine cases of metastatic tumors in the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae were se-lected, and then we designed treatment plans based on the supine and prone positions and compared the results. Results In contrast with the treatment plan based on the prone position, the one for the supine position required 14862–36337 MU more; the lung D5% was 5.20–7.90 Gy higher; and the lung D20% was 2.61–5.73 Gy higher. The dif erence of dose to spine volume between the two plans was –2.21–2.67 Gy; to the skin volume was –3.93–7.85 Gy; and to the esophagus was 0.28–6.39 Gy. Conclusion The treatment plan based on the prone position of patients can better protect lung tissues than the one based on the supine position, and can also improve the availability of beams.

  7. The feasibility of using Pareto fronts for comparison of treatment planning systems and delivery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Engstrom, Per E; Sjöström, David; Behrens, Claus F; Karlsson, Anna; Knöös, Tommy; Ceberg, Crister

    2009-01-01

    Pareto optimality is a concept that formalises the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives. A solution is said to be Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the other. A set of Pareto optimal solutions constitute the Pareto front. The Pareto concept applies well to the inverse planning process, which involves inherently contradictory objectives, high and uniform target dose on one hand, and sparing of surrounding tissue and nearby organs at risk (OAR) on the other. Due to the specific characteristics of a treatment planning system (TPS), treatment strategy or delivery technique, Pareto fronts for a given case are likely to differ. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Pareto fronts as a comparative tool for TPSs, treatment strategies and delivery techniques. In order to sample Pareto fronts, multiple treatment plans with varying target conformity and dose sparing of OAR were created for a number of prostate and head & neck IMRT cases. The DVHs of each plan were evaluated with respect to target coverage and dose to relevant OAR. Pareto fronts were successfully created for all studied cases. The results did indeed follow the definition of the Pareto concept, i.e. dose sparing of the OAR could not be improved without target coverage being impaired or vice versa. Furthermore, various treatment techniques resulted in distinguished and well separated Pareto fronts. Pareto fronts may be used to evaluate a number of parameters within radiotherapy. Examples are TPS optimization algorithms, the variation between accelerators or delivery techniques and the degradation of a plan during the treatment planning process. The issue of designing a model for unbiased comparison of parameters with such large inherent discrepancies, e.g. different TPSs, is problematic and should be carefully considered.

  8. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (30 000 cubic mm,>20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically

  9. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  10. A treatment planning approach to spatially fractionated megavoltage grid therapy for bulky lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, Heather N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hzhang@nmh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the treatment planning methods of spatially fractionated megavoltage grid therapy for treating bulky lung tumors using multileaf collimator (MLC). A total of 5 patients with lung cancer who had gross tumor volumes ranging from 277 to 635 cm{sup 3} were retrospectively chosen for this study. The tumors were from 6.5 to 9.6 cm at shortest dimension. Several techniques using either electronic compensation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were used to create a variety of grid therapy plans on the Eclipse treatment planning system. The dose prescription point was calculated to the volume, and a dose of 20 Gy with 6-MV/15-MV beams was used in each plan. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves were obtained to evaluate dosimetric characteristics. In addition, DVH curves from a commercially available cerrobend grid collimator were also used for comparison. The linear-quadratic radiobiological response model was used to assess therapeutic ratios (TRs) and equivalent uniform doses (EUD) for all generated plans. A total of 6 different grid therapy plans were created for each patient. Overall, 4 plans had different electronic compensation techniques: Ecomps-Tubes, Ecomps-Circles, Ecomps-Squares, and Ecomps-Weave; the other 2 plans used IMRT and IMRT-Weave techniques. The DVH curves and TRs demonstrated that these MLC-based grid therapy plans can achieve dosimetric properties very similar to those of the cerrobend grid collimator. However, the MLC-based plans have larger EUDs than those with the cerrobend grid collimator. In addition, the field shaping can be performed for targets of any shape in MLC-based plans. Thus, they can deliver a more conformal dose to the targets and spare normal structures better than the cerrobend grid collimator can. The plans generated by the MLC technique demonstrated the advantage over the standard cerrobend grid collimator on accommodating targets and sparing normal structures. Overall, 6

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of two treatment planning systems for high dose rate brachytherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shwetha, Bondel [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Ravikumar, Manickam, E-mail: drravikumarm@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Supe, Sanjay S.; Sathiyan, Saminathan [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Lokesh, Vishwanath [Department of Radiotherapy, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Keshava, Subbarao L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India)

    2012-04-01

    Various treatment planning systems are used to design plans for the treatment of cervical cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to make a dosimetric comparison of the 2 treatment planning systems from Varian medical systems, namely ABACUS and BrachyVision. The dose distribution of Ir-192 source generated with a single dwell position was compared using ABACUS (version 3.1) and BrachyVision (version 6.5) planning systems. Ten patients with intracavitary applications were planned on both systems using orthogonal radiographs. Doses were calculated at the prescription points (point A, right and left) and reference points RU, LU, RM, LM, bladder, and rectum. For single dwell position, little difference was observed in the doses to points along the perpendicular bisector. The mean difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision for these points was 1.88%. The mean difference in the dose calculated toward the distal end of the cable by ABACUS and BrachyVision was 3.78%, whereas along the proximal end the difference was 19.82%. For the patient case there was approximately 2% difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision planning for dose to the prescription points. The dose difference for the reference points ranged from 0.4-1.5%. For bladder and rectum, the differences were 5.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The dose difference between the rectum points was statistically significant. There is considerable difference between the dose calculations performed by the 2 treatment planning systems. It is seen that these discrepancies are caused by the differences in the calculation methodology adopted by the 2 systems.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of two treatment planning systems for high dose rate brachytherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, Bondel; Ravikumar, Manickam; Supe, Sanjay S; Sathiyan, Saminathan; Lokesh, Vishwanath; Keshava, Subbarao L

    2012-01-01

    Various treatment planning systems are used to design plans for the treatment of cervical cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to make a dosimetric comparison of the 2 treatment planning systems from Varian medical systems, namely ABACUS and BrachyVision. The dose distribution of Ir-192 source generated with a single dwell position was compared using ABACUS (version 3.1) and BrachyVision (version 6.5) planning systems. Ten patients with intracavitary applications were planned on both systems using orthogonal radiographs. Doses were calculated at the prescription points (point A, right and left) and reference points RU, LU, RM, LM, bladder, and rectum. For single dwell position, little difference was observed in the doses to points along the perpendicular bisector. The mean difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision for these points was 1.88%. The mean difference in the dose calculated toward the distal end of the cable by ABACUS and BrachyVision was 3.78%, whereas along the proximal end the difference was 19.82%. For the patient case there was approximately 2% difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision planning for dose to the prescription points. The dose difference for the reference points ranged from 0.4-1.5%. For bladder and rectum, the differences were 5.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The dose difference between the rectum points was statistically significant. There is considerable difference between the dose calculations performed by the 2 treatment planning systems. It is seen that these discrepancies are caused by the differences in the calculation methodology adopted by the 2 systems.

  13. Reassessment of the laparoscopy role in the investigation of infertility and treatment plan determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastio F de Medeiros; Mrcia MW Yamamoto; Bianca B Galera; Matheus AS de Medeiros; Jacklyne S Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To reassess the importance of laparoscopy in infertility investigation treatment plan determination.Methods:The study enrolled237 patients with infertility duration >1 year.A complete investigation was performed in all patients and male factor was evaluated by medical history and semen analysis.In the case of normal semen or mild-to-moderate oligozoospermia, the female evaluation included screening for infection diseases, transvaginal ultrasound, hormone parameter, hysterosalpingography, and laparoscopy.The final treatment plan was decided according to laparoscopy findings and any modification of the initial proposal was taken as treatment change. Results:At laparoscopy, normal pelvic cavity was found in5.5%, endometriosis in76.4%, pelvic adhesion in17.2%, ovarian adhesion in24.8%, peritubal adhesion 15.2%, unilateral tubal occlusion in21.1%, bilateral tubal occlusion in5.5%, and tubal sacculation, kinking, constriction, or fibrosis in46.3%.Operative interventions during laparoscopy were endometriosis ablation/excision(74.6%), adhesiolysis(27.4%), and endometrioma cystectomy(4.6%). Laparoscopy determined to switch the initial treatment plan in85(35.8%) patients.Conclusions:Pelvic cavity abnormalities, primarily endometriosis, have high prevalence in infertileBrazilian women.Laparoscopy provides a precise diagnosis of tuboperitoneal factor and may switch the initial treatment plan in at least one third of patients.

  14. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  15. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  16. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  17. Treatment Planning to Improve Delivery Accuracy and Patient Throughput in Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate delivery quality assurance (DQA) discrepancies observed for a subset of helical tomotherapy patients. Methods and Materials: Six tomotherapy patient plans were selected for analysis. Three had passing DQA ion chamber (IC) measurements, whereas 3 had measurements deviating from the expected dose by more than 3.0%. All plans used similar parameters, including: 2.5 cm field-width, 15-s gantry period, and pitch values ranging from 0.143 to 0.215. Preliminary analysis suggested discrepancies were associated with plans having predominantly small leaf open times (LOTs). To test this, patients with failing DQA measurements were replanned using an increased pitch of 0.287. New DQA plans were generated and IC measurements performed. Exit fluence data were also collected during DQA delivery for dose reconstruction purposes. Results: Sinogram analysis showed increases in mean LOTs ranging from 29.8% to 83.1% for the increased pitch replans. IC measurements for these plans showed a reduction in dose discrepancies, bringing all measurements within ±3.0%. The replans were also more efficient to deliver, resulting in reduced treatment times. Dose reconstruction results were in excellent agreement with IC measurements, illustrating the impact of leaf-timing inaccuracies on plans having predominantly small LOTs. Conclusions: The impact of leaf-timing inaccuracies on plans with small mean LOTs can be considerable. These inaccuracies result from deviations in multileaf collimator latency from the linear approximation used by the treatment planning system and can be important for plans having a 15-s gantry period. The ability to reduce this effect while improving delivery efficiency by increasing the pitch is demonstrated.

  18. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, R., E-mail: ruth.harding2@wales.nhs.uk [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Proton Therapy, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Short, S. C. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oncology and Clinical Research, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Loughrey, C. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  19. Registration of CT to pre-treatment MRI for planning of MR-HIFU ablation treatment of painful bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR-HIFU is a new non-invasive treatment modality that can be used for palliation in patients with painful bone metastases. Since treatment strategies are mainly focused on the ablation of periosteal nerves, information on the presence and geometry of cortical bone influences the treatment strategy, both in determining the acoustic power and in avoiding safety issues related to far-field heating. Although MRI is available for imaging during treatment, CT is best used for examining the cortical bone. We present a registration method for registering CT and MR images of patients with bone metastases prior to therapy. CT and MRI data were obtained from nine patients with metastatic bone lesions at varying locations. A two-step registration approach was used, performing simultaneous rigid registration of all available MR images in the first step and an affine and deformable registration with an additional bone metric in the second step. The performance was evaluated using landmark annotation by clinical observers. An average registration error of 4.5 mm was obtained, which was comparable to the slice thickness of the data. The performance of the registration algorithm was satisfactory, even with differences in MRI acquisition parameters and for various anatomical sites. The obtained CT overlay is useful for treatment planning, as it allows an assessment of the integrity of the cortical bone. CT-MR registration is therefore recommended for HIFU treatment planning of patients with bone metastases. (paper)

  20. Registration of CT to pre-treatment MRI for planning of MR-HIFU ablation treatment of painful bone metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorda, Yolanda H.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Huisman, Merel; Nijenhuis, Robbert J.; AAJ van den Bosch, Maurice; Pluim, Josien PW

    2014-08-01

    MR-HIFU is a new non-invasive treatment modality that can be used for palliation in patients with painful bone metastases. Since treatment strategies are mainly focused on the ablation of periosteal nerves, information on the presence and geometry of cortical bone influences the treatment strategy, both in determining the acoustic power and in avoiding safety issues related to far-field heating. Although MRI is available for imaging during treatment, CT is best used for examining the cortical bone. We present a registration method for registering CT and MR images of patients with bone metastases prior to therapy. CT and MRI data were obtained from nine patients with metastatic bone lesions at varying locations. A two-step registration approach was used, performing simultaneous rigid registration of all available MR images in the first step and an affine and deformable registration with an additional bone metric in the second step. The performance was evaluated using landmark annotation by clinical observers. An average registration error of 4.5 mm was obtained, which was comparable to the slice thickness of the data. The performance of the registration algorithm was satisfactory, even with differences in MRI acquisition parameters and for various anatomical sites. The obtained CT overlay is useful for treatment planning, as it allows an assessment of the integrity of the cortical bone. CT-MR registration is therefore recommended for HIFU treatment planning of patients with bone metastases.

  1. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isol